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INTRODUCTION

Water is a fundamental resource for life and an essential factor for the productive sector, so the
determination of the flows in a region, has special importance due to the predominance of activities
related to the use of water resources. Through this it is possible to obtain valuable information for
water management, in terms of uses: agricultural, forestry, energy, domestic use, construction of
civil works, etc.

MAXIMUM FLOWS

DIRECT METHOD

This is a hydraulic method, called Section and Slope, in which the maximum flow is estimated
after steps of an avenue, based on specific data obtained in the field. The field works include:

1. Selection of a representative section of the river, sufficiently deep, that it contains at the
level of the maximum waters.
2. Survey of cross sections at each end of the chosen section, and determine:
A1, A2 = hydraulic areas
P1, P2 = wet perimeters

R1, R2 = hydraulic radius

;
3. Determine the slope S, of the free surface of water with the traces of the maximum
avenue in analysis.
4. Choosing the roughness coefficient "n" according to Manning physical channel
conditions
5. Apply the Manning formula

Where:
Q = maximum flow rate, m3 / s
n = roughness coefficient
A = average hydraulic area, m2
R = average hydraulic radius, m
S = slope, m / m

1. EMPIRICAL METHODS
There is a great variety of empirical methods, in general all are derived from the rational
method.

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Because of its simplicity, empirical methods have widespread, but may involve large errors,
since the process of runoff, it is very complex to summarize in a formula of direct type, in which
only involved the basin area and runoff coefficient.

1.1. Rational method


The method can be applied from small agricultural drainage basins, approximately if they
do not exceed .

Maximum level flow is calculated by the following expression, which represents the rational
formula:

If i (current) is expressed in mm / h, A (basin area) in square kilometers, and Q (flow rate)


in m3 / s expression it is:

Where:
Qmax : Maximum flow in the calculation section
C : Coefficient weighted average basin runoff
TO Total area of the watershed in the calculation section
i : Maximum average intensity for a duration equal to the time of
concentration, the calculating section.

1.2. Modified rational method


This method extends the field of application of the rational method, because it considers
the effect of the non-uniformity of the rains by means of a coefficient of uniformity, the
maximum flow of an avenue is obtained by means of the expression:

Where:
Q = Peak flow for a period of return (m3 / s)
I = High intensity for a period of return and duration equal to the concentration time (mm / h)
A = Catchment (Km2) C = Runoff Coefficient
CU = Coefficient of Uniformity

The uniformity coefficient corrects the supposed uniform distribution of the runoff within the
calculation interval of duration equal to the concentration time in the rational method, this
can be determined according to the following expression:

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Tc is expressed in hours, this method is recommended for designing road culverts.

1.3. Mac Math Method


Math Mac formula for the metric system, is as follows:

Where:
Q = maximum flow with a return period of T years, m3 / s
C = factor runoff Mac Math represents the characteristics of the basin
I = peak intensity of rain, for a duration equal to the time tc concentration and a return period
T years, mm / hr
A = area of the basin, has
S = average slope of the main channel, in%

Of the parameters that intervene in this formula, which must be influenced, is on the C
factor, which is composed of three components, namely:
C = C1 + C2 + C3
Where:
C1 = is a function of the mulched
C2 = is a function of soil texture
C3 = is a function of the topography.
These v alues shown in Table

1.4. Brkli formula - Zieger

The formula proposed by Brkli - Zieger, for calculating the maximum flow, is:

Where:
Q = maximum flow in m3 / s
C = variable depending on the nature of the drained surface, whose value is shown in Table
6.7
I = peak intensity, in cm / hr
A = drainage area in you
S = average slope of the basin, in%

1.5. Kresnik formula

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Kresnik, poses for calculating the maximum flow, the following equation:

Where:

Q = maximum flow in m3 / s

= coefficient variable between 0.03 and 1.61

A = drainage area in Km2

1.6. Curve number method

This method was developed by the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) of the United States; It
has advantages over the rational method, since it is applied to medium basins as well as to
small basins.

The method was developed using data from a large number of experimental watersheds,
and is based on the following relationship:

Where:
F = actual cumulative infiltration (L)
S = maximum potential infiltration (L)
Q = total accumulated runoff (L)
Pe = runoff or excess precipitation potential (L)

Pe is defined as:

While F is defined as:

The term (initial subtractions) is defined as the precipitation cumulada to the beginning of
runoff and is a function of interception, depression storage and infiltration before the
beginning of runoff.

Substituting (3.12) in (3.11) is:

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From where:

Replacing (3.12) in (3.14) is:

The authors of the method, experimental data obtained a rela tion between L ay S, which
is:

This ratio is quite acceptable for average situations. If equation (3 16) is replaced in
equation (3 .15), we obtain:

Where:

Q = total cumulative runoff

P = precipitation

S = maximum potential infiltration

This is the main equation of the method. It must be kept in mind that in this equation, P and
S must have the same units and the Q obtained, will also have those same units.

The SCS after studying a large number of small basins established a relationship to
estimate S from curve number N, by the following equation:

Or also:

In this equation S is expressed in inches, to put in centimeters must perform processing


units:

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Substituting (3.20) in (3.17) and performing operations is:

Where:

Q = total accumulated runoff in cm

P = precipitation storm in cm

N = number of curve
In equation (3.21) must be satisfied that:

If P is in mm and Q in mm, equation (6.22) is written as:

Being

2. STATISTICAL METHODS

Statistical methods are based on considering that the maximum annual flow is a random
variable that has a certain distribution. To use them, it is required to have the maximum annual

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flow record as data, the larger the size of the record, the greater the approximation of the
calculation of the design flow, which is calculated for a given return period.

2.1. Method G umbel

To calculate the maximum flow for a given return period the equation is used:

Being:

Where:
Qmax = Maximum flow for a given return period, in m3 / s
N = number of years of record
Qi = Registered annual maximum flows, in m3 / s

= Average flow rate, m3 / s


T = return period.

= Constant function of N, Table 3.9 (reduced variables)

= Standard deviation of flow


To calculate the confidence interval, ie that in which may vary depending on the record
available Qmax the following is made:
to) If = 1-1 / T varies between 0.20 and 0.80, the confidence interval is calculated using
the formula:

Where:
N = number of years of record

= Constant depending on , Table 3.10


= Constant depending on N, Table 3.9
= standard deviation of the flows, equation (3.27)

b) If > 0.90, the interval is calculated as:

c) area between 0.8 and 0.9 is considered transition where Q is proportional to the
calculated with equations 3.28 and 3.29, depending on the value of . The maximum
design flow for a certain period of return is equal to the maximum flow rate with the
equation (3.26), more confidence interval d and calculated with (3.28) or (3.29).

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2.2. Nash method

Nash considers that the value of the flow for a determined return period can be calculated
with the equation:

where:
a, b = Constant depending on the flow registration annual maxima
Qmax = Maximum flow for a return period determined, in m3 / s
T = return period in years

The parameters a and b are estimated using the method of least squares, with the linear
equation: Q = a + bX, using the following equations:

Being:

Where:

N = number of years of record


= annual registered maximum flows, in m3 / s

, average flow, in m3 / s
= Constant for each flow Q registered according to their corresponding return period

, Average value of Xs

To calculate the values of X i corresponding to Q i, they are arranged in decreasing order,


assigning each a serial number m i; the maximum Q i will correspond the value 1, the
immediate next 2, etc. Then the value of the return period to Q i is calculated using the
formula Weibull equation:

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Finally, the value of each X i is obtained by substituting the value of (3 3 5) (3.34).

The range within which it can vary the Q max calculated by equation (3.31) is obtained as:

Being:

S xx =

Qq =S

S xq =

From equation (3.36), we see that only .DELTA.Q varies with X, which is calculated from
equation (3.34), substituting the value of the return period for which the Q max was
calculated. All other terms involved in the equation (3.36) are obtained from the data.

The maximum design flow corresponding to a given return period will be equal to the
maximum flow obtained from equation (3.31), plus the confidence interval calculated
according to equation (3.36), that is:

2.3. Method of Le bediev

This method is based on the assumption that the maximum annual flows are random
variables Pearson type III. The design flow is obtained from the formula:

Where:

The terms that appear in the previous equations have the following meaning:

A = coefficient ranging from 0.7 to 1.5, depending on the number of years of registration.
The more years of registration has, the lower the value of the coefficient. If N is over 40
years old, the value of 0.7 is taken.

C S = coefficient of asymmetry is calculated as:

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Moreover, Lebdiev recommends taking the following values:

C s = v for avenues 2C produced by melt

C s = v for avenues 3C produced by storms

C s = v 5C for avenues produced by storms cyclone basins

Between these values and the one obtained from equation (3.40), the largest one is
chosen.

C v = coefficient of variation, which is obtained from the equation:

E r = coefficient which depends on the values of C v (equation 3.41) and the probability P =

Its value is the figu ra 3.3

K = coefficient dependent on the probability P = Expressed as a percentage of the design


flow and skewness C repeat S (table 3.13)

N = Years of observation

.DELTA.Q = confidence interval, in m 3 / s

Q d = design flow rate in m 3 / s

Q i = maximum annual flows observed in m 3 / s

Q m = Average flow in m3 / s, which is obtained from

Q max = Maximum flow likely obtained for a period of return, in m 3 / s

HYDROLOGICAL DESIGN
It is used to choose key variables of water engineering systems, such as reservoir, size, bridge
light, landfill dimension, etc. All projects are designed for the future and engineers are generally
uncertain as to the precise conditions to which the works are subjected. This is because the exact
sequence of current flow for the next few years can not be predicted and it is generally assumed
that future hydrological processes will follow the same pattern as their past.

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Reservoir and dam


A reservoir is an artificial lake to store water. Reservoirs are often created by dams that are
made of concrete, earth, rock, or a mixture across a river. Once the dam is completed, the river
is filled in the reservoir.
There are several types of reservoirs and three for the water supply are: a) direct supply
reservoir: characterized uptake by gravity and the flow line to provide output; b) Reservoir
pumped: when the tank inflow is pumping. C) Reservoir regulation: mainly seizing water for
later release into a river flows when somewhere downstream are too low.
Basic design procedures
The procedures required to derive the reservoir storage and the height of the dam for a
water supply project can be carried out in the following steps. First, it is important to
estimate the water demand according to the population and other factors. Second, some
potential dam sites based on a selected contour map.
It is important to verify if there is sufficient river flow available at the chosen sites to meet the
demand.

Water demand
Water demand is divided into: Domestic (Internal use, use outside the home), Agricultural
Trade (industrial, commercial, institutional)
Public (public park or, firefighting) losses.

3. BIBLIOGRAPHY :
Maximum Villn Bejar, hydrologic and hydraulic calculations in watersheds
Helmer Rodriguez Soriano, (2009), M aterial teaching support for teaching and learning of
the subject of hydrology civ-233, Cochabamba - Bolivia:
Hydrology.Principles.Analysis.Design .HMRaghunath.New Delhi.2006
Hydrology Manual, Donal L.Wolfe.Los Angeles County Deparment 2006.
CONCISE HYDROLOGY. Han Dawei. Book boon.com.2010

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