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Nov 22, 2017

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Static magnetic field

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Static magnetic field

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Introduction

We will study here the magnetic field associated with a dc current carrying conductor.

The aim of this chapter is to discuss the Biot-Savart law and use it as a basic tool to

calculate the magnetic field set up by any given distribution of currents.

It was found experimentally that the magnetic field (magnetic flux density) B at a

qu sin

distance R away from a charge q moving with velocity u is related by B where

R2

the proportionality constant in SI unit is /4. Here is the permeability of the media

where the field is to be measured. In free space = 0 and has a value of 4x10-7 Hm-1

(Henrys/meter).

u aR

or B = q (36)

4 R2

where B and u are the magnitude of B and u, is the angle between u and R (here R is a

vector pointing from the charge to the point where the field is being found), and aR is the

unit vector acting along R. It is noted that the magnetic field intensity H=B/.

In fact, we are often interested not in the field of moving charge, but in that of a current

carrying conducting wire. Biot and Savart proposed a mathematical formula for the field

due to a single current element (a small conducting wire of length dl having current I

through it) as follows.

P

dl I

The geometry is shown in the figure. Suppose cross-sectional area of the wire is A and v

is the density of charge in the wire. Assume these charges move with velocity u. Then the

charge crossing any cross-section in one second=uAv=I. Idl= uAdlv=uq.

Therefore the magnetic field dB at point P in the above figure due to dl length of wire

carrying current I is given by the following relation after substituting qu=Idl or qu=Jdv

(because Idl=IdIA/A=Jdv where dv is the volume of the elemental wire) in equation (36):

I dl a R

dB = (37a)

4 R2

J aR

or dB = dv (37b)

4 R 2

The resultant field is found experimentally to be normal to the plane containing the

vectors dl and R This expression (37) is known as the Biot-Savart law.

The unit of B is weber/m2 or tesla (T)

By the use of a suitable integration, Biot-Savart law can be used to calculate the B-field

resulting from a current carrying conductor of any length L which can be decomposed

into an infinite number of back to back connected current elements:

I dl a R

B=

4 R2

(38a)

J aR

or B =

4 R2

dv (38b)

The direction of magnetic field can also be found by using Right Hand Rule which states

in the following way: Grasp the wire with right hand; if the thumb points in the direction

of current, the fingers will curl around the wire in the direction of B or vice versa.

If the position vectors of the field point P and the source point Q are, respectively, r and

r, we have R in (38) as R=r - r and aR=(r - r)/| r - r|.

I dl R I dl (r r ) JR J (r r )

B=

4 R 3

=

4 r r

3

or B =

4 R 3

dv =

4 r r

3

dv

Example 2.1 Determine B-field due to an infinitely long, straight current carrying wire.

Solution: We would like to determine B at P a perpendicular distance r from the wire as

shown in the following figure.

Consider dB produced by an current element of length dl at (0, 0, z) and lies along the z

axis and a distance R from P as shown in the figure. Assume the point P (x, y, 0).

a z a z

R = r r = xa x + ya y z a z = a z a z R = 2 + z 2

1/ 2

(and a R = )

2 + z2 (

1/ 2

)

I dl (r r ) I dz a z (a z a z ) I dz a

B =

4 r r

3

=

4 2 + z2

3 / 2

=

4 2 + z 2 3 / 2

LU .

I z

= a

(

4 + z 2 1 / 2

2

) LL

where z=LU and z=LL are the upper and lower position of the wire along z-axis. For an

infinitely long wire the limits of the integral are LU= and LL= - . Hence

I

B= a

2

The resultant B-field, therefore, is of the form of concentric circles around the wire.

Example 2.2 A circular loop of radius a carries a direct current I in the anti-clockwise

direction as shown in the following figure. Calculate H at a point on the z-axis.

Solution:

dl x R= ad a x (z az a a)= azd a + a2 d az

dl (r r ) I 2 2

I azd a 2 d

B =

4 r r

3

= [ 2

4 0 ( z + a 2 ) 3 / 2

a + 0 ( z 2 + a 2 ) 3 / 2 a z ]

The first integration over a closed circular path is zero, as a varies with . It can be

verified mathematically if we replace a by (cos ax + sin ay) in the first integration

and then integrate it w.r.t from 0 to 2. The field is therefore given by

I a2 I

B= a z T . At the centre of the loop B = az T

2 (z + a )

2 2 3/ 2

2a

I a 2

For z>>a B = az T .

2 z3

When the point of observation is far from the loop, the size of the loop is very small in

comparison with the distance z. In this case, we refer to the current carrying loop as a

magnetic dipole. If the magnetic dipole moment is defined as m=Ia2az, B is then given

by

m

B= T

2 z 3

Example 2.3 A sheet of conducting metal carrying a dc current of IS amperes per unit

width in the z-direction as shown in the following figure. Calculate H at a point P(x0, y0,

z0).

Solution:

z

P(x0,y0, z0)

R

dz

z This sheet is assumed be placed at y=0.

y

x

dx

x

R3={(x0 x)2 + y02 + (z0 z)2}3/2

I dl a R I dl R

d ( dB ) = =

4 R 2

4 R 3

I=ISdx, dl=dz az

dlxR= dz az x {(x0 x) ax + y0 ay + (z0 z) az}= dz {(x0 x) ay - y0 ax}

I S

{( x 0 x )a y y 0 a x }dz dx

B=

4

z = x = {( x0 x ) 2 + y 0 + ( z 0 z ) 2 }3 / 2

2

I S y 0 dz dx I S IS

Bx =

4

z = x = {( x0 x ) 2 + y 0 + ( z 0 z ) 2 }3 / 2

2

=

2

Hx =

2

I S ( x 0 x )dz dx

By =

4

z = x = {( x0 x ) 2 + y 0 + ( z 0 z ) 2 }3 / 2

2

= 0 H y = 0

IS

H = ax

2

It can be shown similarly H=IS ax/2 for P(x0, -y0, z0).

It is very interesting to note that electrostatic field due to sheet charge was also found to

be constant like magnetostatic field, irrespective of the position of the observation point

in front of the sheet.

Example 2.4 Assume that the wire in the following figure has a current I through it in the

direction shown. What is the magnitude of the magnetic field produced at point C due to

the straight segments, (b) the semicircular arc and (c) the entire wire?

x

Solution:

a. Looking at the figure, we see that the straight sections have infinitesimal lengths

that lie parallel or antiparallel to R, the vector that goes from dl to point C. Therefore,

dlaR = 0 in both cases for every dl along the straight lengths.

b. For the semicircular arc, each infinitesimal segment, dl, is an equal distance

R from point C. For each such segment, dlaR is directed into the page (here aR is

antiparallel to a of cylindrical coordinate system) since dl and R are perpendicular at

each point around the arc. Therefore, by the Biot-Savart Law, we have

I dl a R I

Rda (a ) I

B=

4 R 2

=

4

0 R 2

=

4R

az

c. To get the net contribution, just add the results for parts a. and b. of the question

I

B= az

4R

Example 2.5 Consider the circuit shown in following figure. A current I runs through it.

Given the parameters shown in the figure, find the magnetic field at point P.

y

x

Solution:

We can take our result from the previous problem and apply it here directly. The straight

sections yield no contribution to the field at P since they lie along the radial line from

each current element to point P. We also know that a semicircular arc gives a magnetic

field of magnitude B=I/4R. An arc which is less than a semicircle gives a field of

B=I(arc-length)/4R

I arc length

B=

4R R

For our problem, we use the right-hand rule to note that the field due to the arc of radius

b points out of the page while the arc of radius a gives a field that points into the page.

Then, the net field at P

I b I a I (a b)

B= a z = az

4b b 4a a 4ab

Example 2.6 Find the magnetic field at point P for following figure which shows a

current I traveling a long, straight wire length into a semicircular wire of radius R and out

along another long, straight section.

Solution:

Let's consider the current distribution as consisting of 3 parts as labeled in the following

figure.

y

These pieces are the two long, straight sections and the semicircular arc. For pieces 1 and

3, Note that their contributions to the net B field at point P are both out of the page (along

+ve z-axis). In setting up the Biot-Savart integral for infinitesimal lengths of current

elements dx, Note that the setup of the integral will be identical for both, namely, we can

consider the position of dx in both cases w.r.t. the places where the straight sections

combine with the semi-circular arcs. Therefore, the sum of these two contributions is the

same as that of a single infinite length line carrying a current I. Hence

I dl a R

4 R 2

B1 + B 3 = 2

Now dl=dx ax and R=Rcos (-ax)+ Rsin ay= -x ax+r ay, |R|=R=(x2+r2)1/2

I dxa x ( xa x + ra y ) / R I rdxa z

I dl a R

4 R 2 2 0 2 0 R 3

B1 + B 3 = 2 = =

R2

I rdxa z I

B1 + B 3 =

2 0 ( x + r )

2 2 3/ 2

=

2 r

az

To get the contribution from piece 2, the semi-circular arc, look again at figure. In this

case, each current element is a distance r away from point P and the angle between dl, the

infinitesimal arc-length of current, and R, the vector from dl to point P, is 900 because

dl is tangential to the arc and R is along the radial direction. So,

I rda (a ) I

I dl a R I

B2 =

4 r 2

=

4 0 r 2

=

4r 0

da z = a z

4r

I 1 1

B net = B1 + B 2 + B 3 = + a z

2r 2

Example 2.7 Determine the field B at a point P on the axis of a solenoid having uniform

winding with n number of turns per unit length. Assume the current through the winding

is I amps and the radius of the solenoid is r.

Solution: dx

2 r R d r

1

P P

Rd

dx

Assume the point P is R distance away from the small segment dx of the solenoid.

From the right most figure, we have

Rd Rd

= sin dx = and also r/R=sin.

dx sin

nRd InRd

Total number of turns on the length dx= and the total current in dx= .

sin sin

Now the field on the axis of a ring of radius r is given as (see example 2.2)

I r 2

B= a x where R is the distance of the observation point on the axis of the ring

2 R3

from its circumference. Here the direction of the field is assumed in the x-direction,

following the Flemings Right-hand rule, as the direction of current is assumed to be into

the page at the upper conductors.

Therefore, for the segment dx, the field at P is

InRd r 2 In sin d

dB = ax = ax

2 sin R 3

2

Total field at P therefore

2

In sin d In

B= ax = (cos 1 cos 2 )a x

1

2 2

If the solenoid is very long and P is somewhere near the middle, then 1=0 and 2= and

B = Ina x

In

If P at the right end, then 1=/2 and 2= then B = a x . Same result obtains when P

2

at the left end where 1=0 and 2=/2.

Amperes circuital law states that the line integral of the magnetic field intensity H

around a closed path equals the currents enclosed. This statement is given mathematically

by,

H dl = I B dl = I (39)

H dl = ( H) ds

S

or, B dl = ( B) ds

S

ds

dl

Again the total current flowing through ds can be written in terms of a surface integral of

the current density J as

I = J ds

s

Hence Amperes circuital law can be written in the form

H = J or B = J (40)

This result must be true for any choice of surface s or at any point in space and is known

as the differential form of Amperes circuital law.

This equation shows that the magnetic field is not irrotational.

Amperes circuital law is very powerful in determining the magnetic field caused by a

current I when there is a closed path around the current such that the magnitude of the

field is constant over the path.

No free charges can stay with in a good conductor; the currents due to free charges

thus only flow along the surface of a good conductor. The right hand side of eq. (39)

for any closed path inside the conductor becomes zero. It concludes that a static

magnetic field can not exist in a good conductor.

law

Let us consider an infinitesimal closed path in the x-y plane as shown in the following

figure. The fields along dx and dy remain constant.

z

4 3

dx

1 2

dy

If the magnetic field circulates in the anticlockwise direction as shown, the current will

flow in the +ve z direction. Therefore eq. (39) in this case takes the following form

H dl = I z

1 2 3 4 1

(41)

Now the field that contributes to eq. (41) on the path 1-2 only has its y-component and is

H y dx H y dx

H y = H y0 + ( ) H dl = {H y0 + ( )}dy (42)

x 2 1 2

x 2

The field that contributes to eq. (41) on the path 2-3 only has its x-component and is

H x dy H x dy

H x = H x0 + ( ) H dl = {H x0 + ( )}(-dx) (43)

y 2 2 3

y 2

The field that contributes to eq. (41) on the path 3-4 only has its y-component and is

H y dx H y dx

H y = H y0 ( ) H dl = {H y0 ( )}(-dy) (44)

x 2 3 4

x 2

and the field that contributes to eq. (41) on the path 4-1 only has its x-component and is

H x dy H x dy

H x = H x0 ( ) H dl = {H x0 ( )}dx (45)

y 2 4 1

y 2

The left hand side of eq. (41) therefore is given by

H y H x

H dl = ( x - y )dxdy

H y H x H y H x

( - )dxdy = I z = J z dxdy ( - )a z = J z a z (46)

x y x y

H H z

( x - )a y = J y a y (47)

z x

Again if a closed loop is considered in the y-z plane then we have

H H y

( z - )a x = J x a x (48)

y z

H z H y H x H z H y H x

( - )a x + ( - )a y + ( - )a z = J x a x + J y a y + J z a z

y z z x x y

H = J (49)

As the magnetic pole cannot be isolated, unlike the electric flux the magnetic flux lines

always close upon themselves. Therefore, the total outward magnetic flux through any

closed surface is zero i.e.,

B dS = 0

S

From divergence theorem we have

B dS = ( B)dv .

S v

To prove eq. (50) mathematically, let us consider the magnetic field due to a long current

carrying conductor, the B field of which is given by

I dl a R

4 R 2

B=

I dl a R

4

Then B = . Now R can be assumed as R=|r-r|=(x-x)ax+(y-y)ay+(z-

R2

z)az, where (x,y,z) and (x, y, z) are respectively the coordinates of the observation and

source points, and r and r are respectively the position vectors of the observation and

source points.

1

( ) = {(x - x) 2 + (y - y) 2 + (z - z) 2 }1 / 2

R

R a

= (x - x){ }3 / 2 a x (y - y){ }3 / 2 a y (z - z){ }3 / 2 a z = 3 = R2

R R

I dl a R I 1

4 4

B = = dl ( )

R2 R

With the help of the vector identity AB=BA - AB the above equation can be

rearrange as

I 1 1

B =

4 [( ) dl dl ( )] . However from vector identity,

R R

1

( )=0. The first term also equals to zero because is function of (x, y, z) and dl is

R

function of (x, y, z).

This proves that B =0.

The divergenceless property of the magnetic field indicates that the magnetic flux lines

close upon themselves. It is thus an example of solenoidal field.

Example 2.8 Six parallel aluminum wires of small, but finite radius lie in the same plane.

The wires are separated by equal distances d, and they carry equal currents I in the same

direction. Find the magnetic field at the center of the first wire. Assume that the current in

each wire is uniformly distributed over its cross section.

Solution:

A schematic layout of the problem is shown below. The magnetic field generated by a

single wire as obtained from Amperes law is equal to

I

B= a

2

where is the distance from the center of the wire. The equation is correct for all points

outside the wire, and can therefore be used to determine the magnetic field generated by

wire 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. The field at the center of wire 1, due to the current flowing in wire

1, can be determined using Ampere's law, and is equal to zero. The total magnetic field at

the center of wire 1 can be found by vector addition of the contributions of each of the six

wires. Since the direction of each of these contributions is the same, the total magnetic

field at the center of wire 1 is equal to

I 1 1 1 1 1

B = B1 + B 2 + B 3 + B 4 + B 5 + B 6 = + + + + a

2 d 2d 3d 4d 5d

Example 2.9 A coaxial cable consists of a long cylindrical copper wire of radius r1

surrounded by a cylindrical shell of inner radius r2 and outer radius r3 (see Figure below).

The wire and the shell carry equal and opposite currents I uniformly distributed over their

volumes. Find the formulas for the magnetic field in each of the regions r < r1, r1 < r < r2,

r2 < r < r3, and r > r3.

Solution:

The magnetic field lines are circles, centered on the symmetry axis of the coaxial cable.

First consider an integration path for Amperes Circuital Law (ACL) with r < r1. The path

(line) integral of H along this path is equal to

r2I

H dl = r12 Here dl=rda and H=Ha

2

r2I r2I rI

H dl = r12

0

Hrd =

r12

H=

2 r12

a

H dl = I Here dl=rda and H=Ha

2

I

H dl = I Hrd = I H =

0

2 r

a

r 2 r22 r32 r 2

H dl = I I

r2 r2

3 2

= I 2

r3 r2

Here dl=rda and H=Ha

2

2

r32 r 2 r32 r 2 I r32 r 2

H dl = I

r2 r2

3 2

0

H rd = I

r2 r2

3 2

H =

2 r

2

r

3 r

a

2

2

H dl = 0 Here dl=rda and H=Ha

H dl = 0 H = 0a

Example 2.10 A very long hollow conductor of inner radius a and outer radius b is

located along the z axis and carries a current I in the z direction, as shown in the

following figure. If the current distribution is uniform, determine H at any point in space.

For a, the current enclosed by any closed path is zero. Therefore, H is also zero as

obtained by ACL.

For a b, the current enclosed by a closed circular path of radius is

I enc = J ds =

I

2

2 a2 ( )

b 2 a 2 =a =0

a d da = I

s ( z z

) b2 a 2 ( )

From ACL, we have

( a ) I 2 2 2

H d l = I enc

l

(b a ) =0

H da = 2 2

H=

( a ) I H = ( a ) I a

2 2 2 2

2 (b a ) 2 (b a )

2 2 2 2

Therefore, from ACL, we have

2

H dl = I

l

=0

H da =I

I I

H= H= a

2 2

Example 2.11 A closely spaced winding (toroidal winding) with N turns is wound in the

form of a ring as shown in the following figure (a). The inner and the outer radii of the

ring are a and b, respectively. The height of the ring is h. If the winding carries a current I

amps, find H within the ring and total magnetic flux enclosed by the ring.

Solution:

The current enclosed by any closed circular path of radius where a b is NI.

Therefore, from ACL we obtain

2

H d l = NI

l

H da

=0

=NI

NI NI

H= H= a

2 2

NI b h

NIh

B = a = B d s = B d dza = ln(a / b )

2 s = a z =0 2

Example 2.12 A long cylindrical conductor of radius a carries a current of density J.

Show that the H field, inside a cylindrical cavity whose axis is displaced from that of the

conductor by a distance d, is constant and depends only on the location of the cavity and

not on its radius b.

Solution:

y The cross-sectional view is shown in

the adjacent figure. Assume that the

current is flowing in the z-direction.

We can use superposition theorem

and consider the H field inside the

b a cavity as that due to two long

x cylindrical conductors with radii b

J

and a and current densities J and J,

respectively. Let now find the H field

at a point which is distance away

from the centre of the conductor and

d distance away from the centre of

the cavity.

From ACL H dl = I = J ds , H at the specified position due to J is given by

l s

J J J

2H = 2 J H = H= a H=

2 2 2

Similarly, H at the specified position due to J is given by

J J J

2 H = 2 J H = H= a H=

2 2 2

J J J ( ) J d

Therefore total H field is H = = = where d is a vector

2 2 2 2

directed from the centre of the conductor to that of the cavity.

Since B =0 and from the vector identity we know, the divergence of the curl of a

vector is zero, we can define B= A where A be a vector, called the vector magnetic

potential. With the help of the previous section, we have

I dl a R Jdv a R 1 1

B=

4 R 2

=

4 R 2

=

4 Jdv ( ) =

R 4 ( ) Jdv

R

From the vector identity fF=fF + fF we have

1 1

B=

4 [ ( Jdv) - ( ) Jdv]

R R

The second term is zero, because is a function of (x,y,z) and J is a function of (x, y,

z).

1 1

B =

4 ( Jdv) = [ ( Jdv)]

R 4 R

1 1

hence A(r ) =

4 R J (r )dv(r ) =

4 R

I(r )dl (r ) (51)

1

A(r ) =

4 J (r )dv(r )

R

Using the vector identity ( fF) = f F + F f the above equation takes the form

1 1

A(r ) =

4 [J (r ) ( ) + J (r )]dv(r )

R R

(52)

The second term of eq.(52) is zero; therefore eq.(52) becomes

1 1

A(r ) =

4 [J (r ) ( )]dv(r ) A(r ) =

R 4 [J (r ) ( )]dv(r )

R

1 1

because = .

R R

1 J (r )

A(r ) =

4 R

[ J (r )

R

)]dv(r ) From continuity equation the 1st term

is zero.

J (r ) J (r )

A(r ) =

4

R

dv(r ) =

4 R

ds(r ) As the surface s(r) must

include all currents, there will be no current through the surface s(r). Therefore

J ds( r ) = 0 A ( r ) = 0 (53)

From Amperes law

H = J B = J A = J

Using the vector identity and eq. (53) we have

2 A = J (54)

Now = B ds = ( A) ds = A dl (55)

Example 2.13 A direct current I flows in a straight wire of length 2L. Find the magnetic

flux density B at a point located at a distance from the wire on the bisecting plane by

determining the vector magnetic potential A first.

Solution: At a height z along the wire above the bisecting plane assume a current

element Idl= Idz az. A is then given by

L Idz I L2 + 2 + L

4 z = L z 2 + 2

A= a = ln az .

4 L2 + 2 L

z

B is obtained from

a a a z

1 I L + + L

2 2

B = A = = Az a = ln a

z 4 L2 + 2 L

A A Az

IL

= a

2 L2 + 2

Example 2.14 A very long straight conductor located along z axis carries a current I in

the z direction. Obtain an expression of A at a point on the bisecting plane of the

conductor. Also determine B at that point.

Solution:

The conductor is assumed to be extending from z=-L to z=L.

The vector R from the current element to the field point is

given by R= a - z az. Now A at P is given by

1

A=

4 R Idl where dl = dz a z and R = 2 + z 2

I

L

dz a z

A =

4 L 2 + z 2

Assume z=tan dz=sec2 d and (2 +z2)1/2=sec

dz 2 + z2 + z

= sec d = ln(sec + tan ) = ln( )

2 + z 2

I 2 + L2 + L

Therefore A = ln az

4 +L L

2 2

2 2 2

But 2 + L2 + L = L + L[1 + ]1 / 2 = L + L[1 + ] = 2L + 2L

L2 2 L2 2L

2 2 2

and 2 + L2 L = L + L[1 + ]1 / 2 = L + L[1 + ]=

L2 2 L2 2L

I 2 L I 2 L

A = ln 2 a z = ln az

4 2

2L

Now as B=A

a a a z a a a z

1 1 I

B = A = = = Az a = a

z z 2

A A Az 0 0 Az

Example 2.15 The inner conductor of a 100m long coaxial cable has a radius of 1cm and

carries a current of 80 A in the z direction as shown in the following figure. The outer

cylinder is very thin and has radius of 10 cm. Calculate the total flux enclosed within the

conductors.

Solution: We can use (55) and A or (55) and B to determine flux in the following way:

= A dl or = B ds

If we use A, then

= A dl = A dl + A dl + A dl + A dl = A dl + A dl as there will be

c1 c2 c3 c4 c1 c3

no contribution from the integration along the paths c2 and c4. Considering the cable length is

long in comparison to the separation between the conductors, we may assume A along c1 and c3

following example 2.13 as

I 2 L I 2 L

A= ln a z and A = ln az

2 a 2 b

=L

L

I 2 L I 2 L L

I 2 L L

I 2 L

= ln a z dza z + ln a z ( dz )(a z ) = ln dz ln dz

=L

2 a L

2 b =L

2 a L

2 b

IL b

= ln

a

Again from

I b L

ddz IL b I

= B ds = = ln because here ds = ddza and B = a

2 =a z = L

a 2

Example 2.16 If B=Baz, compute the magnetic flux passing through a hemisphere of

radius R centered at the origin and bounded by the plane z-0.

Solution:

We know = B ds where ds=r2 sindd. In this problem

B=Baz and r=R.

/ 2 2

= B ds = Ba z R 2 sin dda r

=0 = 0

Now azar=cos

/ 2 2 /2 /2

= Ba z R sin dda r = 2R B sin cosd = R B sin 2d = R B

2 2 2 2

=0 =0 =0 =0

Example 2.17 Two very long identical and parallel conductors carrying 1 kA in opposite

directions are strung on poles 100m apart. If the radius of each conductor is 2cm and the

separation between their axes is 1m, determine the flux passing through the region

bounded by the conductors and the two consecutive poles.

Solution:

flux density B at a distance y from the conductor

at y=0 is

I 1 1

B= + (a x )

2 y b y

= B ds where ds = -dydza x

Therefore

I 1 1

B= + ( a x )

2 y b y

L ba

I 1 1 IL b a

=

z =0 y = a

2

y

+

b y

dydz =

ln

a = 155.67 mWb

Amperes force law

to experience a force which is proportional to the charge q, it velocity u, the flux density

B, and to the sine of the angle between the vector u and B. The force acts in the direction

of uxB. The force may therefore be expressed as F=quxB. If an electric field E is also

present then the total force is the sum of the electrostatic and magnetic forces

F=q(E+u B).

Assume an element of current, as a length dl of wire carrying a current I. The cross-

sectional area of the wire and the density of charge in the wire are considered S and v

respectively. Assume this charge moves with velocity u. Then the charge crossing any

cross-section in one second=uSv=I. Idl= uSdlv=uq. The force on the differential

current element due to magnetic field only can be expressed as

dF=quxB=IdlxB. (56)

For a real circuit L the total magnetic force is given by the appropriate integral of the

forces acting on the individual current elements. Equation (56) is known as Amperes

force law.

The B-field produced by one current element exerts a magnetic force on the other current

carrying element (and vice-versa) placed in B.

Let us consider two current elements I1dl1 and I2dl2 are separated by a distance R as

shown in the following figure:

z

R

aR R I2dl2

I1dl1 r r

y

The magnetic field at the position of the current element I1dl1 due to the current element

I2dl2 is found from eq. (37) as

I 2 dl 2 a R R r r

dB = where a R = = where r and r are the position vectors of

4 R 2

R r r

the current elements I1dl1 and I2dl2, respectively.

Following eq. (56), the force d(dF1) on the differential current element I1dl1, due to the

differential current element I2dl2 is therefore given by

d(dF1)= I1 dl1 x dB

I dl (I 2 dl 2 a R )

d(dF1 ) = 1 1

4R 2

Total force on circuit L1, due to the circuit L2 is then given by

I I ( dl a )

F1 = 1 2 [dl 1 2 2 R ] Newton (57a)

4 L1 L2 R

Using the vector identity A(BC)= B(AC)- C(AB), we obtain from (57a)

I I dl ( dl 2 R ) I1 I 2 dl 1 R dl 1 dl 2

F1 = 1 2 [ 1

4 L1 L2 R 3 R 3 R

] = d l

4 L1 L2

2

R3 L1 L2

As because R/R3= -(1/R), the first integral on the right side of the above equation can

be write as follows with the help of Stocks theorem.

1 1

( ) dl 1 dl 2 = ( ) ds1 dl 2

L1 L2 L2 s1

R R

The above integral is equal to zero as the curl of a gradient of a scalar function is zero.

Thus the magnetic force on circuit 1 due to current in circuit 2 is also given by

I I dl dl

F1 = 1 2 1 3 2 R (57b)

4 L1 L2 R

Example 2.18 A bent wire as shown in the following figure lies in the xy plane and

carries a current I. If the magnetic flux density in the region B=B az, determine the

magnetic force acting on the wire.

Solution: Let F1, F2 and F3 are the magnetic forces act on the sections of the wire from

x=-(a+L) to x=-a, from x=a to x=(a+L), and on the semicircular section of radius a,

respectively. Now

a a

F1 = Idxa

( a+ L )

x Ba z = BIdxa

( a + L )

y = BILa y

(a+ L) ( a+ L)

F2 = Idxa

a

x Ba z = BIdxa

a

y = BILa y

0 0 0 0

and F3 = Idl Ba z = Iada Ba z = IBad (a ) = IBa (cos a x + sin a y )d

= 2IBaa y

F = F1 + F2 + F3 = 2 BI (a + L)a y

Example 2.19 The following figure shows a current-carrying conductor of finite length L

placed at a distance b from another current carrying conductor of infinite extent.

Determine the magnetic force per unit length acting on the finite conductor.

conductor of infinite extent is

I

B = 0 a . Now from (56), the force on element dz is given by

2b

0 I 0 I 2

F = Idl B = Idz ( a z ) a = dza

2b 2b

L/2

I2 I2

F = 0 dza = 0 La

L / 2

2b 2b

0 I 2

Now the force per unit length = a N / m

2b

Example 2.20 A rectangular loop carrying current I2 is placed close to a straight

conductor carrying current I1, as shown in the following figure. Obtain an expression for

the magnetic force experienced by the loop.

Solution: The total magnetic force acting on the loop can be expressed as the sum of the

forces on sections AB, BC, CD, and DA. The incremental segments for sections AB and

CD are along z-axis, therefore, their dot product with the segment dz1 exist. However, the

segment dz2 for sections BC and DA is perpendicular to dz1, thus their dot product with

the segment dz1 is zero do not contribute to the force on the loop.

Let us first determine the magnetic force on section AB. The vector R is given by

R=bay - (z1 z2)az. From (57b), we obtain the force on section AB of the loop is

I1 I 2 L a

[ba y ( z1 z 2 )a z ]

4 z1 = L z2 = a [b 2 + ( z1 z 2 ) 2 ]3 / 2

FAB = dz 1 dz 2

I1 I 2

FAB = [I1 + I 2 ]

4

L a

bdz 2

where I1 =

z1 = L

dz1

z 2 = a [b + ( z1 z 2 ) ]

2 2 3/ 2

ay

L a

( z1 z 2 )dz 2

and I 2 =

z1 = L

dz1

z 2 = a [b + ( z1 z 2 ) ]

2 2 3/ 2

az

To solve I2, let us consider z1- z2= b tan , therefore dz2= -b sec2 d.

a

sin d

L a L

dz1

I 2 = dz1 az = az

z1 = L z2 = a

b z1 = L [b 2

+ ( z 1 z 2 ) 2 1/ 2

]

z2 = a

a L

= ln[(( z1 z 2 ) + b 2 + ( z1 z 2 ) 2 ] az = 0

z2 = a

z1 = L

To solve I1, let us consider now z1- z2= b tan , therefore dz2= -b sec2 d.

a

cos d ( z1 z 2 )dz1

L a L

I1 = dz1 ay = ay

z1 = L b[b + ( z1 z 2 ) ]

2 2 1/ 2

z1 = L z2 = a

b

z2 = a

2

Put again z1- z2= b tan , therefore dz1=b sec d.

L

a a

L

b + ( z1 z 2 )

2 2

I1 = tan secda

z1 = L

y =

b

ay

z2 = a z2 = a

z1 = L

b 2 + ( L + a) 2 b 2 + ( L a) 2

=2 ay

b

I1 I 2 b + ( L + a ) b + ( L a )

2 2 2 2

I1 I 2

FAB = [I1 + I 2 ] = ay

4 2 b

The force FAB is attractive in nature as the term within the bracket is positive.

Let us now determine the magnetic force on section CD. The vector R is given by

R=cay - (z1 z2)az. From (57b), we obtain the force on section CD of the loop is

I1 I 2 L a

[ca y ( z1 z 2 )a z ]

FAB = dz1

4 z1 = L z 2 = a [c 2 + ( z1 z 2 ) 2 ]3 / 2

dz 2

I1 I 2

FAB = [I1 + I 2 ]

4

L a

cdz 2

where I1 =

z1 = L

dz1

z 2 = a [ c + ( z1 z 2 ) ]

2 2 3/ 2

ay

L a

( z1 z 2 )dz 2

and I 2 =

z1 = L

dz1

z 2 = a [ c + ( z1 z 2 ) ]

2 2 3/ 2

az

To solve I2, let us consider z1- z2= c tan , therefore dz2= -c sec2 d.

a

sin d

L a L

dz1

I 2 = dz1 az = az

z1 = L [ c + ( z1 z 2 ) ]

2 2 1/ 2

z1 = L z2 = a

c

z2 = a

a L

= ln[(( z1 z 2 ) + c 2 + ( z1 z 2 ) 2 ] az = 0

z2 = a

z1 = L

To solve I1, let us consider now z1- z2= c tan , therefore dz2= -c sec2 d.

a

cos d ( z1 z 2 )dz1

L a L

I1 = dz1 ay = ay

z1 = L c[c + ( z1 z 2 ) ]

2 2 1/ 2

z1 = L z2 = a

c

z2 = a

2

Put again z1- z2= c tan , therefore dz1=c sec d.

a L

a

L

c + ( z1 z 2 )

2 2

I1 = tan secda

z1 = L

y =

c

ay

z2 = a z2 = a z = L

1

c 2 + ( L + a) 2 c 2 + ( L a) 2

=2 ay

c

I1 I 2 c + ( L + a ) c + ( L a )

2 2 2 2

I1 I 2

FCD = [I1 + I 2 ] = ay

4 2 c

The force FCD is repulsive as the term in the bracket is positive. The total force on the

loop is therefore given by

F = FAB + FCD

I 1 I 2 b 2 + ( L + a ) 2 b 2 + ( L a ) 2 c 2 + ( L + a) 2 c 2 + ( L a) 2

= a y

2 b c

As because c>b, the force on the loop is attractive.

A current carrying conductor when placed in a magnetic field experiences a force that

tends to move the conductor in a direction perpendicular to both the magnetic field and

the conductor. However, if a current carrying coil is placed in the magnetic field, the

magnetic force acting on the coil may impart a rotation to the coil.

The operation of electric motor and moving type of electric meters in facts depends on

this principle.

Consider a current carrying rectangular coil in a magnetic field as shown in Fig. (a).

According to Amperes force law, no force will act on the coil sides bc and da. However,

sides ab and cd experience forces Fab=-ILB ay and Fcd=ILB ay, respectively. Figure (b)

shows the forces acting on the sides ab and cd of the coil. These forces exert a torque that

tends to rotate the coil about its axis. The torque experienced by the side ab is given by

Tab= (axW/2)xFab=(-WILB/2)az and that experienced by the side cd is given by Tcd= (-

axW/2)xFcd=(-WILB/2)az. Therefore, the net torque acting on the coil is T= -WILBaz. In

terms of magnetic dipole moment m=IWL ay, defined as the vector whose magnitude is

the product of the current through a conducting loop and the area of the loop and whose

direction is the direction of the thumb as the fingers of the right hand follow the direction

of the current, the torque is given by T=mxB.

Under the action of this torque, the coil begins to rotate. However, the torque becomes

zero when the plane of the coil is normal to the direction of the magnetic field.

Example 2.21 A circular coil of 200 turns has a mean area of 10 cm2, and the plane of

the coil makes an angle of 300 with the uniform magnetic flux density of 1.2 T, as shown

in the following figure. Determine the torque experienced by the coil if it carries a current

of 59 A.

Solution:

The side view of the coil indicating the direction of the dipole moment is shown in Figure

(b). It lies in the xy-plane and has magnitude of m=NIA=200501010-4=10 Atm2. The

torque experienced by the coil is

T = m B = 10 1.2 sin 60 o a z = 10.39a z N m.

B1 H1

1 dS K

dt dh

2 dS

dL H2

For the normal field components, let us assume a small cylinder with its top face in

medium 1 and bottom face in medium 2. The faces have area dS, and the height of the

cylinder dt is vanishingly small. Appling divergenceless nature of B field to the cylinder,

we have

B ds = ( B1 an1 + B2 a n 2 )dS = (B n1 Bn2 )dS = 0

S

or B n1 = B n2 1 H n1 = 2 H n2 (58)

where an1 and an2 are the unit vectors perpendicularly outwards to the top and bottom

surfaces of the cylinder, respectively.

The boundary condition for the tangential components of magnetostatic field is obtained

from

L

H dl = I

Let us take the rectangular path as the closed loop. If its height h is made infinitesimally

small then the only contribution to the line integral is along the top and bottom edges of

length dL. A sheet of current having a linear current density of K A/m width is also

assumed at the interface of the two media.

Then H dl = H

L

1 (dL) + H 2 (dL) = H 1t dL + H 2t dL = KdL

leads to H2t-H1t=K (59)

The tangential component of H is continuous (K=0) across the boundary of almost all

physical media; it is discontinuous (K0) only when an interface with an ideal perfect

conductor or a superconductor is assumed.

Example 2.22 The magnetic flux density in a finitely conducting cylinder of radius 10

cm and with a relative permeability of 5 is found to vary as 0.2/ a T. If the region

surrounding the cylinder is characterized by free space, determine the magnetic flux

density just outside the cylinder.

Solution: The interface is at =10 cm, the B in the cylinder just beneath the boundary is

given by

0 .2 2

Bc = a = 2a T. H c = a = 318.31a kA/m

0 .1 5 4 10 7

As the magnetic flux density is tangential to the boundary and K=0 for the finite

conductivity of the cylinder, from (59) we obtain

H a = 318.31a kA/m

The energy stored in a steady magnetic field is given by

1 1 1 1

Wm = I 2 L = I = IB dS = I( A) dS

2 2 2 2

1 1

Using stock' s theorem we have Wm = IA dl = A Jdv

2 2

Now A J = A ( H ) = H ( A) ( A H ) = H B ( A H )

1 1 1 1

Wm = A Jdv = [H B ( A H )]dv = H Bdv ( A H )dv

2 2 2 vol 2 vol

1 1

=

2 vol

H Bdv ( A H ) dS

2s

As H varies inversely as square of distance (1/R2), A varies as (1/R) and the surface area

increases as R2, it follows that the second term in Wm is a function of (1/R). In order to

consider all the fields in calculating Wm, we have to consider a very big closed surface

with R, the second term in Wm thus becomes zero.

1 1 1 B2

Wm = H Bdv = H 2 dv = dv (60)

2 vol 2 vol 2 vol

Example 2.23 Calculate the energy stored in the magnetic field of the toroidal winding

discussed in Example 2.11.

Solution: H inside the toroid is

NI

H= a for a b as obtained in Example 2.11. Now from (60) we obtain

2

2 2 2 b 2

NI

b h h

1 1 1 NI 1

Wm = H 2 dv = dddz = dddz

2 vol 2 = a =0 z = 0 2 2 2

=a =0 z = 0

1

= N 2 I 2 h ln(b / a )

4

2.13 Inductance

The self inductance of a current carrying loop is defined as the magnetic flux linkage per

unit current in the loop itself, i.e., L=/I. The self inductance can also be calculated from

Wm=I2L/2.

The mutual inductance between two circuits is the magnetic flux linkage with one circuit

per unit current in the other. If I1 current in circuit 1 makes a flux linkage 12 in circuit 2,

the mutual inductance L12 between circuit 1 and 2 is given by L12= 12/I1. If B1 be the

flux density due to current I1, the flux linkage of circuit 2 is given by

N 2 B 1 ds 2 N 2 ( A 1 ) ds 2

12 = N 2 B 1 ds 2 . Therefore, L12 =

s2 s2

=

s2

I1 I1

N 2 A 1 dl 2

l2

Using Stock' s theorem, we have L12 =

I1

N 1 I 1 dl 1

4 l1 R

Now from (51) we have A1 =

Where N1 and N2 are the no. of turns in circuit 1 and 2, and R is the distance between the

incremental segments dl1 and dl2.

N 2 A 1 dl 2

N 1 N 2 dl 1 dl 2

4 l1 l2

l2

Therefore L12 = = (61)

I1 R

Equation (61) is known as Neumann formula.

Comparing eqs. (57b) and (61), we may prove that the magnitude of the force between

two conductors can be written as

dL

F = I1 I 2 12

dR

(62)

Example 2.24 Self inductance of some typical geometry without considering internal

inductance.

Solution: 1) Self inductance of a long solenoid

In case of long solenoid, the magnitude of B field in the solenoid is B = IN . If the

cross-sectional area of the solenoid is A, then the flux linkage of the coil is

=N=NBA=IN2A. Therefore the self inductance of the solenoid L=/I=N2A Henry.

2) Self inductance of a Toroid of circular cross-section

For a circular path of radius =R, the amperes circuital law gives us

NI

H dl = NI B = 2 R a

If the cross-sectional area of the toroid is A, the flux linkage of the coil is =N=NBA=

IN2A/2R Therefore the self inductance of the toroid L=/I=N2A/2R Henry.

2) Self inductance of a Coaxial cable

dr

Assume the current through the inner

conductor is I. Then the magnetic field dz

at a position meter away from the

centre of inner conductor is

I

H dl = I B = 2 a

The magnetic flux that thus produced

I

crosses the area drdz, is d = ddz

2

The flux linkage per unit length of the cable is

1 D

I

= ddz.

z =0 = d

2

I

= ln( D / d ) and the inductance per unit length is L = ln( D / d ) Henry/m

2 2

2) Per unit length inductance of two-wire transmission line

Assume the transmission line is along the z-direction and one at (x=0, y=0) carries a

current of I amp and the other at (x=0, y=R) carries I amp. The radius of both

conductors is assumed to be d. In this case, the magnetic field B and hence flux crosses

the yz-plane in between the conductors will be additive and is directed along x axis.

R

dy

dz

I I

B = [ + ]a x . The flux linkage per unit length of the line is

2y 2 ( R y )

1 Rd

I I I I

= [ 2y + 2 ( R y ) ]dydz = 2 ln{( R d ) / d 2} = ln{( R d ) / d }.

2

z =0 y = d

Therefore the inductance for unit length of the two wire transmission line is L=(/)

ln{(R-d)/d} (/) ln(R/d) H/m.

Example 2.25 Find the magnetic field at radius r within a solid copper conductor of

radius ro>r carrying current I uniformly distributed over the cross-section. Also determine

the internal inductance of the conductor.

Solution:The current that crosses an area of r2=I r2/ r02. Therefore on applying the

amperes circuital law along the closed circular path of radius r is

r r 2 r

H dl = ( r 0

)2 I B= ( ) Ia =

2r r0 2r02

Ia

r 2 z 2

1 B2 1 0 1 r I 2

Wm = = I

rdrd dz = zJ L= H /m

2v 2 0 0 0 2r0

2

16 8

Example 2.26 Derive an expression for the magnetic field at a point P(x, y) on the x-y

plane due to two long straight parallel wires directed along z-axis and placed at y=d/2 and

y= -d/2. Assume the currents in the wires are opposite to each other.

Solution:

Let us first consider the field due to a single infinitely long conductor which is placed at

y=-d/2 as shown in the following figure:

z

I

dz r1={x2+ (y+d/2)2+ z2}1/2={12+ z2}1/2

-I

z r1

-y y

1

P(x,y)

x

I

Using the result for infinitely long wire we have B = a . It can be expressed in

2

rectangular coordinate system as B = B x a x + B y a y + B z a z where

I I I I I

Bx = a a x = sin , B y = a a y = cos and Bz = a a z = 0

2 2 2 2 2

For this particular problem, the field due to the left conducting wire is

I y + d / 2 I x

Bx = , By = and Bz = 0

21 1 21 1

And the field due to the right conducting wire is

I y + d / 2 I x

Bx = , By = and Bz = 0

21 1 21 1

Example 2.27 Calculate the internal inductance of a thick conducting cylinder of inner

radius a and outer radius b, as shown in the following figure.

Solution:

Assume that a current I be flowing through the

cylindrical tube and having a uniform current

density through out the cross-section. The

current density J is then

I

J= az .

(b a 2 )

2

l s

H will be along direction; if a circular path of radius (a b), we obtain

2

I I ( 2 a 2 )

H 2 = a z dda z =

a 0 (b a ) (b 2 a 2 )

2 2

I ( 2 a 2 ) I ( 2 a 2 )

H = H= a

2 (b 2 a 2 ) 2 (b 2 a 2 )

2 2 b 2 z 2

1 I ( 2 a 2 ) 1 I ( 2 a 2 )

Wm = 2

dv = 2 0 0 dddz

2 v 2 (b a )

2

2 2 (b a )

2

a

2 b 2 z

1 I 3 a4

= 0 0 + dddz

2

2 a

2

2 2 (b a )

2

a

= z

I

2

b4 a4

( a 2

b 2

a 2

+

)

a 4

ln

b

( )

2 (b a )

2 2

4 a

L =

b4 a4( ) (b

a 2 b 2 a 2 + a 4 ln H / m )

2 2

2 (b a )

2

4 a

Example 2.28 Show that the mutual inductance between a straight long conductor and a

coplanar equilateral triangular loop shown in the following figure is

0

(a + b ) ln a + b a

3 b

Solution:

I

600

x

r

600

b a

I

B at a distance r from the straight long conductor is B = a

2 r

a+b

0 I

Therefore, = B ds = xdr

s b

2 r

However, (x/2)=(a+b-r)tan 300 x=(2/3){a-(r-b)}

a +b a +b

2 0 I 1 0 I a + b I a+b

= {a ( r b )}dr = 1dr = 0 (a + b) ln a

3 b 2 r 3 b r 3 b

0 a+b

M = = (a + b) ln a

I 3 b

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