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Aulas de Inglês 6 e 7 ‘Preposições e Partículas’ - Part. 1

 

Aluno: Tarcísio Silva Professor (a): Mariana da Silva Araújo

 
Aulas de Inglês 6 e 7 ‘Preposições e Partículas’ - Part. 1 Aluno: Tarcísio Silva Professor
Above
Above

Above means ‘higher than’. We usually use it when there is no contact between people or things:

[a doctor asks a patient] Ex: Can you raise your hand [PREP] above your head for me please? (Can you raise you hand higher than your head?) The river flowed gently through the valley, while birds flew [ADV] above. It was a beautiful scene. The opposites of above are under, below and beneath.

Measuring higher

We use above to talk about measurements and temperatures that are higher than a particular level:

Ex: Mexico City is 2,240 metres above sea level.

After, afterwards

 

After as a preposition and conjunction

After means ‘later than’ and ‘next in time or place’. After can be used before a noun phrase (as a preposition):

Ex: Shall we have a swim after lunch? After can introduce a clause (as a conjunction):

Ex: After I left him a message, he phoned me immediately

Warning:

We use the present simple following after when referring to the future:

Ex: I’ll contact you after we reach the airport.

After or afterwards as an adverb

We can use after as an adverb, but afterwards is more common. When after is used, it is usually as part of an adverb phrase:

Ex: They lived happily ever after. (means ‘for ever’) Ex: She had an operation on her leg and afterwards was unable to walk for at least a month.

After: typical error

When after refers to future time, we use the present simple, not the future with shall or will:

I’ll do another course after I finish this one. Not: … after I will finish …

Against

Against is a preposition.

Against: reactions

We use against to refer to negative, hostile or opposing reactions to situations, beliefs, people, events, etc.

Against with verbs

Ex: Millions of people campaigned against the war. Ex: It’s not easy to go against your parents’ advice

Here are some common verbs often followed by against:

act

decide

guard

speak out

advise

demonstrate

have something

struggle

argue

discriminate

protest

testify

be

fight

react

vote

campaign

go

rebel

 

Against with nouns

Ex: Discrimination against people on the basis of race, age or gender is illegal. Here are some common nouns often followed by against:

accusation

campaign

discrimination

protest

action

case

evidence

reaction

aggression

charge

fight

rebellion

appeal

complaint

law

 

argument

defence

prejudice

 

battle

demonstration

protection

 

Against: physical contact and competition

We often use against to talk about physical contact between two or more things:

She was leaning against the wall reading a book. (there was contact between her and the wall) The bed was against the wardrobe. (there was contact between the bed and the wardrobe) We often use against with verbs and nouns connected with sport and competitions, such as compete/competition, final, game, match, play, semi-final:

Japan competed against Germany in the semi-final. England’s match against Jamaica was cancelled.

When we don’t use against (Quando não usar against)

We use about, not against, to refer to taking action to solve problems (resolver problemas):

A: Did you enjoy last night?

B: We enjoyed the food but the people at the table next to us were so loud that we couldn’t hear each other. We asked the waiter to do something about it but he said that he couldn’t. Not: We asked the waiter to do something against it

To make contrasts we use phrases such as contrary to, in contrast to and compared with, not against:

My opinion is contrary to yours.

Not: My opinion is against yours.

We don’t use against to talk about medication:

Have you got something for a headache?

Not: … something against a headache

Among and amongst

Among and amongst are prepositions.

Among means ‘in the middle or included in a larger group of people or things’. is commonly followed by a plural noun phrase:

Ex: I’m not worried about her. She’s living among friends.

Ex: I think I’ve got that album among my boxes of CDs upstairs.

Amongst is sometimes used as an alternative to among. It is more formal and less common:

Ex: The results show that both girls are amongst the top 10% of students in the whole school.

At

At is a preposition. We use at to refer to time or place. We also use it to refer to activities.

At: time

We use at to talk about points in time, ages and some periods of time:

Ex: I was up at 6 am this morning. (a point in time)

Ex: At 12 noon, all the bells rang out. (a point during the day)

Ex: They all get dressed up at Halloween. (a point on the calendar)

Ex: Many children leave school at 16. (referring to a specific age)

We can use at to refer to some periods of time: at night, at that time, at the New Year.

At: place

We use at to describe a position or location seen as a point:

A fisherman waited near his nets at the side of the quay. (position as a point)

There was no one at the information desk. (location as a point)

We use at to describe locations including firms, companies, workplaces and educational institutions:

Did you once work at Intel?

Warning:

We say at school, at college but in class:

What did you study at college?

We’re not allowed to have mobile phones in class.

Not: … at class.

We use at when we refer to an address:

The restaurant used to be at number 72 Henry Street.

We use at the to refer to public places where we get treatments, such as a dentist’s or doctor’s surgery, hairdresser’s or spa:

While Liz was at the dentist, I went shopping.

  • I read an interesting article about plastic surgery in a magazine when I was at the hairdresser’s.

At: group activities

We use at to refer to activities which involve a group of people:

  • I didn’t know anyone at the party.

There was a demonstration at the opening of the exhibition.

Good at, bad at

We use adjective + at to talk about things that we do well or badly:

I was never very good at sports.

She was always brilliant at drawing.

At: numbers

In specific contexts, we use at with numbers.

Talking about prices:

At 80 pounds a night for a double room, the hotel is good value.

Talking about speeds:

According to the police, he was driving at 120 mph. (mph means ‘miles per hour’)

At: direction

We use at after a verb when we are talking about directing something towards another person or thing, often with verbs of perception and communication (smile at, shout at, wave at):

He threw the ball at the wall.

She was waving at the crowd.

At or at the

When we talk about buildings, we often use at the to refer to the building itself. When we refer to the activity that happens in the building, we don’t use the after at or in:

The taxi dropped me at the school. (referring to the building)

I hated being at school. (referring to the activity within the school not the building)

At, in and to (movement)

We use to when we are talking about movement in the direction of a point, place, or position:

Let’s all go to the cinema tonight!

[giving directions]

If you drive to the end of the road, then turn left and park in the first car park on the right …

We often use the combination from … to … when we are talking about moving from one point to another:

Is it far from your house to the nearest shop?

Warning:

Go in is a commonly used phrasal verb meaning ‘enter’. We don’t use it to talk about travelling to or moving in the direction of a place:

Why don’t you go in? (phrasal verb meaning ‘enter)

When did you go to Barcelona? (preposition to)

We say that we arrive at a place, when we see it as point, but we arrive in a larger area (e.g. a city or a country). We don’t use to with arrive:

I arrived at the station just in time. (arrive at a place)

Not: I arrived to the station …

It was 4 pm when we arrived in Italy. (arrive in a country)

Not: … when we arrived to Italy.

On and In (place)

We use on:

to refer to a position on any surface:

I know I left my wallet on the table.

to describe a position along a road or river or by the sea or by a lake:

Dublin is on the east coast of Ireland.

to talk about a floor in a building:

They live on the 15th floor!

to talk about being physically on public transport:

  • I was on the train when she phoned. (but to talk about ways of travelling, we use by: I went to Rome by train.)

We use in:

to talk about locations within a larger area:

  • I know my book is somewhere in this room. Can anyone see it?

to talk about workplaces when we see them as a physical location:

She works in an open-plan office. (but we use on when we talk about a farm: I’ve always wanted to work on a farm.)

with class:

He found it difficult to concentrate in class.

On and In (time)

We use on:

with dates:

We moved into this house on 25 October 1987.

with a singular day of the week to refer to one occasion:

I’ve got to go to London on Friday.

with a plural day of the week to refer to repeated events:

The office is closed on Fridays. (every Friday)

In informal situations, we often leave out on before plural days:

Do you work Saturdays?

with special dates:

What do you normally do on your birthday?

We use in:

with parts of the day:

I’ll come and see you in the morning for a cup of coffee, okay?

with months:

We usually go camping in July or August.

with years:

The house was built in 1835.

with seasons:

The garden is wonderful in the spring when all the flowers come out.

with long periods of time:

The population of Europe doubled in the nineteenth century.

At or on?

We use at to talk about public holidays and weekends, but when we talk about a particular special day or weekend, we use on.

Compare

We never go away at the New Year because the traffic is awful.

On New Year’s Day, the whole family gets together.

I’ll go and see my mother at the weekend if the weather’s okay.

The folk festival is always held on the last weekend in July.

In or on?

We use in with morning, afternoon, evening and night, but we use on when we talk about a specific morning, afternoon, etc., or when we describe the part of the day.

Compare

I always work best in the morning. I often get tired in the afternoon.

The ship left the harbour on the morning of the ninth of November.

In the evening they used to sit outside and watch the sun going down.

It happened on a beautiful summer’s evening.

At or in?

In the night usually refers to one particular night; at night refers to any night in general:

I was awake in the night, thinking about all the things that have happened.

‘It’s not safe to travel at night,’ the officer said.

At the end or in the end?

We use at the end (often with of) to talk about the point in time where something finishes. We use in the end to talk about things that happen after a long time or after a series of other events:

At the end of the film, everyone was crying.

Not: In the end of the film …

I looked everywhere for the book but couldn’t find it, so in the end I bought a new copy.

At the beginning or in the beginning?

We use at the beginning (often with of) to talk about the point where something starts. We usually use in the beginning when we contrast two situations in time:

At the beginning of every lesson, the teacher told the children a little story.

In the beginning, nobody understood what was happening, but after she explained everything very carefully, things were much clearer.

Time expressions without at, on, in

We don’t normally use at, on or in before time expressions beginning with each, every, next, last, some, this, that, one, any, all:

He plays football every Saturday.

Are you free next Monday at two o’clock?

Last summer we rented a villa in Portugal.

 

Below

 
     

Below is a preposition or an adverb.

We use below most commonly as a preposition meaning ‘lower than’. It has a similar meaning to under. The opposite of below is above. We use it when there is no contact between people or things.

[a teacher talking to a class]

Open your exercise book on page 27. Just below the picture there are some questions. Look at the picture and answer the questions.

There was a big clock below the painting.

When the adverb below is used to modify a noun, it follows the noun:

The apartment below is owned by a French couple.

We lived up in the mountains and the nearest town below was half an hour’s drive.

We use the adverb below when referring to the lower level or deck of a boat or ship:

[talking about a boat]

It was a wonderful little boat. We spent most of our time fishing and watching the sea. We’d go below to sleep and to eat.

Below with numbers, amounts or statistics

When we talk about numbers, amounts or statistics being at a lower level, we use below more than under:

Inflation has fallen below 5% for the first time in six years.

The company’s profits in 2008 were below what they had hoped for.

Below referring forward in writing

In formal writing, we use below to refer to something that we will mention or show later:

In the figure below, the results show that 54% of the rats tested were carrying the antibody …

 

Beneath

 
     

Beneath means ‘at a lower level than’.

Beneath is most common in formal writing. We don’t use it often in informal speaking. In speaking, under and below are much more common.

Beneath as a preposition

We use beneath most commonly to describe the position of things which are at a lower level than something else:

 

Archaeologists discovered a gold cup just beneath the surface at the site of a Roman villa.

The metro station is right beneath the airport.

Beneath is particularly common when talking about the ground or surface directly under one’s feet:

 
 

She could feel the train coming because the ground beneath her feet was moving.

Beneath as an adverb

Beneath as an adverb isn’t very common and we mostly use it in formal writing:

She looked down from the balcony at the two men talking beneath.

In the kitchen there was a modern sink with cupboards and drawers beneath.

Beneath, under or below?

Beneath has a meaning similar to under and below but we do not use it with numbers:

We bought it for just under 200 pounds.

Not: … for just beneath 200 pounds.

We use beneath, not under, to talk about things which are at a lower level in terms of a person’s abilities, status or expectations. We often use beneath not under when someone feels that they are too important or too intelligent to do something:

The writing and grammar courses were good but maybe a bit beneath my expectations.

Not: … maybe a bit under my expectations.

 

Beyond

 
     

Beyond is a preposition or an adverb.

Beyond referring to place

Beyond as a preposition means ‘further away in the distance (than something)’:

 

Beyond the door was a narrow corridor that led off to the right.

As an adverb, beyond is less common and is rather formal:

 
 

The balcony provided a magnificent view of the river and the mountains beyond.

Beyond meaning ‘outside the limits’

 

We use beyond with expressions of time to mean ‘after that time’ or ‘further than that time’:

 

It’s impossible to predict beyond the next five years as regards world economic trends. (we cannot predict further in time than the next five years).

Beyond very often has a meaning of ‘outside the limits of something’. We often use it in the expressions beyond belief and beyond doubt:

That the government should want to tax the poor even more heavily is beyond belief. (no one can believe it)

Her commitment to her profession is beyond doubt. (no one can doubt it)

The mechanic announced that the engine was beyond repair. (it could not be repaired)

Beyond very often has a meaning of ‘outside the limits of something’. We often use it

Exercises

1 - Complete Corretamente usando IN, ON ou AT, quando necessário:

  • a) I am going to meet you

Saturday,

a quarter past three.

  • b) Dave went to Paris

June,

1999.

the afternoons I always visit my friend cecil and

  • c) the morning I usually have classes,

___

night I sometimes watch TV.

  • d) ____

a few minutes.

She'll be here

  • e) ___

The party will be

eight,

the evening

September 26th.

  • f) Easter I used to have dinner with my parents, but

Christmas day I have dinner with my parents-in-law.

___

  • g) ________

This year we have classes with Mr. Burlington.

2- Complete o texto abaixo com a preposição adequada.

Life Expectations: Are You Where You Thought You Would Be? (by Deepak Chopra, M.D.)

What you expect

__from___

life is crucially important, but how is this measured? A leading measure

__is____

how well a society is doing

touches upon expectations. Well-being is correlated

___in__

how many people report that they are thriving, and you’d expect that __many___

prosperous developed countries, a healthy percentage their population reaching this level. Which means that

__of__

people think they are thriving. However, very few societies can boast one-third of

many, expectations have fallen very far short.

__among__

If you look

your own life, where do you stand

your expectations? I think the answer

most people focuses

three

areas: money, family, and relationships. If you are

a happy marriage or partnership, surrounded

a happy family, and free __of___

financial problems, you probably count yourself very lucky. So many people fall sort

__at__

these goals, and few are so fulfilled that they’d consider

themselves to be thriving.

Bons Estudos!