7 vues

Transféré par JoséSalcedoReátegui

maximum flow

- Hydropower
- vol05
- Dams and the Worlds Water
- Lube oil system Safematic Lube Circ Unit B-SMFlowlineSys
- DPR Formulation Guideline
- Tariq Ethics3
- Tech_cir_05_2016
- Design of Pipelines and Pumping Systems.pdf
- Lower Pryor Creek Fish Passage Assessment Study
- 01 Sediment Managente in Hydroelecric Porjects
- D,7.5X0.5 m weir design
- 1.6 GL for Project Cost Estimation
- Guidelines for Formulation Of DPR for HE Schemes
- EAT356 Lecture 2 WASTEWATER COLLECTION SYSTEMS.pptx
- epik_cuba
- 141
- FAO (2009) - South Korea Agriculture and Geography
- Scribd
- hydropowerlessonplan
- WXP Care and Use

Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 11

INTRODUCTION

Water is a fundamental resource for life and an essential factor for the productive sector, so the

determination of the flows in a region, has special importance due to the predominance of activities

related to the use of water resources. Through this it is possible to obtain valuable information for

water management, in terms of uses: agricultural, forestry, energy, domestic use, construction of

civil works, etc.

MAXIMUM FLOWS

DIRECT METHOD

This is a hydraulic method, called Section and Slope, in which the maximum flow is estimated

after steps of an avenue, based on specific data obtained in the field. The field works include:

1. Selection of a representative section of the river, sufficiently deep, that it contains at the

level of the maximum waters.

2. Survey of cross sections at each end of the chosen section, and determine:

A1, A2 = hydraulic areas

P1, P2 = wet perimeters

;

3. Determine the slope S, of the free surface of water with the traces of the maximum

avenue in analysis.

4. Choosing the roughness coefficient "n" according to Manning physical channel

conditions

5. Apply the Manning formula

Where:

Q = maximum flow rate, m3 / s

n = roughness coefficient

A = average hydraulic area, m2

R = average hydraulic radius, m

S = slope, m / m

1. EMPIRICAL METHODS

There is a great variety of empirical methods, in general all are derived from the rational

method.

https://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_f 1/11

4/11/2017 MAXIMUM FLOW

Because of its simplicity, empirical methods have widespread, but may involve large errors,

since the process of runoff, it is very complex to summarize in a formula of direct type, in which

only involved the basin area and runoff coefficient.

The method can be applied from small agricultural drainage basins, approximately if they

do not exceed .

Maximum level flow is calculated by the following expression, which represents the rational

formula:

in m3 / s expression it is:

Where:

Qmax : Maximum flow in the calculation section

C : Coefficient weighted average basin runoff

TO Total area of the watershed in the calculation section

i : Maximum average intensity for a duration equal to the time of

concentration, the calculating section.

This method extends the field of application of the rational method, because it considers

the effect of the non-uniformity of the rains by means of a coefficient of uniformity, the

maximum flow of an avenue is obtained by means of the expression:

Where:

Q = Peak flow for a period of return (m3 / s)

I = High intensity for a period of return and duration equal to the concentration time (mm / h)

A = Catchment (Km2) C = Runoff Coefficient

CU = Coefficient of Uniformity

The uniformity coefficient corrects the supposed uniform distribution of the runoff within the

calculation interval of duration equal to the concentration time in the rational method, this

can be determined according to the following expression:

https://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_f 2/11

4/11/2017 MAXIMUM FLOW

Math Mac formula for the metric system, is as follows:

Where:

Q = maximum flow with a return period of T years, m3 / s

C = factor runoff Mac Math represents the characteristics of the basin

I = peak intensity of rain, for a duration equal to the time tc concentration and a return period

T years, mm / hr

A = area of the basin, has

S = average slope of the main channel, in%

Of the parameters that intervene in this formula, which must be influenced, is on the C

factor, which is composed of three components, namely:

C = C1 + C2 + C3

Where:

C1 = is a function of the mulched

C2 = is a function of soil texture

C3 = is a function of the topography.

These v alues shown in Table

The formula proposed by Brkli - Zieger, for calculating the maximum flow, is:

Where:

Q = maximum flow in m3 / s

C = variable depending on the nature of the drained surface, whose value is shown in Table

6.7

I = peak intensity, in cm / hr

A = drainage area in you

S = average slope of the basin, in%

https://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_f 3/11

4/11/2017 MAXIMUM FLOW

Kresnik, poses for calculating the maximum flow, the following equation:

Where:

Q = maximum flow in m3 / s

This method was developed by the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) of the United States; It

has advantages over the rational method, since it is applied to medium basins as well as to

small basins.

The method was developed using data from a large number of experimental watersheds,

and is based on the following relationship:

Where:

F = actual cumulative infiltration (L)

S = maximum potential infiltration (L)

Q = total accumulated runoff (L)

Pe = runoff or excess precipitation potential (L)

Pe is defined as:

The term (initial subtractions) is defined as the precipitation cumulada to the beginning of

runoff and is a function of interception, depression storage and infiltration before the

beginning of runoff.

https://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_f 4/11

4/11/2017 MAXIMUM FLOW

From where:

The authors of the method, experimental data obtained a rela tion between L ay S, which

is:

This ratio is quite acceptable for average situations. If equation (3 16) is replaced in

equation (3 .15), we obtain:

Where:

P = precipitation

This is the main equation of the method. It must be kept in mind that in this equation, P and

S must have the same units and the Q obtained, will also have those same units.

The SCS after studying a large number of small basins established a relationship to

estimate S from curve number N, by the following equation:

Or also:

units:

https://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_f 5/11

4/11/2017 MAXIMUM FLOW

Where:

P = precipitation storm in cm

N = number of curve

In equation (3.21) must be satisfied that:

Being

2. STATISTICAL METHODS

Statistical methods are based on considering that the maximum annual flow is a random

variable that has a certain distribution. To use them, it is required to have the maximum annual

https://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_f 6/11

4/11/2017 MAXIMUM FLOW

flow record as data, the larger the size of the record, the greater the approximation of the

calculation of the design flow, which is calculated for a given return period.

To calculate the maximum flow for a given return period the equation is used:

Being:

Where:

Qmax = Maximum flow for a given return period, in m3 / s

N = number of years of record

Qi = Registered annual maximum flows, in m3 / s

T = return period.

To calculate the confidence interval, ie that in which may vary depending on the record

available Qmax the following is made:

to) If = 1-1 / T varies between 0.20 and 0.80, the confidence interval is calculated using

the formula:

Where:

N = number of years of record

= Constant depending on N, Table 3.9

= standard deviation of the flows, equation (3.27)

c) area between 0.8 and 0.9 is considered transition where Q is proportional to the

calculated with equations 3.28 and 3.29, depending on the value of . The maximum

design flow for a certain period of return is equal to the maximum flow rate with the

equation (3.26), more confidence interval d and calculated with (3.28) or (3.29).

https://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_f 7/11

4/11/2017 MAXIMUM FLOW

Nash considers that the value of the flow for a determined return period can be calculated

with the equation:

where:

a, b = Constant depending on the flow registration annual maxima

Qmax = Maximum flow for a return period determined, in m3 / s

T = return period in years

The parameters a and b are estimated using the method of least squares, with the linear

equation: Q = a + bX, using the following equations:

Being:

Where:

= annual registered maximum flows, in m3 / s

, average flow, in m3 / s

= Constant for each flow Q registered according to their corresponding return period

, Average value of Xs

assigning each a serial number m i; the maximum Q i will correspond the value 1, the

immediate next 2, etc. Then the value of the return period to Q i is calculated using the

formula Weibull equation:

https://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_f 8/11

4/11/2017 MAXIMUM FLOW

The range within which it can vary the Q max calculated by equation (3.31) is obtained as:

Being:

S xx =

Qq =S

S xq =

From equation (3.36), we see that only .DELTA.Q varies with X, which is calculated from

equation (3.34), substituting the value of the return period for which the Q max was

calculated. All other terms involved in the equation (3.36) are obtained from the data.

The maximum design flow corresponding to a given return period will be equal to the

maximum flow obtained from equation (3.31), plus the confidence interval calculated

according to equation (3.36), that is:

This method is based on the assumption that the maximum annual flows are random

variables Pearson type III. The design flow is obtained from the formula:

Where:

The terms that appear in the previous equations have the following meaning:

A = coefficient ranging from 0.7 to 1.5, depending on the number of years of registration.

The more years of registration has, the lower the value of the coefficient. If N is over 40

years old, the value of 0.7 is taken.

https://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_f 9/11

4/11/2017 MAXIMUM FLOW

Between these values and the one obtained from equation (3.40), the largest one is

chosen.

E r = coefficient which depends on the values of C v (equation 3.41) and the probability P =

flow and skewness C repeat S (table 3.13)

N = Years of observation

HYDROLOGICAL DESIGN

It is used to choose key variables of water engineering systems, such as reservoir, size, bridge

light, landfill dimension, etc. All projects are designed for the future and engineers are generally

uncertain as to the precise conditions to which the works are subjected. This is because the exact

sequence of current flow for the next few years can not be predicted and it is generally assumed

that future hydrological processes will follow the same pattern as their past.

https://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_f 10/11

4/11/2017 MAXIMUM FLOW

A reservoir is an artificial lake to store water. Reservoirs are often created by dams that are

made of concrete, earth, rock, or a mixture across a river. Once the dam is completed, the river

is filled in the reservoir.

There are several types of reservoirs and three for the water supply are: a) direct supply

reservoir: characterized uptake by gravity and the flow line to provide output; b) Reservoir

pumped: when the tank inflow is pumping. C) Reservoir regulation: mainly seizing water for

later release into a river flows when somewhere downstream are too low.

Basic design procedures

The procedures required to derive the reservoir storage and the height of the dam for a

water supply project can be carried out in the following steps. First, it is important to

estimate the water demand according to the population and other factors. Second, some

potential dam sites based on a selected contour map.

It is important to verify if there is sufficient river flow available at the chosen sites to meet the

demand.

Water demand

Water demand is divided into: Domestic (Internal use, use outside the home), Agricultural

Trade (industrial, commercial, institutional)

Public (public park or, firefighting) losses.

3. BIBLIOGRAPHY :

Maximum Villn Bejar, hydrologic and hydraulic calculations in watersheds

Helmer Rodriguez Soriano, (2009), M aterial teaching support for teaching and learning of

the subject of hydrology civ-233, Cochabamba - Bolivia:

Hydrology.Principles.Analysis.Design .HMRaghunath.New Delhi.2006

Hydrology Manual, Donal L.Wolfe.Los Angeles County Deparment 2006.

CONCISE HYDROLOGY. Han Dawei. Book boon.com.2010

https://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_f 11/11

- HydropowerTransféré parBrijesh Chauhan
- vol05Transféré paremmanuel
- Dams and the Worlds WaterTransféré parJoey Cross
- Lube oil system Safematic Lube Circ Unit B-SMFlowlineSysTransféré parMachineryeng
- DPR Formulation GuidelineTransféré parbalwant singh negi
- Tariq Ethics3Transféré parTariq Khan
- Tech_cir_05_2016Transféré parKanti Bhushan Chowdhury
- Design of Pipelines and Pumping Systems.pdfTransféré parRaghuveer Rao Pallepati
- Lower Pryor Creek Fish Passage Assessment StudyTransféré parYellowstone River Conservation District Council
- 01 Sediment Managente in Hydroelecric PorjectsTransféré parEdson Abner
- D,7.5X0.5 m weir designTransféré partadagids
- 1.6 GL for Project Cost EstimationTransféré parKola Bramhananda Tara Prasad
- Guidelines for Formulation Of DPR for HE SchemesTransféré parAjit Singh
- EAT356 Lecture 2 WASTEWATER COLLECTION SYSTEMS.pptxTransféré parAin Zulkefli
- epik_cubaTransféré parbyromant
- 141Transféré parMarcelo Protz
- FAO (2009) - South Korea Agriculture and GeographyTransféré parAna Bandeira
- ScribdTransféré parsahil patel
- hydropowerlessonplanTransféré parapi-216116299
- WXP Care and UseTransféré parmajoni88
- Water HarvestingTransféré parAbdulkader Tukale
- Ch 17hydropowerTransféré parPranjali Agnihotri
- The ADHydro Model and its Suitability for High Performance Water Resource ModelingTransféré parConsortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc.
- Analysis of Sulfate MassbalanceTransféré parSteve Eduardo Reyes
- hydrology-01-00020Transféré parLuana Lavagnoli
- (the World's Classics) Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, David McLellan-Communist Manifesto-Oxford University Press, USA (1992)Transféré parAtul Kumar
- Basic Civil and Mechanical nov-dec-2011 question paper studyhauntersTransféré parSriram J
- Shewitaa_ Abstract.pdfTransféré parbedilu77
- Hydroelectric EnergyTransféré parUmar Nobbee
- DS_Manual Colorado 2002.pdfTransféré parjamjam75

- FHWA Basics HydraulicsHDS4_608Transféré parHelmer Edgardo Monroy González
- Mechatronics of Small Electric Vehicles Research and Education-ijens (1)Transféré parSachin Angadi
- 2011 ITIL 2011 Process ModelTransféré parpixel3cs
- Function of CvtTransféré parGunji Venkata Srinivasa Babu
- Surface Modification of Molds and Acessories for the Glass IndustryTransféré parJorgeAndreAlves
- Materials in SpaceTransféré parJuan Pablo Cano Mejia
- Bio DataTransféré parPriyank Bhargava
- Review of Full-scale Dynamic TestingTransféré parandrepuja
- Samsung RS21JG Fridge-Freezer ManualTransféré parroebuddy
- Dac60000 6u InvertersTransféré parDaniel Gnanaselvam
- endo.pdfTransféré parvcharles
- Petroleum Facilites of Germany 1945 108Transféré parENAK9000
- RevisionsTransféré parKike S Trombonist
- Engineering Science- Static Engineering SystemsTransféré parSteven Goddard
- Javascript MethodsTransféré parfernando sanchez
- Torque Tension LossTransféré pargnanasekar
- Composition a 5Transféré parFrank Der-Beste
- digitalDrummer Nov 2018Transféré parAnonymous cdQSIU03AQ
- Solution to Problems on Design of Machine Elements 4th Edition- Virgil M Faires, Roy M Wingren (Problem Book)Transféré parAhmed Zawad Shovon
- EasyIO30P Modbus BrochureV3.1.00Transféré parHoàngTrần
- System VSWRTransféré parandul_sanjib
- eBook - Licensing Microsoft Server.pdfTransféré parAkbarvali Guntur
- lmd18200.pdfTransféré parFrancesco Gaetano
- Benson Hill Biosystems vs the Broad Institute '490 CRISPR Institution DenialTransféré parTradeHawk
- NetworkSecurityISO Lesson Plan1Transféré parKarpagamSivakumar
- Ad 4103173176Transféré parAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- SBAccountGeneratorDCOAUGTransféré parMahmoud H. Maradni
- 54_AF-1_CTransféré par2dsmart
- APE How to Drive Steel Sheet Piles (1).pdfTransféré parArianne
- Fundamentals of Computational Fluid Dynamics - Lomax, PulliamTransféré parJorge Chavez Quinto