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GENETICS LABORATORY MAE MATIAS 4BIO7 of one or more traits by specifying the structure of a

particular polypeptide and a protein or controlling the


Exercise 1 Phenotypic Variation in Organisms function of other genetic material. Alternative forms are
Variation called alleles.
3
- Basic quality of living things Set of genes in our DNA which is responsible for a
- Provides the identity of individual species particular trait.
yet maintains the characteristics that relate 4
physical expression or characteristics, of that trait.
it with others of its own kind
How alleles assemble in a loci1 or gene2 may
determine the genotype3 of the species
phenotype EXERCISE 2 Physical Basis of Heredity
- Morphological Cells
- Physiological
- Behavioral - Basic structural and physiological unity of
- Special variations attributed to the body of an organism
distinguished sexuality - Prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells carry genetic
NATURAL SELECTION differential survival and information in their chromosome1 These
reproduction of individuals die to differences in chromosomes are replication and
phenotype4. It is a key mechanism of evolution, the subsequently distributed to daughter cells
change in heritable traits of a population over time. during the process called cell division
- Cells grow and reproduce following a cycle
and metabolic activities that is regular and
FACTORS FOR VARIATION repetitive
These chromosomes are replication and
Due to the fact that environments are unstable,
subsequently distributed to daughter cells2
populations that are genetically variable will be able to
adapt to changing situations better than those that do during the process called cell division
not contain genetic variation. CELL CYCLE
- DNA MUTATION
o Mutations that result in genetic
variation produce traits that confer
neither an advantage or
disadvantage
- GENE FLOW
o Introduces new genes into a
population as organisms migrate to
new environments
- SEXUAL REPRODUCTION
o Meiosis is the process by which sex
cells or gametes are created
o Genetic Recombination of genes
Abbrevia
also occur during crossing over State Phase Description
tion
- EVOLUTION
- MIGRATION
A phase where the
cell has left the
1
a fixed position on a chromosome, like the position of Resting Gap 0 G0
cycle and has
a gene or a marker (genetic marker) stopped dividing.
2
a specific sequence of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that
is usually on a chromosome and is the functional unit of
inheritance controlling the transmission and expression
Mitosis
Cells increase in
size in Gap 1. Mitosis is the process by which a eukaryotic cell
The G1 checkpoint separates the chromosomes in its cell nucleus into two
Gap 1 G1 control mechanism identical sets in two nuclei. During the process of
ensures that mitosis the pairs of chromosomes condense and
everything is ready attach to fibers that pull the sister chromatids to
for DNA synthesis. opposite sides of the cell.
Mitosis occurs exclusively in eukaryotic cells, but
occurs in different ways in different species.
DNA
Synthe
S replication occurs
sis
during this phase.
Interph
ase
During the gap
between DNA
synthesis and
mitosis, the cell will
continue to grow.
The G2checkpoint
Gap 2 G2
control mechanism
ensures that
everything is ready
to enter the M
(mitosis) phase and
divide.

Cell growth stops at


this stage and
cellular energy is
focused on the
orderly division into
Cell
Mitosis M two daughter cells.
division Mitosis has discrete stages
A checkpoint in the
middle of mitosis
ensures that the cell - Prophase
is ready to complete o Chromosomes condense
cell division. o Centrioles (animals) divide and
move to opposite ends of cells
After cell division, each of the daughter cells begin o Nuclear envelope breaks down,
the interphase of a new cycle. Although the various nucleolus disintegrates,
stages of interphase are not usually morphologically chromosomes condense and
distinguishable, each phase of the cell cycle has a become visible
distinct set of specialized biochemical processes that
o Sister Chromatids are visibly
prepare the cell for initiation of cell division.
connected at the centromere
Divided into two periods;

- Interphase - Prometaphase
o Cells grow and replicates its o Period of chromosome movement
chromosomes o Chromosomes move to metaphase
- Cell division phase plate of cell
o Mitosis or meiosis, where the cells o Spindle fibers bind to kinetochore
actually divide region (assembly of multi-layered
plates of proteins associated with MEIOSIS I
the centromere)
Prophase I: first meiotic division
- Metaphase
o Chromosome configuration - Diploid cell duplicates its genetic material.
following migration - Meiosis is similar to mitotic prophase, except
o Centromeres/chromosomes are homologous chromosomes pair up
aligned at the metaphase plate (synapsis).
(equatorial plate) - End of prophase I
- Anaphase o Centromeres are present on the
o Centromeres split and sister equatorial plate.
chromatids separate from each
other (disjunction); they are no Metaphase I
longer chromatids but daughter - Chromosomes are at maximum shortness
chromosomes and thickness.
o Chromosomes migrate to opposite - Terminal chiasmata hold nonsister
poles (shortest stage of mitosis) chromatids together.
- Telophase - Binding to spindle fibers moves chromatids
o Final stage of mitosis with two to metaphase plate.
complete sets of chromosomes one - Alignment of tetrads is random
set at each pole
o Cytokinesis divides cytoplasm Anaphase I
o Chromosomes uncoil - Homologous chromosomes separate.
o Nuclear envelope re-forms - Nondisjunction may occurseparation not
o Spindle fibes disapper and nucleolus achieved.
re-forms o Disjunction: half of each tetrad (dyad) is
o Cell enters interphas randomly pulled to opposite poles.
MEIOSIS o At the end of anaphase I, number of
dyads equals haploid number present at
Meiosis is a type of cell division that reduces the poles.
number of chromosomes in the parent cell by half
and produces four gamete cells. Meiosis begins Telophase I
following one round of DNA replication in cells in the
- Reappearance of nuclear membrane and
male or female sex organs.
short interphase
- Maintains genetic continuity from - Chromosomes do not replicate, since they
generation to generation already consist of sister chromatids.
- Gives rise to genetic variation in gametes - Each cell is now haploid (n).
through:
MEIOSIS II
Crossing over of homologous
Prophase II: chromosomes are composed of one
chromosomes
pair of sister chromatids attached by common
Unique combinations of centromere.
maternal/paternal
Metaphase II: centromere is positioned at
chromosomes
metaphase plate.
- Two divisions required to reach haploidy
Anaphase II: centromeres divide; sister
- Meiosis I: reductional division
chromatids are pulled to opposite poles.
- Meiosis II: equational division
- Meiosis I and II each have prophase, Telophase II: one member of each homologous
metaphase, anaphase, and telophase stages. chromosome is at each pole.
Cytokinesis: four haploid gametes result from a
single mitotic event.

Exercise 3 Reproductive Cycles

Generation to generation sequence of stages in the


reproductive history of an organism

Life cycles that include sexual reproduction involve


alternating haploid (n) and diploid (2n) stages, i.e., a
change of ploidy is involved. To return from a diploid
stage to a haploid stage, meiosis must occur. In regard to
changes of ploidy, there are 3 types of cycles:

Haplobiontic, diploid

- One type of parent/adult such as a diploid or - Involves two types of parents/adults,


2N individual which produces gametes thru where one life stage is diplod, the
gametic meiosis sporophyte (2n), produces spores
- haploid stage is multicellular and the diploid through meiosis. The haploid spores
stage is a single cell, meiosis is "zygotic". germinate into a gametophyte (N) that
Ex. Drosophila melanogaster produces gametes through mitosis
- diploid stage is multicellular and haploid
gametes are formed, meiosis is
"gametic".

Ex. Zea Mays

Haplobiontic, haploid

- Involves one type of parent/adult that is


haploid (n) produces gametes by mitosis
- multicellular diploid and haploid stages Exercise 4 Karotyping
occur, meiosis is "sporic".
Karyotyping
Ex. Agaricus sp.
- method employed in determining the
number, shapes and sizes of the
chromosome set of organism
Haplodidiplobiontic, diplod-haploid
- Somatic cells undergoing metaphase of Exercise 5 Care and Culture of Drosophila
mitosis which have two identical threads melanogaster
called sister chromatids Drosophila melanogaster
- Double nature of the chromosomes extends - Short life cycle
along its length except at the region of the - Produces fairly large number of offspring
centromere which may be located at the a) - Easy to grow and maintain in the laboratory
middle, b) off center, c) close to one end d) using a variety of simple culture media
the terminal of the chromosome - Convenient to handle and store due to small
The white blood cells triggered to undergo size
mitosis are then trapped in metaphase by using - Possess only 4 pairs of chromosome making
colchicine. These cells are fixed and then analysis of crosses rather easy
exposed to hypotonic solution. The cells swell, - Great variability of inherited characteristics
their nuclear membranes rupture and the - Availability of literature
chromosomes scatter.
Propionic acid or yeast to avoid molds

KAYA NIYO NA TO MGA LODI!!!!!! YOU KNOW


THIS BY HEART AND SOUL

Exercise 7 Gene regulation: Polytene Chromosomes

Polytene Chromosomes

- Oversized chromosomes which have


developed from standard chromosomes.
- Specialized cells undergo repeated rounds of
DNA replication without cell division
(endomitosis), to increase cell volume,
Two chromosomes specify sex, XX for forming a giant polytene chromosome.
female and XY for male. The rest are - Polytene chromosomes form when multiple
arranged in pairs, numbered 1 through 22,
from largest to smallest. This arrangement
helps scientists quickly identify chromosomal
alterations that may result in a genetic
disorder

Chromosome Centromere location


1 Metacentric
2 Submetacentric
3 Metacentric
4-12 Submetacentric
13-15 Acrocentric
16 Metacentric
rounds of replication produce many sister
17-18 Submetacentric
19-20 Metacentric chromatids that remain fused together
21-22 Acrocentric
X Submetacentric
Y acrocentric GOOD LUCK MGA LODI HANGANG DITO NA LANG KAYA
KO. <3 LOVE YOU ALL! MAE MATIAS GANDA