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CIED 4128

Final Exam study guide

Part I: Lab assignments

A. Temperature of a flame

Questions answers:

1) All groups determined that the blue portion of the flame was
Several hundred degrees hotter than red.

2) Brass has a higher specific heat than water. Remember that


Water has the highest specific heat of any common substance.
This means that it fills up with heat energy very slowly.

3) Sources of error include: heat of water loss through the lid of the
cup and heat losses from the brass to air before it is immersed in
water( Remember to use a carboard lid if performing this
experiment and transfer the heated metal to the water as quickly
and safely as possible). Other errors could include: measuring
uncertainty in the thermometer (most are only accurate to the
nearest degree) and measuring errors in the mass of water

B) Oleic acid/BB pancake:

1) Suppose that you have a circular patch of b-bs with a diameter


of 10 centimeters. This same patch has a volume of 20 ml.
Find the thickness of one b-b

Answer: .25 cm
2) Now suppose that the diameter of an oleic acid pancake is 40
cm. This pancake results from two drops of solution.
Each
drop contains .005 cubic centimeters of oleic acid. Find the
estimated diameter of one oleic acid molecule (hint: see
page 82 of your lab book)

Answer: .000008 cm or about 80 nanometers (this estimate is


Probably almost 10 x too large but a reasonable first
estimate of the scale of large molecules).

C) Sensing pH

1) Be able to correctly match pH range with cabbage


indicator color (see page 131 of lab book)

2) Be able to write a list of steps for an experiment that


would test the acidity or basicity of common household
substances

D) Little Sir Echo

Suppose that you are performing the experiment on page 67.


The wall is 120 feet away and you increase your speed so that
Each echo coincides with each clap. What is your estimate of
The speed of sound if you clap exactly 300 times in one
minute?

Answer: 1200 feet per second.

E) Comet Lab

1) Based on our experiment, of what are comets composed?

ANSWER: dust particles, frozen methane, ammonia, water


And other compounds plus organic (carbon based)
compounds.
2) See http://www.noao.edu/education/crecipe.html for more info.

2) Use the web page to list the steps you would take to
do this experiment in your classroom.

II. Relativity and Cosmology

A. List and explain three main lines of evidence that are used to
support the Big Bang theory (as discussed in class):

1) Cosmic Background Radiation: (see page 725 and put in


your own words)

2) Redshift of light from distant galaxies: (page 725)

3) Cosmic abundance of hydrogen and helium: The Big


Bang theory requires that there should be about a 3:1
ratio of hydrogen to helium in the present universe if it
began as the theory says it did. Present estimates from
observation seem to confirm this very accurately. See
these links for more information:
http://www.damtp.cam.ac.uk/user/gr/public/bb_pillars.htm
l
http://www.damtp.cam.ac.uk/user/gr/public/bb_problems.h
tml

B. Problem #20 on page 746


Answer: This is because of Lorentz contraction (page 733).
From the point Of view of the electron (physicists call
this a reference frame), The accelerator tube is only one
meter long.

B. Problem #21

Answer: There are two ways to answer this question. The


first way would be to notice that from the reference
frame of
earth, time for each muon is greatly dilated (slower) because
muons travel at speeds very close to the speed of light.
this means that their average lifetime is much longer
than 2 millionths of a second as viewed from earth.
the muons therefore have long enough to make it
To the ground. From the muons point of view (so to speak)
only 2 microseconds go by until it decays. However, in this
time it manages to survive all the way to the ground!!
this is because, in the muons reference frame, the distance
to the ground is really much shorter! So these two effects
of relativity perfectly compensate for one another.

NOTE: YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO ANSWER SIMILAR


QUESTIONS TO THESE ON THE TEST.

III. Fill out the sample lesson plan template below using one of the lab
exercises as your basis for the lesson. It would be a good idea to
do this now and bring it to the final exam!

This lesson plan template was designed to make lesson plan writing easier to do while
ensuring that all lesson plan components are met. You can print the HTML version here, or
download the Microsoft Word version (which you can edit on your computer) or WordPerfect
version. The content of the template will be the same regardless of which version you use.

Lesson Plan Title:

Concept / Topic To Teach:

Standards Addressed:
General Goal(s):

Specific Objectives:

Required Materials:

Anticipatory Set (Lead-In):

Step-By-Step Procedures: