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DESIGN ASPECTS OF

PRESSURIZED PIPE IRRIGATION SYSTEM

T.K.SIVARAJAN, CHIEF ENGINEER


DESIGNS (N&W)
CENTRAL WATER COMMISSION
NEED/CONCEPT
PLANNING OF NETWORK
COMPONENTS OF PIPED
IRRIGATION SYSTEM
CASE STUDIES
Irrigation Water Conveyance Methods

Open Channel Pipeline


Piped Irrigation System

Open (low Head) Pipelines

Low head pipelines are open to the


atmosphere, heads in these pipelines seldom
exceed 15 m (50 ft).
Closed (Pressurized) Pipelines
Pressurized pipelines normally supply application
systems that require more than 6 m (20 ft) of head.

Pressure regulating, check, air release, and vacuum


relief valves are used

Pump stands to provide flow and pressure control.


NEED FOR PIPED IRRIGATION
Savings in Land cost

INDO-NEPAL CANAL (TANAKPUR)


Canal Conveyance:
Permanent land width 40m, Length of canal 1.14 km
Area under Canal 4.56 Ha.
Cost @ 6.79 Lakh = 31 Lakh

Pipe Conveyance:
3 Nos 2.1m dia each + 3 m inspection path = 10 m wide
Cost of Land for Pipe Conveyance = 10/40 X 31 = 7.75 Lakhs
NEED FOR PIPED IRRIGATION

Reduction in water loss


saving more than 30% compared with canal system

Reduction in land requirement

Fast Construction saves time and labour

Modernization of irrigation system


Flow Diagram of Typical Piped Irrigation System

DESILTING
RIVER OR OTHER INTAKE
ARRANGEMENT
SOURCE STRUCTURE
**

PIPE
OUTLET / PUMPING
DISTRIBUTION
DELIVERY TANK ARRANGEMENT**
NETWORK

FIELD IRRIGATION
SYSTEM
PLANNING OF LAYOUT

the alignment of piped irrigation system need not be planned


along the farm boundaries as the system is usually buried under
ground

preferably laid straight . Results in reduction in length of WC


and hence more economical.
PLANNING OF LAYOUT

For the formation of chaks or sub chaks, alignments of under


ground pipe line (UGPL ) system do not provide physical
boundaries (as the system is buried) .

Alignments of UGPL system should be across the contours to


avail sufficient head to overcome frictional losses in pipe flow.

Alignments of UGPL system along the contours should be


generally avoided.

As far as possible reverse gradients should not be provided.


PIPE LINE ROUTE SELECTION - CRITERIA

Route should be selected such that:

Length should be minimized

Pumping should be avoided if possible.

High water pressure should be avoided.

Number of appurtenances (gate valve, check valve,


drain, air release valve, pressure break valve) should be
minimized.

Very low or high velocities should be avoided

Velocity ranges : 0.5 3.0 m/s,


Preferable range: 1.0 - 1.5 m/s

Cost should be minimized.


DESIGN PIPED IRRIGATION SYSTEM
Factors to be considered
Design discharge.
Flow velocities through pipelines
Elevation changes across the command.
Friction losses through pipelines, fittings and other in-line
components.
Determining Economic Size of conveyance main and overall
System Costs, which in turn depends upon;
Project Period and Longevity (Useful Life) of all the
components.
Capital costs of pumps, pipes and other fittings.
Installation costs of pumps, pipes and other fittings.
System operating costs
Soil conditions for buried pipelines.
Environmental conditions for surface pipelines.
DESIGN DISCHARGE

Design discharge is the main parameter for design of a piped


irrigation scheme. All projects should be designed based on Peak
Water Requirement of crops.
Design discharge depends upon the operation procedure which can
be:
Rotational Water Supply
On Demand Water Supply
FLOW VELOCITIES THROUGH PIPELINES

Maximum Velocity
The higher the velocity, the greater the risk of damage through surges and water
hammer. maximum water velocity:

Minimum Water Velocity


Minimum operational water velocity, especially for irrigation systems that utilize
emitters with small apertures such as drip and micro sprinklers. This will ensure
that any sediment or solids are flushed through the lines.

Minimum to flush drip lines 0.3 m/s


Minimum to flush pipe lines 0.5 1.5 m/s depending on pipe size and flow

Velocity ranges : 0.5 3.0 m/s,


Preferable range: 1.0 - 1.5 m/s
Friction losses through pipelines, fittings and other in-
line components

The following applies for pipelines with a diameter of


200 mm or smaller:
Rising pipeline: Max friction loss = 1.5% (1.5m/100m
pipe length)
Gravity pipeline: Max allowable flow velocity of 3.0 m/s
For pipes with larger diameters, a full life cycle cost
analysis (capital and annual running cost) is
recommended to find the most economical pipe sizes.
PRESSURE VARIATION

Minimum pressure variation between water outlets.

Sizing pipes for appropriate friction losses

Provide pressure regulators , if necessary.


Economic Size of Conveying Main
INTAKES

The intake design shall be such as to:

Minimum hydraulic losses

Provide smooth entry into the water conductor system

Prevent/minimize ice, floating trash and coarse


sediment entering the tunnel or channel.
Types of Intakes
Wet Intakes;
Dry Intakes;
Submerged Intakes
Moveable and floating Intakes
INTAKES

Typical twin well type of river intake

Typical canal intake well


INTAKES

Typical intake Earthen Dam Typical intake masonry dam

Design Considerations as per IS 11570-1985


INTAKES
INTAKES

Hydraulic Design

Centre Line of Intake - optimum submergence

Trash rack structure

Bell mouth entrance and Transitions


INTAKES
DE-SILTING ARRANGEMENTS
DE-SILTING ARRANGEMENTS

The water which is drawn from the river/reservoir/storage


system may c contains heavy concentration of sediments.

This sediments may block or reduce the capacity of the


distribution system thereby it affects the efficiency of the
whole system

Conventional de-silting systems like settling basins


are quite effective to reduce the sediment content in the
whole system.
Conventional system with tube settler are having more
efficiency in the controlling the sediment rate.
TUBE SETTLER
HYDRAULICS OF CONDUITS

The design of supply conduits is dependent on


resistance to flow, available pressure or head, allowable
velocities of flow, scour, sediment transport, quality of
water and relative cost.
Formulae
There are a number of formulae available for use in
calculating the velocity of flow. However, following
formula for pressure conduits and Mannings formula
for free flow conduits are popularly used.

Hazen William Formula


Mannings formula

Darcy-Weisbachs Formula

Colebrook-White formula

Modified Hazen Williams formula


The Modified Hazen Williams formula has been derived from Darcy-
Weisbach and Colebrook-White equations and obviates the
limitations of Hazen-Williams formula

h=
Coefficient of Roughness
For Reynolds number greater than 107,the friction factor f (and hence the C
value ) is relatively independent of diameter and velocity.
For normal ranges of Reynolds number of 4000 to 106 the friction factor f (and
hence the C value) does depend on diameter, Velocity and relative roughness.
Resistance due to Specials and Appurtenances
Pipeline transitions and appurtenances add to the head loss, which is expressed
as velocity head as KV2/2g

Type of Fitting Value of K


Sudden contractions 0.3*-0.5
Entrance shape well rounded 0.5
Elbow 90 0.5-1.0
45 0.4-0.75
22 0.25-0.50
Tee 90take off 1.5
Straight run 0.3
Coupling 0.3
Gate valve (open) 0.3**-0.4
With reducer and increser 0.5
Globe 10
Angle 5
Swing check 2.5
Venturimeter 0.3
Orifice 1
*varying with areas ratios
**varying with radius ratios
PIPE MATERIALS

The various types of pipes used are :

Metallic pipes: Cast Iron (CI), Ductile Iron (DI), Mild Steel (MS),
Galvanized Iron (GI).

Unlined metallic pipes.

Metallic pipes lined with cement mortar or epoxy lining.

Non Metallic pipes

Concrete Pipes Reinforced Concrete, Pre-stressed Concrete, Bar


Wrapped Steel Cylinder Concrete, Asbestos
Cement Concrete
Plastic Pipes: PVC, Polyethylene, Glass Reinforced Plastic,
etc.
PUMPING STATIONS

Requirements
Intake design
Piping layout
Providing space, equipment and facilities for
Power Substation , if needed.
Auxiliary power unit, generally diesel
Control panel
Bays for loading and unloading
Overhauling, repairs and maintenance of pumps and
all other equipments
Head room material handling tackle
Ventilation , Lighting etc.
SELECTION OF PUMPS

Criteria for Pump Selection

Type of duty required i.e. whether continuous, intermittent or


cyclic

Present and projected demand and pattern of change in demand

The details of head and flow rate required

Type and duration of the availability of the power supply


SELECTION OF PUMPS

Selecting the operating speed of the pump and suitable drive/


driving gear.

The efficiency of the pump/s and consequent influence on power


consumption and the running coats.

Various option possible by permuting the parameter of the


pumping system, including the capacity and number of pumps
including standbys, combining them in series or in parallel,

Options of deferent modes of installation their influence on the


costs on the civil structural construction, on the case of operation
and maintenance and on the overall economics.
CONCLUSIONS

Considering the scarcity of water, it is recommended that


irrigation in command shall be popularized through pipeline
distribution system, where ever techno- economically feasible.

Local pipe fabrication industries should be encouraged

The Planning for deriving maximum benefits from pipeline


distribution system should be effectively implemented.

Involvement of WUAs .in operation and maintenance of the


system.
CONCLUSIONS

In case of major and medium projects attempt should be made


for complete piped irrigation system In case of minor irrigation
project, entire distribution system may be of pipeline.
There is substantial water saving over conventional open
channel system.
For judicious use of water the modern techniques namely
sprinkler and drip irrigation can be enlarged. The pipe line
distribution system would be more suitable implementation of
advance techniques.
Operation and Maintenance Cost is minimum compared to
conventional irrigation.