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Safflower

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Safflower

Scientific classification

Kingdom: Plantae

(unranked): Angiosperms

(unranked): Eudicots

(unranked): Asterids

Order: Asterales

Family: Asteraceae

Tribe: Cynareae

Genus: Carthamus

Species: C. tinctorius

Binomial name

Carthamus tinctorius
L. [1]
Carthamus tinctorius

Worldwide safflower production

Carthamus tinctorius - MHNT

Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) is a highly branched, herbaceous, thistle-like annual plant. It is commercially
cultivated for vegetable oil extracted from the seeds. Plants are 30 to 150 cm (12 to 59 in) tall with globular flower
heads having yellow, orange, or red flowers. Each branch will usually have from one to five flower heads containing
15 to 20 seeds per head. Safflower is native to arid environments having seasonal rain. It grows a
deep taproot which enables it to thrive in such environments.

Contents
1History
2Production
3Uses
o 3.1Seed oil
o 3.2Flower
4See also
5Notes
6External links

History[edit]
Safflower is one of humanity's oldest crops. Chemical analysis of ancient Egyptian textiles dated to the Twelfth
Dynasty identified dyes made from safflower, and garlands made from safflowers were found in the tomb of
the pharaoh Tutankhamun.[2]John Chadwick reports that the Greek name for safflower (krthamos) occurs
many times in Linear B tablets, distinguished into two kinds: a white safflower (ka-na-ko re-u-ka, 'knkos leuk'),
which is measured, and red (ka-na-ko e-ru-ta-ra, 'knkos eruthr') which is weighed. "The explanation is that there
are two parts of the plant which can be used; the pale seeds and the red florets."[3]

Production[edit]
In 2013, global production of safflower seeds was 718,161 tonnes, with Kazakhstan accounting for 24% of the total.
Other significant producers were India, the United States, Mexico and Argentina.[4]

Uses[edit]
Traditionally, the crop was grown for its seeds, and used for coloring and flavoring foods, in medicines, and making
red (carthamin) and yellow dyes, especially before cheaper aniline dyes became available.[2] For the last fifty years
or so, the plant has been cultivated mainly for the vegetable oil extracted from its seeds.
Seed oil[edit]
Safflower seed oil is flavorless and colorless, and nutritionally similar to sunflower oil. It is used mainly in cosmetics
and as a cooking oil, in salad dressing, and for the production of margarine. INCI nomenclature is Carthamus
tinctorius.
There are two types of safflower that produce different kinds of oil: one high in monounsaturated fatty acid (oleic
acid) and the other high in polyunsaturated fatty acid (linoleic acid). Currently the predominant edible oil market is
for the former, which is lower in saturated fats than olive oil. The latter is used in painting in the place of linseed oil,
particularly with white paints, as it does not have the yellow tint which linseed oil possesses.
Oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, notably linoleic acid, are considered to have some health benefits. One
human study compared high-linoleic safflower oil with conjugated linoleic acid, showing that body fat decreased
and adiponectin levels increased in obese women consuming safflower oil.[5]
The assumed benefits of linoleic acid in the case of heart disease are less obvious: in one study where high-linoleic
safflower oil replaced animal fats in the diets of patients with heart disease, the group receiving safflower oil in place
of animal fats had a significantly higher risk of death from all causes, including cardiovascular diseases.[6] In the
same study, a meta-analysis of linoleic acid used in intervention clinical trials showed no evidence of cardiovascular
benefit. However, a meta-analysis published in 2014 concluded that linoleic acid in people's diet "is inversely
associated with CHD risk in a dose-response manner. These data provide support for current recommendations to
replace saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat for primary prevention of CHD."[7]
Flower[edit]
Safflower at a market

Safflower oil as a medium for oil colours

Safflower flowers are occasionally used in cooking as a cheaper substitute for saffron, sometimes referred to as
"bastard saffron".[8]
In coloring textiles, dried safflower flowers are used as a natural dye source for the orange-red
pigment Carthamin.[9]Carthamin is also known, in the dye industry, as Carthamus Red or Natural Red 26.[10]

See also[edit]

Food portal

Chinese herbology
Conjugated linoleic acid
Safflower Princess
Tsheringma

Notes[edit]
1. ^ "Tropicos". Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO. 2016. Retrieved 16 June2016.
2. ^ a b Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf, Domestication of plants in the Old World, third
edition (Oxford: University Press, 2000), p. 211
3. ^ John Chadwick, The Mycenaean World (Cambridge: University Press, 1976), p. 120
4. ^ "World production of safflower seeds in 2013; Browse
Production/Crops/World". United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Statistics
Division (FAOSTAT). 2015. Retrieved 16 June 2016.
5. ^ Norris, L. E.; Collene, A. L.; Asp, M. L.; Hsu, J. C.; Liu, L. F.; Richardson, J. R.; Li, D;
Bell, D; Osei, K; Jackson, R. D.; Belury, M. A. (2009). "Comparison of dietary
conjugated linoleic acid with safflower oil on body composition in obese
postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus". American Journal of Clinical
Nutrition. 90 (3): 468476. PMC 2728639
. PMID 19535429. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2008.27371.
6. ^ Ramsden, C. E.; Zamora, D.; Leelarthaepin, B.; Majchrzak-Hong, S. F.; Faurot, K. R.;
Suchindran, C. M.; Ringel, A.; Davis, J. M.; Hibbeln, J. R. (2013). "Use of dietary linoleic
acid for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease and death: Evaluation of
recovered data from the Sydney Diet Heart Study and updated meta-
analysis". BMJ. 346: e8707. PMC 4688426 . PMID 23386268. doi:10.1136/bmj.e8707.
7. ^ Farvid, Maryam S.; Ding, Ming; Pan, An; Sun, Qi; Chiuve, Stephanie E.; Steffen, Lyn
M.; Willett, Walter C.; Hu, Frank B. (2014). "Dietary Linoleic Acid and Risk of Coronary
Heart Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort
Studies". Circulation. 130: 15681578. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.010236.
8. ^ E.g. "safflower" in Webster's Dictionary, year 1828. E.g. "bastard saffron" in The
Herball, or General Historie of Plantes, by John Gerarde, year 1597, pages 1006-1007.
9. ^ Dweck, Anthony C. (ed.) (June 2009), Nature provides huge range of colour
possibilities (PDF), Personal Care Magazine, pp. 6173, retrieved 30 Oct 2012
10. ^ "Carthamus Red". 1997 [1992]. Retrieved September 20, 2016.

External links[edit]
Wikimedia Commons has media
related to Carthamus tinctorius.

Complementary and Alternative Healing University (Chinese Herbology)


Ahmed M. Zahran, M. F. Omran, S. Z. Mansour and N. K. Ibrahim. Effectiveness
of Carthamus tinctorius L. in the Restitution of Lipid Composition in Irradiated
Rats. Egypt. J. Rad. Sci. Applic., 20(1) 75-94 (2007).
Safflower production (in the United States)
Safflower field crops manual
UN FAO statistics on safflower production
Globe and Mail: "Calgary firm turns safflower into insulin"
List of Chemicals in Safflower (Dr. Duke's Databases)
The Paulden F. Knowles personal history of safflower germplasm exploration and
use

Look up safflower in
Wiktionary, the free
dictionary.

Edible fats and oils

Bacon fat

Fatback

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Szalonna
Pork fats

Lard

Lardon
Pork belly

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Speck

Dripping

Suet
mutton fats
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Butter

Clarified butter

Dairy fats Ghee

Niter kibbeh

Smen

Chicken fat

oultry fats Duck fat

Schmaltz

her animal Blubber

fats Muktuk

Cocoa butter

Margarine
etable fats
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Vegetable shortening

Cod liver oil


oils
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Coconut oil

Cottonseed oil

Olive oil

Peanut oil
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oils oils palm kernel oil

Rapeseed oil
Canola oil and Colza oil(toxic oil syndrome)

Safflower oil
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Nut
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Linseed oil (flaxseed oil)


Fruit
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and
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seed
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oils
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See also

List of vegetable oils

Cooking oil

Essential oil
Categories:
Plant dyes
Food colorings
Cooking oils
Carthamus
Medicinal plants
Vegetable oils
Plants used in traditional Chinese medicine
Plants used in Ayurveda
Flora of Nepal
Flora of India
Plants described in 1753
Edible Asteraceae
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This page was last edited on 11 September 2017, at 07:53.
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