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Object + modal + be Verb 3 + by Subject

Abi must be visited by Leni.


Him must be visited by she.

S + modal + be + Verb 3 + by O
He must be visited by her.

Who does the action? Leni.


Who got the action? Abi
SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE
AKTIF : ME/BER
Fungsi:
Kebiasaan/fenomena alam yang terjadi sampe
sekarang/schedule/kegiatan sehari-hari

Ket.waktu:
Every

Kata bantu:
Usually/always/often/seldom/rarely/never
Rumus/Rule
Subjek: I/you/we/they:

(+) I/you/we/they + verb 1 + o


(-) I/you we/they + do not + Verb 1 + O
(?) Do I/we/they + verb 1 + O?
(?) WH-Q + do + I you/we/they + verb 1 + O?

Subjek: He/She/It

(+) He /she /it + verb 1 + s/es + O


(-) He/she/it + does not + Verb 1 + O
(?) Does + he/she/it + verb 1 + O?
(?) WH-Q + does + he/she /it + verb 1 + O?
Kalimat Aktif
Aku sering meminjam buku2 di perpustakaan itu.
I often borrow the books in the/that library.
Temanku tidak sering meminjam buku disana.
My friend does not often borrow books there.
Apakah kamu sering mengunjungi perpustakaan?
Do you often visit the library?
Apakah Joko sering mengunjungi perpustkaan?
Does Joko often visit the library?
Simple Present Tense
Pasif : di /ter .
Fungsi:
Kebiasaan/fenomena alam yang terjadi sampe
sekarang/schedule/kegiatan sehari-hari
Ket.waktu:
Every
Kata bantu:
Usually/always/often/seldom/rarely/never
Rumus:
(+) S + am/is/are + Verb 3 + by O
(-) S + am/is /are + not + verb 3 + by O
(?) Am/Is/are + S + verb 3 + by O?
(?) WH-Q + am/is/are + S + verb 3 + by O?

WH-Q:
What/where/why/who/whose/which/when/How/How long/How
many/ how much/ how tall / how wide
Example
Perpustakaan itu selalu dikunjungi mahasiswa setiap hari.
The library is always visited by the students every day.
Perpustakaan itu tidak selalu dibersihkan oleh mereka.
The library is not always cleaned by them.
Apakah file-file itu disimpan setiap minggu?
Are the files saved every week?
Mengapa file-file itu disimpan setiap minggu?
Why are the files saved every week?
Nominal Sentence
waktu: Present / sekarang
No Verb available
Diikuti kata sifat/kata benda/ket.tempat
Contoh: Kata sifat/kata benda/ket.tempat
Kata sifat: great/long/heavy/tidy/neat/tight/wide/high
Kata benda: capacitor /antenna / toolbox/
transformer/bolt/supervisor/manager/secretary/vice
president/employee/employer/trainer/trainee
Ket.tempat: in the workshop/on the workbench / inside the
toolbox/behind the scree
Rules:
S + am/is /are + kata sifat /kata benda/ket.tempat
S + am /is /are + not + kata sifat/kata benda/ket.tempat
Am/Is/are + S + kata sifat /kata benda/ket.tempat? Yes/no
WH-Q + am/is/are + S + kata sifat/kata benda /ket. Tempat?
Example
Mereka adalah mahasiswa-mahasiswa.
They are students.

Dia berada di kampus setiap hari.


She is at the campus/in the campus every day.

Kami selalu berbahagia setiap kali bertemu mereka.


We are always happy every time we meet them
Imperative
Fungsi: perintah/menyuruh/mundang/memeberi
nasehat/saran/menawarkan /doa/harapan
Rules
Verb 1 + O
Dont + Verb 1 + O
Be + kata sifat
Dont be + kata sifat
Lets + Verb 1
Modal
Aktif : modal + me/ber
Modal:
Can/could/may/might/must/shall/should/will/would
Rules
S + modal + Verb 1 + O
S + modal + not + Verb 1 + O
Modal + S + Verb 1 + O?
WH-Q + Modal + S + Verb 1 + O?
Example
Kalian harus berbicara bahasa inggris setiap hari sehingga
kalian bisa mendapat nilai berbicara yang baik.
You must speak English every day so that you can get good
speaking score.
Mereka tidak akan lulus ujian karena mereka tidak bisa
membayar uang kuliah.
They will not pass the exam because they cannot pay the
school tuition.
Modal
Pasif : Modal + di/ter
S + modal + be + Verb 3 + By O
S + modal + not + be + Verb 3 + by O
Modal + S + be + verb 3 + by O?
WH-Q + modal + S + be + Verb 3 + by O?
Example
Kertas itu harus disembunyikan. Jika tidak, kita akan dihukum jika mereka
mengetahuinya.
The paper must be hidden. Otherwise, we will be punished if they find it
out.
Mengapa kalian bisa disalahkan mereka meskipun mereka tahu bahwa
kalian tidak terlibat?
Why can you be blamed although they know that you are not involved?
Perjanjian itu sebaiknya ditandatangani sebelum kita meninggalkan kota
ini.
The agreement should be signed before we leave the city.
Modal + Kata Sifat/Kata Benda/Ket. tempat
(+) S + modal + be + kata sifat/kata benda/ket.tempat
(-) S + modal + not + be + kata sifat/kata benda/ket.tempat
(?) Modal + S + be + kata sifat/kata benda/ket.tempat?

(?) WH-Q + modal + S + be + kata sifat/kata benda/ket.tempat?


Example
Mereka mungkin saja di sini.
They may be here.
Dia pasti di dalam kamar tidurnya.
She must be in her bedroom.
Dia bisa saja seorang dokter. Saya bisa mengatakan seperti itu karena
dia cerdas dan mengetahui banyak tentang kesehatan dan obat-
obatan.
He can be a doctor. I can say like that because he is smart and knows
a lot about health and medication.
Present Continous Tense
Sedang berlangsung sekarang
Ket.waktu:
Now/ at the moment /at present
Rumus
S + am/is/are + Verb ing + O
S + am/is /are + not + verb ing + O
Am /Is/are + S + verb-ing + O?
WH-Q + am/is/are + S + verb-ing + O?
Example
We are studying English.
They are not doing their task. They are just sleeping.
Are you guys watching a horror movie?
Why are you laughing?
Present Continous Tense Pasif
Sedang berlangsung sekarang
Ket.waktu:
Now/ at the moment /at present
Rules
(+) S + am/is/are + being + verb 3 + by O
(-) S + am/is/are not + being + verb 3 + by O
(?) Am/Is/Are + S + being + Verb 3 + by O?
(?) WH-Q + am/is/are + S + being + verb 3 + by O?
Example
Mesin di dalam bengkel itu sedang dioperasikan sekarang. Jadi, kita
tidak bisa mengganggu mereka.
The machine in the workshop is being operated now. So, we cannot
disturb them.

Para petugas itu sedang diperiksa sekarang. Mereka tidak akan pulang
cepat ke rumah.
The officials are being investigated now. They will not go home early.
Present Perfect Tense : Aktif
Fungsi: Kejadian yang sudah/telah terjadi.

Kata sudah atau telah me ./ber diterjemahkan menjadi


Have/has + V3

Keterangan waktu:
Since: since Monday, since 7 am, since July 2016, etc
For : for two days, for three decades, for five minutes
Rules/Rumus
(+) I/You/We/They + have + verb 3 + O
(-) I/You/we/they + have not + verb 3 + O
(?) Have/Havent + I/you/we/they + verb 3 + O?
(?) WH-Q + have/havent + I/you/we/they + verb 3 + O?

(+) He/she/it + has + verb 3 + O


(-) He/she/it + has not + verb 3 + O
(?) Has/Hasnt + he/she/it + verb 3 + O?
(?) WH-Q + has/hasnt + he/she/it + verb 3 + O?
Example
Jika kamu sudah mengerjakan tugas itu, kamu boleh pergi dan
berkumpul dengan teman-temanmu.
If you have done your task, you may go and hang out with your
friends.

Mereka belum membersihkan rumah itu. Tak heran, rumah itu sangat
kotor dan berantakan.
They havent cleaned the house. No wonder, the house is very dirty
and messy.
Dia belum menelpon ku.
He hasnt called me yet.
Dina baru saja menghabiskan makan siangku.
Dina has just eaten my lunch.
Present Perfect Tense : Pasif
Fungsi: Kejadian yang sudah/telah terjadi.
Kata sudah atau telah di./ter diterjemahkan menjadi
Have/has been + V3
Keterangan waktu:
Since: since Monday, since 7 am, since July 2016, etc
For : for two days, for three decades, for five minutes
Rules/Rumus
(+) I/You/We/They + have been + verb 3 + O
(-) I/You/we/they + have not been + verb 3 + O
(?) Have/Havent + I/you/we/they + been verb 3 + O?
(?) WH-Q + have/havent + I/you/we/they + been verb 3 + O?

(+) He/she/it + has been + verb 3 + O


(-) He/she/it + has not been + verb 3 + O
(?) Has/Hasnt + he/she/it + been verb 3 + O?
(?) WH-Q + has/hasnt + he/she/it + been verb 3 + O?
Example
Pintu itu telah dikunci. Karena itulah kita tidak bisa masuk.
The door has been locked. Thats why we cannot come inside.

Setelah anjing itu (telah) ditangkap, mereka terus menerus menelpon


kita.
After the dog has been caught, they keep calling us.
Present Perfect Tense + Kata sifat/kata
benda/ket. tempat
Present Perfect Tense + Kata sifat/kata benda/ket. tempat

(+) I/You/We/They + have + been + kt sifat/k.benda/ket.t4


(-) I/You/we/they + have not + been + k.sifat/k.benda/ket.t4
(?) Have/Havent + I/you/we/they + been + k.sifat/k.benda/ket.t4 ?
(?) WH-Q + have/havent + I/you/we/they + k.sifat/k.benda/ket.t4 ?

(+) He/she/it + has + been + k.sifat/k.benda/ket.tempat


(-) He/she/it + has not + been + k.sifat/k.benda/ket.tempat
(?) Has/Hasnt + he/she/it + been + k.sifat/k.benda/ket.tempat?
(?) WH-Q + has/hasnt + he/she/it + been + k.sifat/k.benda/ket.tempat?
They have been here since Monday.
We have been teachers for 15 years.
She has been in Jakarta for 2 weeks.
Verb 1 Verb 1 + s/es Verb 2 Verb 3 Verb ing
Go goes went gone going
Study studies studied studied studying