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Standard Test Method for


Hydraulic Bursting Strength of Textile FabricsDiaphragm
Bursting Strength Tester Method1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation D 3786; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

1. Scope 3. Terminology
1.1 This test method describes the measurement of the 3.1 Definitions:
resistance of textile fabrics to bursting using the hydraulic 3.1.1 bursting strength, nthe distending force, which is
diaphragm bursting tester. This test method is generally appli- applied at right angles to the plane of the fabric, under specified
cable to a wide variety of textile products. conditions, which will result in the rupture of a textile.
1.2 This test method may also be applicable for stretch 3.1.2 knitted fabric, na structure produced by interlooping
woven and woven industrial fabrics such as inflatable re- one or more ends of yarn or comparable material.
straints. 3.1.3 nonwoven fabric, na textile structure produced by
1.3 The values stated in S. I. Units are to be regarded as the bonding or interlocking of fibers, or both, accomplished by
standard. mechanical, chemical, thermal or solvent means and combina-
NOTE 1For the measurement of the bursting strength by means of a
tions thereof.
ball burst mechanism, refer to Test Method D 3787. 3.1.3.1 DiscussionThe term does not include paper or
fabrics that are woven, knitted or tufted.
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the 3.1.4 woven fabric, na structure produced when at least
safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the two sets of strands are interlaced, usually at right angles to each
responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro- other according to a predetermined pattern of interlacing, and
priate safety and health practices and determine the applica- such that at least one set is parallel to the axis along the
bility of regulatory limitations prior to use. lengthwise direction of the fabric.
2. Referenced Documents 3.1.5 stretch woven fabric, na woven fabric which is
capable of at least 20 % stretch in either warp or filling
2.1 ASTM Standards: 2
direction, or both, under loads and conditions encountered in
D 123 Terminology Relating to Textiles
use and of almost complete recovery on removal of the load.
D 5034 Test Methods for Breaking Load and Elongation of
3.2 For definitions of other textile terms used in this test
Textile Fabrics
method, refer to Terminology D 123.
D 1776 Practice for Conditioning Textiles for Testing
D 3787 Test Method for Bursting Strength of Knitted 4. Summary of Test Method
TextilesConstant-Rate-of-Traverse (CRT) Ball Burst 4.1 A is clamped over an expandable diaphragm. The
Test diaphragm is expanded by fluid pressure to the point of
2.2 Other Standard: specimen rupture. The difference between the total pressure
TAPPI T 403, OM.91 Bursting Strength of Paper3 required to rupture the specimen and the pressure required to
inflate the diaphragm is reported as the bursting strength.

1
This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D13 on Textiles
5. Significance and Use
and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee D13.59 on Fabric Test Methods. 5.1 This method for the determination of diaphragm burst-
General. ing strength of knitted, nonwoven and woven fabrics is being
Current edition approved Dec. 10, 2001. Published March 2002. Originally
published as D 378679. Last previous edition D 378687. used by the textile industry for the evaluation of a wide variety
2
For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, or of end uses.
contact ASTM Customer Service at service@astm.org. For Annual Book of ASTM 5.2 In cases where test results obtained using the procedures
Standards volume information, refer to the standards Document Summary page on
the ASTM website.
in Test Method D 3786 have not been correlated with actual
3
Available from Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry, 1 performance, Test Method D 3786 is considered satisfactory
Dunwoody Park, Atlanta, GA 30341. for acceptance testing of commercial shipments of textile

Copyright ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.

1
D 3786 01
fabrics for bursting strength since the method has been used be used, the test being carried out with the clamping ring
extensively in the trade for acceptance testing. In cases where removed. The diaphragm should be inspected frequently for
disagreement arising from differences in values reported by the permanent distortion and renewed as necessary.
purchaser and the supplier when using Test Method D 3786 for 6.1.3 Pressure GageA maximum-reading pressure gage
acceptance testing, the statistical bias, if any, between the of the Bourdon type of appropriate capacity graduated in
laboratory of the purchaser and the laboratory of the supplier pounds and accurate throughout the entire range of its scale to
should be determined with comparison based on testing speci- within a value of 1 % of its maximum capacity. The capacity of
mens randomly drawn from one sample of material of the type the gage shall be such that the individual readings will be not
being evaluated. less than 25 % nor more than 75 % of the total capacity of the
gage.
NOTE 2The kind of load transfer and stretch that occur when knitted
goods and nonwoven fabrics are worn are prevented by clamping them as 6.1.4 Hydraulic Pressure SystemA mean of applying
described in this method. controlled increasing hydrostatic pressure to the underside of
the diaphragm until the specimen bursts through a fluid
6. Apparatus and Materials displaced at the rate of 95 6 5 mL/min. The fluid is displaced
6.1 Hydraulic Diaphram Bursting Tester4 A testing ma- by a piston in the pressure chamber of the apparatus. The
chine that meets the requirements of 6.1.1-6.1.4. In cases of recommended chamber fluid is USP chemically pure 96 %
dispute, a motor-driven tester shall be used unless the pur- glycerin. The hydraulic system, including the gages shall be
chaser and the supplier agree otherwise. mounted so as to be free of externally induced vibrations.
6.1.1 Clamps, for firmly and uniformly securing the test Means shall be provided at the instant of rupture of the
specimen between two annular, plane, parallel, and preferably specimen for stopping any further application of the loading
stainless steel surfaces, without slippage during the test. Use pressure and for holding unchanged the contents of the
sufficient pressure to effect the practicable minimization of pressure chamber until the total bursting pressure and the
slippage. pressure required to inflate the diaphragm indicated on the gage
6.1.1.1 The upper and lower clamping surfaces shall have a have been recorded.
circular opening at least 75 mm (3 in.) in diameter and coaxial NOTE 4Ethylene glycol may be substituted for the glycerine if
apertures of 31 6 0.75 mm (1.22 6 0.03 in.) in diameter: The desired.
surfaces of the clamps between which the specimen is placed
6.1.5 Aluminum Foil For Calibration of Tester5Pieces of
shall have concentric grooves spaced not less than 0.8 mm (132
pretested aluminum sheet having a known bursting strength in
in.) apart and shall be of a depth not less than 0.015 mm
the range of 70 to 790 kPa (10 to 115 psi) are use for checking
(0.0006 in.) from the edge of the aperture. The surfaces of the
the overall performance of the tester.
clamps shall be metallic and any edge which might cause a
cutting action shall be rounded to a radius of not more than 0.4
7. Sampling
mm (164 in.). The lower clamp shall be integral with the
chamber in which a screw shall operate to force a liquid 7.1 Lot SampleAs a lot sample for acceptance testing,
pressure medium at a uniform rate of 95 6 5 mL/min against take at random the number of rolls of fabric directed in an
the rubber diaphragm. applicable material specification or other agreement between
the purchaser and the supplier. Consider rolls of fabric to be the
NOTE 3Since the clamping mechanism and clamping surfaces are primary sampling units.
subject to considerable wear and distortion, they should be examined
periodically and repaired or replaced when necessary. The effectiveness of NOTE 5An adequate specification or other agreement between the
grooving the clamping surfaces in the manner specified has not been purchaser and the supplier requires taking into account the variability
determined. between rolls of fabric and between specimens from a swatch from a roll
of fabric to provide a sampling plan with a meaningful producers risk,
6.1.2 Diaphragm4A 48 mm (1.875 in) diaphragm of
consumers risk, acceptable quality level, and limiting quality level.
molded synthetic rubber, 1.80 6 0.05 mm (0.070 6 0.002 in.)
in thickness with reinforced center, clamped between the lower 7.2 Laboratory SampleAs a laboratory sample for accep-
clamping plate and the rest of the apparatus so that before the tance testing, take a full width swatch 1 m (1 yd) long from the
diaphragm is stretched by pressure underneath it the center of end of each roll of fabric in the lot sample, after first discarding
its upper surface is below the plane of the clamping surface. a minimum of 1 m (1 yd) of fabric from the very outside of the
The pressure required to raise the free surface of the diaphragm roll. From each roll or piece of circular knit fabric selected
plane shall be 30 6 5 kPa (4.3 6 0.8 psi). This pressure shall from the lot sample, cut a band at least 305 mm (1 ft) wide.
be checked at least once a month. To test, a bridge gage4 may 7.3 Test SpecimensCut ten test specimens from each
swatch in the laboratory sample with each specimen being 125
mm (5 in.) square.
4
The Hydraulic Diaphragm Bursting Testers, hand driven Model LC (Fig. 1A)
and motor driven Models C (Fig. 1B) and (Fig. 1C), and accessories, manufactured
by B. F. Perkins & Son, Inc., have been found satisfactory. The motor driven Model
5
A (Fig. 1D) has been found to be satisfactory for heavyweight fabrics, but may be Standardized aluminum sheets for this purpose, bursting over the range from 51
unsuitable for some lightweight fabrics. Model C and Model A have different to 150 psi (350 to 1035 kPa) may be obtained from the Pulp and Paper Research
pumping rates and different diaphragms therefore it is not likely these two machines Institute of Canada, 3420 University St., Montreal, Canada; from Testing Foil
will give the same result. The testers also can be obtained from Testing Machines, Service, 304 N. Stevens St., Rhinelander, WI 54501; and from Testing Machines,
Inc., 400 Bayview Ave., Amityville NY Inc., 400 Bayview Ave., Amityville, NY 11701.

2
D 3786 01
8. Calibration 11.2.4 Immediately after rupture and in rapid succession,
8.1 Routine Verification of Testing MachineCheck the release the clamping lever over the specimen. Immediately
operation of the testing machine at least once each month by release the strain on the diaphragm by turning the wheel
bursting five specimens of standard aluminum sheet. The counterclockwise to its starting position and record the pres-
average of the indicated bursting resistance for the five sure required to inflate the diaphragm (tare pressure). Record
specimens of aluminum sheet should be between 65 % of that the total pressure required to rupture the specimen.
marked on the package of the pretested aluminum sheet NOTE 8If the pressure stops increasing, as indicated by the dial, and
standard. the specimen has not broken, push the operating lever to remove the
8.2 Calibration of GageCalibrate the gage, while inclined pressure. Record that the stretch of the fabric exceeds the dimensional
at the same angle at which it is used, by means of a limitations of the tester. If slippage of the specimen is noted, discard the
dead-weight tester of the piston type, or by means of a column result and use a new specimen.
of mercury. Such calibration is preferably carried out with the 11.3 Motor-Driven Tester:
gage in its normal position in the tester. 11.3.1 Insert the specimen under the tripod, drawing the
8.3 Where agreement is not attained, check the tester specimen taut across the plate, and clamp specimen in place by
according to the instructions given in Tappi Method T-403 bringing the clamping lever as far to the right as possible (see
OS-74. Note 6).
11.3.2 Inflate the diaphragm by moving the operating
NOTE 6Possible causes of low readings are gage error (bias or
nonlinearity), gage expansivity too high, excessive gage pointer friction, handle to the left.
air in hydraulic system or gage, diaphragm collapsed too far at zero, and 11.3.3 While the diaphragm is inflating, take hold of the
low pumping rate (hand-driven tester). Possible causes of high readings latch that is located below, or to the right, of the operating
are: gage error (bias nonlinearity), loose gage pointer (overshoot), gage handle. At the instant of rupture of the specimen, swing the
pointer bent by stop-pin, insufficient clamping force (slipping), nonuni- latch as far as it will go to bring the operating handle to an
form clamping (partial slipping), stiff or inelastic diaphragm, diaphragm idling (neutral) position (see Note 8). Record the total pressure
above clamping plate at zero, multiple sheet testing, high pumping rate
(hand-driven tester), and double bursts. If a gage is accidently used
required to rupture the specimen.
beyond its capacity, it must be recalibrated before it is used again. 11.3.4 Immediately after rupture, and in rapid succession,
release the clamping lever over the specimen. Immediately
9. Conditioning relieve the strain on the diaphragm by dropping the latch back
9.1 Bring the specimens (or laboratory samples) from the to its normal position, throw the operating handle to the right,
prevailing atmosphere to moisture equilibrium for testing in the and record the pressure required to inflate the diaphragm (tare
standard atmosphere for textile testing as directed in Practice pressure).
D 1776.
12. Calculation
10. Selection and Number of Specimens 12.1 Calculate the bursting pressure of each specimen by
subtracting the tare pressure required to inflate the diaphragm
10.1 Unless otherwise agreed upon, as when specified in an
from the total pressure required to rupture the specimen.
applicable material specification, take ten specimens of the
12.2 Report the pressure reading of each individual speci-
laboratory sample(s) of fabric. Each specimen shall be at least
men and the average for each laboratory sampling unit and the
125 mm (5 in.) square, or a circle 125 mm (5 in.) in diameter.
lot.
Specimens need not be cut for testing. No two specimens from
12.3 Report the type of bursting tester used.
knitted fabric should contain the same wale or course yarns.
Take no specimens nearer the selvage than one tenth the fabric 13. Report
width. This restriction does not apply to tubular knitted fabric.
13.1 State that the specimens were tested as directed in Test
11. Procedure Method D 3786 using the Hydraulic Diaphragm Bursting
Tester. Describe the material or product sampled and the
11.1 Make all tests on specimens conditioned in the stan- method of sampling used.
dard atmosphere for testing textiles as directed in 9.1. 13.2 Report the bursting strength of each individual speci-
11.2 Hand Driven Tester: men and their average in kPa (psi).
11.2.1 Insert the conditioned specimen under the tripod, 13.3 Report the type of bursting tester used.
drawing the specimen taut across the plate, and clamp speci-
men in place by bringing the clamping lever as far to the right 14. Precision and Bias
as possible.
14.1 SummaryIn comparing two averages of ten observa-
NOTE 7For specimens with considerable stretch, it may be necessary tions each, the difference should not exceed the following
to extend the fabric uniformly over the plate to remove some of the stretch critical differences in 95 out of 100 cases when both sets of
before clamping.
observations are taken by the same well-trained operator using
11.2.2 Rotate the hand wheel, clockwise at a uniform speed the same piece of test equipment and specimens randomly
of 120 rpm until the specimen bursts. drawn from the same sample of material.
11.2.3 Stop turning the hand wheel at the instant of rupture Spun yarn in circular knit 41 kPa (6.0 psi)
of the specimen (see Note 8). Filament yarn in tricot knit 14 kPa (2.0 psi)

3
D 3786 01
Larger differences are likely to occur under all other circum- 14.3 Critical DifferencesFor the components of variance
stances. The value of the bursting strength of knitted goods can reported in 14.2, two averages of observed values should be
only be defined in terms of a specific test method. considered significantly different at the 95 % probability level
Within this limitation, the procedure for bursting strength in if the difference equals or exceeds the critical differences listed
Test Method D 3786 has no known bias. Sections 14.2-14.4 in Table 2 (Note 9).
explain the basis for this summary and for evaluations made NOTE 11The tabulated values of the critical differences should be
under other conditions. considered to be a general statement particularly with respect to between-
14.2 Interlaboratory Test Data6An interlaboratory test laboratory precision. Before a statement can be made about two specific
was run in 1977 in which randomly drawn specimens of six laboratories, the amount of statistical bias, if any, between them must be
fabrics were tested in each of four to five laboratories. Three established, with each comparison being based on recent data obtained on
fabrics were circular knit fabrics containing spun yarns and specimens randomly drawn from a sample taken at random from a lot of
three of the fabrics were tricot knit fabrics containing filament the material to be evaluated.
yarns. The components of variance for bursting strength results 14.4 BiasThe procedure in Test Method D 3786 has no
expressed as standard deviations were calculated to be the known bias because the value of bursting is defined in terms of
values reported in Table 1. this test method.
NOTE 9The difference in variability between the two groups of 15. Keywords
fabrics is thought to be the result of the differences between the source
yarns rather than the type of equipment on which the fabrics were knit.
15.1 diaphragm bursting pressure; knitted fabric; non wo-
There is no objective evidence to substantiate this belief. ven fabric
NOTE 10The interlaboratory test data were obtained with motor-
driven testers. The precision of the method using a hand-operated tester TABLE 2 Critical Differences for Bursting-Pressure for the
has not been determined. Conditions Noted, Percentage PointsA
Number of
Single- Within- Between-
Observations
Operator Laboratory Laboratory
in Each
Precision Precision Precision
Average
6
ASTM Research Report No. RR:D13-1061. A copy is available from ASTM
Spun yarns in 5 8.4 9.0 11.3
Headquarters. circular knit
10 6.0 6.7 9.6
TABLE 1 Components of Variance for Bursting Strength 20 4.2 5.2 8.7
40 3.0 4.3 8.1
Expressed as Standard Deviations, Percentage Points
Single-Operator Within-Laboratory Between-Laboratory Filament yarns 5 2.9 9.1 11.6
Component Component Component in tricot knit
10 2.0 8.8 11.4
Spun yarns in circular 6.8 1.1 2.5
20 1.4 8.7 11.3
knit
40 1.0 8.7 11.3
Filament yarns in tricot 2.3 3.1 2.6
A
knit The critical differences were calculated using t = 1.645, which is based on
infinite degrees of freedom.

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