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STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS

Introduction

We will study here the magnetic field associated with a dc current carrying conductor.
The aim of this chapter is to discuss the Biot-Savart law and use it as a basic tool to
calculate the magnetic field set up by any given distribution of currents.

2.1 Magnetic field of a moving point charge

It was found experimentally that the magnetic field (magnetic flux density) B at a
qu sin
distance R away from a charge q moving with velocity u is related by B where
R2
the proportionality constant in SI unit is /4. Here is the permeability of the media
where the field is to be measured. In free space = 0 and has a value of 4x10-7 Hm-1
(Henrys/meter).
u aR
or B = q (36)
4 R2
where B and u are the magnitude of B and u, is the angle between u and R (here R is a
vector pointing from the charge to the point where the field is being found), and aR is the
unit vector acting along R. It is noted that the magnetic field intensity H=B/.

2.2 The Biot-Savart law


In fact, we are often interested not in the field of moving charge, but in that of a current
carrying conducting wire. Biot and Savart proposed a mathematical formula for the field
due to a single current element (a small conducting wire of length dl having current I
through it) as follows.
P

dl I

The geometry is shown in the figure. Suppose cross-sectional area of the wire is A and v
is the density of charge in the wire. Assume these charges move with velocity u. Then the
charge crossing any cross-section in one second=uAv=I. Idl= uAdlv=uq.
Therefore the magnetic field dB at point P in the above figure due to dl length of wire
carrying current I is given by the following relation after substituting qu=Idl or qu=Jdv
(because Idl=IdIA/A=Jdv where dv is the volume of the elemental wire) in equation (36):
I dl a R
dB = (37a)
4 R2
J aR
or dB = dv (37b)
4 R 2
The resultant field is found experimentally to be normal to the plane containing the
vectors dl and R This expression (37) is known as the Biot-Savart law.
The unit of B is weber/m2 or tesla (T)
By the use of a suitable integration, Biot-Savart law can be used to calculate the B-field
resulting from a current carrying conductor of any length L which can be decomposed
into an infinite number of back to back connected current elements:

I dl a R
B=
4 R2
(38a)

J aR
or B =
4 R2
dv (38b)

The direction of magnetic field can also be found by using Right Hand Rule which states
in the following way: Grasp the wire with right hand; if the thumb points in the direction
of current, the fingers will curl around the wire in the direction of B or vice versa.
If the position vectors of the field point P and the source point Q are, respectively, r and
r, we have R in (38) as R=r - r and aR=(r - r)/| r - r|.

Therefore the alternate form of (38) is obtained as


I dl R I dl (r r ) JR J (r r )
B=
4 R 3
=
4 r r
3
or B =
4 R 3
dv =
4 r r
3
dv

Example 2.1 Determine B-field due to an infinitely long, straight current carrying wire.
Solution: We would like to determine B at P a perpendicular distance r from the wire as
shown in the following figure.
Consider dB produced by an current element of length dl at (0, 0, z) and lies along the z
axis and a distance R from P as shown in the figure. Assume the point P (x, y, 0).
a z a z
R = r r = xa x + ya y z a z = a z a z R = 2 + z 2
1/ 2
(and a R = )
2 + z2 (
1/ 2
)
I dl (r r ) I dz a z (a z a z ) I dz a
B =
4 r r
3
=
4 2 + z2
3 / 2
=
4 2 + z 2 3 / 2
LU .
I z
= a
(
4 + z 2 1 / 2
2
) LL

where z=LU and z=LL are the upper and lower position of the wire along z-axis. For an
infinitely long wire the limits of the integral are LU= and LL= - . Hence
I
B= a
2
The resultant B-field, therefore, is of the form of concentric circles around the wire.

Example 2.2 A circular loop of radius a carries a direct current I in the anti-clockwise
direction as shown in the following figure. Calculate H at a point on the z-axis.

Solution:

r=z az, r= a a. Therefore R=r - r=z az a a R3=| r-r|3= (z2+a2)3/2

dl x R= ad a x (z az a a)= azd a + a2 d az

dl (r r ) I 2 2
I azd a 2 d
B =
4 r r
3
= [ 2
4 0 ( z + a 2 ) 3 / 2
a + 0 ( z 2 + a 2 ) 3 / 2 a z ]
The first integration over a closed circular path is zero, as a varies with . It can be
verified mathematically if we replace a by (cos ax + sin ay) in the first integration
and then integrate it w.r.t from 0 to 2. The field is therefore given by
I a2 I
B= a z T . At the centre of the loop B = az T
2 (z + a )
2 2 3/ 2
2a
I a 2
For z>>a B = az T .
2 z3
When the point of observation is far from the loop, the size of the loop is very small in
comparison with the distance z. In this case, we refer to the current carrying loop as a
magnetic dipole. If the magnetic dipole moment is defined as m=Ia2az, B is then given
by
m
B= T
2 z 3

Example 2.3 A sheet of conducting metal carrying a dc current of IS amperes per unit
width in the z-direction as shown in the following figure. Calculate H at a point P(x0, y0,
z0).

Solution:

z
P(x0,y0, z0)
R
dz
z This sheet is assumed be placed at y=0.

y
x
dx
x

r=x0 ax + y0 ay + z0 az, r=xax +zaz. Therefore R= r-r=(x0 x) ax + y0 ay + (z0 z) az


R3={(x0 x)2 + y02 + (z0 z)2}3/2
I dl a R I dl R
d ( dB ) = =
4 R 2
4 R 3
I=ISdx, dl=dz az
dlxR= dz az x {(x0 x) ax + y0 ay + (z0 z) az}= dz {(x0 x) ay - y0 ax}

I S
{( x 0 x )a y y 0 a x }dz dx
B=
4
z = x = {( x0 x ) 2 + y 0 + ( z 0 z ) 2 }3 / 2
2


I S y 0 dz dx I S IS
Bx =
4
z = x = {( x0 x ) 2 + y 0 + ( z 0 z ) 2 }3 / 2
2
=
2
Hx =
2

I S ( x 0 x )dz dx
By =
4
z = x = {( x0 x ) 2 + y 0 + ( z 0 z ) 2 }3 / 2
2
= 0 H y = 0
IS
H = ax
2
It can be shown similarly H=IS ax/2 for P(x0, -y0, z0).
It is very interesting to note that electrostatic field due to sheet charge was also found to
be constant like magnetostatic field, irrespective of the position of the observation point
in front of the sheet.

Example 2.4 Assume that the wire in the following figure has a current I through it in the
direction shown. What is the magnitude of the magnetic field produced at point C due to
the straight segments, (b) the semicircular arc and (c) the entire wire?

x
Solution:
a. Looking at the figure, we see that the straight sections have infinitesimal lengths
that lie parallel or antiparallel to R, the vector that goes from dl to point C. Therefore,
dlaR = 0 in both cases for every dl along the straight lengths.
b. For the semicircular arc, each infinitesimal segment, dl, is an equal distance
R from point C. For each such segment, dlaR is directed into the page (here aR is
antiparallel to a of cylindrical coordinate system) since dl and R are perpendicular at
each point around the arc. Therefore, by the Biot-Savart Law, we have

I dl a R I

Rda (a ) I
B=
4 R 2
=
4
0 R 2
=
4R
az

c. To get the net contribution, just add the results for parts a. and b. of the question

I
B= az
4R

Example 2.5 Consider the circuit shown in following figure. A current I runs through it.
Given the parameters shown in the figure, find the magnetic field at point P.

y
x
Solution:
We can take our result from the previous problem and apply it here directly. The straight
sections yield no contribution to the field at P since they lie along the radial line from
each current element to point P. We also know that a semicircular arc gives a magnetic
field of magnitude B=I/4R. An arc which is less than a semicircle gives a field of
B=I(arc-length)/4R
I arc length
B=
4R R
For our problem, we use the right-hand rule to note that the field due to the arc of radius
b points out of the page while the arc of radius a gives a field that points into the page.
Then, the net field at P
I b I a I (a b)
B= a z = az
4b b 4a a 4ab
Example 2.6 Find the magnetic field at point P for following figure which shows a
current I traveling a long, straight wire length into a semicircular wire of radius R and out
along another long, straight section.

Solution:
Let's consider the current distribution as consisting of 3 parts as labeled in the following
figure.
y

These pieces are the two long, straight sections and the semicircular arc. For pieces 1 and
3, Note that their contributions to the net B field at point P are both out of the page (along
+ve z-axis). In setting up the Biot-Savart integral for infinitesimal lengths of current
elements dx, Note that the setup of the integral will be identical for both, namely, we can
consider the position of dx in both cases w.r.t. the places where the straight sections
combine with the semi-circular arcs. Therefore, the sum of these two contributions is the
same as that of a single infinite length line carrying a current I. Hence
I dl a R
4 R 2
B1 + B 3 = 2
Now dl=dx ax and R=Rcos (-ax)+ Rsin ay= -x ax+r ay, |R|=R=(x2+r2)1/2
I dxa x ( xa x + ra y ) / R I rdxa z

I dl a R
4 R 2 2 0 2 0 R 3
B1 + B 3 = 2 = =
R2

I rdxa z I
B1 + B 3 =
2 0 ( x + r )
2 2 3/ 2
=
2 r
az

To get the contribution from piece 2, the semi-circular arc, look again at figure. In this
case, each current element is a distance r away from point P and the angle between dl, the
infinitesimal arc-length of current, and R, the vector from dl to point P, is 900 because
dl is tangential to the arc and R is along the radial direction. So,
I rda (a ) I

I dl a R I
B2 =
4 r 2
=
4 0 r 2
=
4r 0
da z = a z
4r

Summing all the contributions together yields

I 1 1
B net = B1 + B 2 + B 3 = + a z
2r 2

Example 2.7 Determine the field B at a point P on the axis of a solenoid having uniform
winding with n number of turns per unit length. Assume the current through the winding
is I amps and the radius of the solenoid is r.

Solution: dx

2 r R d r
1
P P
Rd

dx
Assume the point P is R distance away from the small segment dx of the solenoid.
From the right most figure, we have
Rd Rd
= sin dx = and also r/R=sin.
dx sin
nRd InRd
Total number of turns on the length dx= and the total current in dx= .
sin sin
Now the field on the axis of a ring of radius r is given as (see example 2.2)
I r 2
B= a x where R is the distance of the observation point on the axis of the ring
2 R3
from its circumference. Here the direction of the field is assumed in the x-direction,
following the Flemings Right-hand rule, as the direction of current is assumed to be into
the page at the upper conductors.
Therefore, for the segment dx, the field at P is
InRd r 2 In sin d
dB = ax = ax
2 sin R 3
2
Total field at P therefore
2
In sin d In
B= ax = (cos 1 cos 2 )a x
1
2 2
If the solenoid is very long and P is somewhere near the middle, then 1=0 and 2= and
B = Ina x
In
If P at the right end, then 1=/2 and 2= then B = a x . Same result obtains when P
2
at the left end where 1=0 and 2=/2.

2.3 Amperes Circuital Law


Amperes circuital law states that the line integral of the magnetic field intensity H
around a closed path equals the currents enclosed. This statement is given mathematically
by,
H dl = I B dl = I (39)

2.4 The differential (Point) form of Amperes circuital law

By applying Stokes theorem the lest side of (39) can be written as


H dl = ( H) ds
S

or, B dl = ( B) ds
S
ds
dl

Again the total current flowing through ds can be written in terms of a surface integral of
the current density J as
I = J ds
s
Hence Amperes circuital law can be written in the form
H = J or B = J (40)
This result must be true for any choice of surface s or at any point in space and is known
as the differential form of Amperes circuital law.
This equation shows that the magnetic field is not irrotational.
Amperes circuital law is very powerful in determining the magnetic field caused by a
current I when there is a closed path around the current such that the magnitude of the
field is constant over the path.
No free charges can stay with in a good conductor; the currents due to free charges
thus only flow along the surface of a good conductor. The right hand side of eq. (39)
for any closed path inside the conductor becomes zero. It concludes that a static
magnetic field can not exist in a good conductor.

2.5 Derivation of differential (Point) form of Amperes circuital


law

Let us consider an infinitesimal closed path in the x-y plane as shown in the following
figure. The fields along dx and dy remain constant.
z

H=Hx0 ax+ Hy0 ay+ Hz0 az


4 3
dx
1 2
dy

If the magnetic field circulates in the anticlockwise direction as shown, the current will
flow in the +ve z direction. Therefore eq. (39) in this case takes the following form
H dl = I z
1 2 3 4 1
(41)

Now the field that contributes to eq. (41) on the path 1-2 only has its y-component and is
H y dx H y dx
H y = H y0 + ( ) H dl = {H y0 + ( )}dy (42)
x 2 1 2
x 2
The field that contributes to eq. (41) on the path 2-3 only has its x-component and is
H x dy H x dy
H x = H x0 + ( ) H dl = {H x0 + ( )}(-dx) (43)
y 2 2 3
y 2
The field that contributes to eq. (41) on the path 3-4 only has its y-component and is
H y dx H y dx
H y = H y0 ( ) H dl = {H y0 ( )}(-dy) (44)
x 2 3 4
x 2
and the field that contributes to eq. (41) on the path 4-1 only has its x-component and is
H x dy H x dy
H x = H x0 ( ) H dl = {H x0 ( )}dx (45)
y 2 4 1
y 2
The left hand side of eq. (41) therefore is given by
H y H x
H dl = ( x - y )dxdy
H y H x H y H x
( - )dxdy = I z = J z dxdy ( - )a z = J z a z (46)
x y x y

If a closed loop is considered in the z-x plane then we have


H H z
( x - )a y = J y a y (47)
z x
Again if a closed loop is considered in the y-z plane then we have
H H y
( z - )a x = J x a x (48)
y z

On adding eqs. (46)-(48), we have


H z H y H x H z H y H x
( - )a x + ( - )a y + ( - )a z = J x a x + J y a y + J z a z
y z z x x y
H = J (49)

2.6 Divergence of magnetic field Gausss law


As the magnetic pole cannot be isolated, unlike the electric flux the magnetic flux lines
always close upon themselves. Therefore, the total outward magnetic flux through any
closed surface is zero i.e.,
B dS = 0
S
From divergence theorem we have
B dS = ( B)dv .
S v

As the volume has finite value, it reveals that B =0 (50)


To prove eq. (50) mathematically, let us consider the magnetic field due to a long current
carrying conductor, the B field of which is given by
I dl a R
4 R 2
B=

I dl a R
4
Then B = . Now R can be assumed as R=|r-r|=(x-x)ax+(y-y)ay+(z-
R2
z)az, where (x,y,z) and (x, y, z) are respectively the coordinates of the observation and
source points, and r and r are respectively the position vectors of the observation and
source points.
1
( ) = {(x - x) 2 + (y - y) 2 + (z - z) 2 }1 / 2
R
R a
= (x - x){ }3 / 2 a x (y - y){ }3 / 2 a y (z - z){ }3 / 2 a z = 3 = R2
R R
I dl a R I 1
4 4
B = = dl ( )
R2 R
With the help of the vector identity AB=BA - AB the above equation can be
rearrange as
I 1 1
B =
4 [( ) dl dl ( )] . However from vector identity,
R R
1
( )=0. The first term also equals to zero because is function of (x, y, z) and dl is
R
function of (x, y, z).
This proves that B =0.
The divergenceless property of the magnetic field indicates that the magnetic flux lines
close upon themselves. It is thus an example of solenoidal field.

Example 2.8 Six parallel aluminum wires of small, but finite radius lie in the same plane.
The wires are separated by equal distances d, and they carry equal currents I in the same
direction. Find the magnetic field at the center of the first wire. Assume that the current in
each wire is uniformly distributed over its cross section.
Solution:
A schematic layout of the problem is shown below. The magnetic field generated by a
single wire as obtained from Amperes law is equal to
I
B= a
2
where is the distance from the center of the wire. The equation is correct for all points
outside the wire, and can therefore be used to determine the magnetic field generated by
wire 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. The field at the center of wire 1, due to the current flowing in wire
1, can be determined using Ampere's law, and is equal to zero. The total magnetic field at
the center of wire 1 can be found by vector addition of the contributions of each of the six
wires. Since the direction of each of these contributions is the same, the total magnetic
field at the center of wire 1 is equal to
I 1 1 1 1 1
B = B1 + B 2 + B 3 + B 4 + B 5 + B 6 = + + + + a
2 d 2d 3d 4d 5d

Figure: Six parallel wires.


Example 2.9 A coaxial cable consists of a long cylindrical copper wire of radius r1
surrounded by a cylindrical shell of inner radius r2 and outer radius r3 (see Figure below).
The wire and the shell carry equal and opposite currents I uniformly distributed over their
volumes. Find the formulas for the magnetic field in each of the regions r < r1, r1 < r < r2,
r2 < r < r3, and r > r3.

Solution:
The magnetic field lines are circles, centered on the symmetry axis of the coaxial cable.
First consider an integration path for Amperes Circuital Law (ACL) with r < r1. The path
(line) integral of H along this path is equal to
r2I
H dl = r12 Here dl=rda and H=Ha
2
r2I r2I rI
H dl = r12

0
Hrd =
r12
H=
2 r12
a

For r1<r<r2, the ACL becomes


H dl = I Here dl=rda and H=Ha
2
I
H dl = I Hrd = I H =
0
2 r
a

For r2<r<r3, the ACL becomes


r 2 r22 r32 r 2
H dl = I I
r2 r2
3 2
= I 2
r3 r2
Here dl=rda and H=Ha
2

2
r32 r 2 r32 r 2 I r32 r 2
H dl = I
r2 r2
3 2

0
H rd = I
r2 r2
3 2
H =
2 r
2
r
3 r
a
2
2

For r>r3 the ACL becomes


H dl = 0 Here dl=rda and H=Ha
H dl = 0 H = 0a

Example 2.10 A very long hollow conductor of inner radius a and outer radius b is
located along the z axis and carries a current I in the z direction, as shown in the
following figure. If the current distribution is uniform, determine H at any point in space.

Solution: In the region a b, J=I/{(b2-a2)}az.


For a, the current enclosed by any closed path is zero. Therefore, H is also zero as
obtained by ACL.
For a b, the current enclosed by a closed circular path of radius is

I enc = J ds =
I
2
2 a2 ( )
b 2 a 2 =a =0
a d da = I
s ( z z
) b2 a 2 ( )
From ACL, we have
( a ) I 2 2 2

H d l = I enc
l

(b a ) =0
H da = 2 2

H=
( a ) I H = ( a ) I a
2 2 2 2

2 (b a ) 2 (b a )
2 2 2 2

For b, the current enclosed by a closed circular path of any radius is I


Therefore, from ACL, we have
2

H dl = I
l

=0
H da =I

I I
H= H= a
2 2
Example 2.11 A closely spaced winding (toroidal winding) with N turns is wound in the
form of a ring as shown in the following figure (a). The inner and the outer radii of the
ring are a and b, respectively. The height of the ring is h. If the winding carries a current I
amps, find H within the ring and total magnetic flux enclosed by the ring.
Solution:

The current enclosed by any closed circular path of radius where a b is NI.
Therefore, from ACL we obtain
2

H d l = NI
l
H da
=0
=NI

NI NI
H= H= a
2 2
NI b h
NIh
B = a = B d s = B d dza = ln(a / b )
2 s = a z =0 2
Example 2.12 A long cylindrical conductor of radius a carries a current of density J.
Show that the H field, inside a cylindrical cavity whose axis is displaced from that of the
conductor by a distance d, is constant and depends only on the location of the cavity and
not on its radius b.
Solution:
y The cross-sectional view is shown in
the adjacent figure. Assume that the
current is flowing in the z-direction.
We can use superposition theorem
and consider the H field inside the
b a cavity as that due to two long
x cylindrical conductors with radii b
J
and a and current densities J and J,
respectively. Let now find the H field
at a point which is distance away
from the centre of the conductor and
d distance away from the centre of
the cavity.
From ACL H dl = I = J ds , H at the specified position due to J is given by
l s

J J J
2H = 2 J H = H= a H=
2 2 2
Similarly, H at the specified position due to J is given by
J J J
2 H = 2 J H = H= a H=
2 2 2
J J J ( ) J d
Therefore total H field is H = = = where d is a vector
2 2 2 2
directed from the centre of the conductor to that of the cavity.

2.7 Magnetic vector potential

Since B =0 and from the vector identity we know, the divergence of the curl of a
vector is zero, we can define B= A where A be a vector, called the vector magnetic
potential. With the help of the previous section, we have

I dl a R Jdv a R 1 1
B=
4 R 2
=
4 R 2
=
4 Jdv ( ) =
R 4 ( ) Jdv
R
From the vector identity fF=fF + fF we have

1 1
B=
4 [ ( Jdv) - ( ) Jdv]
R R
The second term is zero, because is a function of (x,y,z) and J is a function of (x, y,
z).
1 1
B =
4 ( Jdv) = [ ( Jdv)]
R 4 R
1 1
hence A(r ) =
4 R J (r )dv(r ) =
4 R
I(r )dl (r ) (51)

Let us now consider the divergence of A. We have from eq. (51)


1
A(r ) =
4 J (r )dv(r )
R
Using the vector identity ( fF) = f F + F f the above equation takes the form
1 1
A(r ) =
4 [J (r ) ( ) + J (r )]dv(r )
R R
(52)
The second term of eq.(52) is zero; therefore eq.(52) becomes
1 1
A(r ) =
4 [J (r ) ( )]dv(r ) A(r ) =
R 4 [J (r ) ( )]dv(r )
R
1 1
because = .
R R
1 J (r )
A(r ) =
4 R
[ J (r )
R
)]dv(r ) From continuity equation the 1st term
is zero.
J (r ) J (r )
A(r ) =
4
R
dv(r ) =
4 R
ds(r ) As the surface s(r) must
include all currents, there will be no current through the surface s(r). Therefore
J ds( r ) = 0 A ( r ) = 0 (53)
From Amperes law
H = J B = J A = J
Using the vector identity and eq. (53) we have
2 A = J (54)
Now = B ds = ( A) ds = A dl (55)
Example 2.13 A direct current I flows in a straight wire of length 2L. Find the magnetic
flux density B at a point located at a distance from the wire on the bisecting plane by
determining the vector magnetic potential A first.
Solution: At a height z along the wire above the bisecting plane assume a current
element Idl= Idz az. A is then given by
L Idz I L2 + 2 + L
4 z = L z 2 + 2
A= a = ln az .
4 L2 + 2 L
z

B is obtained from
a a a z
1 I L + + L
2 2
B = A = = Az a = ln a
z 4 L2 + 2 L

A A Az
IL
= a
2 L2 + 2
Example 2.14 A very long straight conductor located along z axis carries a current I in
the z direction. Obtain an expression of A at a point on the bisecting plane of the
conductor. Also determine B at that point.
Solution:
The conductor is assumed to be extending from z=-L to z=L.
The vector R from the current element to the field point is
given by R= a - z az. Now A at P is given by
1
A=
4 R Idl where dl = dz a z and R = 2 + z 2

I
L
dz a z
A =
4 L 2 + z 2
Assume z=tan dz=sec2 d and (2 +z2)1/2=sec

dz 2 + z2 + z
= sec d = ln(sec + tan ) = ln( )
2 + z 2

I 2 + L2 + L
Therefore A = ln az
4 +L L
2 2

2 2 2
But 2 + L2 + L = L + L[1 + ]1 / 2 = L + L[1 + ] = 2L + 2L
L2 2 L2 2L
2 2 2
and 2 + L2 L = L + L[1 + ]1 / 2 = L + L[1 + ]=
L2 2 L2 2L
I 2 L I 2 L
A = ln 2 a z = ln az
4 2
2L
Now as B=A
a a a z a a a z
1 1 I
B = A = = = Az a = a
z z 2
A A Az 0 0 Az
Example 2.15 The inner conductor of a 100m long coaxial cable has a radius of 1cm and
carries a current of 80 A in the z direction as shown in the following figure. The outer
cylinder is very thin and has radius of 10 cm. Calculate the total flux enclosed within the
conductors.

Solution: We can use (55) and A or (55) and B to determine flux in the following way:
= A dl or = B ds
If we use A, then
= A dl = A dl + A dl + A dl + A dl = A dl + A dl as there will be
c1 c2 c3 c4 c1 c3

no contribution from the integration along the paths c2 and c4. Considering the cable length is
long in comparison to the separation between the conductors, we may assume A along c1 and c3
following example 2.13 as
I 2 L I 2 L
A= ln a z and A = ln az
2 a 2 b
=L
L
I 2 L I 2 L L
I 2 L L
I 2 L
= ln a z dza z + ln a z ( dz )(a z ) = ln dz ln dz
=L
2 a L
2 b =L
2 a L
2 b
IL b
= ln
a
Again from
I b L
ddz IL b I
= B ds = = ln because here ds = ddza and B = a
2 =a z = L
a 2
Example 2.16 If B=Baz, compute the magnetic flux passing through a hemisphere of
radius R centered at the origin and bounded by the plane z-0.
Solution:
We know = B ds where ds=r2 sindd. In this problem
B=Baz and r=R.
/ 2 2
= B ds = Ba z R 2 sin dda r

=0 = 0

Now azar=cos
/ 2 2 /2 /2
= Ba z R sin dda r = 2R B sin cosd = R B sin 2d = R B
2 2 2 2

=0 =0 =0 =0

Example 2.17 Two very long identical and parallel conductors carrying 1 kA in opposite
directions are strung on poles 100m apart. If the radius of each conductor is 2cm and the
separation between their axes is 1m, determine the flux passing through the region
bounded by the conductors and the two consecutive poles.
Solution:

Here a=2cm, b=1m, L=100m, I=1kA. Magnetic


flux density B at a distance y from the conductor
at y=0 is
I 1 1
B= + (a x )
2 y b y

= B ds where ds = -dydza x

Therefore
I 1 1
B= + ( a x )
2 y b y

L ba
I 1 1 IL b a
=
z =0 y = a
2
y
+
b y

dydz =

ln
a = 155.67 mWb

2.8 Magnetic force acting on a differential current element:


Amperes force law

A charged particle in motion in a magnetic field of flux density B is found experimentally


to experience a force which is proportional to the charge q, it velocity u, the flux density
B, and to the sine of the angle between the vector u and B. The force acts in the direction
of uxB. The force may therefore be expressed as F=quxB. If an electric field E is also
present then the total force is the sum of the electrostatic and magnetic forces
F=q(E+u B).
Assume an element of current, as a length dl of wire carrying a current I. The cross-
sectional area of the wire and the density of charge in the wire are considered S and v
respectively. Assume this charge moves with velocity u. Then the charge crossing any
cross-section in one second=uSv=I. Idl= uSdlv=uq. The force on the differential
current element due to magnetic field only can be expressed as
dF=quxB=IdlxB. (56)
For a real circuit L the total magnetic force is given by the appropriate integral of the
forces acting on the individual current elements. Equation (56) is known as Amperes
force law.

2.9 Magnetic forces between current carrying elements


The B-field produced by one current element exerts a magnetic force on the other current
carrying element (and vice-versa) placed in B.
Let us consider two current elements I1dl1 and I2dl2 are separated by a distance R as
shown in the following figure:

z
R
aR R I2dl2
I1dl1 r r
y

The magnetic field at the position of the current element I1dl1 due to the current element
I2dl2 is found from eq. (37) as
I 2 dl 2 a R R r r
dB = where a R = = where r and r are the position vectors of
4 R 2
R r r
the current elements I1dl1 and I2dl2, respectively.
Following eq. (56), the force d(dF1) on the differential current element I1dl1, due to the
differential current element I2dl2 is therefore given by
d(dF1)= I1 dl1 x dB
I dl (I 2 dl 2 a R )
d(dF1 ) = 1 1
4R 2
Total force on circuit L1, due to the circuit L2 is then given by
I I ( dl a )
F1 = 1 2 [dl 1 2 2 R ] Newton (57a)
4 L1 L2 R
Using the vector identity A(BC)= B(AC)- C(AB), we obtain from (57a)
I I dl ( dl 2 R ) I1 I 2 dl 1 R dl 1 dl 2
F1 = 1 2 [ 1
4 L1 L2 R 3 R 3 R
] = d l
4 L1 L2
2
R3 L1 L2
As because R/R3= -(1/R), the first integral on the right side of the above equation can
be write as follows with the help of Stocks theorem.
1 1
( ) dl 1 dl 2 = ( ) ds1 dl 2
L1 L2 L2 s1
R R
The above integral is equal to zero as the curl of a gradient of a scalar function is zero.
Thus the magnetic force on circuit 1 due to current in circuit 2 is also given by
I I dl dl
F1 = 1 2 1 3 2 R (57b)
4 L1 L2 R
Example 2.18 A bent wire as shown in the following figure lies in the xy plane and
carries a current I. If the magnetic flux density in the region B=B az, determine the
magnetic force acting on the wire.

Solution: Let F1, F2 and F3 are the magnetic forces act on the sections of the wire from
x=-(a+L) to x=-a, from x=a to x=(a+L), and on the semicircular section of radius a,
respectively. Now
a a
F1 = Idxa
( a+ L )
x Ba z = BIdxa
( a + L )
y = BILa y

(a+ L) ( a+ L)

F2 = Idxa
a
x Ba z = BIdxa
a
y = BILa y

0 0 0 0
and F3 = Idl Ba z = Iada Ba z = IBad (a ) = IBa (cos a x + sin a y )d

= 2IBaa y
F = F1 + F2 + F3 = 2 BI (a + L)a y
Example 2.19 The following figure shows a current-carrying conductor of finite length L
placed at a distance b from another current carrying conductor of infinite extent.
Determine the magnetic force per unit length acting on the finite conductor.

Solution: From example 2.1 we have B at a distance b from a current carrying


conductor of infinite extent is
I
B = 0 a . Now from (56), the force on element dz is given by
2b
0 I 0 I 2
F = Idl B = Idz ( a z ) a = dza
2b 2b
L/2
I2 I2
F = 0 dza = 0 La
L / 2
2b 2b
0 I 2
Now the force per unit length = a N / m
2b
Example 2.20 A rectangular loop carrying current I2 is placed close to a straight
conductor carrying current I1, as shown in the following figure. Obtain an expression for
the magnetic force experienced by the loop.

Solution: The total magnetic force acting on the loop can be expressed as the sum of the
forces on sections AB, BC, CD, and DA. The incremental segments for sections AB and
CD are along z-axis, therefore, their dot product with the segment dz1 exist. However, the
segment dz2 for sections BC and DA is perpendicular to dz1, thus their dot product with
the segment dz1 is zero do not contribute to the force on the loop.
Let us first determine the magnetic force on section AB. The vector R is given by
R=bay - (z1 z2)az. From (57b), we obtain the force on section AB of the loop is
I1 I 2 L a
[ba y ( z1 z 2 )a z ]
4 z1 = L z2 = a [b 2 + ( z1 z 2 ) 2 ]3 / 2
FAB = dz 1 dz 2

I1 I 2
FAB = [I1 + I 2 ]
4
L a
bdz 2
where I1 =
z1 = L
dz1
z 2 = a [b + ( z1 z 2 ) ]
2 2 3/ 2
ay

L a
( z1 z 2 )dz 2
and I 2 =
z1 = L
dz1
z 2 = a [b + ( z1 z 2 ) ]
2 2 3/ 2
az

To solve I2, let us consider z1- z2= b tan , therefore dz2= -b sec2 d.
a
sin d
L a L
dz1
I 2 = dz1 az = az
z1 = L z2 = a
b z1 = L [b 2
+ ( z 1 z 2 ) 2 1/ 2
]
z2 = a

a L

= ln[(( z1 z 2 ) + b 2 + ( z1 z 2 ) 2 ] az = 0
z2 = a
z1 = L

To solve I1, let us consider now z1- z2= b tan , therefore dz2= -b sec2 d.
a
cos d ( z1 z 2 )dz1
L a L
I1 = dz1 ay = ay
z1 = L b[b + ( z1 z 2 ) ]
2 2 1/ 2
z1 = L z2 = a
b
z2 = a
2
Put again z1- z2= b tan , therefore dz1=b sec d.
L
a a
L
b + ( z1 z 2 )
2 2

I1 = tan secda
z1 = L
y =
b
ay
z2 = a z2 = a
z1 = L

b 2 + ( L + a) 2 b 2 + ( L a) 2
=2 ay
b
I1 I 2 b + ( L + a ) b + ( L a )
2 2 2 2
I1 I 2
FAB = [I1 + I 2 ] = ay
4 2 b

The force FAB is attractive in nature as the term within the bracket is positive.
Let us now determine the magnetic force on section CD. The vector R is given by
R=cay - (z1 z2)az. From (57b), we obtain the force on section CD of the loop is
I1 I 2 L a
[ca y ( z1 z 2 )a z ]
FAB = dz1
4 z1 = L z 2 = a [c 2 + ( z1 z 2 ) 2 ]3 / 2
dz 2

I1 I 2
FAB = [I1 + I 2 ]
4
L a
cdz 2
where I1 =
z1 = L
dz1
z 2 = a [ c + ( z1 z 2 ) ]
2 2 3/ 2
ay

L a
( z1 z 2 )dz 2
and I 2 =
z1 = L
dz1
z 2 = a [ c + ( z1 z 2 ) ]
2 2 3/ 2
az

To solve I2, let us consider z1- z2= c tan , therefore dz2= -c sec2 d.
a
sin d
L a L
dz1
I 2 = dz1 az = az
z1 = L [ c + ( z1 z 2 ) ]
2 2 1/ 2
z1 = L z2 = a
c
z2 = a

a L

= ln[(( z1 z 2 ) + c 2 + ( z1 z 2 ) 2 ] az = 0
z2 = a
z1 = L

To solve I1, let us consider now z1- z2= c tan , therefore dz2= -c sec2 d.
a
cos d ( z1 z 2 )dz1
L a L
I1 = dz1 ay = ay
z1 = L c[c + ( z1 z 2 ) ]
2 2 1/ 2
z1 = L z2 = a
c
z2 = a
2
Put again z1- z2= c tan , therefore dz1=c sec d.
a L
a
L
c + ( z1 z 2 )
2 2

I1 = tan secda
z1 = L
y =
c
ay
z2 = a z2 = a z = L
1

c 2 + ( L + a) 2 c 2 + ( L a) 2
=2 ay
c
I1 I 2 c + ( L + a ) c + ( L a )
2 2 2 2
I1 I 2
FCD = [I1 + I 2 ] = ay
4 2 c

The force FCD is repulsive as the term in the bracket is positive. The total force on the
loop is therefore given by
F = FAB + FCD
I 1 I 2 b 2 + ( L + a ) 2 b 2 + ( L a ) 2 c 2 + ( L + a) 2 c 2 + ( L a) 2
= a y
2 b c

As because c>b, the force on the loop is attractive.

2.10 Magnetic torque


A current carrying conductor when placed in a magnetic field experiences a force that
tends to move the conductor in a direction perpendicular to both the magnetic field and
the conductor. However, if a current carrying coil is placed in the magnetic field, the
magnetic force acting on the coil may impart a rotation to the coil.

The operation of electric motor and moving type of electric meters in facts depends on
this principle.
Consider a current carrying rectangular coil in a magnetic field as shown in Fig. (a).
According to Amperes force law, no force will act on the coil sides bc and da. However,
sides ab and cd experience forces Fab=-ILB ay and Fcd=ILB ay, respectively. Figure (b)
shows the forces acting on the sides ab and cd of the coil. These forces exert a torque that
tends to rotate the coil about its axis. The torque experienced by the side ab is given by
Tab= (axW/2)xFab=(-WILB/2)az and that experienced by the side cd is given by Tcd= (-
axW/2)xFcd=(-WILB/2)az. Therefore, the net torque acting on the coil is T= -WILBaz. In
terms of magnetic dipole moment m=IWL ay, defined as the vector whose magnitude is
the product of the current through a conducting loop and the area of the loop and whose
direction is the direction of the thumb as the fingers of the right hand follow the direction
of the current, the torque is given by T=mxB.
Under the action of this torque, the coil begins to rotate. However, the torque becomes
zero when the plane of the coil is normal to the direction of the magnetic field.

Example 2.21 A circular coil of 200 turns has a mean area of 10 cm2, and the plane of
the coil makes an angle of 300 with the uniform magnetic flux density of 1.2 T, as shown
in the following figure. Determine the torque experienced by the coil if it carries a current
of 59 A.
Solution:

Coin in B field Side view of the coil


The side view of the coil indicating the direction of the dipole moment is shown in Figure
(b). It lies in the xy-plane and has magnitude of m=NIA=200501010-4=10 Atm2. The
torque experienced by the coil is
T = m B = 10 1.2 sin 60 o a z = 10.39a z N m.

2.11 Boundary condition for static magnetic field

B1 H1
1 dS K
dt dh
2 dS
dL H2
For the normal field components, let us assume a small cylinder with its top face in
medium 1 and bottom face in medium 2. The faces have area dS, and the height of the
cylinder dt is vanishingly small. Appling divergenceless nature of B field to the cylinder,
we have
B ds = ( B1 an1 + B2 a n 2 )dS = (B n1 Bn2 )dS = 0
S

or B n1 = B n2 1 H n1 = 2 H n2 (58)
where an1 and an2 are the unit vectors perpendicularly outwards to the top and bottom
surfaces of the cylinder, respectively.
The boundary condition for the tangential components of magnetostatic field is obtained
from

L
H dl = I

Let us take the rectangular path as the closed loop. If its height h is made infinitesimally
small then the only contribution to the line integral is along the top and bottom edges of
length dL. A sheet of current having a linear current density of K A/m width is also
assumed at the interface of the two media.

Then H dl = H
L
1 (dL) + H 2 (dL) = H 1t dL + H 2t dL = KdL
leads to H2t-H1t=K (59)
The tangential component of H is continuous (K=0) across the boundary of almost all
physical media; it is discontinuous (K0) only when an interface with an ideal perfect
conductor or a superconductor is assumed.

Example 2.22 The magnetic flux density in a finitely conducting cylinder of radius 10
cm and with a relative permeability of 5 is found to vary as 0.2/ a T. If the region
surrounding the cylinder is characterized by free space, determine the magnetic flux
density just outside the cylinder.
Solution: The interface is at =10 cm, the B in the cylinder just beneath the boundary is
given by
0 .2 2
Bc = a = 2a T. H c = a = 318.31a kA/m
0 .1 5 4 10 7
As the magnetic flux density is tangential to the boundary and K=0 for the finite
conductivity of the cylinder, from (59) we obtain
H a = 318.31a kA/m

2.12 Energy stored in static magnetic field and inductance


The energy stored in a steady magnetic field is given by
1 1 1 1
Wm = I 2 L = I = IB dS = I( A) dS
2 2 2 2
1 1
Using stock' s theorem we have Wm = IA dl = A Jdv
2 2
Now A J = A ( H ) = H ( A) ( A H ) = H B ( A H )
1 1 1 1
Wm = A Jdv = [H B ( A H )]dv = H Bdv ( A H )dv
2 2 2 vol 2 vol
1 1
=
2 vol
H Bdv ( A H ) dS
2s
As H varies inversely as square of distance (1/R2), A varies as (1/R) and the surface area
increases as R2, it follows that the second term in Wm is a function of (1/R). In order to
consider all the fields in calculating Wm, we have to consider a very big closed surface
with R, the second term in Wm thus becomes zero.
1 1 1 B2
Wm = H Bdv = H 2 dv = dv (60)
2 vol 2 vol 2 vol
Example 2.23 Calculate the energy stored in the magnetic field of the toroidal winding
discussed in Example 2.11.
Solution: H inside the toroid is
NI
H= a for a b as obtained in Example 2.11. Now from (60) we obtain
2
2 2 2 b 2
NI
b h h
1 1 1 NI 1
Wm = H 2 dv = dddz = dddz
2 vol 2 = a =0 z = 0 2 2 2
=a =0 z = 0

1
= N 2 I 2 h ln(b / a )
4
2.13 Inductance

The self inductance of a current carrying loop is defined as the magnetic flux linkage per
unit current in the loop itself, i.e., L=/I. The self inductance can also be calculated from
Wm=I2L/2.
The mutual inductance between two circuits is the magnetic flux linkage with one circuit
per unit current in the other. If I1 current in circuit 1 makes a flux linkage 12 in circuit 2,
the mutual inductance L12 between circuit 1 and 2 is given by L12= 12/I1. If B1 be the
flux density due to current I1, the flux linkage of circuit 2 is given by
N 2 B 1 ds 2 N 2 ( A 1 ) ds 2
12 = N 2 B 1 ds 2 . Therefore, L12 =
s2 s2
=
s2
I1 I1
N 2 A 1 dl 2
l2
Using Stock' s theorem, we have L12 =
I1
N 1 I 1 dl 1
4 l1 R
Now from (51) we have A1 =

Where N1 and N2 are the no. of turns in circuit 1 and 2, and R is the distance between the
incremental segments dl1 and dl2.
N 2 A 1 dl 2
N 1 N 2 dl 1 dl 2
4 l1 l2
l2
Therefore L12 = = (61)
I1 R
Equation (61) is known as Neumann formula.
Comparing eqs. (57b) and (61), we may prove that the magnitude of the force between
two conductors can be written as
dL
F = I1 I 2 12
dR
(62)
Example 2.24 Self inductance of some typical geometry without considering internal
inductance.
Solution: 1) Self inductance of a long solenoid
In case of long solenoid, the magnitude of B field in the solenoid is B = IN . If the
cross-sectional area of the solenoid is A, then the flux linkage of the coil is
=N=NBA=IN2A. Therefore the self inductance of the solenoid L=/I=N2A Henry.
2) Self inductance of a Toroid of circular cross-section

For a circular path of radius =R, the amperes circuital law gives us
NI
H dl = NI B = 2 R a
If the cross-sectional area of the toroid is A, the flux linkage of the coil is =N=NBA=
IN2A/2R Therefore the self inductance of the toroid L=/I=N2A/2R Henry.
2) Self inductance of a Coaxial cable
dr
Assume the current through the inner
conductor is I. Then the magnetic field dz
at a position meter away from the
centre of inner conductor is
I
H dl = I B = 2 a
The magnetic flux that thus produced
I
crosses the area drdz, is d = ddz
2
The flux linkage per unit length of the cable is
1 D
I
= ddz.
z =0 = d
2
I
= ln( D / d ) and the inductance per unit length is L = ln( D / d ) Henry/m
2 2
2) Per unit length inductance of two-wire transmission line
Assume the transmission line is along the z-direction and one at (x=0, y=0) carries a
current of I amp and the other at (x=0, y=R) carries I amp. The radius of both
conductors is assumed to be d. In this case, the magnetic field B and hence flux crosses
the yz-plane in between the conductors will be additive and is directed along x axis.
R

dy

dz

I I
B = [ + ]a x . The flux linkage per unit length of the line is
2y 2 ( R y )
1 Rd
I I I I
= [ 2y + 2 ( R y ) ]dydz = 2 ln{( R d ) / d 2} = ln{( R d ) / d }.
2

z =0 y = d

Therefore the inductance for unit length of the two wire transmission line is L=(/)
ln{(R-d)/d} (/) ln(R/d) H/m.
Example 2.25 Find the magnetic field at radius r within a solid copper conductor of
radius ro>r carrying current I uniformly distributed over the cross-section. Also determine
the internal inductance of the conductor.
Solution:The current that crosses an area of r2=I r2/ r02. Therefore on applying the
amperes circuital law along the closed circular path of radius r is
r r 2 r
H dl = ( r 0
)2 I B= ( ) Ia =
2r r0 2r02
Ia

Now the storage magnetic field is obtained as


r 2 z 2
1 B2 1 0 1 r I 2
Wm = = I
rdrd dz = zJ L= H /m
2v 2 0 0 0 2r0
2
16 8
Example 2.26 Derive an expression for the magnetic field at a point P(x, y) on the x-y
plane due to two long straight parallel wires directed along z-axis and placed at y=d/2 and
y= -d/2. Assume the currents in the wires are opposite to each other.
Solution:
Let us first consider the field due to a single infinitely long conductor which is placed at
y=-d/2 as shown in the following figure:
z

I
dz r1={x2+ (y+d/2)2+ z2}1/2={12+ z2}1/2
-I
z r1
-y y
1
P(x,y)

x
I
Using the result for infinitely long wire we have B = a . It can be expressed in
2
rectangular coordinate system as B = B x a x + B y a y + B z a z where
I I I I I
Bx = a a x = sin , B y = a a y = cos and Bz = a a z = 0
2 2 2 2 2
For this particular problem, the field due to the left conducting wire is
I y + d / 2 I x
Bx = , By = and Bz = 0
21 1 21 1
And the field due to the right conducting wire is
I y + d / 2 I x
Bx = , By = and Bz = 0
21 1 21 1
Example 2.27 Calculate the internal inductance of a thick conducting cylinder of inner
radius a and outer radius b, as shown in the following figure.
Solution:
Assume that a current I be flowing through the
cylindrical tube and having a uniform current
density through out the cross-section. The
current density J is then
I
J= az .
(b a 2 )
2

From ACL, we obtain H dl = I = J ds


l s
H will be along direction; if a circular path of radius (a b), we obtain
2
I I ( 2 a 2 )
H 2 = a z dda z =
a 0 (b a ) (b 2 a 2 )
2 2

I ( 2 a 2 ) I ( 2 a 2 )
H = H= a
2 (b 2 a 2 ) 2 (b 2 a 2 )
2 2 b 2 z 2
1 I ( 2 a 2 ) 1 I ( 2 a 2 )
Wm = 2
dv = 2 0 0 dddz
2 v 2 (b a )
2
2 2 (b a )
2
a
2 b 2 z
1 I 3 a4
= 0 0 + dddz
2
2 a
2
2 2 (b a )
2
a


= z
I
2
b4 a4

( a 2
b 2
a 2
+
)
a 4
ln
b
( )

2 (b a )
2 2
4 a

L =
b4 a4( ) (b
a 2 b 2 a 2 + a 4 ln H / m )
2 2
2 (b a )
2
4 a

Example 2.28 Show that the mutual inductance between a straight long conductor and a
coplanar equilateral triangular loop shown in the following figure is
0
(a + b ) ln a + b a
3 b
Solution:
I

600

x
r

600
b a

I
B at a distance r from the straight long conductor is B = a
2 r
a+b
0 I
Therefore, = B ds = xdr
s b
2 r
However, (x/2)=(a+b-r)tan 300 x=(2/3){a-(r-b)}
a +b a +b
2 0 I 1 0 I a + b I a+b
= {a ( r b )}dr = 1dr = 0 (a + b) ln a
3 b 2 r 3 b r 3 b
0 a+b
M = = (a + b) ln a
I 3 b