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Nineteenth-Century Contexts An Interdisciplinary Journal ISSN: 0890-5495 (Print) 1477-2663 (Online) Journal homepage: <a href=http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/gncc20 The Making of Women Artists in Victorian England: The Education and Careers of Six Professionals Julie Codell To cite this article: Julie Codell (2017) The Making of Women Artists in Victorian England: The Education and Careers of Six Professionals, Nineteenth-Century Contexts, 39:4, 333-335, DOI: 10.1080/08905495.2017.1340063 To link to this article: https://doi.org/10.1080/08905495.2017.1340063 Published online: 12 Jun 2017. Submit your article to this journal Article views: 32 View related articles View Crossmark data Full Terms & Conditions of access and use can be found at http://www.tandfonline.com/action/journalInformation?journalCode=gncc20 Download by: [Mimar Sinan Universitesi] Date: 26 November 2017, At: 18:24 " id="pdf-obj-0-2" src="pdf-obj-0-2.jpg">

Nineteenth-Century Contexts

An Interdisciplinary Journal

Nineteenth-Century Contexts An Interdisciplinary Journal ISSN: 0890-5495 (Print) 1477-2663 (Online) Journal homepage: <a href=http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/gncc20 The Making of Women Artists in Victorian England: The Education and Careers of Six Professionals Julie Codell To cite this article: Julie Codell (2017) The Making of Women Artists in Victorian England: The Education and Careers of Six Professionals, Nineteenth-Century Contexts, 39:4, 333-335, DOI: 10.1080/08905495.2017.1340063 To link to this article: https://doi.org/10.1080/08905495.2017.1340063 Published online: 12 Jun 2017. Submit your article to this journal Article views: 32 View related articles View Crossmark data Full Terms & Conditions of access and use can be found at http://www.tandfonline.com/action/journalInformation?journalCode=gncc20 Download by: [Mimar Sinan Universitesi] Date: 26 November 2017, At: 18:24 " id="pdf-obj-0-8" src="pdf-obj-0-8.jpg">

ISSN: 0890-5495 (Print) 1477-2663 (Online) Journal homepage: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/gncc20

The Making of Women Artists in Victorian England:

The Education and Careers of Six Professionals

Julie Codell

To cite this article: Julie Codell (2017) The Making of Women Artists in Victorian England: The Education and Careers of Six Professionals, Nineteenth-Century Contexts, 39:4, 333-335, DOI:

  • Published online: 12 Jun 2017.

Nineteenth-Century Contexts An Interdisciplinary Journal ISSN: 0890-5495 (Print) 1477-2663 (Online) Journal homepage: <a href=http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/gncc20 The Making of Women Artists in Victorian England: The Education and Careers of Six Professionals Julie Codell To cite this article: Julie Codell (2017) The Making of Women Artists in Victorian England: The Education and Careers of Six Professionals, Nineteenth-Century Contexts, 39:4, 333-335, DOI: 10.1080/08905495.2017.1340063 To link to this article: https://doi.org/10.1080/08905495.2017.1340063 Published online: 12 Jun 2017. Submit your article to this journal Article views: 32 View related articles View Crossmark data Full Terms & Conditions of access and use can be found at http://www.tandfonline.com/action/journalInformation?journalCode=gncc20 Download by: [Mimar Sinan Universitesi] Date: 26 November 2017, At: 18:24 " id="pdf-obj-0-38" src="pdf-obj-0-38.jpg">
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Nineteenth-Century Contexts An Interdisciplinary Journal ISSN: 0890-5495 (Print) 1477-2663 (Online) Journal homepage: <a href=http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/gncc20 The Making of Women Artists in Victorian England: The Education and Careers of Six Professionals Julie Codell To cite this article: Julie Codell (2017) The Making of Women Artists in Victorian England: The Education and Careers of Six Professionals, Nineteenth-Century Contexts, 39:4, 333-335, DOI: 10.1080/08905495.2017.1340063 To link to this article: https://doi.org/10.1080/08905495.2017.1340063 Published online: 12 Jun 2017. Submit your article to this journal Article views: 32 View related articles View Crossmark data Full Terms & Conditions of access and use can be found at http://www.tandfonline.com/action/journalInformation?journalCode=gncc20 Download by: [Mimar Sinan Universitesi] Date: 26 November 2017, At: 18:24 " id="pdf-obj-0-73" src="pdf-obj-0-73.jpg">

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Nineteenth-Century Contexts An Interdisciplinary Journal ISSN: 0890-5495 (Print) 1477-2663 (Online) Journal homepage: <a href=http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/gncc20 The Making of Women Artists in Victorian England: The Education and Careers of Six Professionals Julie Codell To cite this article: Julie Codell (2017) The Making of Women Artists in Victorian England: The Education and Careers of Six Professionals, Nineteenth-Century Contexts, 39:4, 333-335, DOI: 10.1080/08905495.2017.1340063 To link to this article: https://doi.org/10.1080/08905495.2017.1340063 Published online: 12 Jun 2017. Submit your article to this journal Article views: 32 View related articles View Crossmark data Full Terms & Conditions of access and use can be found at http://www.tandfonline.com/action/journalInformation?journalCode=gncc20 Download by: [Mimar Sinan Universitesi] Date: 26 November 2017, At: 18:24 " id="pdf-obj-0-78" src="pdf-obj-0-78.jpg">

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NINETEENTH-CENTURY CONTEXTS

Downloaded by [Mimar Sinan Universitesi] at 18:24 26 November 2017 NINETEENTH-CENTURY CONTEXTS 333 of race, class,alchase@sas.upenn.edu © 2017 Alex Chase-Levenson https://doi.org/10.1080/08905495.2017.1340062 The Making of Women Artists in Victorian England: The Education and Careers of Six Professionals , by Jo Devereux, Jefferson, NC, McFarland, 2016, 264 pp., 41 illustrations, $35 (paperback), ISBN: 978-0-7864-9409-5 Despite decades of feminist art history and studies of women artists, the case study approach Jo Devereux uses here is still viable, since we have so few critical biographies of Victorian women artists. Women associated with, or followers of, Pre-Raphaelitism received the earliest attention in Jan Marsh and Pamela Nunn ’ s case studies, exhibitions, and catalogs. Griselda Pollock and Deborah Cherry ’ s feminist studies and Meaghan Clarke ’ s book on women art writers extended the study of women ’ s roles in the Victorian art world. Devereux begins with a summary of women ’ s networks at the most prominent art schools: South Kensington, the Royal Academy, and the unconventional Slade School. She explores the public and professional reception of women artists and their common subjects, techniques, and media. Art schools folded gender ideologies into technical training, e.g., watercolor was a more ladylike medium than oil paint, no life classes with nude models for women. Successful women artists established networks largely through male mentors, as essential to their success as was family support of their ambitions. Devereux ’ s subjects — Kate Greenaway, Henrietta Rae, Elizabeth Thompson Butler, Helen Allingham, and Evelyn Pickering De Morgan — were among a small number of highly success- ful women artists. They were included in biographical dictionaries and biographies in the Magazine of Art , Art Journal , and The Studio . Prominent critics wrote biographies of Alling- ham (Marcus Huish, 1903), Greenaway (M. H. Spielmann and G. S. Layard, 1905), and Rae (Arthur Fish, 1905), indicating these women were cultural icons and not marginal. True, their biographies endorsed hegemonic femininity even for childless or unconventional artists. Butler (whose sister was writer Alice Meynell) published her autobiography in 1922, as did several Victorian women artists whose feminist autobiographies were better fit for the 1920s than the 1890s. " id="pdf-obj-1-6" src="pdf-obj-1-6.jpg">

333

of race, class, nation, and religion is repetitive, prescriptive, and bland. By contrast, individual readings, as Youngkin pursues Egyptian influence throughout a diverse set of Victorian novels, are beautifully constructed. They make a welcome addition to our understanding of the inter- section between ancient Egypt and modernizing Britain.

Notes on contributor

Alex Chase-Levenson is an assistant professor of modern European history at the University of Pennsylvania. He is currently completing a book manuscript about nineteenth-century Britains cultural, political, and diplomatic engagement with the Mediterranean quarantine system.

Alex Chase-Levenson

Department of History, University of Pennsylvania

Downloaded by [Mimar Sinan Universitesi] at 18:24 26 November 2017 NINETEENTH-CENTURY CONTEXTS 333 of race, class,alchase@sas.upenn.edu © 2017 Alex Chase-Levenson https://doi.org/10.1080/08905495.2017.1340062 The Making of Women Artists in Victorian England: The Education and Careers of Six Professionals , by Jo Devereux, Jefferson, NC, McFarland, 2016, 264 pp., 41 illustrations, $35 (paperback), ISBN: 978-0-7864-9409-5 Despite decades of feminist art history and studies of women artists, the case study approach Jo Devereux uses here is still viable, since we have so few critical biographies of Victorian women artists. Women associated with, or followers of, Pre-Raphaelitism received the earliest attention in Jan Marsh and Pamela Nunn ’ s case studies, exhibitions, and catalogs. Griselda Pollock and Deborah Cherry ’ s feminist studies and Meaghan Clarke ’ s book on women art writers extended the study of women ’ s roles in the Victorian art world. Devereux begins with a summary of women ’ s networks at the most prominent art schools: South Kensington, the Royal Academy, and the unconventional Slade School. She explores the public and professional reception of women artists and their common subjects, techniques, and media. Art schools folded gender ideologies into technical training, e.g., watercolor was a more ladylike medium than oil paint, no life classes with nude models for women. Successful women artists established networks largely through male mentors, as essential to their success as was family support of their ambitions. Devereux ’ s subjects — Kate Greenaway, Henrietta Rae, Elizabeth Thompson Butler, Helen Allingham, and Evelyn Pickering De Morgan — were among a small number of highly success- ful women artists. They were included in biographical dictionaries and biographies in the Magazine of Art , Art Journal , and The Studio . Prominent critics wrote biographies of Alling- ham (Marcus Huish, 1903), Greenaway (M. H. Spielmann and G. S. Layard, 1905), and Rae (Arthur Fish, 1905), indicating these women were cultural icons and not marginal. True, their biographies endorsed hegemonic femininity even for childless or unconventional artists. Butler (whose sister was writer Alice Meynell) published her autobiography in 1922, as did several Victorian women artists whose feminist autobiographies were better fit for the 1920s than the 1890s. " id="pdf-obj-1-23" src="pdf-obj-1-23.jpg">

© 2017 Alex Chase-Levenson

https://doi.org/10.1080/08905495.2017.1340062

Downloaded by [Mimar Sinan Universitesi] at 18:24 26 November 2017 NINETEENTH-CENTURY CONTEXTS 333 of race, class,alchase@sas.upenn.edu © 2017 Alex Chase-Levenson https://doi.org/10.1080/08905495.2017.1340062 The Making of Women Artists in Victorian England: The Education and Careers of Six Professionals , by Jo Devereux, Jefferson, NC, McFarland, 2016, 264 pp., 41 illustrations, $35 (paperback), ISBN: 978-0-7864-9409-5 Despite decades of feminist art history and studies of women artists, the case study approach Jo Devereux uses here is still viable, since we have so few critical biographies of Victorian women artists. Women associated with, or followers of, Pre-Raphaelitism received the earliest attention in Jan Marsh and Pamela Nunn ’ s case studies, exhibitions, and catalogs. Griselda Pollock and Deborah Cherry ’ s feminist studies and Meaghan Clarke ’ s book on women art writers extended the study of women ’ s roles in the Victorian art world. Devereux begins with a summary of women ’ s networks at the most prominent art schools: South Kensington, the Royal Academy, and the unconventional Slade School. She explores the public and professional reception of women artists and their common subjects, techniques, and media. Art schools folded gender ideologies into technical training, e.g., watercolor was a more ladylike medium than oil paint, no life classes with nude models for women. Successful women artists established networks largely through male mentors, as essential to their success as was family support of their ambitions. Devereux ’ s subjects — Kate Greenaway, Henrietta Rae, Elizabeth Thompson Butler, Helen Allingham, and Evelyn Pickering De Morgan — were among a small number of highly success- ful women artists. They were included in biographical dictionaries and biographies in the Magazine of Art , Art Journal , and The Studio . Prominent critics wrote biographies of Alling- ham (Marcus Huish, 1903), Greenaway (M. H. Spielmann and G. S. Layard, 1905), and Rae (Arthur Fish, 1905), indicating these women were cultural icons and not marginal. True, their biographies endorsed hegemonic femininity even for childless or unconventional artists. Butler (whose sister was writer Alice Meynell) published her autobiography in 1922, as did several Victorian women artists whose feminist autobiographies were better fit for the 1920s than the 1890s. " id="pdf-obj-1-31" src="pdf-obj-1-31.jpg">

The Making of Women Artists in Victorian England: The Education and Careers of Six Professionals, by Jo Devereux, Jefferson, NC, McFarland, 2016, 264 pp., 41 illustrations, $35 (paperback), ISBN: 978-0-7864-9409-5

Despite decades of feminist art history and studies of women artists, the case study approach Jo Devereux uses here is still viable, since we have so few critical biographies of Victorian women artists. Women associated with, or followers of, Pre-Raphaelitism received the earliest attention in Jan Marsh and Pamela Nunns case studies, exhibitions, and catalogs. Griselda Pollock and Deborah Cherrys feminist studies and Meaghan Clarkes book on women art writers extended the study of womens roles in the Victorian art world. Devereux begins with a summary of womens networks at the most prominent art schools:

South Kensington, the Royal Academy, and the unconventional Slade School. She explores the public and professional reception of women artists and their common subjects, techniques, and media. Art schools folded gender ideologies into technical training, e.g., watercolor was a more ladylike medium than oil paint, no life classes with nude models for women. Successful women artists established networks largely through male mentors, as essential to their success as was family support of their ambitions. Devereuxs subjectsKate Greenaway, Henrietta Rae, Elizabeth Thompson Butler, Helen Allingham, and Evelyn Pickering De Morganwere among a small number of highly success- ful women artists. They were included in biographical dictionaries and biographies in the Magazine of Art, Art Journal, and The Studio. Prominent critics wrote biographies of Alling- ham (Marcus Huish, 1903), Greenaway (M. H. Spielmann and G. S. Layard, 1905), and Rae (Arthur Fish, 1905), indicating these women were cultural icons and not marginal. True, their biographies endorsed hegemonic femininity even for childless or unconventional artists. Butler (whose sister was writer Alice Meynell) published her autobiography in 1922, as did several Victorian women artists whose feminist autobiographies were better fit for the 1920s than the 1890s.

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Downloaded by [Mimar Sinan Universitesi] at 18:24 26 November 2017 334 BOOK REVIEWS Despite their successes,
  • 334 BOOK REVIEWS

Despite their successes, these women remain unfamiliar to the general public. British artists, both male and female, suffer relative obscurity compared with their French contem- poraries who have, until recently challenged, been credited as the sole inventors of mod- ernism. The boom in exhibitions, essays, and books on the Pre-Raphaelites, Frederic Leighton, James Tissot, Albert Moore, William Powell Frith, and the industry of James Whistler studies have somewhat remedied this but have not affected the reputations of Victorian women artists, rarely if ever highlighted in retrospectives or one-artist exhibitions. Devereuxs excellent close readings of paintings that are still belittled as merely sentimental or conventional take these works seriously through the kind of analyses reserved for canonic artistsworks. Her readings, which certainly merit better reproductions than the poor ones here, reveal these artistssubtle resistance to hegemonic gendering. Devereuxs comments are incisive on light and shadow in Allinghams paintings, the theme of loss in her work, and her figuresrefusal to look at the viewer in a subtle rejection of conventional eroticization of female figures. On Princess Louise, Devereux provides a clear summary of obstacles for women sculptors whose difficulties were even more insurmountable than what women pain- ters faced, although Devereuxs Galatea metaphor for Louise at times seems forced. Devereuxs rich analysis of Butlers hitherto unexamined methods for conveying motion captures what is unique in her works beyond just the military subject to reclaim her as a skilled draughtsman. Devereux effectively integrates literature and art when poetry inspired or paralleled Green- aways illustrations. On Rae, Devereux deftly summarizes the late-century debate on nudity in art and compares/contrasts Raes treatment of the classical nude with that of Frederic Leighton and John William Waterhouse. A Christies auction in 2000 sold Raes Hylas and the Water Nymphs for a robust (for Rae) $818,141. But attention to prices is uneven in the book and does not permit comparisons with Raes contemporaries. Devereuxs thesis is that each artist accommodated, negotiated, and resisted gender conven- tions in her work. Her analyses embrace theory (Gilles Deleuze on folds) as well as rich archival information about professional experiences, exhibitions, and career trajectories. But her approach is somewhat myopic, the downside of case studies, reflected in her uneven bibli- ography and factual errors. She condemns critics who tended to conflate the woman artist with her work(135), but male artists were read in the same way (e.g., manlyMillais, effeminateBurne-Jones, self-sacrificingG. F. Watts); sinceritywas in the Victorian criti- cal lexicon and read into paintings, as was the artists presumed moral fiber and gender iden- tity, all conjectured. The Grosvenor closed amid financial difficulties and did not move to the New Gallery (175), which was the Grosvenors competitor, and Rossetti never exhibited at the Grosvenor (106). Ruskin certainly tried to dominate women artists, but he also bullied male artists until they each in turn broke away angrily from his attempt to control their work. Women artists who traveled were not at all isolated (e.g., Barbara Bodichon, Marianne North), but at home in many places (47). And why expect their work to be more marked by a single aesthetic element than mens art? Devereuxs focus on these women tends to isolate each one rather than situate them in a deeply layered Victorian art world. There is no examination of these artistspatronswhat prompted Mrs. J. R. Cardeza of Philadelphia (220) to buy Raes nude painting Sirens (1903)? How did Raes and De Morgans appropriation of the Old Masters fit into Aestheti- cisms neo-Classicism? Allegory in De Morgans work needs more integration with De Morgans religious beliefs that fueled her work. Devereux sometimes refers to women artists by their first names, which infantilizes them. The choice of subjects for case studies is always troubling. Princess Louise was not a fully professional sculptor due to her royal duties and status. Sculptors Mary Thornycroft or Susan

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NINETEENTH-CENTURY CONTEXTS

Downloaded by [Mimar Sinan Universitesi] at 18:24 26 November 2017 NINETEENTH-CENTURY CONTEXTS 335 Durant, both Louisejulie.codell@asu.edu © 2017 Julie Codell https://doi.org/10.1080/08905495.2017.1340063 Autobiologies: Charles Darwin and the Natural History of the Self , by Alexis Harley, Lewisburg, Bucknell UP, 2015, xiii +213 pp., $85.00, ISBN: 978-1-61148-600-1 (hb), ISBN: 978-1-61148-601-8 (e) Evolutionary theory precipitated perhaps the most radical historical shift in humans ’ attempt to come to terms with their relationship to nature, and as Alexis Harley points out in Auto- biologies , it gave rise to a brief but marked period in which Victorian authors turned to auto- biographical writing as a way to think through the implications of natural selection for individuality. Despite the fact that work on Victorian science and literature has rapidly expanded in the past three decades, there has been little literary criticism that explicitly addresses Victorian life writing on science. This book contributes significantly to this under- developed but important area of scholarship through a series of incisive readings across a range of autobiographical genres (including diaries, letters, the elegy, and the memoir) which address, in profound and powerful ways, the relationship between individual identity and an ever-evolving natural world. Autobiologies owes a great deal to Gillian Beer ’ s Darwin ’ s Plots , and might be seen as a criti- cal counterpart to that work. Whereas Beer addresses Darwin ’ s scientific writing and Victorian fiction, Harley focuses on Darwin ’ s autobiographical writing and various forms of literary life- writing by other Victorians. Like Beer ’ s book, the first half is dedicated to close reading Darwin ’ s writing, and the second half traces the literary inheritance of narrative structures " id="pdf-obj-3-6" src="pdf-obj-3-6.jpg">

335

Durant, both Louises art teachers, might have been more coherent subjects in the context of the books themes. Given other scholarswork on De Morgan (Elise Lawton Smith 2002) and Allingham (Anne Helmreich 2001), perhaps feminist activist-artists Bodichon, Louise Jopling, or Henrietta Ward, all successful, might have been better subjects. Devereux reveals these artistsdepth, modernity, and aesthetic negotiations over social strictures and popular taste. Art historians busily unearth male Academic and popular artists to historicize and complicate the nineteenth-century art world and to understand the vitality of public taste and market forces. Women artists merit the same attention and posi- tioning in the contexts of the nineteenth centurys visual culture, its increasingly international art market and global dissemination of art, and Victorian modernism.

Notes on contributor

Julie Codell, Art History Professor and affiliate faculty in Film, Gender Studies, and Asian Studies, wrote The Victorian Artist (Cambridge 2003; rev. 2012), and has edited 13 books and special journal issues and published articles on Victorian art and the art press, imperialism in India, and film, on such topics as replication, transculturation, orientalism, the signification of dress in paintings, pho- tography, Britons going native,working-class models, political economy, and colonial authors in the Victorian press.

 

Julie Codell

School of Art, Arizona State University

<a href=julie.codell@asu.edu " id="pdf-obj-3-41" src="pdf-obj-3-41.jpg">

© 2017 Julie Codell

https://doi.org/10.1080/08905495.2017.1340063

Downloaded by [Mimar Sinan Universitesi] at 18:24 26 November 2017 NINETEENTH-CENTURY CONTEXTS 335 Durant, both Louisejulie.codell@asu.edu © 2017 Julie Codell https://doi.org/10.1080/08905495.2017.1340063 Autobiologies: Charles Darwin and the Natural History of the Self , by Alexis Harley, Lewisburg, Bucknell UP, 2015, xiii +213 pp., $85.00, ISBN: 978-1-61148-600-1 (hb), ISBN: 978-1-61148-601-8 (e) Evolutionary theory precipitated perhaps the most radical historical shift in humans ’ attempt to come to terms with their relationship to nature, and as Alexis Harley points out in Auto- biologies , it gave rise to a brief but marked period in which Victorian authors turned to auto- biographical writing as a way to think through the implications of natural selection for individuality. Despite the fact that work on Victorian science and literature has rapidly expanded in the past three decades, there has been little literary criticism that explicitly addresses Victorian life writing on science. This book contributes significantly to this under- developed but important area of scholarship through a series of incisive readings across a range of autobiographical genres (including diaries, letters, the elegy, and the memoir) which address, in profound and powerful ways, the relationship between individual identity and an ever-evolving natural world. Autobiologies owes a great deal to Gillian Beer ’ s Darwin ’ s Plots , and might be seen as a criti- cal counterpart to that work. Whereas Beer addresses Darwin ’ s scientific writing and Victorian fiction, Harley focuses on Darwin ’ s autobiographical writing and various forms of literary life- writing by other Victorians. Like Beer ’ s book, the first half is dedicated to close reading Darwin ’ s writing, and the second half traces the literary inheritance of narrative structures " id="pdf-obj-3-50" src="pdf-obj-3-50.jpg">

Autobiologies: Charles Darwin and the Natural History of the Self, by Alexis Harley, Lewisburg, Bucknell UP, 2015, xiii +213 pp., $85.00, ISBN: 978-1-61148-600-1 (hb), ISBN:

978-1-61148-601-8 (e)

Evolutionary theory precipitated perhaps the most radical historical shift in humansattempt to come to terms with their relationship to nature, and as Alexis Harley points out in Auto- biologies, it gave rise to a brief but marked period in which Victorian authors turned to auto- biographical writing as a way to think through the implications of natural selection for individuality. Despite the fact that work on Victorian science and literature has rapidly expanded in the past three decades, there has been little literary criticism that explicitly addresses Victorian life writing on science. This book contributes significantly to this under- developed but important area of scholarship through a series of incisive readings across a range of autobiographical genres (including diaries, letters, the elegy, and the memoir) which address, in profound and powerful ways, the relationship between individual identity and an ever-evolving natural world. Autobiologies owes a great deal to Gillian Beers Darwins Plots, and might be seen as a criti- cal counterpart to that work. Whereas Beer addresses Darwins scientific writing and Victorian fiction, Harley focuses on Darwins autobiographical writing and various forms of literary life- writing by other Victorians. Like Beers book, the first half is dedicated to close reading Darwins writing, and the second half traces the literary inheritance of narrative structures