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Ingls II B2.

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Marta Moreno

UNIT 8: SUCCESS

1. Its time/Id rather/Id better

Its time:

Esta expresin puede ir seguida de tres estructuras:

Its time + infinitivo con to

Its time to start studying.

Es hora de empezar a estudiar.

Its time for + objeto + infinitivo con to

Its time for you to start studying.

Es hora de que empieces a estudiar.

Its time + sujeto + verbo en past simple. Esta estructura se emplea a


menudo para expresar reproche o crtica.

Its time you started to study.

Ya era hora de que empezaras a estudiar.

Id rather: (would rather)

Esta expresin se emplea para expresar preferencias. Puede ir seguida de


infinitivo sin to si el sujeto de las dos acciones es la misma persona.

Id rather work now.

Preferira trabajar ahora.

Would rather + infinitivo puede ir seguido de than + infinitivo cuando se


prefiere una accin a otra.

Id rather listen to music than dance.

Preferira escuchar msica a bailar.

Would rather va seguido de past simple cuando hay dos sujetos distintos.

Id rather you stayed with us.


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Preferira que te quedaras con nosotros.

Id better: (had better)

Esta expresin se suele emplear para dar consejo o para hacer una
sugerencia. Va siempre seguida de infinitivo sin to.

Its cloudy. Wed better take our umbrellas in case it rains.

Est nublado. Ser mejor que cojamos los paraguas por si llueve.

2. Reported speech:

Utilizamos el estilo indirecto cuando queremos comunicar a alguien lo que otra


persona ha dicho, sin usar las mismas palabras.

Cuando el verbo introductor del estilo indirecto est en presente, present


perfect o futuro, los tiempos verbales no cambian:

They say: We live near here.

They say (that) they live near here. Dicen que viven aqu.

He says: I dont want to study.

He says (that) he doesnt want to study. Dice que no quiere.

Sin embargo, cuando el verbo introductor est en pasado, los cambios que
se producen son los siguientes:

Estilo directo Estilo indirecto


Present simple Past simple
I work from 9 to 5. He said (that) he worked from 9 to 5.
Present continuous Past continuous
Im watching TV. He said (that) he was watching TV.
Present perfect Past perfect
Weve just come back. They said they had just come back.
Past simple Past perfect
I spoke to them at the door. He said he had spoken to them at the
door.
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Cambios en los verbos modales:

Estilo directo Estilo indirecto


Can Could
I can sing very well. He said (that) he could sing very well.
Will Would
Ill open the window. He said (that) he would open the
window.
Must / have (got) to Had to
You must be more responsible. He said (that) I had to be more
responsible.
May Might
It may rain. He said (that) it might rain.

Los dems verbos modales no cambian.

Verbos introductores del estilo indirecto:

To say:

Im still a bit dizzy, he said to me.

To tell:

Im not going out, he told me.

Sin embargo en el estilo indirecto solo se utilizar told.

He told me he was still a bit dizzy.

Me dijo que todava estaba un poco mareado.

Los pronombres y adjetivos posesivos cambian de primera a tercera


persona.

She said, I cant find my purse

She said (that) she couldnt find her purse.

El pronombre you cambia a I o we.

He said, You are busy.

He said I/we was/were busy.


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Otras expresiones que cambian:

Estilo directo Estilo indirecto


This That
Here There
Today That day
Yesterday The day before/the previous day
Tomorrow The next day / the following day
Tonight That night
Tomorrow morning The following morning
Yesterday afternoon The previous afternoon.
Next week/month/year The following week/month/year
Last week/month/year The previous week/month/year
A week/month/year A week/month/year before

rdenes indirectas

En el estilo indirecto utilizamos siempre el imperativo para indicar una orden. En


el indirecto, empleamos la siguiente estructura.

Sujeto + verbo introductor (told, asked, advised, warned) + complemento +


to+infinitivo

He said to Gill, leave the door open.

He told (asked) Gill to leave the door open.

Si la orden es negativa

He said to me, Dont panic.

He told (asked) me not to panic.

Oraciones interrogativas indirectas

Las oraciones interrogativas indirectas pueden ir introducidas por los verbos: ask,
know, want to know, wonder, not know.

El orden de las palabras de la pregunta original cambia al orden de una oracin


declarativa. El sujeto va inmediatamente detrs del pronombre interrogativo, y el
verbo, detrs del sujeto.

He said, when did you start smoking?

He asked when I had started smoking.


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Las yes/no questions van introducidas por las conjunciones if o whether

He said, Can I sit down?

He asked me if/whether he could sit down.

3. Reporting verbs:

Hay ciertos verbos que pueden indicar la intencin del hablante: una sugerencia,
una disculpa, un ofrecimiento, una promesa, un rechazo, etc. A continuacin
podemos ver los verbos ms comunes y su estructura sintctica:

Oracin introducida por that

Admit Agree Claim Complain Explain Insist


Promise Remind Reply Say Suggest Tell
(+object)
Warn

Verbo+to+infinitivo

Promise Agree

Verbo + objeto + to + infinitivo

Ask Advise Invite Order Tell Warn

Verbo acabado en ing

Accuse someone of Admit Apologise for


Insist on Recommend suggest
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1. Choose the right answer.

-Mark would rather / had better stop smoking. Look at him!

-I dont want to go for a walk. Id rather / Its time have a rest.

-Betty would rather / had better drive carefully, she has already crashed two cars.

-Peter would rather / had better lie on the beach than climb the mountains.

-Would your children rather / Had your children better a dog or a cat? A cat, of
course. It is quieter.

-Bob wouldnt rather / had better not eat so much!

-Had I better / Would I rather tell him the truth or wait for a while?

-Id better / Its time to ask for the bill. Wouldnt you rather / Hadnt you better have
a coffee first?

-The teacher: Id rather / youd better you didnt sleep during the class.

2. Find the mistakes in seven of the sentences and correct them.

-Id better wrote your phone number down before I forget it.

-Id better went to the shops before they close.

-Had you rather I didnt say anything to your boss?

-Isnt it time you told him how you really feel?

-Id rather not working this weekend if at all possible.

-Would you better take a raincoat in case it rains?

-Id rather you paid me back in cash than by cheque if thats OK.

-Whats that smell? I think its time get the cake out of the oven.

-Id rather took just hand luggage on the plane than a large suitcase.
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3. Complete the sentences below with one of the verbs from the box. Be
sure to put them in the correct tense.

Live | not leave | have | take | see | go | not drink | share

-Id rather __________ my own way.

-Jill looks ill. Shed better __________ a doctor.

-Youre going to drive. Id rather you __________ alcohol.

-Id rather __________ alone than __________ my flat with a friend.

-Id rather you __________ now. Its raining!

-Its too late. Id rather you __________ a taxi.

-You look tired. Youd better __________ a rest.

4. Read the following situations and write sentences using had better or
would rather.

-Youre having a drink with a friend. You have to arrive home before 9 p.m.
Its now 8 p.m.

Id better leave now. Its getting late.

-Someone has invited you to go to the cinema but youd prefer to go for a
walk.

Id rather

-A classmate has asked you to help him with his homework. You think it
would be better for him to do it by himself.

Id rather you

-One of your friends smokes a lot. Hes been feeling ill recently.

Youd better

-John wants to give you a lift home, but you prefer to walk.

Id rather

-You want to go to London on holiday and you havent booked a hotel yet.

Id better
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-Im going to have some guests for dinner. The fridge is empty.

Id rather

5. Choose the correct words in italics.

-My doctor suggested taking / to take a week off work.

-They confirmed being / he would be about twenty minutes late.

-They warned not going / us not to go climbing without proper equipment.

-Will you remind me to go / going to the post office this afternoon?

-She explained not finishing / she hadnt finished her essay because the computer
had crashed.

-He admitted being / to be wrong about the time of the train.

-He claimed that he hadnt heard / not hearing about the flights being cancelled.

-She denied to tell / telling anyone about my new job.

6. Rewrite these statements in reported speech.

-I said to her, John has been cleaning the house all day.

I told her that John had been cleaning the house all day.

-The minister said, Im preparing my speech for tomorrow morning.

_______________________________________________________________________________________

-My teacher said, The test will be shorter and easier than the last one.

______________________________________________________________________________________

-The doctor said to me, You must stop eating sweets.

______________________________________________________________________________________

-The policeman said to her, Its going to be a bit difficult to find your purse.

______________________________________________________________________________________

-Mark said to her, The plane will be taking off in 30 minutes.

______________________________________________________________________________________
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-My mother said to me, I want you to tidy up your bedroom immediately.

______________________________________________________________________________________

-My neighbour said Its hot, but it isnt as hot as it was yesterday.

_____________________________________________________________________________________

7. Change these commands into reported speech.

-Robert said to him, Dont interrupt her while shes speaking.

Robert told him not to interrupt her while she was speaking.

-Barbara said to her brother, Please post this postcard for me. I cant do it
this morning.

______________________________________________________________________________________

-My father said, Be sure that the lights are off before going to bed.

______________________________________________________________________________________

-Sam said, Dont move of Ill have to take the photograph again.

______________________________________________________________________________________

-My friends said to me, Make up your mind. Were in a hurry.

______________________________________________________________________________________

-My mother said, Save your Money if you want to go on holiday.

______________________________________________________________________________________

8. Change these sentences into direct speech.

-Jimmy said that he would have to work harder if he wanted to finish on time.

Jimmy said, Ill have to work harder if I want to finish on time.

-The children asked him if he knew any other good stories.

______________________________________________________________________________________

-The manager said that the Easter holidays would start in two days time.

______________________________________________________________________________________
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-The police wanted to know how many people he had seen the previous
night.

______________________________________________________________________________________

-My mother asked me why nobody had walked the dog the day before.

______________________________________________________________________________________

9. Rewrite these sentences in reported speech using an appropriate


reporting verb from the box.

Warn | accuse | apologise | suggest | complain | recommend

-He said, Lets make a big cake for your birthday.

He suggested that we should make a big cake for my birthday.

-She said, You must read this book. I think its the best novel Ive ever
read.

______________________________________________________________________________________

-Susan said, Im so sorry. It wasnt my intention to hurt your feelings.

______________________________________________________________________________________

-They said, Our room is dirty. We want to see the hotel manager
immediately.

______________________________________________________________________________________

10. Phrasal verbs with three parts. Match the underlined phrasal verbs
with the correct meanings (a-j) below.

Im looking forward to getting my exam results tomorrow.

Theyre putting her in for her Grade 8 piano exam and shes only nine.

Id like you to cut down on the amount of time you spend on the computer.

I want to make up for all the time I wasted in my first year at secondary
school.

How do you put up with all that noise while youre studying?

Ill never catch up with him hes already way ahead of me.
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He cheated in his last exam and got away with it.

Have you come up with any ideas for your next career move?

Ive always looked up to my brother- Hes a really single-minded person.

Please dont run so fast! I cant keep up with you.

a. To think of, suggest.


b. To think you will enjoy.
c. To move at the same speed.
d. To formally apply to do something.
e. To tolerate.
f. To reduce.
g. To respect, admire.
h. To reach the same place.
i. To compensate for
j. To escape punishment.