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October 10, 2017 Cell Same as in tissue Cytology/cell
B.Animal Systems and Processes EPITHELIAL TISSUE:
1. Support and protection - Separates outside from inside environment
2. Movement i. Gastrointestinal tract: outside
3. Digestion and nutrition - Covers the outside of the body and lines organs and
4. Gas exchange
5. Transport/Circulation cavities within the body
6. Excretion and Osmoregulation - Compact; occurs in sheets of tightly packed cells
7. Regulatory Mechanisms - Little intercellular substance
Source: Hickmans Principles of Biology & Campbell - Polarized
__________________________________________ - Cells are closely joined
FORM AND FUNCTION: a. Apical or free surface
Anatomy: the study of the biological form of an i. Is exposed to air or fluid
organism ii. Structures on free surfaces: microvilli, cilia,
Physiology: the study of the biological functions an flagella
organism performs b. Basal surface
The comparative study of animals reveals that form i. Where the cells at the base of the barrier
and function are closely correlated are attached (where theyre grounded)
Life is characterized by hierarchical levels of ii. Also called basal lamina and basement
organization, each with emergent properties. membrane
o Review: Atoms Molecule Cell Tissue A. Animals have 3 main types of intercellular links:
Organ Body/Organ System a. Tight junctions:
Organism Population Community a. prevents mixing between outside and inside
Ecosystem Biosphere environments
b. membranes of adjacent cells are fused,
LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION IN ORGANISMAL COMPLEXITY: forming continuous belts around cells
1) Protoplasmic grade of organization (simplest form of c. prevent leakage of extracellular fluid
life) across a layer of epithelial cells
a. Unicellular organisms b. Gap junctions
b. All life functions are confined within the a. Communication junctions
b. Making cells synchronized
boundaries of a single cell
c. Cytoplasmic channels
c. Protoplasm is differentiated into organelles
d. Eukaryotes vs. Prokaryotes:
a. For anchorage
i. Membrane-bound organelles: Eukaryotes
b. made of intermediate filaments
1. Single-celled eukaryotes:
B. Types according to layering:
a. Simple epithelium: made of a single layer of cells
ii. Non-membrane bound: Prokaryotes
b. Stratified epithelium: made up of many layers of
2) Cellular grade of organization:
a. Aggregation of cells that are functionally
c. Pseudostratified epithelium: made up of a single
differentiated (cells can have different
layer of cells but appears stratified
C. Types according to shape:
b. A division of labor is evident
a. Cuboidal: Like dice
3) Cell-tissue grade of organization:
b. Squamous: flat like tiles
a. Aggregation of similar cells into definite
c. Columnar: like bricks on end (absorptive)
patterns of layers, thus becoming a tissue
D. Types:
4) Tissue-organ grade of organization
A. Simple squamous epithelium
a. An aggregation of tissues into organs
B. Stratified squamous epithelium
5) Organ-system grade of organization
a. Consists of 2 to many layers of cells
a. Organs work together to perform some
b. Adapted to withstand mild
mechanical abrasion
b. Systems are associated with basic body
c. Basal layers of cells undergo
continuous mitotic divisions
d. Lines the oral cavity, esophagus, anal
Structural Types/Kinds/Examples Field of
canal, vagina of mammals, skin
Unit study C. Simple cuboidal epithelium
Tissue A. Somatic B. Reproductive Histology a. Short, boxlike cells
- Epithelial - Sperm b. Usually lines small ducts and tubules
- Connective - Egg/oocyte
B. Muscular
c. May have active secretory and A. Fibrous connective tissue
absorptive functions a. Tendons and ligaments
d. Glandular epithelium b. Amorphous ground substance (ECM)
D. Simple columnar epithelium i. Glycosaminoglycan such as chondroitin
a. Like cuboidal epithelium but cells are sulfate
taller ii. Permit diffusion of nutrients, substances,
b. Found on highly absorptive surfaces water, gases, and wastes
such as intestinal tract iii. Important in areas where small blood
E. Stratified columnar epithelium vessels are absent
a. Consists of at least two layers of cells B. Loose connective tissue
b. Found along some areas of the a. Binds epithelia to underlying tissues
anorectal region and salivary duct b. AKA Areolar tissue
F. Pseudostratified epithelium c. Functions as packing materials, holding
a. Consists of a single layer of cells organs in place
varying in height and position of their d. Has all three fiber types
nuclei e. Two cell types predominate in its fibrous
b. In many vertebrates, forms a mucous mesh
membrane that lines portions of the i. Fibroblasts
respiratory tract ii. Microphages
E. Special types of epithelial tissue C. Adipose Tissue
a. Transitional epithelium: a. Specialized form of loose connective tissues
a. A type of pseudostratified epithelium that store fat in adipose cells
b. Specialized to accommodate great b. Pads and insulates the body and stores fuel
stretching as fat molecules
c. Found in the urinary tract and c. Each adipose cells contains a large fat
bladder droplet that swells when fat is stored and
b. Glandular epithelia: shrinks when the body uses fat as fuel
a. Absorb or secrete chemical solutions D. Cartilage:
b. Types based on how products are a. Has an abundance of collagenous fibers
released: embedded in a rubbery matrix made of a
i. Exocrine (uni/multicellular): substance called chondroitin sulfate, a
secretes into outside protein-carbohydrate complex
environment b. Chondrocytes secrete collagen and
1. Ex: salivary glands chondroitin sulfate
ii. Endocrine: secretion into c. Types:
blood (inside environment) i. Hyaline cartilage
1. hormones 1. Bluish white, translucent, and
iii. Mixed (e.g. pancreas) homogenous
F. Special terms of some epithelial tissues: 2. Has significant proportion of
a. Mesothelium: squamous cells lining serous cavities collagen fibers
such as peritoneal and pleural cavities and lining 3. Covers joint surfaces and rib
of visceral organs (somewhat in the middle of outside and ends
inside) 4. Present in nose, larynx, and
b. Endothelium: lining of blood and lymph vessels trachea
(separates outside from inside like epithelium)
5. Skeletal cartilage in the nose,
larynx, and trachea
October 12, 2017 6. Skeletal cartilage in the embryos
CONNECTIVE TISSUE: of all vertebrates
- Mechanical support 7. Skeletal cartilage of adult sharks
- Bind structures to preserve integrity of organization and rays
- Exchange of metabolites between blood and tissue ii. Elastic cartilage
- Paucity of cells; more intracellular substance (fibers 1. Contains fine collagenous fibers
and ground substance) and many elastic fibers
- The intercellular substance or extracellular matrix 2. External ears, Eustachian tube
generally consists of a web of fibers embedded in a (attaches ears to pharynx),
uniform foundation that may be liquid, jellylike, or epiglottis (covers
solid windpipe/glottis)
- Types of cells: 3. Maintains a structures shape
a. Fixed while allowing great flexibility
b. Wandering iii. Fibrocartilage
- Major types of connective tissues in vertebrates
Nuclei stain very
1. Contains many large collagenous basophil 0.5- faintly, often
Stain blue Infla-
fibers 2 obscured by with basic mmatory
granules; U or J- dye reaction
2. Intervertebral disks, pubic shaped

symphysis, disks of knee joint Two main phagocytic cells in animals: macrophages
and pads between femur and and neutrophil (aka microphage)
tibia Agranulocyte
3. Absorbs compression shock Type % Nucleus Cytoplasmi Other
c granule/ features
E. Bone:
Lymphocyt 20 Large, Narrow Smallest;
a. The skeleton supporting most vertebrates e - somewhat rim of antibody
b. Mineralized connective tissue 25 spherical cytoplasm production
c. Calcium phosphate with some
d. Osteoblasts (osteocytes: general;
s and only
osteoblasts: specific cells that produce bone) slightly
are cells that deposit a matric of collagen concentric
e. Then, calcium, magnesium, and phosphate position
ions combine and harden within the matrix Monocyte 3- Nuclei vary Large Biggest;
8 slightly, amount of becomes
into the mineral hydroxyapatite indented cytoplasm macro-
f. the combination of hard mineral and flexible ovals to Phage
collagen makes bone harder than cartilage horse-shoe (monocyte
without being brittle shaped still in
structure blood;
g. Osteoclasts are cells that destroys bone; macrophag
bone remodelling is a constant process in e in Loose
humans that allows changes in bone connective
structure tissue)
F. Blood:
o Made of:
i. Plasma (55%): matrix consisting of water,
- Composed of long cells called muscle fibers that are
salts, and a variety of dissolved proteins
capable of contracting when stimulated by nerve
ii. Formed elements (45%): erythrocytes,
leukocytes and cell fragments called
- Most abundant tissue in most animals
platelets (thrombocytes)
- Muscle contraction accounts for most for the energy-
consuming cellular work
1. Water (90% of plasma)
A. Skeletal muscle
2. Dissolved solids
Voluntary muscles
3. Gases (O2, CO2, N)
a. Proteins Has cylindrical and striated cells with multiple
Fibrinogen (synth. by liver) nuclei (syncytial)
Albumin (synth. by liver) Occurs in muscles attached to skeleton
Globulin Single innervation by motor nerve
b. Supplies for cells (glucose, fats and fat- Functions in voluntary movement of body
like substances, amino acids, salts) Structure of a skeletal muscle:
Formed Elements: o Muscle fiber: smallest; innermost
o produced by bone marrow o Endomysium: covers muscle fiber
1. White blood cells: fight infection o Muscle fascicle: combine multiple
2. Red blood cells: carry oxygen muscle fibers
3. Platelets: control clotting o Perimysium: around muscle fascicle
Types of White Blood Cells: o Epimysium: join muscle fascicles
Granulocyte together and is covered by this
Type % Nucleus Cytoplasmic Other B. Smooth muscle:
granule/ features Spindle-shaped cells, each with a single nucleus
Cells have no striations
Neutrophil 60- 2-5 or more Fine; dont phagocytic
75 thin lobes, stain well at Double innervation by parasympathetic (flight
connected neutral pH ex: gastrointestinal; increases activity) and
by slender with either sympathetic (fight ex: pupil) nervous system;
chromatic acid or basic
threads stain
involuntary (autonomic)
eosinophil 2-5 2 oval lobes Granules, Against Blood vessel walls and walls of the digestive tract
linked by coarse; stain helminthic Functions in movement of substances in lumens
thread-like pinkish red (parasitic) (body cavity; gastrointestinal tract) of body
chromatin with acid infections
stain C. Cardiac muscle:
Has cylindrical but branching striated cells, each o Except in jawless vertebrates, surrounded or
with a single nucleus replaced by the back bone during embryonic
Double innervation by parasympathetic and development
sympathetic nervous system; involuntary o Equivalent to our spinal column (cord
Occurs in the wall of the heart nervous; found inside the column main
Functions in the pumping of blood bone [spine])
2) Cartilage
NERVOUS TISSUE: o Major skeletal element of some vertebrates
- Irritability and conductivity; senses stimuli and o Soft, pliable tissue that resists compression
transmits signals from one part of the animal to o Jawless vertebrates and elasmobranchs have
another purely cartilaginous skeletons
- Neuron: functional unit of nervous tissue; consists of a o Lighter structural support
cell body, dendrites and axons 3) Bone
o Dendrites: (can only receive) transmits o Living tissue having significant deposits of
nerve impulses from their tips toward the calcium salts in the extracellular matrix
rest of the axon o Bones store calcium and phosphate ions
o Axon: (can only send) transmits impulses o Certain bones produce red blood cells
towards another neuron or toward an BONE DEVELOPMENT
effector, such as a muscle cell o Endochondral or replacement bone:
- Types of neurons: any bone that develops in and
o Sensory (afferent: ascending pathway; replaces cartilage, i.e. long bone
papunta pa lang) o Intramembranous bone:
o Motor (efferent: descending pathway; from any bone that develops without any
the brain to other parts) associated cartilage, i.e. parietal and
o Interneuron frontal bones of the face and patella
- Nerve structure: BONE DENSITY
o Endoneurium o Cancellous or spongy bone
o Perineurium Bone composed of thin intersecting
o Fasciculus lamellae, usually found internal to
o Epineurium compact bone
o Compact bone: bone substance thats dense
o Oriented longitudinally
You missed stuff!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! o Spongy bone: usually in middle
EXOSKELETON: o Compact bone: periphery
- External skeleton o Articular cartilage: cushion between bones
- Molluscs composed of calcium carbonate o Epiphysis:
- Arthropods composed of chitin Proximal epiphysis
- Protection and locomotion Metaphysis
- Simple animals remain to use exoskeletons Diaphysis
Distal epiphysis
ENDOSKELETON: o Periosteum: covering of compact bone
- Internal skeleton o Endosteum: covering of spongy bone
- Echinoderms and vertebrates STRUCTRURE OF COMPACT BONE
- Mineralized bone and cartilage o Haversian system:
- Support, protection, and reservoir of calcium and how your bone develops
phosphorous center to periphery circular
- Grows as the animal grows Osteocytes add more layers of bone
o Does not limit space for internal organs o Lacuna: space where osteocyte is located
o Supports greater weight o Canaliculi: communication between
1) Notochord o Osteoblasts
o Semirigid supportive axial rod of Deposit bone matrix
protochordates and all vertebrate larvae and Become osteocytes once
embryos surrounded by bone matrix
o Composed of large vacuolated cells o Osteoclasts
surrounded by elastic and fibrous sheaths Break down bone
o Stiffening device Remove worn out cells
Deposit calcium in blood
Work with osteoblasts to heal Post-anal tail for phyllochordata
broken bones so we once had tails
o Role of hormones: o Sternum
Somatotropin: growth hormone o Rib cage:
(bone growth or elongation) Protects heart and lungs
Calcitonin: decrease calcium levels assists breathing
in blood and increase in bone Support by the thoracic vertebrae
Parathyroid hormone: secreted by Posteriorly attached to vertebral
parathyroid gland; increase calcium column
in blood and decrease in bone Anteriorly attached to sternum
(check slides for details) previous rib
1) An ossification center (where it starts) True rib: attached to
2) Bone matrix (osteoid) is secreted within the sternum
fibrous membrane Floating rib: not attached to
3) Woven bone and periosteum form (blood anything
going into bone) - Apendicular skeleton
4) Bone collar of compact bone forms and red o bones within the pectoral and pelvic girdles
marrow appears o attached limbs
STAGES OF ENDOCHONDRAL OSSIFICATION: o limbs, fins, wings, pectoral and pelvic girdles
1) Formation of bone collar around hyaline Pectoral girdle: bones of the shoulder
cartilage model o anterior
2) Cavitation of the hyaline cartilage within the o supports arms and hands
cartilage model Pelvic girdle: bones of the pelvis
3) Invasion of internal cavities by the periosteal o posterior
bud and spongy bone formation o supports the legs and feet
4) Formation of medullary cavity as ossification o ileum, pubis, iseum (?)
continues; appearance of secondary
ossification centers in the epiphyses in prep CLASSIFICATION OF JOINTS:
for stage 5 - Fibrous joints (synarthroses)
5) Ossification of epiphyses; when completed, o Immovable
hyaline cartilage remains only in the o Between cranial bones, tibia and fibula,
epiphyseal plates (metaphysis) and articular radius and ulna
cartilages - Cartilaginous joints (amphiarthroses)
o Development of height is explained by this o Slightly movable
concept; What allows bone elongation is the o Between vertebrae
epi/metaphyseal plate, once it fuses at 21 for - Synovial joints (diarthroses)
males and 18 for females, the person stops o Freely movable
growing o Bones separated by a cavity
Types of skeletal system based on Development: o Ball and socket, hinge joints
endochondral and intramembranous
2 MAIN DIVISIONS: - Three principal kinds of movement:
- Axial skeleton o Ameboid
o Skull: o Ciliary and flagellar
o Vertebral column: o Muscular
supports head and trunk
protects spinal cord and roots of AMEBOID MOVEMENT:
spinal nerves - Amoebas (protozoa single celled eukaryote,
Segments (fr superior to inferior) membrane-bound organelles) and other unicellular
Cervical neck forms; Bacteria (prokaryotes no nucleus,
Thoracic chest mitochondria)
Lumbar lower back - White blood cells
Sacral sacrum/pelvic - Embryonic mesenchyme cells
Coccyx tailbone - Other mobile cells
Intervertebral disks of - Phagocytosis/Endocytosis: form of eating
fibrocartilage act as padding - Extension and withdrawal of pseudopodia and
Notochord degenerated in humans amoeboid crawling: (Dont focus too much on ameboid
into palpanuclei; found in middle of movement)
intervertebral disc; 1) Hyaline cap appears
2) Actin and myosin (actin microfilaments)
3) Ca2+ activate actin-severing protein o Z-line: boundary of sarcomeres
o M-line: middle of sarcomere
o I-band: absence of myosin
CILIA: o A-band: presence of myosin
o Minute, hairlike, motile processes Stays same in contraction
o Occur in large numbers o H-zone: absence of actin in middle
o Ciliate protistans Shortens in contraction
o Found in all major groups of animals o Myosin filaments at middle
o Move organisms through aquatic o Actin filaments at both ends of sarcomere
environment One end of each filament attached
o Propel fluids and materials across surfaces to a Z-plate at one end of the
o Move more like oars with alternating power sarcomere
and recovery strokes Other end suspended in sarcoplasm
FLAGELLA: o Myosin filaments suspended
o Whiplike Myosin filaments contain cross-
o Present singly or in small numbers bridges which pull actin filaments
o Occur in unicellular eukaryotes inward
o Animal spermatozoa Cause z-plates to move toward each
o Rotatory motion for both cilia and flagella other
o A flagellum has an undulatory movement Shortens sarcomere
o 9+2 configuration: 9 microtobules and 2 in o Sarcomeres stacked together in series and
the middle cause myofiber to shortenWorking muscles
- Both cilia and flagella have the same ultrastructure require ATP
- A core microtubules sheathed by the plasma Needed to detach myosin to allow
membrane next contraction
- The bending of cilia and flagella is driven by arms of a Needed to return calcium to
motor protein, dynein (continuous bending causes sarcoplasmic reticulum
rotatory motion) Rigor mortis occurs as there is no
- Addition to dynein of a phosphate group from ATP and more ATP production
its removal causes conformation changes in the
- Dynein arms alternately grab, move, and release outer - Neuromuscular junction:
microtubules o Synaptic contact between a nerve fiber and a
muscle fiber
INVERTEBRATE MUSCLE: o Nerve impulses bring about a release of a
- 2 kinds of fibers: o Parts: Sarcoplasmic recticulum
o fast muscle fibers = striated, can contract specialized ER in muscle cells
rapidly - Process:
o smooth muscle = capable of slow, long- o Acetylcholine: muscles receives this
lasting contractions neurotransmitter change in voltage
o note: no muscles lengthen, they shorten propagated by T Tubule (spreads signal
o Insect flight muscles (fibrillar muscle) deeper into muscle tissue) Reaches SR
Flexor muscle: smaller angle which stores a lot of Calcium Calcium is
becomes even smaller released from the Sarcoplastic storage
Extensor muscle: angle increase Troponin Tropomyosin Actin complex
(tropomyosin covers the binding site of
VERTEBRATE MUSCLES: myosin to actin, if tropomyosin is there,
TYPES: myosin cannot pull on actin; Troponin is
1. Striated where calcium attaches, changes
2. Smooth configuration of tropomyosin, which
3. Cardiac exposes binding site of myosin to actin)
Presence of calcium important in muscle
- Recall structure o Working muscles require ATP
- Functional unit: sarcomere Needed to detach myosin to allow
o Myofibril is made up of sarcomeres attached next contraction
to each other Needed to return calcium to
o Myofibril muscle fiber muscle fascicle... sarcoplasmic reticulum
- Sliding Filament model
Rigor mortis occurs as there is no
more ATP production


- Skeletal muscles:
o Attached to the skeleton by cable-like
fibrous connective tissue called tendons
o Arranged in antagonistic pairs
Can only contract, cannot push
When one muscle contracts, it
stretches is antagonistic partner
o A muscle at rest exhibits tone (minimal
o A muscle in tetany at maximum sustained