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Why Do People Work ?




survive, profit, achieve goal

What is motivation ?




willingness, satisfaction, improve, do better

What is the importance of motivation ?




satisfaction, production, quality

Fill in the blanks


Abraham Maslow (1908 1970) introduced the Neo-Human Relations School in the 1950's,
which focused on the ____________needs of employees. Maslow put forward a theory that there are
__________ levels of human needs which employees need to have fulfilled at work.

All of the needs are structured into a __________ and only once a lower level of need has been fully
met, would a worker be motivated by the opportunity of having the next need up in the
hierarchy satisfied. For example a person who is dying of hunger will be motivated to achieve a
basic wage in order to buy food before worrying about having a secure job contract or the
respect of others.

A business should therefore offer different ____________to workers in order to help them fulfill
each need in turn and progress up the hierarchy
Managers should also recognise that workers are not all motivated in the same way and do not
all move up the hierarchy at the same pace. They may therefore have to offer a slightly __________
set of incentives from worker to worker.

psychological five hierarchy incentives different

Draw and label The Maslow Hierarchy


Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856 1917) put forward the idea that workers are
motivated mainly by ____________. The theory was also called ___________________________

His Theory of Scientific Management argued the following:

Workers do not naturally enjoy work and so need close supervision and control.
Therefore managers should break down production into a series of small tasks

Workers should then be given appropriate training and tools so they can work as
efficiently as possible on one set task. Workers are then paid according to the number of
items they produce in a set period of time- piece-rate pay.As a result workers are
encouraged to work hard and maximise their productivity.

It was unpopular because


pay, performance related pay


Frederick Herzberg (1923 believed in a _______factor theory of motivation.

He argued that there were certain factors that a business could introduce that would directly
motivate employees to work harder ____________ . Some Examples include


However there were also factors that would de-motivate an employee if not present but would
not in themselves actually motivate employees to work harder ______________

Some examples include



two, motivators, hygiene

Herzberg believed that businesses should motivate employees by adopting a democratic
approach to management and by improving the nature and content of the actual job through
certain methods. Some of the methods managers could use to achieve this are:

Job enlargement workers being given a greater variety of tasks to perform (not necessarily
more challenging) which should make the work more interesting.

Job enrichment - involves workers being given a wider range of more complex, interesting and
challenging tasks surrounding a complete unit of work. This should give a greater sense of

Empowerment means delegating more power to employees to make their own decisions over
areas of their working life.

Douglas McGregor found out that there are broadly ___________ types of managers. One who believes
in Theory __________ and the other who believes in Theory ____________

Theory x (_______________ style)

The average person dislikes work and will avoid it he/she can.
Therefore most people must be forced with the threat of punishment to work towards
organisational objectives.
The average person prefers to be directed; to avoid responsibility; is relatively unambitious, and
wants security above all else.

Theory y (_______________ style)

Effort in work is as natural as work and play.

People will apply self-control and self-direction in the pursuit of organisational objectives, without
external control or the threat of punishment.
Commitment to objectives is a function of rewards associated with their achievement.
People usually accept and often seek responsibility.
The capacity to use a high degree of imagination, ingenuity and creativity in solving organisational
problems is widely, not narrowly, distributed in the population.
In industry the intellectual potential of the average person is only partly utilised.

two, X, Y, 'authoritarian management, 'participative management

How can managers motivate their staff to do better
Managers can influence employee motivation in a variety of ways:
Monetary factors: some staff work harder if offered higher pay.
Non monetary factors: other staff respond to incentives that have nothing to do with pay,
eg improved working conditions or the chance to win promotion.

Pay Methods

Managers can motivate staff by paying a fair wage. Payment methods include:
Time rate: staff are paid for the number of hours worked.
Overtime: staff are paid extra for working beyond normal hours.
Piece rate: staff are paid for the number of items produced.
Commission: staff are paid for the number of items they sell.
Performance related pay: staff get a bonus for meeting a target set by their manager.
Profit sharing: staff receive a part of any profits made by the business.
Salary: staff are paid monthly no matter how many hours they work.
Fringe benefits: are payments in kind, eg a company car or staff discounts.
Non-pay methods of motivation
Managers can motivate staff using factors other than pay through:

Job rotation: staff are switched between different tasks to reduce monotony.
Job enlargement: staff are given more tasks to do of similar difficulty.
Job enrichment: staff are given more interesting and challenging tasks.
Empowerment: staff are given the authority to make decisions about how they do their job.
Putting groups of workers in a team who are responsible together for completing a certain

Answer the following

Which of the following describes the mood of staff?

Staff training

Staff motivation

Staff appraisal

How is a worker on commission paid?

According to how much time is worked

According to the level of output

According to how many items are sold

John is paid piece rates. What does this mean?

He is paid according to how much time is worked

He is paid according to how much output is made

He is paid according to how many items are sold

Dipu is paid by the hour. What does his take home pay depend on?

How much time he has worked

How much output he has made

How many items he has sold

Dipu earns 8 an hour and usually works 8 hour shifts four days a week. What is his typical
gross weekly wage?




Which of the following is an example of a fringe benefit?

A salary


A company car

What is switching staff between different tasks to reduce monotony called?

Job rotation

Job enlargement

Job enrichment

What does Taylorism claim workers are motivated by?


Being given authority

Enjoying their work

What can affect staff motivation?

Work environment


Both managers and work environment