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Definition of

History of
Migration Issues

Types of
Definition of Migration

Migration is the relatively permanent movement of

people across territorial boundaries for the purpose
of changing residence.
People who migrate (moving out from their original country)
are commonly called migrants or emigrants.

People who coming from another country into ours are called

Migration can be voluntary or involuntary (forced).

Migration can be permanent or temporary.

History of Migration
Migration is as old as the early civilization.

The earliest migration was said to originated from Africa and

later spread off to other parts of the world.

Dr. Luca Cavalli-Sforza (University of Padua, Italy) research on

migration Published in Journal of Nature Genetics.
The results showed that a common maternal ancestors coming out of
Africa existed 50,000 years ago. Migration was said occurred between the
people of Ethiopia, the Arabian peninsula and India.
Types of Migration
International Migration Internal Migration
Involves movement between Takes place within a given country.
countries and sometimes

-People who move only a short distance within a given geographical

area are not usually considered migrants; they are simply movers.

-Migrants must cross some established territorial boundary, like a state

line or national border.
Types of Migration and Examples
Types Example
Regional Change of job or workplace.
Rural to urban (urbanization) Seeking employment.
Urban to rural (suburbanization) Seeking better environment.
International migration Various reasons like seeking for a
better employment, avoiding
instability of political situation.
Seasonal migration Related to agriculture and animal
husbandry eg. nomads in the
desert, communities in highlands.
Permanent migration Political asylum, marriage, work.
Local Zone to zone in a district (moving
Factors Influencing Migration
Push Factors Pull Factors
Poor Medical care. Chances of getting a job
Not enough jobs. Better living standards
Few opportunities. Enjoyment
Primitive Conditions Education
Political fear Better Medical Care
Fear of torture and mistreatment Security
Religious discrimination Family Links
Loss of wealth Lower crime
Natural Disasters Better chances of finding courtship
Lower chances of finding courtship
Worlds Migration Overview
A countrys annual rate of net migration is determined by
subtracting the number of out-migrants for that year from the
number of in-migrants.

The rate may be either positive or negative, depending on

whether the country gains or loses migrants.

A migration stream is a large number of people moving in the

same direction.

Major migration streams in history have been fro Europe to

North America and Australia, from Africa to North and South
America because of the slave trade, from Asia to North
America and East and South Africa, and from Latin America to
North America.
Today, the principal destinations of migrants are North
America and Western Europe, largely because of greater
economic opportunity or freedom from political persecution
or both.

Western European countries are looking for ways to bar the

door to immigrants because they are being flooded by
people fleeing poverty and political unrest in Africa, Eastern
Europe and South Asia.

In 1992, some 438,000 people applied for political asylum in

Germany alone.

As the richest European nation and one with a generous

policy toward political refugees, Germany has had the
greatest influx of migrants.
In 1990, some 19.7 million residents of the United States were

As recently as the 1950s, two-thirds of all immigrants came

from Europe and Canada currently, the majority are from
Latin America and the Caribbean and Asia, especially the
Philippines, China, Taiwan, Vietnam, South Korea and Japan.

In the 1980s large numbers of people fled to the United States

because of poverty and oppression in Haiti, communist
repression in Cuba and Poland, guerrilla warfare in Central
America and serious economic downturns in Mexico and the

This influx caused some experts to conclude that the United

States biggest import is people, with about 450,000 arriving
legally every year and another 1.5 million entering the country
Migration Issues
Top 10 Migration Issues 2012
Issue #1: Migration flows rise, Diversify as global economy stumbles towards recovery.

Issue #2: Obama administration action benefitting dreamers a game-changer in US

immigration debate.
Issue #3: Anti-immigrant rhethoric just one of several campaign messages for far-right parties.

Issue #4: Forced migration: No resolution in sight for Syrians, violent outbreaks displace
thousands across African continent.
Issue #5: The stars maybe aligning for break in long running stalemate over major US
Immigration policy reform.
Issue #6: 2012 proved a year of migration management headaches in the European Union.

Issue #7: Government crack down on student visa fraud.

Issue #8: Major immigration countries take a crack at addressing thorny issue of immigrant
Issue #9: International student mobility rises and countries seek to capitalized.

Issue #10: As migration of unaccompanied minors endures and in some cases rises,
government seek to respond.
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