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CONSTRUCTION

WITH

HOLLOW STEEL SECTION

de la Construction Tubulaire

Authors: Jacques Rondal, University of Lige

Karl-Gerd Wiirker, Consulting engineer

Dipak Dutta, Chairman of the Technical Commission CIDECT

Jaap Wardenier, Delft University of Technology

Noel Yeomans, Chairman of the Cidect Working Group

Joints behaviour and Fatigue-resistance

QFERWEWE

WZEXHEHWTW

@E H @EE@W

J. Rondal, K.-G. W rker,D. Dutta, J. Wardenier,

N. YYYYYns

Die Deutsche Bibliothek CIP Einheitsaufnahme

International pour le Dveloppement et IEtude de la

Construction Tubulaire]. J. Rondal

TUV Rheinland, 1992

(Construction with hollow steel sections)

Dt. Ausg. u.d.T.: Knick- und Beulverhalten von

Hohlprofilen (rund und rechteckig). Franz. Ausg.

u.d.T.: Stabilit des structures en profils creux

ISBN 3-8249-0075-0

NE: Fiondal, Jasques; Comit International pour Ie

Dveloppement at IEtude de la Construction

Tubulaire

ISBN 3-8249-0075-0

Entirely made by: Verlag TUV Rheinland GmbH, Koln

Printed in Germany 1992

Preface

The objective of this design manual is to present the guide lines for the design and calculation

of steel structures consisting of circular and rectangular hollow sections dealing in particular

with the stability of these structural elements. This book describes in a condensed form the

global, local and lateral-torsional buckling behaviour of hollow sections as well as the methods

to determine effective buckling lengths of chords and bracings in lattice girders built with

them. Nearly all design rules and procedures recommended here are based on the results of

the analytical investigations and practical tests, which were initiated and sponsored by

CIDECT. These research works were carried out in the universities and institutes in various

parts of the world.

The technical data evolving from these research projects, the results of their evaluation and

the conclusions derived were used to establish the European buckling curves for circular

and rectangular hollow sections. This was the outcome of a cooperation between ECCS

(European Convention for Constructional Steelwork) and CIDECT. These buckling curves

have now been incorporated in a number of national standards. They have also been

proposed for the buckling design by Eurocode 3, Part 1: General Rules and Rules for

Buildings", which is at present in preparation.

Extensive research works on effective buckling lengths of structural elements of hollow

sections in lattice girders in the late seventies led in 1981 to the publication of Monograph No.

4 Effective lengths of lattice girder members by CIDECT. A recent statistical evaluation of all

data from this research programme resulted in a recommendation for the calculation of the

said buckling length which Eurocode 3, Annex K Hollow section lattice girder connections"

(Draft October 1991) also contains.

This design guide is the second of a series, which CIDECT will publish in the coming years:

Design guide for circular hollow section (CHS) joints under predominantly static loading.

Structural stability of hollow sections.

Design guide for rectangular hollow section joints under predominantly static loading.

Design guide for hollow section columns susceptible to fire.

Design guide for circular and rectangular hollow section joints under fatigue loading.

The first book ofthis series has already been published early 1991 in three languages (english,

french and german). The remaining three design manuals are now in preparation.

All these publications are intended to make architects, engineers and constructors familiar

with the simplified design procedures of hollow section structures. Worked-out examples

make them easy to understand and show how to come to a safe and economic design.

Our sincere thanks go to the authors of this book, who belong to the group of wellknown

specialists in the field of structural applications of hollow sections. We express our special

thanks to Dr. Jacques Ftondal of the University of Liege, Belgium as the main author of this

book. We thank further Mr. D. Grotmann of the Technical University of Aix-la-Chapelle for

numerous stimulating suggestions. Finally we thank all CIDECT members, whose support

made this book possible.

Dipak Dutta

Chairman of the Technical Commission

CIDECT

Quadrangular vierendeel columns

Contents

Page

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

1.1 Limit states . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 10

1.2 Limit state design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

1.3 Steel grades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 11

1.4 Increase in yield strength due to cold working . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

3.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

3.2 Design method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 19

3.3 Design aids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

Members in bending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

4.1 Design for lateral-torsional buckling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

5.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

5.2 Design method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 28

5.2.1 Design for stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

5.2.2 Design based on stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

5.2.2.1 Stress design without considering shear load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

5.2.2.2 Stress design considering shear load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

6 Thin-walled sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

6.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 34

6.2 Rectangular hollow sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

6.2.1 Effective geometrical properties of class 4 cross sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

6.2.2 Design procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

6.2.3 Design aids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

6.3 Circular hollow sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

7.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 40

7.2 Effective buckling length of chord and bracing members with lateral support . . 40

7.3 Chords of lattice girders, whose joints are not supported laterally . . . . . . . . .6 . . 40

8 Design examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

8.1 Design of a rectangular hollow section column in compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

8.2 Design of a rectangular hollow section column in combined compression and

uni-axial bending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

8.3 Design of a rectangular hollow section column in combined compression and

bi-axial bending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

7

8.4 Design of a thin-walled rectangular hollow section column in compression . . . 47

8.5 Design of a thin-walled rectangular hollow section column in concentric

compression and bi-axial bending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

9 Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 51

10 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 53

Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

Introduction

It is very often considered that the problems to be solved while designing a steel structure are

only related to the calculation and construction of the members and their connections. They

concern mainly the static or fatigue strength and the stability of the structural members as well

as the load bearing capacity of the joints. This point of view is certainly not correct as one

cannot ignore the important areas dealing with fabrication, erection and when necessary,

protection against fire.

It is very important to bear in mind that the application of hollow sections, circular and

rectangular, necessitates special knowledge in all of the above mentioned areas extending

beyond that for the open profiles in conventional structural engineering.

This book deals with the aspect of buckling of circular and rectangular hollow sections, their

calculations and the solutions to the stability problems.

The aim of this design guide is to provide architects and structural engineers with design aids

based on the most recent research results in the field of application technology of hollow

sections. It is mainly based on the rules given in Eurocode 3 (final draft) Design of Steel

Structures, Part 1: General Rules and Rules for Buildings and its annexes [1, 2]. Small

differences can be found when compared to some national standards. The reader will find in

reference [3] a review of the main differences existing between Eurocode 3 (final draft) and the

codes used in other countries. However, when it is possible, some indications are given on the

rules and recommendations in the codes used in Australia, Canada, Japan and United States

of America as well as in some european countries.

%

if

1 General

Most design codes for seel structures are, at the present time, based on limit state design.

Limit states are those beyond which the structure no longer satisfies the design performance

requirements.

Limit state conditions are classified into

ultimate limit state

serviceability limit state

Ultimate limit states are those associated with collapse of a structure or with other failure

modes, which endanger the safety of human life. For the sake of simplicity, states prior to

structural collapse are classified and treated as ultimate limit states in place of the collapse

itself.

Ultimate limit states, which may require consideration, include:

Loss of equilibrium of a structure or a part of it, considered as a rigid body

Loss of load bearing capacity, as for example, rupture, instability, fatigue or other agreed

limiting states, such as excessive deformations and stresses

Serviceability limit states correspond to states beyond which specified service criteria are no

longer met. They include:

- Deformations or deflections which affect the appearance or effective use of the structure

(including the malfunction of machines or services) or cause damage to finishes or non-

structural elements

Vibration which causes discomfort to people, damage to the building or its contents or

which limits its functional effectiveness

Recent national and international design standards recommend procedures proving limit

state resistance. This implies, in particular for stability analysis, that the imperfections,

mechanical and geometrical, which influence the behaviour of a structure significantly, must

be taken into account. Mechanical imperfections are, for example, residual stresses in

structural members and connections. Geometrical imperfections are possible pre-

'

deformations in members and cross sections as well as tolerances.

In the Eucrocode 3 format, when considering a limit state, it shall be verified that:

Ft (1.1)

):(y,=-F)s V

7M

where

7,: = Partial safety factor for the action F

W = Partial safety factor for the resistance R

F = Value of an action

R = Value of a resistance for a relevant limit state

YF - F = F, is called the design load while Ft/7M = R,, is designated as the design resistance.

It is not within the scope of this book to discuss in detail these general provisions. They can be

taken from Eurocode 3 and other national codes, which can sometimes show small deviations

from one another. As for example, the calculations in the recent US-codes are made with

d> = 1l'yM.

10

1.3 Steel grades

Table 1 gives the grades of the generally used structural steels with the nominal minimum

values of the yield strength fy, range of the ultimate tensile strength fu and elongations. The

steel grades correspond to the hot-rolled hollow sections as well as to the basic materials for

cold-formed - wsections. The desi nations of the steel grades in Table 1 are in accordance

with ISO 6305 well as EN 10 025 They can be different in other standards. For hot-

rolled hollow sections (circular and rectangular), the draft of the european code EN 10 210,

Part 1 1990 is available.

Table 1 - Steel grades for structural steels

min. yield tensile

steel grade L0 = 565 ,/go

strizength

fy (Nlmm ) strerggth

fu (N/mm ) _ _

longitudinal transverse

Fe 430 275 370. . .540 24 22

Fe 510 355 470. . .630 22 20

FeE 460" 460 550. . .720 17 15

Table 2 contains the recommended physical properties valid for all structural steels.

shear modulus: G = --E = 81 000 N/mm?

2(l + V)

polsson co-efficient: u = 0.3

density: 9 = 7850 kg/m3

Cold rolling of profiles provides an increase in the yield strength due to strain hardening. which

may be used in the design by means of the rules given in Table 3. However, this increase can

be used only for HHS in tension or compression elements and cannot be taken into account if

the members are subjected to bending (see Annex A of Eurocode 3

For cold rolled square and rectangular hollow sections, eq. (1 .2) can be simplified (k = 7for all

cold-forming of hollow sections and n = 4) resulting in:

141

fya = fyb + (fu fyb) (1.3)

m

IA fu

IA 1.2 ' fyb

Fig. 1 allows a quick estimation of the average yield strength after cold-forming, for square and

rectangular hollow sections for the four basic structural steels.

11

Table 3 - Increase of yield strength due to cold-forming of RHS profiles

The average yield strength fy, may be determined from full size section tests or as follows

fya = fyb + (k - n ~ t2/A) (fu fy,,) (1.2)

where fyb, fu = specified tensile yield strength and ultimate tensile strength of the basic material

(N/mm)

t = material thickness (mm)

A = gross cross-sectional area (mm?)

k = co-efficient depending on the type of forming (k = 7 for cold rolling)

n = number of 90 bends in the section with an internal radius <5t (fractions of 90

bends should be counted as fractions of n)

fya = should not exceed fu or 1.2 fyb

The increase in yield strength due to cold working should not be utilised for members which are

annealed or subject to heating over a long length with a high heat input after forming, which may

produce softening.

Basic material:

Basic material is the flat hot rolled sheet material out of which sections are made by cold forming.

Stress relief annealing at more than 580C or for over one hour may lead to deterioration of the

mechanical properties

1.20

1.15 .

= 235 N/mm?

\\

- = 355 Nxmmz

\ = 480 N/mm?

1.05 \

\

\x

L

1.00

0 1'0 20 3() 40 5'0 60 70 80 9'0 100

b+h

2:

Fig. 1 - Increase in yield strength for cold-formed square and rectangular hollow sections

12

2 Cross section classification

Different models can be used for the analysis of steel structures and for the calculation of the

stress resultants (normal force, shear force, bending moment and torsional moment in the

members of a structure).

For an ultimate limit state design, the designer is faced mainly with three design methods (see

The cross section classes 3 and 4 with the procedure elastic-elastic differ from each

other only by the requirement for local buckling for class 4.

Procedure plastic-plastic

Cross section class 1

This procedure deals with the plastic design and the formation of plastic hinges and moment

redistribution in the structure. Full plasticity is developed in the cross section (bi-rectangular

stress blocks). The cross section can form a plastic hinge with the rotation capacity required

for plastic analysis. The ultimate limit state is reached when the number of plastic hinges is

sufficient to produce a mechanism. The system must remain in static equilibrium.

Procedure elastic-plastic"

Cross section class 2

In this procedure the stress resultants are determined following an elastic analysis and they

are compared to the plastic resistance capacities of the member cross sections. Cross

sections can develop their plastic resistance, but have limited rotation capacity. Ultimate limit

state is achieved by the formation of the first plastic hinge.

Procedure elastic-elastic"

This procedure consists of pure elastic calculation of the stress resultants and the resistance

capacities of the member cross sections. Ultimate limit state is achieved by yielding of the

extreme fibres of a cross section. The calculated stress in the extreme compression fibre of

the member cross section can reach its yield strength, but local buckling is liable to prevent the

development of the plastic moment resistance.

Procedure elastic-elastic

The cross section is composed of thinner walls than those of class 3. it is necessary to make

explicit allowances for the effects of local buckling while determining the ultimate moment or

compression resistance capacity of the cross section.

The application of the first three above mentioned procedures is based on the presumption

that the cross sections or their parts do not buckle locally before achieving their ultimate limit

loads; that means, the cross sections must not be thin-walled. In order to fulfil this condition,

the b/t-ratio for rectangular hollow sections or the d/t-ratio for circular hollow sections must not

exceed certain maximum values. They are different for the cross section classes 1 through 3

as given in Tables 4, 5 and 6.

A cross section must be classified according to the least favourable (highest) class of the

elements under compression and/or bending.

Tables 4 through 6 give the slenderness limits blt or d/t for different cross section classes

based on Eurocode 3 Other design codes show slightly different values (compare

Tables 8 and 9).

13

cross section class 1 class 2 class 3 class 4

classes

load resistance full plasticity in full plasticity in elastic cross elastic cross

capacity the cross section the cross section section section

full rotation restricted rotation yield stress in the local buckling to

capacity capacity extreme tibre be taken into

account

stress distribution

and rtatin 21==\-L-=*z 75:95 F91 F55

capacity _f _, _,y

_,y

+ fy + fy + fy + fy

determination of

the stress

resultants

determination

of the ultimate

resistance

capacity of a

section

1 dlt s 50 e2

2 dlt s 70 52

3 dlt s 90 2

Y

52 1 0.85 0.66 0.51

14

Table 5 Limltlng h,/t-ratios for webs of rectangular hollow sections

"1 5'

. . . . r I Axis of

webs.. (internal element perpendicular to the axis of bending) , f h1

n~bending

h, = h 3t L4I

_

h, = h 31

class web subject to web subject to web subject to bending and compression

beding compression

stress distribution , fy , fy {Y

",

in element :11"

Am

(compression h if h .11 "1 h

positive) ' E

fv V

1 h,/t 5 725 h,/t 5 33c when a > 0.5

h,/t 5 3965/(13a 1)

when a < 0.5

h,/I 5 36 e/oz

h,/t 5 456e/(13a 1)

when at < 0.5

h,/t 5 41 .5e/a

stress distribution 9 iv : o v

in element m /2 E

(compression " " hi "

W2

positive) _~

fy ;;;y WW

h,/t 5 42 5/ (0.67 + 0.33 up)

when < -1

h,It 5 62e(1 \L) x/( :1)

e = :

fy e 1 0.92 0.81 0.72

15

Table 6 - Llmltlng b,/t-ratios for flanges of rectangular hollow sections

b, = b 3t

b, = b 3t

v

I

element and section 1, 'i1;

cross WH 5:1

(compression positive) Ii ii ||J :| I] { I

E:-1]

l:_|.

,y

element and cross section 'i--,7 H

1;. -,1_T

(compression positive)

L::]J 5}.

235

E_

fy e 1 0.92 0.31 0.72

In Table 7 the blt, hlt and dlt limiting values for the different cross section classes, cross

section types and stress distributions are given for a quick determination of the cross section

class of a hollow section. The values for width b and height h of a rectangular hollow section

are calculated by using the relationship b/t = b,/t + 3 and hit = h,It + 3.

For the application of the procedures p|astic-p|astic (class 1) and elastic-plastic" (class 2),

the ratio of the specified minimum tensile strength fu to yield strength fy must be not less than

1.2.

fully 2 1.2 (2.1)

Further, according to Eurocode 3 [1, 2], the minimum elongation at failure on a gauge length

I0 = 5.65 x/To (where Ac, is the origina cross section area) is not to be less than 15%.

For the application of the procedure plastic-plastic (full rotation), the strain eu corrres-

ponding to the ultimate tensile strength fu must be at least 20 times the yield strain ey

corresponding to the yield strength fy.

The steel grades in Table 1 for hot formed RHS and hot or cold formed CHS may be accepted

as satisfying these requirements.

Tables 8 and 9 give, for circular hollow sections and for square or rectangular hollow sections

respectively, the limiting bit and h/t ratios, which are recommended in various national codes

around the world

Table 8 shows that t ere are significant differences in d/t limits recommended by the national

codes, when a circular hollow section is under bending.

In particular, this is clear in the case of the recent american code AISC 86. For the

concentrically loaded circular hollow sections, the deviations are significantly smaller (less

than about 10%).

Table 9 shows that the differences in b/t limits for rectangular hollow sections between the

national codes are, in general, not as large as those for circular hollow sections.

16

N.No mum mdm Q9.

o9.

mdo mdm 9%

Rm 08.

m

o. w.

S Eu Q3

mum m :

9. 3 odm

mam R.

cow

500.. :

n wdm

+ .8 92 Q9.

mmm

N >_CO

(E m_

m.

u Eu m m was 9%

mum

.2

cozowm

.25 9 S. odm Q2

n mam m.o.o. o

+

n O

9:

.3

odm mam T5 tam

52> mmm awn;

M

.0

0.

.25 S mdm 0% Nmv ucm

N mum N

.. ..

we 8 mm om

mom

momma? mwmmu

%% Fm

0:

._Ou

cozoom mwm_o A~EE\Zv

mmo._o

.._

Elgl El; ELLA 5231 m::.___

<:

05 UEN

.2 <9

2_.. __

EwE@_m :o_mmmEEo :o_mw ._QEo m=_u=8

So coozamn

..

Ucu

-<.. cozomm 39.8

. wocmxwt

$3 DC

I 39.0 co_mwm._aEo 9___2_8 m:_u:8 co_wm9QEo .2u:m m_

N

~33 a

17

Table 8 - Max. dlt limits for clrcular hollow sections by country and code

(e = \/ ; 1, in N/mm)

y

bending

country code axial compression

mastic limit yield Hm"

(class 2) (class 3)

Kingdom

Community

Tabelle 9 - Max. b,/t limits for rectangular hollow sections by country and code

235 .

(e = ; f, in N/mm)

T v

bending

country code axial compresion

plane limit yield "mu

(class 2) (class 3)

45.4e"' 454:"

Kingdom

Community

"

for cold formed non-stress relieved hollow sections

18

3 Members in axial compression

3.1 General

This chapter of the book is devoted to the buckling of compressed hollow section members

belonging to the cross section classes 1, 2 and 3. Thinwalled cross sections (class 4) will be

dealt with in chapter 6.

The buckling of a concentrically compressed column is, historically speaking, the oldest

- roblem of stability and was already investigated by Euler and later by many other researchers

_At the present time, the buckling design of a steel element under compression is

pe ormed by using the so called European buckling curves? in most european countries.

They are based on many extensive experimental and theoretical investigations, which, in

particular, take mechanical (as for example residual stress, yield stress distribution) and

geometrical (as for example, linear deviation) imperfections in the members into account.

3%\\

N

0.50

0.25

00

0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0

/1

Fig. 3 European buckling curves E]

A detailed discussion on the differences between buckling curves used in codes around the

world is given in reference Both design methods, allowable stress design and limit state

design, have been covere . or ultimate limit state design, multiple buckling curves are

mostly used (as for example, Eurocode 3 with a0, a, b, c curves, similarly in Australia and

Canada). Other standards adopt a single buckling curve, presumably due to the fact that

emphasis is placed on simplicity. Differences up to 15% can be observed between the various

buckling curves in the region of medium slenderness (X).

At present, a large number of cesign codes exist and the recommended procedures are often

very similar. Eurocode 3 [1, 2] is referred to in the following.

For hollow sections, the on y buckling mode to be considered is flexural buckling. It is not

required to take account of lateral-torsional buckling, since very large torsional rigidity of a

hollow section prevents any torsional buckling.

19

The design buckling load of a compression member is given by the condition;

Nd 5 Nana

where Nd = Design load of the compressed member (7 times working load)

Nmd = Design buckling resistance capacity of the member

ft

NbRd= TA":

'YM

x is the reduction factor of the relevant buckling curve Fig. 3, Tables 11 through 14)

dependent on the non-dimensional slenderness X of a co umn;

fy is the yield strength of the material used;

7M is the partial safety factor on the resistance side (in U.S.A.: 1/7", = q5)

The reduction factor x is the ratio of the buckling resistance N,,_Rd to the axial plastic

resistance Npmd:

Nb,Rd fb,Rd

=

Np|,Rd fy,d

. . Nb,Rd

fwd = design buckling stress =

A

f

fyyd = design yield strength = _;

M

)\

(3.2)

)\=)E

I

with X =

X5 = 7r-

Y

The selection of the buckling curve (a through c in Fig. 3) depends on the cross section type.

This is mainly based on the various levels of rest ua stresses occurring due to different

manufacturing processes. Table 10b shows the curves for hollow sections.

20

Table 10 b - Buckling curves according to manufacturing process

iyb = Yield strength of the basic (not cold-formed) material

iv, = Yield strength of the material after cold-forming

1 hot-forming a

__

i

T_.

T h

| . | Y (Yb used)

_J LY V M

LaJ b1 cold-forming c

(fya used)

X 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0.00 1 .0000 1.0000 1 .0000 1.0000 1 .0000 1 .0000 1.0000 1 .0000 1 .0000 1 .0000

.10 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000

.20 1.0000 0.9986 0.9973 0.9959 0.9945 0.9931 0.9917 0.9903 0.9889 0.9874

.30 0.9859 0.9845 0.9829 0.9814 0.9799 0.9783 0.9767 0.9751 0.9735 0.9718

.40 0.9701 0.9684 0.9667 0.9649 0.9631 0.9612 0.9593 0.9574 0.9554 0.9534

.50 0.9513 0.9492 0.9470 0.9448 0.9425 0.9402 0.9378 0.9354 0.9328 0.9302

.60 0.9276 0.9248 0.9220 0.9191 0.9161 0.9130 0.9099 0.9066 0.9032 0.8997

.70 0.8961 0.8924 0.8886 0.8847 0.8806 0.8764 0.8721 0.8676 0.8630 0.8582

.80 0.8533 0.8483 0.8431 0.8377 0.8322 0.8266 0.8208 0.8148 0.8087 0.8025

.90 0.7961 0.7895 0.7828 0.7760 0.7691 0.7620 0.7549 0.7476 0.7403 0.7329

1.00 0.7253 0.7178 0.7101 0.7025 0.6948 0.6870 0.6793 0.6715 0.6637 0.6560

1.10 0.6482 0.6405 0.6329 0.6252 0.6176 0.6101 0.6026 0.5951 0.5877 0.5804

1.20 0.5732 0.5660 0.5590 0.5520 0.5450 0.5382 0.5314 0.5248 0.5182 0.5117

1.30 0.5053 0.4990 0.4927 0.4866 0.4806 0.4746 0.4687 0.4629 0.4572 0.4516

1.40 0.4461 0.4407 0.4353 0.4300 0.4248 0.4197 0.4147 0.4097 0.4049 0.4001

1.50 0.3953 0.3907 0.3861 0.3816 0.3772 0.3728 0.3685 0.3643 0.3601 0.3560

1.60 0.3520 0.3480 0.3441 0.3403 0.3365 0.3328 0.3291 0.3255 0.3219 0.3184

1.70 0.3150 0.3116 0.3083 0.3050 0.3017 0.2985 0.2954 0.2923 0.2892 0.2862

1.80 0.2833 0.2804 0.2775 0.2746 0.2719 0.2691 0.2664 0.2637 0.2611 0.2585

1.90 0.2559 0.2534 0.2509 0.2485 0.2461 0.2437 0.2414 0.2390 0.2368 0.2345

2.00 0.2323 0.2301 0.2280 0.2258 0.2237 0.2217 0.2196 0.2176 0.2156 0.2136

2.10 0.2117 0.2098 0.2079 0.2061 0.2042 0.2024 0.2006 0.1989 0.1971 0.1954

2.20 0.1937 0.1920 0.1904 0.1887 0.1871 0.1855 0.1840 0.1824 0.1809 0.1794

2.30 0.1779 0.1764 0.1749 0.1735 0.1721 0.1707 0.1693 0.1679 0.1665 0.1652

2.40 0.1639 0.1626 0.1613 0.1600 0.1587 0.1575 0.1563 0.1550 0.1538 0.1526

2.50 0.1515 0.1503 0.1491 0.1480 0.1469 0.1458 0.1447 0.1436 0.1425 0.1414

2.60 0.1404 0.1394 0.1383 0.1373 0.1363 0.1353 0.1343 0.1333 0.1324 0.1314

2.70 0.1305 0.1296 0.1286 0.1277 0.1268 0.1259 0.1250 0.1242 0.1233 0.1224

2.80 0.1216 0.1207 0.1199 0.1191 0.1183 0.1175 0.1167 0.1159 0.1151 0.1143

2.90 0.1136 0.1128 0.1120 0.1113 0.1106 0.1098 0.1091 0.1084 0.1077 0.1070

3.00 0.1063 0.1056 0.1049 0.1043 0.1036 0.1029 0.1023 0.1016 0.1010 0.1003

3.10 0.0997 0.0991 0.0985 0.0979 0.0972 0.0966 0.0960 0.0955 0.0949 0.0943

3.20 0.0937 0.0931 0.0926 0.0920 0.0915 0.0909 0.0904" 0.0898 0.0893 0.0888

3.30 0.0882 0.0877 0.0872 0.0867 0.0862 0.0857 0.0852 0.0847 0.0842 0.0837

3.40 0.0832 0.0828 0.0823 0.0818 0.0814 0.0809 0.0804 0.0800 0.0795 0.0791

3.50 0.0786 0.0782 0.0778 0.0773 0.0769 0.0765 0.0761 0.0756 0.0752 0.0748

3.60 0.0744 0.0740 0.0736 0.0732 0.0728 0.0724 0.0720 0.0717 0.0713 0.0709

21

Table 12 Reduction factor x - buckling curve a"

X 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0.00 1 .0000 1 .0000 1 .0000 1 .0000 1 .0000 1 .0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000

.10 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000

.20 1.0000 0.9978 0.9956 0.9934 0.9912 0.9889 0.9867 0.9844 0.9821 0.9798

.30 0.9775 0.9751 0.9728 0.9704 0.9680 0.9655 0.9630 0.9605 0.9580 0.9554

.40 0.9528 0.9501 0.9474 0.9447 0.9419 0.9391 0.9363 0.9333 0.9304 0.9273

.50 0.9243 0.9211 0.9179 0.9147 0.9114 0.9080 0.9045 0.9010 0.8974 0.8937

.60 0.8900 0.8862 0.8823 0.8783 0.8742 0.8700 0.8657 0.8614 0.8569 0.8524

.70 0.8477 0.8430 0.8382 0.8332 0.8282 0.8230 0.8178 0.8124 0.8069 0.8014

.80 0.7957 0.7899 0.7841 0.7781 0.7721 0.7659 0.7597 0.7534 0.7470 0.7405

.90 0.7339 0.7273 0.7206 0.7139 0.7071 0.7003 0.6934 0.6865 0.6796 0.6726

1.00 0.6656 0.6586 0.6516 0.6446 0.6376 0.6306 0.6236 0.6167 0.6098 0.6029

1.10 0.5960 0.5892 0.5824 0.5757 0_.5690 0.5623 0.5557 0.5492 0.5427 0.5363

1.20 0.5300 0.5237 0.5175 0.5114 0.5053 0.4993 0.4934 0.4875 0.4817 0.4760

1 .30 0.4703 0.4648 0.4593 0.4538 0.4485 0.4432 0.4380 0.4329 0.4278 0.4228

1 .40 0.4179 0.4130 0.4083 0.4036 0.3989 .03943 0.3898 0.3854 0.3810 0.3767

1 .50 0.3724 0.3682 0.3641 0.3601 0.3561 0.3521 0.3482 0.3444 0.3406 0.3369

1.60 0.3332 0.3296 0.3261 0.3226 0.3191 0.3157 0.3124 0.3091 0.3058 0.3026

1.70 0.2994 0.2963 0.2933 0.2902 0.2872 0.2843 0.2814 0.2786 0.2757 0.2730

1.80 0.2702 0.2675 0.2649 0.2623 0.2597 0.2571 0.2546 0.2522 0.2497 0.2473

1.90 0.2449 0.2426 0.2403 0.2380 0.2358 0.2335 0.2314 0.2292 0.2271 0.2250

2.00 0.2229 0.2209 0.2188 0.2168 0.2149 0.2129 0.2110 0.2091 0.2073 0.2054

2.10 0.2036 0.2018 0.2001 0.1983 0.1966 0.1949 0.1932 0.1915 0.1899 0.1883

2.20 0.1867 0.1851 0.1836 0.1820 0.1805 0.1790 0.1775 0.1760 0.1746 0.1732

2.30 0.1717 0.1704 0.1690 0.1676 0.1663 0.1649 0.1636 0.1623 0.1610 0.1598

2.40 0.1585 0.1573 0.1560 0.1548 0.1536 0.1524 0.1513 0.1501 0.1490 0.1478

2.50 0.1467 0.1456 0.1445 0.1434 0.1424 0.1413 0.1403 0.1392 0.1382 0.1372

2.60 0.1362 0.1352 0.1342 0.1332 0.1323 0.1313 0.1304 0.1295 0.1285 0.1276

2.70 0.1267 0.1258 0.1250 0.1241 0.1232 0.1224 0.1215 0.1207 0.1198 0.1190

2.80 0.1182 0.1174 0.1166 0.1158 0.1150 0.1143 0.1135 0.1128 0.1120 0.1113

2.90 0.1105 0.1098 0.1091 0.1084 0.1077 0.1070 0.1063 0.1056 0.1049 0.1042

3.00 0.1036 0.1029 0.1022 0.1016 0.1010 0.1003 0.0997 0.0991 0.0985 0.0978

3.10 0.0972 0.0966 0.0960 0.0954 0.0949 0.0943 0.0937 0.0931 0.0926 0.0920

3.20 0.0915 0.0909 0.0904 0.0898 0.0893 0.0888 0.0882 0.0877 0.0872 0.0867

3.30 0.0862 0.0857 0.0852 0.0847 0.0842 0.0837 0.0832 0.0828 0.0823 0.0818

3.40 0.0814 0.0809 0.0804 0.0800 0.0795 0.0791 0.0786 0.0782 0.0778 0.0773

3.50 0.0769 0.0765 0.0761 0.0757 0.0752 0.0748 0.0744 0.0740 0.0736 0.0732

3.60 0.0728 0.0724 0.0721 0.0717 0.0713 0.0709 0.0705 0.0702 0.0698 0.0694

The buckling curves can be described analytically (for computer calculations) by the equation:

1

X =6 jg, but x 51 (3-3)

+ 2_)\2

with .1. = 0,511 + a (X 0.2) + X2} ~ (3.4)

The imperfection factor 01 (in equation 3.4) for the corresponding buckling curve can be

obtained from the following table:

buckling curve a, a b c

See Tables 11 through 14 for the reduction

imperfection factor oz 0.13 0.21 0.34 0.49

tacmr X as a mnc on0

22

Table 13 - Reduction factor x - buckllng curve b"

X 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0.00 1 .0000 1 .0000 1 .0000 1 .0000 1 .0000 1 .0000 1.0000 1 .0000 1.0000 1 .0000

.10 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000

.20 1.0000 0.9965 0.9929 0.9894 0.9858 0.9822 0.9786 0.9750 0.9714 0.9678

.30 0.9641 0.9604 0.9567 0.9530 0.9492 0.9455 0.9417 0.9378 0.9339 0.9300

.40 0.9261 0.9221 0.9181 0.9140 0.9099 0.9057 0.9015 0.8973 0.8930 0.8886

.50 0.8842 0.8798 0.8752 0.8707 0.8661 0.8614 0.8566 0.8518 0.8470 0.8420

.60 0.8371 0.8320 0.8269 0.8217 0.8165 0.8112 0.8058 0.8004 0.7949 0.7893

.70 0.7837 0.7780 0.7723 0.7665 0.7606 0.7547 0.7488 0.7428 0.7367 0.7306

.80 0.7245 0.7183 0.7120 0.7058 0.6995 0.6931 0.6868 0.6804 0.6740 0.6676

.90 0.6612 0.6547 0.6483 0.6419 0.6354 0.6290 0.6226 0.6162 0.6098 0.6034

1.00 0.5970 0.5907 0.5844 0.5781 0.5719 0.5657 0.5595 0.5534 0.5473 0.5412

1.10 0.5352 0.5293 0.5234 0.5175 0.5117 0.5060 0.5003 0.4947 0.4891 0.4836

1.20 0.4781 0.4727 0.4674 0.4621 0.4569 0.4517 0.4466 0.4416 0.4366 0.4317

1.30 0.4269 0.4221 0.4174 0.4127 0.4081 0.4035 0.3991 0.3946 0.3903 0.3860

1.40 0.3817 0.3775 0.3734 0.3693 0.3653 0.3613 0.3574 0.3535 0.3497 0.3459

1.50 0.3422 0.3386 0.3350 0.3314 0.3279 0.3245 0.3211 0.3177 0.3144 0.3111

1.60 0.3079 0.3047 0.3016 0.2985 0.2955 0.2925 0.2895 0.2866 0.2837 0.2809

1.70 0.2781 0.2753 0.2726 0.2699 0.2672 0.2646 0.2620 0.2595 0.2570 0.2545

1.80 0.2521 0.2496 0.2473 0.2449 0.2426 0.2403 0.2381 0.2359 0.2337 0.2315

1.90 0.2294 0.2272 0.2252 0.2231 0.2211 0.2191 0.2171 0.2152 0.2132 0.2113

2.00 0.2095 0.2076 0.2058 0.2040 0.2022 0.2004 0.1987 0.1970 0.1953 0.1936

2.10 0.1920 0.1903 0.1887 0.1871 0.1855 0.1840 0.1825 0.1809 0.1794 0.1780

2.20 0.1765 0.1751 0.1736 0.1722 0.1708 0.1694 0.1681 0.1667 0.1654 0.1641

2.30 0.1628 0.1615 0.1602 0.1590 0.1577 0.1565 0.1553 0.1541 0.1529 0.1517

2.40 0.1506 0.1494 0.1483 0.1472 0.1461 0.1450 0.1439 0.1428 0.1418 0.1407

2.50 0.1397 0.1387 0.1376 0.1366 0.1356 0.1347 0.1337 0.1327 0.1318 0.1308

2.60 0.1299 0.1290 0.1281 0.1272 0.1263 0.1254 0.1245 0.1237 0.1228 0.1219

2.70 0.1211 0.1203 0.1195 0.1186 0.1178 0.1170 0.1162 0.1155 0.1147 0.1139

2.80 0.1132 0.1124 0.1117 0.1109 0.1102 0.1095 0.1088 0.1081 0.1074 0.1067

2.90 0.1060 0.1053 0.1046 0.1039 0.1033 0.1026 0.1020 0.1013 0.1007 0.1001

3.00 0.0994 0.0988 0.0982 0.0976 0.0970 0.0964 0.0958 0.0952 0.0946 0.0940

3.10 0.0935 0.0929 0.0924 0.0918 0.0912 0.0907 0.0902 0.0896 0.0891 0.0886

3.20 0.0880 0.0875 0.0870 0.0865 0.0860 0.0855 0.0850 0.0845 0.0840 0.0835

3.30 0.0831 0.0826 0.0821 0.0816 0.0812 0.0807 0.0803 0.0798 0.0794 0.0789

3.40 0.0785 0.0781 0.0776 0.0772 0.0768 0.0763 0.0759 0.0755 0.0751 0.0747

3.50 0.0743 0.0739 0.0735 0.0731 0.0727 0.0723 0.0719 0.0715 0.0712 0.0708

3.60 0.0704 0.0700 0.0697 0.0693 0.0689 0.0686 0.0682 0.0679 0.0675 0.0672

Eurocode 3, Annex D allows the use of the higher buckling curve a,, instead of a for

compressed members of I-sections of certain demensions and steel grade FeE 460 This is

based on the fact that, in case of high strength steel, the imperfections (geometrical and

structural) play a less detrimental role on the buckling behaviour, as shown by numerical

calculations and experimental tests on I-section columns of FeE 460. As a consequence hot

formed hollow sections using FeE 460 steel grade may be designed with respect to buckling

curve a" instead of a.

23

Table 14 Reduction factor x - buckling curve c

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

1 .0000 1 .0000 1 .0000 1 .0000 1 .0000 1 .0000 1 .0000 1.0000 1 .0000 1 .0000

1 .0000 1 .0000 1 .0000 1 .0000 1 .0000 1 .0000 1 .0000 1.0000 1.0000 1 .0000

1.0000 0.9949 0.9898 0.9847 0.9797 0.9746 0.9695 0.9644 0.9593 0.9542

0.9491 0.9440 0.9389 0.9338 0.9286 0.9235 0.9183 0.9131 0.9078 0.9026

0.8973 0.8920 0.8867 0.8813 0.8760 0.8705 0.8651 0.8596 0.8541 0.8486

0.8430 0.8374 0.8317 0.8261 0.8204 0.8146 0.8088 0.8030 0.7972 0.7913

0.7854 0.7794 0.7735 0.7675 0.7614 0.7554 0.7493 0.7432 0.7370 0.7309

0.7247 0.7185 0.7123 0.7060 0.6998 0.6935 0.6873 0.6810 0.6747 0.6684

0.6622 0.6559 0.6496 0.6433 0.6371 0.6308 0.6246 0.6184 0.6122 0.6060

0.5998 0.5937 0.5876 0.5815 0.5755 0.5695 0.5635 0.5575 0.5516 0.5458

0.5399 0.5342 0.5284 0.5227 0.5171 0.5115 0.5059 0.5004 0.4950 0.4896

0.4842 0.4790 0.4737 0.4685 0.4634 0.4583 0.4533 0.4483 0.4434 0.4386

0.4338 0.4290 0.4243 0.4197 0.4151 0.4106 0.4061 0.4017 0.3974 0.3931

0.3888 0.3846 0.3805 0.3764 0.3724 0.3684 0.3644 0.3606 0.3567 0.3529

0.3492 0.3455 0.3419 0.3383 0.3348 0.3313 0.3279 0.3245 0.3211 0.3178

0.3145 0.3113 0.3081 0.3050 0.3019 0.2989 0.2959 0.2929 0.2900 0.2871

0.2842 0.2814 0.2786 0.2759 0.2732 0.2705 0.2679 0.2653 0.2627 0.2602

0.2577 0.2553 0.2528 0.2504 0.2481 0.2457 0.2434 0.2412 0.2389 0.2367

0.2345 0.2324 0.2302 0.2281 0.2260 0.2240 0.2220 0.2200 0.2180 0.2161

0.2141 0.2122 0.2104 0.2085 0.2067 0.2049 0.2031 0.2013 0.1996 0.1979

0.1962 0.1945 0.1929 0.1912 0.1896 0.1880 0.1864 0.1849 0.1833 0.1818

2.10 0.1803 0.1788 0.1774 0.1759 0.1745 0.1731 0.1717 0.1703 0.1689 0.1676

2.20 0.1662 0.1649 0.1636 0.1623 0.1611 0.1598 0.1585 0.1573 0.1561 0.1549

2.30 0.1537 0.1525 0.1514 0.1502 0.1491 0.1480 0.1468 0.1457 0.1446 0.1436

2.40 0.1425 0.1415 0.1404 0.1394 0.1384 0.1374 0.1364 0.1354 0.1344 0.1334

2.50 0.1325 0.1315 0.1306 0.1297 0.1287 0.1278 0.1269 0.1260 0.1252 0.1243

2.60 0.1234 0.1226 0.1217 0.1209 0.1201 0.1193 0.1184 0.1176 0.1168 0.1161

2.70 0.1153 0.1145 0.1137 0.1130 0.1122 0.1 1 15 0.1108 0.1100 0.1093 0.1086

2.80 0.1079 0.1072 0.1065 0.1058 0.1051 0.1045 0.1038 0.1031 0.1025 0.1018

2.90 0.1012 0.1006 0.0999 0.0993 0.0987 0.0981 0.0975 0.0969 0.0963 0.0957

3.00 0.0951 0.0945 0.0939 0.0934 0.0928 0.0922 0.0917 0.0911 0.0906 0.0901

3.10 0.0895 0.0890 0.0885 0.0879 0.0874 0.0869 0.0864 0.0859 0.0854 0.0849

3.20 0.0844 0.0839 0.0835 0.0830 0.0825 0.0820 0.0816 0.0811 0.0806 0.0802

3.30 0.0797 0.0793 0.0789 0.0784 0.0780 0.0775 0.0771 0.0767 0.0763 0.0759

3.40 0.0754 0.0750 0.0746 0.0742 0.0738 0.0734 0.0730 0.0726 0.0722 0.0719

3.50 0.0715 0.071 1 0.0707 0.0703 0.0700 0.0696 0.0692 0.0689 0.0685 0.0682

3.60 0.0678 0.0675 0.0671 0.0668 0.0664 0.0661 0.0657 0.0654 0.0651 0.0647

24

3.3 Design aids

When this limit is exceeded, the design resistance must take the buckling reduction factor x

into acount. For identical X, x is independent of the steel grade (yield strength fy)

Figures 4 through 7 allow a quick determination of buckling resistance. The diagrams give the

l

buckling strength asafunction of) =

Buckling strength (Nbm 7M/A) Nlmmi Buckling strength (NM, . WM/A) N/mm?

450 450

400 400

350 350

fy = 4so N/mm?

300 300 V = 355 N/mm?

250

fy = 275 N/mm?

250 = 235 N/mm2

Y

200 200

150 150

100 100

50 50

0 0

0 so 100 150 200 250 ,1=:~ o so 100 150 zoo 250 /1:?

j?1

o 20 40 so so I/(dtl o 2o 40 so so l/(dt)

ljT'l'

0 2o 40 so so we l/(bt) o 20 40 so so 100 |/(btl

Fig. 4 Buckling curve for hot-formed Fig. 5 Buckling curves for hollow sections

hollow sections of FeE 460, basis of various steel grades, basis a'

a0 (see Table 11) (see Table 12)

Buckling strength (Nbm - /MIA) Nlmm Buckling strength (N,,_., - VMIA) N/mm?

450

400

N/mm:

fy :: 355 N/mm

fv

: 275 N/mmz

300 fy

fy

fy

250

200

150

100

so

/1=iI /t=TI

l??+% r:

0 20 40 60 80 I/ld -t) O 20 40 60 80 I/ld ~t)

Fig. 6 - Buckling curves tor hollow sections Fig. 7 Buckling curves for hollow section of

of various steel grades, basis b various steel grades, basis c" (see

(see Table 13) Table 14)

For circular and square hollow sections the abscissa values l/(dt) or l/(bt) can

approximately replace the slenderness x. This is precisely valid for t < d or t < b.

25

////////

\\\\\\\i\\\}\$%A\\\\.

.\;\\\m.\\\x\\x

_~uli"

26

4 Members in bending

In general, lateral-torsional buckling resistance need not be checked for circular hollow

sections and rectangular hollow sections normally used in practice (bl h 2 0.5). This is due to

the fact that their polar moment of intertia I, is" very large in comparison with that of open

profiles.

Table 15 shows the length of a beam (of various steel grades) exceeding which lateral-

torsional failure occurs.

The values are based on the relation:

1 113400 15 /3+7)

S

ht f, 1+ 7, 1+'yy (4'1)

fy = Yield strength in N/mm?

= b t

W ht

gquation (4.1) has been established on the basis of the non-dimensional slenderness limit

kg = 04* (see Eurocode 3@, which is defined by the relation:

_ 1V

)LT = (4.2)

fCr,LT

where fem is the critical elastic stress for lateral-torsional buckling.

Equation 4.1 is based on pure bending of a beam (most conservative loading case) for elastic

stress distribution (cross section class 3). However, it is also valid for plastic stress

destribution (cross section classes 1 and 2).

The lowest value for I/(ht) is 37.7 (FeE460) according to Table 15. Assuming a size of

100 x 200 mm, the critical length, for which lateral-torsional buckling can be expected, is:

IC, = 37.7 - 0.2 = 7.54 m,

This span length can be regarded as quite large for the given size (and full utilization of yield

strength for 7,: times load).

Table 15 - Limiting I/(h - t) ratios for a rectangular hollow section, below which no lateral-torsional

buckling check is necessary

I/(ht)s

M( 3M W

1, = 235 N/mm f, = 275 N/mm? 1, - 355 N/mm? 1, - 460 N/mm

0.5 73.7 63.0 48.8 37.7

0.6 93.1 79.5 61.6 47.5

0.7 112.5 96.2 74.5 57.5

1

0.9 132.0 112.3 37.4 67.4

,,_t 0.9 151.3 129.3 100.2 77.3

= = bm

W T K 1.0 170.6 145.8 112.9 87.2

XL, 5 0.4 is also recommended

by some other codes

27

5 Members in combined compression and bending

5.1 General

Besides concentrically compressed columns, structural elements are most often loaded

simultaneously by axial compression and bending moments. This chapter is devoted to

classes 1, 2 and 3 beam-columns. Thin-walled members (class 4) are considered in chapter 6.

Lateral-torsional buckling is not a potential failure mode for hollow sections (see chapter 4).

According to Eurocode 3he relation is based on the following linear interaction formulae:

:

NSd Y

M Sd ' M2 Sd

Nb.Fld

+K

where

Nsd = Design value of axial compression (7; times load)

N A-f

NW = KT? = x W (5.2)

x = min (xy, 1(2) = Reduction factor (smaller of xy and x,), see chapter 3.2

A = Cross sectional area

fy = Yield strength

W = Partial safety factor for resistance

My_sd, Mz_Sd = Maximum absolute design value of the bending moment about y-y or 2-2 axis

according to the first order theory)

f

M, = We, - by elastic utilization of a cross section (class 3)

'YM

f

or My d = wp|.y ' by plastic utilization of a cross section (class 1 and 2)

;"

M

f (5-3)

' L by elastic utilization of a cross section (class 3).

Mz,Rd = wel,z

7M

7:;

N

Ky = 1

_ WW

_- )\y(2i8My4) + -1 ,howeverpy s 0.9 (5.5)

Ly

we

) l_ncremnt of bending moments according to the second order theory is considered by determining

X, and X, by buckling lengths of whole structural system

28

NSd

K, = 1 .Iz however K, s 1.5 (5.6)

Jty ' Np,

_ Wp,_,

u, = X, (2)6M,,4) + -1 , however )4, s 0.9 (5.7)

W-

el.z

For elastic sections (class 3) the value i in the equations (5.5) and (5.7) is taken to be

Wel,z

equal to 1.

BM, and Mz are equivalent uniform moment factors according to Table 16, column 2, in order

to determine the form of the bending moment distribution My and M2.

Remark 1:

For uni-axial bending with axial force, the reduction factor x is related to the loaded bending

axis, as for example, xy for the applied My with M2 = 0.

Then the following additional requirement has to be fulfilled:

A - fy

Nsds 7(z'

YM

(5.8)

1 2 3

moment diagram equivalent uniform moment equivalent uniform moment

factor BM factor B",

M1 however 3M 2 1

-M1

1<=; 1 and BM 2 0.44

T " = M

M0

M0

lateral load plus edge

0

moments BM = l3M, + -A-5; (BM,aBM,) 5 0.77:

Ma: |maxM|dueto 3m=1'

M1 iA M lateral load only

Mo 1/; > 0.77:

__ AM=|maxM|for M O +M,5

1 sM . 1 m,\l

moment diagram

M _

m

MO withoutchange of Mo + M 1

sign

M1 AM |maxM| + |minM|

MQ where sign of

moment changes

29

Remark 2:

A further design method for the loading case of bending moment and axial compression is

available in the literature . 21 , 22, 23], which is called substituting member method

It is based on the formu a or uni-axial bending moment and axial force), which is used

frequently:

N 5 6'" - M "*"

+

1

- $1 (5.9)

'

"y Np|.Rd My.Rd NSd

1

A - fy

Np|,Fld =

m

12 - El Np, _ _

NKi = = (Eulerlan buckling load)

T

b V

Kim Equivalent uniform moment factor from Table 16, column 3.

)6," <1, allowed only for fixed ends of a member and constant compression without

lateral load

MW, according to equation (5.3) (elastic or plastic)

T NSd Bm My Sd

'

' + _

< 0.9 ( 5.9 a)

"y Np|,Rd My,Fld

A compressed member has to be designed on the basis of the most stressed cross section in

addition to stability. Axial force, bending moments M and M, and shear force have to be

considered simultaneously. According to Eurocode 3 an applied shear force Vsd can be

neglected, when the following condition is fulfilled:

V3,, 5 0.5 Vpmd (5.10)

where Vpm = Design plastic shear resistance of a cross section

=2t-d,,,- -

/ ,

fl!

W

for CHS i 5.11 )

2t h m f (5 . 12)

E ' 7M

for RHS (bm instead of h,,, when shear force is parallel to b)

AV=2t~d,,, or2t-hm

<1

1) Corresponding formulae for uni- or bi-axial bending and axial force are given in [21, 23].

30

Equation (5.10) is satisfied in nearly all practical cases.

VSd

In some other codesllthe limiting values for , up to which the shear force can be

Vp|,F1d

disregarded, is significantly lower than 0.5.

The following relationship is valid for plastic design (cross section classes 1 and 2):

(1 B

j

My Sd M2 ' Sd

+ _

< 1 ( 5.13 )

<MNy,Rd MNz,Rd

1.66

at = =

n = N 5 = :3;

N N

with (5.15)

pI,Rd A._y

'YM

MN, and MN, are the reduced plastic resistance moments taking axial forces into

account. These reduced moments are described by the relations given below.

For rectangular hollow sections:

MNy'Rd =

1 _

MN, = Mp,'z'Rd E , however 5 Mp,z_Rd (5.17)

MNM = 1,26 Mp. (1 n), however 5 Mpmd (5.18)

MNM = 1,04 - Mp, (1 n"7), however 5 Mp. (5.19)

For circular hollow sections, the following exact and simple equation also valid instead

of the equation

Msd NSd 7

5 CO8 (E; ' (5.20)

Tpmd *2

V S

But the shear force must be limited to s 0.25

V p|.Rd

For elastic design the following simple linear equation can be applied instead of the equation

(5.13):

Nsd My ' so Mz ' so < 1

' + ' + ' _ ( 5.22 )

A fyd Wel,y fyd we|,z fyd

This equation can also be used, as a lower bound, but more simple to use, for plastic design

of cross section classes 1 and 2 instead of the equation (5.13).

31

5.2.2.2 Stress design considering shear load El

If the shear load Vsd exceeds 50% of the plastic design resistance of the cross section Vpmd,

the design resistance of the cross section to combinations of moment and axial force shall be

calculated using a reduced yield strength for the shear area, where:

V 2

Q = <2/i

pI,Rd

1> (5.24)

Vpmd is according to equation (5.11) or (5.12).

2A

For circular hollow section: A, =

T

For rectangular hollow section:

shear load parallel to depth._ A, _

_

Ah

b + h

b+ h

For circular hollow section, the following exact but simple equation can be given taking also

the shear force into account [23]:

M Sd N

5 n-cos

M p|.Rd pl,Rd

Vsd 2

wheren = 1 (5.26)

Vpl,Rd

Vpmd is according to the equation (5.11).

Msd is according to the equation (5.21).

No reduction for fy as shown in the equation (5.23) has to be made.

32

;, ,:/

Tubular supports for a canvas roof construction

33

6 Thin-walled sections

6.1 General

The optimisation of the buckling behaviour of hollow sections leads, for a constant value of

cross sectional area, to profiles of large dimensions and small thicknesses (large moment of

inertia).

Small thicknesses (relative to outer dimensions) can cause failure, before reaching yield

strength in the outer fibres, by local buckling. The unavoidable imperfections of the profiles

involve an interaction between local buckling in the cross section and flexural buckling in the

column. This decreases the resistance to both types of buckling.

By keeping within the d/t or b/t limits for the respective cross section classes given in Tables

4, 5 and 6, it is not required to check local buckling.

Only when exceeding the dlt or b/t limits for class 3 sections, does the influence of local

buckling on the load bearing capacity of the structural members have to be taken into account.

The cross section thus involved shall be classified as class 4 (see

it should be noted that the phenomenon of local buckling can become more critical by applying

and utilizing higher yield strength, so that smaller b/t ratios have to be selected (see Tables 4

and 5, last line).

Eurocode Sakes account of local buckling by the determining the load bearing capacity

using effective cross section dimensions, which are smaller than the real ones.

in the structures, which are dealt with in this book, circular hollow sections with a d/t ratio

higher than the limiting values given in Table 4 are seldom used; in general, d/t values are 50

at the highest. In consequence, this chapter is mainly devoted to class 4 square and

rectangular hollow sections.

The effective cross section properties of class 4 cross sections are based on the effective

widths of the compression elements.

The effective widths of flat compression elements shall be obtained using Table 17.

The plate buckling reduction facor Q shall be calculated by means of the relations given in

Table 18. For the sake of simple calculation, the equation (6.2) and (6.1) are described in

(9 = fix and. = W.

In order to determine the effective width of a flange element, the stress ratio ll used in Table

17 shall be based on the properties of the gross (not reduced) cross section. To calculate the

effective depth (he,.) of web elements, the effective area of the compressed flange (b,,, - t) but

the gross area of the webs (h - t) has to be used. This simplification allows a direct calculation

of effective widths.

Strictly speaking, an exact calculation of the effective width of a web element requires an

iterative procedure.

Under bending moment loading it is possible that the effective (reduced) width becomes valid

only for one flange. This results in a mono-symmetrical cross section with a corresponding

shift of the neutral axis. As a consquence, the effective section modulas has to be calculated

with reference to the new neutral axis.

is

profile.

34

Table 17 - Effective widths and buckling factors for thin-walled rectangular hollow sections

b,=h3torb3i be"

9 o b = . b

Q

e1 - eff

W bez

_* bi be; = 0.5 be"

'

bait = Q b1

2bs,,

"1 b _

'"

be be? ba2 = beff bei

b1

02

11/ =

01

bc 1: .

be" = Q bc

1 be = O.4be,,

01

M

b1

b""'L9 "' 4.0 % 7.31 7.81 6.2911 + 9.73172 23.9 5.98 (1 ()2

Alternatively: for 1 2 1/7 2 -1

= 16 (6.1)

]/(1+ 1;)? + 0.112 (1 ()2 + (1 + (1)

1.0 60

0.9 55

50

0.8

45

0.7

40

0.6

35

0.5 30

0.4 25

0.3 20

15

0.2

0.1

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 -2 -1 0 + 1

Nond1mensiona| slenderness /Tp Stress ratio 1;

35

Table 18 - Plate buckling reduction factor 9

Xp 0.22

Q = S 1.0 (6.2)

f

where xp, the non-dimensional slenderness of the flat compression element, is given by:

_ b,/t

xp = |/fy/ts = (6.3)

--K/E

where fE is the critical plate buckling stress

and k0 is the plate buckling factor (see Table 17 and Fig. 9)

. 235 . .

with e = and fy = yield strength in N/mmz

7 V

Reference [2] considers that the inuence of the internal corner radius need not to be taken into

account provided that:

r 5 5t

r

5 0.15

b1

These conditions are fulfilled by practically all actually produced square and rectangular hollow

sections.

The b,/t limit above which local buckling needs to be taken into account according to Tables

8 and 9 is b/t > 42 e for a uniformly compressed flange. However equation (6.2) in Table 18 for

an identically loaded flange gives Xp > 0.673; this results in b,/t > 38.2 e, some what smaller

than the 42 e above.

It is well known, that the equation (6.3) for plate buckling gives conservative results. On

account of this, possible local buckling of thin-walled sections has to be considered first, when

the b,/t limits given in Tables 5 through 7 are exceeded.

When the effective geometrical properties of a class 4 cross section, e. g. effective area As",

effective radius of gyration is", effective section modulus We", have been calculated, it is easy

to check the stability and the resistance. indeed, it is just necessary to use these effective

properties in place of the geometrical properties of the gross section in class 3 calculations.

For dimensioning thin-walled cross section, equation (5.21) is replaced by the relation:

Nsa My ' sa Mzsu 6.4

A... - at we", - fyd Wm - no

'

_ 1

WI'th t yd _ f

WM

Hollow sections have two axes of symmetry and therefore there is no shift of the neutral axis

when the cross section is subject to uniform compression. This leads to an important

simplification of class 4 beam-column equations, because additional bending moments due to

this shift do not exist in the case of structural hollow section.

The use of effective geometrical properties of thin-walled sections is recommended in the

codes of the most countries around the world. Only in the japanese code, the load bearing

capacity of a thin-walled rectangular hollow section is given by the smaller of the maximum

plate buckling load and global buckling load.

At last, as shown in reference [10], the lateral-torsional buckling can also be disregarded for

thin-walled hollow sections of c ass 4.

36

6.2.3 Design aids

For practical application, the transition from the cross section class 3 to class 4 is of special

imporance showing the b/t limits, below which local buckling can be disregarded. With 9 = 1,

the equation (6.2) leads to the limit Xp 5 0.673.

Fig. 10 gives - on base of the depth or width-to-thickness ratio and of the k, coefficient (Table

17) as well as of the yield strength fy - the possibility of a quick check of the zone where no

allowance for local buckling is necessary. The area to the left of the curves belongs to cross

section class 3, while that to the right covers class 4, all of them lying in the elastic range. When

b/t limits given by the curves are exceeded (local buckling), the plate buckling reduction factor

Q according to the equation (6.2) has to be determined.

100

K17 (N/mm2)= 460 355 275 235

0.90 fy = 235 N/mm?

50 rv : 275 N/mm?

Q30 fy:355N/mmz

fv : 460 N/mm?

0.70

40

__ __> 0.60

no local buckling local buckling

30 0.50

l

Simple bending

23.9 0.40

20

0.30

0.20

Compression 0.10

b1 M b1/t

'

T T VG

Fig. 10 b,/t or h,/t limits, below which local Fig. 11 - Plate buckling curves

buckling can be disregarded

_

+ 33?...

- _

Z

I l A r

+v E/2+t

bm=b-t

baff/2+! beff

l"l zl"l

hm/2

1 l l ,

i -l

L l __l_ ___l

av [.

T V I I

I

_ __+__

l

'1

bm=bt

Fig. 12 Effective HHS cross section under axial force N and bending moments My, M1

37

b,/t

Plate buckling reduction factor 9 vs. for various structural steel grades is drawn in

\/E"

Fig. 11 see equation 6.3).

Effective geometrical values for the cross sections of class 4 can be calculated b means of

the formulae given in Table 19. The notations in Table 19 are explained in

axial force:

_ _

he,,+2t 2 3hmhe,,2t

= 0.289

|"'y hm J3

< hm > beff 1- half 1- 41

_ b,,+2i 2 3b b,,2t

'9"-= ='289b'"\/3< ab rn )<bm+he+4t

eff eff

bending moments:

h_,,, b,,,be,,2t

6V __

2 2h,,,+bm+be,,+2t

bm hm-he,,2t

6I =

2 2b,,,+hm+h,,,,+2t

an h

We",y=t (b,,,,+2t)<T'"a,>2<a,>(h,,+b,,,,+2t)

2

+h,3,,

h

bm '1s,

+

hm

7+"v

3b b

w,,,,_,=t (h,,,,+2t) '5, -2 ".5, (b,,,+h,,,+2t)

2 2

2

hm b26z +b,3,,

+

t<<b

_b_nl+6

2 t<<h

For thin-walled circular hollow sections, it is more difficult to judge the local buckling

behaviour, especially the interaction between global and local buckling, than in the case of

plates. This is due to the local instability behaviour of cylindrical shells, their high susce tibility

to imperfections and sudden reduction of load bearing capacity without reserve

Local buckling has also to be considered for CHS, when the d/t limits for the cross section 3 are

exceeded (see Tables 4 and 7).

38

Circular hollow sections, which are applied in practice, do not or seldom, possess d/t ratios

exceeding those given in Tables 4 and 7; in general d/t s 50.

In cases, where thin-walled circular hollow sections are applied, the procedure of substituting

the yield strength fy in the already mentioned formulae by the real buckling stresses for a

short cylinder, can be used.

These buckling stresses can be calculated by the procedure shown in The

procedures in both cases are simple; however, there is no equation describing the

MI? uckling

stress explicitly.

" ou

in [26]; axSVRK in [27]

39

7 Buckling length of members in lattice girders

7.1 General

Chord and bracing members of a welded lattice girder are partiallyfixed at the nodes, although

the static calculation of the forces in the members is carried out assuming the joints to be

hinged.

As a consequence of this partial restraint, a reduction of the system length I is made to obtain

the effective buckling length lb.

7.2 Effective buckling length of chord'and bracing members with lateral support

The buckling of hollow sections in lattice girders has been treated in Based on

this, Eurocode 3 {E} Annex K] recommends the buckling lengths for hollow sections in

lattice girders as follows:

Chords:

in-plane: lb = 0.9 x system length between joints

- out-of-plane: lb = 0.9 x system length between the later supports

Bracings:

in- and out-of-plane: lb = 0.75 x system length between joints.

When the ratio of the outer diameter or width of a bracing to that of a chord is smaller than 0.6,

the buckling length of the bracing member can be determined in accord with Table 20.

The equations given are only valid for bracing members, which are welded on the chords

along the full perimeter length without cropping or flattening of the ends of the members. Due

to the fact that no test results are, at present time, available on fully overlapped joints, the

equation given in Table 20 cannot be applied to this type of joint.

M

Fully overlapped joints

In both of the last cases, a buckling length equal to the system length of the bracing member

has to be used.

7.3 Chords of lattice girders, whose joints are not supported laterally

For laterally unsupported truss chords the effective buckling length can be considerably

smaller than the actual unsupported length.

References two calculation methods for the case of compression chords in lattice

give

girders without lateral support. Both methods are based on an iterative melhod and require the

use of a computer. However. in order to facilitate the application for commonly encountered

cases (laterally restrained in direction), 64 design charts have been drawn and appear as

appendices in CIDECT Monograph no. 4

The effective buckling length of a bottom c ord loaded in compression (as for example, by

uplift loading) depends on the loading in the chord, the torsional rigidity of the truss, the

40

bending rigidity of the pulins and the purlin to truss connections. For detailed information,

reference is given to [12, 15]."

For the example given in the following figure, the buckling length of the unsupported bottom

chord can be reduced to 0.32 times the chord length L.

IPE 140

139.7x4

T

0 60x3

139.7x4

we

000

RV

buckling length

bottom chord lb: ~ 0.32 L L///

Lateral buckling of laterally unsupported chords

d1: outer diameter of a circular bracing member

be: external width of a square chord member [i=El or i or E

b1: external width of square bracing member do be be

for all 3: lb/I 5 0.75

I

when 5 < 0.6, in general 0.5 s T 5 0.75

calculate with:

0'25

chord: CHS _

" 2'20 d

bracing: CHS I/I <l-do) (11)

0'25

chord: SHS dg

bracing: CHS '" 2'35 <| - b> (72)

b ? 025

chord: SHS

IH 2.30 <| _ b> (7.3)

bracing:SHS

41

\\\\\\\\\\

/

//////////

&v

42

8 Design examples

N5d=l15Ol<N 1150kN

l

Z

/

/ 7 / LEI/2

/

l 8 Y Y

\ t }

\\ __l 2

i 9 200

A column is to be designed using a rectangular hollow section 300 x 200 x 7.1 mm, hot-

formed with a yield strength of 235 N/mm? (steel grade Fe 360).

The length of the column is 8 m. It has hinged support at both ends. An intermediate support

at the middle of the column length exists against buckling about the weak axis y-y.

Given: Concentric compression (design load) Nsd = 1150 kN

buckling length: lbyy = 8 m

lb: = 4 m

steel grade: Fe 360; fy = 235 N/mm?

geometric properties: A = 67.7 cmz; iy = 11.3 cm; i2 = 8.24 cm

max.

5_ 3ooa~7.1 = 39.25 < 42 (compare with Tab. 5 and 6)

I 7.1

800 - 400 _

)\y = 70.8,_ X2 _ 48.6 < )\y

11-3 -18.24

70.8

)\y =

Acc. to equation (3.1):

235 -

Nb'Rd = 0.821 -6770- 10'3 = 1187 kN > 1150 kN. Therefore column okay.

T

8.2 Design of a rectangular hollow section column in combined compression and unl-

axlal bending

N5d:8O0kN

60 kNm

2

/

Z

1

L .5

I/ : I

v 3

lb _ _ L _ __

1 y=8m v

\ l

\ I

Z

1

1 18 kNm 200

Z-Z

Myysd

43

given: hot-formed rectangular hollow section column 300 x 200 x 8 mm

compression Nsd = 800 kN

bending moment My_Sd 60 kNm or 18 kNm at both ends

buckling length lb, I,,_, = 8.0 m

steel grade Fe 430; fy = 275 N/mm?

geometric properties: A = 75.8 cmz; iy = 11.2 cm; i, = 8.20 cm

Wy = 634 W, = 510

cm:;;

WW = 765 cm cm:

WW = 580 cm

t 8 for class 2 cross section of Fe 430

D1. = '

t 8

800 800

>\,==97.6

ky=11T=71.4;

71.4 = 97.6 =

x, = 0.823 (see Tab. 10a),_ X, = 1.124

533 E

Acc. to Table 16: BM), = 1.8 0.7 - 0.3 = 1.59 <with 11/ = E = 0.3)

60

765 634 _ 0.468 < 0.9

634

' ' 3

- u

'

Calculation for the stability about y-y axis acc. to equation (5.1):

+ 0.540 + 0.386 = 0.926 <1.0

0.782 ~ 7580 - 275 765 - 103 - 275

Calculation for buckling about z-z axis:

Nsd 5 Nb,z.Fld

235 '10'3 =

800 < 0.580 ' 7580 ' 939 kN. Therefore column okay.

1 1

60 18

Shear load V: Vy_s,, = = 5.25 kN

8

" = 2- a(3oo 3) -31 = 674 kN

. -3

Acc. to equation (5.11): v,,.,F.., 1.1 \/-

Vysd

Vp|'y]Rd

= =

574 o.ooa < 0.5

5.25

Acc. to equation (5.13): My.ScI 51.0

MNy,Rd

44

. 3.

Acc. to equation (5.16): MNYM =

7580 ' 275

,_33.,65.,oa.<1_8_o<3__1o_1;>

1.1

= 147 ' 106 Nmm

= 147 kNm

M , = so =

0.41 < 1.0. Therefore column okay.

W:S:; T5

bi-axial bending

21 60kNm 50kNm

2 i

, 1 /,

Z _

I 'b,z=0.7-8 {+5.8 1

I |b'

=|

=5.6m

300

y=8m \ Y_ L "_Y

\ l \ \ vJ I

\ I

1 1 I2

f -25 kNm 200

,

zZ Mv,sd Y'Y Mz,sd

bi-axial bending

Given: Hot formed rectangular hollow section column 300 x 200 x 8.8 mm

The length of the column is 8 m.

Both ends of the columns have hinged support about the strong axis 2-2 and fixed

support at the foot end about the weak axis y-y.

Mzvsd = 50 kNm

Buckling length: I my = 8m

l,,_, 0.7- 8.0 = 5.6 m

Geometric properties:

A = 82.9 cm3

W, = 689 cm3; W, = 553 cm3

WW = 834 cm3; WM, = 632 cm3

iy = 11.2 cm; iz = 8.16 cm

b h _ .

maxt = t = 9993j&

8.8

= 31.0=38-0.81 =31

The cross section just satisfies the requirements for the class 2 of Fe 510 (Tables 5 and 6).

45

3) Calculation for the global buckling acc. to equation (5.1)

800 = 560 =

x, = 71.4 >12 = 68.6

_2 -8_16

71.4 = 68.6

x, = 0.935 X, = = 0.898

76_4 76_4

xy = 0.711 (= xmin) xz = 0.735 (buckling curve a")

. 355 -

Acc. to equation (5.3)._ Mpmad = 834- 103 - 10 _6 = 269 kNm

1:1

Acc. to equation (5.5): ,1, = 0.935 (2 - 1.8 4) + (3% 1) = 0.164 < 0.9

0.164 1000

Acc. to equation (5.4): Ky = 1 - %$ = 1.09 < 1.5

Finally, acc. to equation (5.1): 133; 1'9%6 ';%;15 = 0.526+ 0.243 +0.194

= 0.963 < 1.0

In order to obtain sufficient load bearing capacity of the cross section the elastic equation

(5.22) is applied conservatively (all values in kN and mm):

1000 60-103 50-103 = 0.340 + 0.245 + 0.255

8290 - 0.355 689 ' 103 - 0.355 553 - 103 - 0.355

= 0.84 < 1.0

If this calculation would not have led to a satisfactory result (that means > 1.0), then the

calculation must be carried out using equation (5.13).

The assumption to ne Iect shear load in equations (5.13) and (5.22) is V3,, s 0.5 VPW, see

equation (5.10)

The shear resistance acc. to equation (5.12) is decisive in this case:

355 * 10-3

VPLLRG = 2 ' 8.8 (200

"

8.8)

= 627 kN

V5d

= 0.015 < 0.5. Therefore shear is not critical.

V p|,Rd

46

8.4 Design of a thin-walled rectangular hollow section column In compression

Nsd = 500 kN

Ll

Fig. 16 Thin-walled column under concentric

compression

Given: Cold-formed rectangular hollow section column 400 x 200 x 4 mm (acc. to ISO 4019

-7])

e ength of the column is 10 m.

Both ends of the column have hinged support about the strong axis 2-2 and fixed

supports at both ends about the weak axis y-y.

Steel grade: Fe 430, fy = 275 N/mm2 (basic hot rolled strip)

Buckling length: Ibly 10m

lb, =%=5m

Nsd = 500 kN

Cross sectional area A = 46.8 cm?

Acc. to equation (1.3): fya = 275 + 4%+'65 (430 275)

= 289 N/mmz < 1.2- 275 = 330 N/mm2

Long side:

__ 400-3-4 _97

t 4 > 42 E =

b1 200-3-4 275 38.8 (Tables 5 and 6)

Short side:

_t"?4_"'47

The cross section is thin-walled (class 4) and the calculation shall be made using effective

width.

According to Fig. 8, the limit for plate buckling: Xp, mi, = 0.673 (Xp acc. to equation (6.2)

with 9 = 1.0).

Non-dimensional slenderness taking yield strength of the basic material fyb acc. to

equation (6.3):

28.4 - 1/2'1/Z32 5/275

"" 23.4 - 1/I1/235/275

= 0.90 > 0.673

47

Non-dimensional slenderness taking average increased yield strength fya (289 N/mmz)

after cold-forming:

97

X"" = e___ = 1.89 > 0.673

28.4 - 1/T1/235/289

47

x"" = j-

= 0.92 > 0.673

28.4 1/4"]/235/269

In all cases, the cross section belongs to class 4.

a) With yield strength of the basic material fyb (275 Nlmmz) and K, = 4 (simple

compression):

Q = 0.476 .

Q: = 0340 acc. to equation (6.2)

6;, = 0.840 (200 3-4) = 157.7 mm

A9,, = 28.69 cm2

ievy = 17.50 cm acc. to Tab. 19

i eff,z = 8.76 cm

b) With average increased yield strength after cold forming (fy, = 289 N/mm?)

91/

= 0.468

= 0.827 } acc. to equation (6.2)

w

:1, : 2:21:32 :21; : 12:22:} o

Q2

e . _ .

A6,, = 28.25 cm?

ism = 17.60 cm

eftz = 8.33 cm

a) With yield strength of the basic material (fyb = 275 N/mm2):

0 Strong axis

= 1000

x, = 57.1

17.5

X, = 3;:3 = 0.66 (see Tab. 10a)

xy (acc. to Tab. 13, curve b")

= 0.806

275 = .

NW, = 0.806 - 2869- 578 kN (see equation (3.1))

0 Week axis

x, = 5 0 _ 57.1

8.76

57.1

X, = _ 0.66

8&8

x, = 0.806 (acc. to Tab. 13, curve b)

NW = 0.606 - 2669-

0.275

1.1

= 562 kN

48

b) With average increased yield strength after cold-forming (289 N/mm2):

XE = 93.9 1/235/28 = 84.7 (see Tab. 10a)

0 Strong axis

x, = 56.8

17_6

56.8

)\y =

Nbvnd = 0.743-2825-

0 Weak axis

X, = 500 60.0

8.33

60

X, _ 0.71

84}

x, = 0.719 (acc. to Tab. 14, curve c)

534 kN

Conclusion:

_ Assuming both criteria (basic and average increased yield strength, the design com-

pressive load (= 500 kN) lies lower than the calculated lead bearing capacity. The

calculated values for the strong and weak axis differ by a small margin from each other. An

economic selection of the cross section has been made. -

presslon and bi-axlal bending

Nsd=250kN

23 l2.5l<Nm -12.5 kNm

Z

/

I

_ l I

{ lbvl lb, f V 400

Y

I

tr-l_

\\

'z

1} 25 kNm l25l<Nm 200

Z! My,sd V'V Mz,sd

compression and b-axial bending

Concentric compression Nsd = 250 kN

Bending moments: Myvsd = 25 kNm and 12.5 kNm at the ends of the column

Mzvsd = 12.5 kNm and 12.5 kNm at the ends of the column

49

Under bending moment the yield strength of the basic material is always to be assumed even

for cold-formed profiles. The strain hardening of cold-formed section is desregarded.

Steel grade: Fe430; fy = fyvb = 275 N/mm?

Column system length I = 10 m

Buckling lengths: |,,_y = 10m

Nbyz =

10

=

12

u, = 0.806 X, = 0.66

x2 = um, = 0.806 > X, = 0.66

he = 184.7 mm

be" = 157.9 mm

A9,, = 28.69 cm2

ism, = 17.5 cm

ism = 8.76 cm

Ratio of the end moments:

y 25 BM acc. to Tab. 16,

second column

0, = _12_5

125

= -1.0 aM,,=2.5o

8, = 5.2 mm

6, = 20.3 mm

We, = 482.2 cm3

Wen, = 219.9 cm3

Acc. to equation (5.5): Y = X, (2M,y 4) = 0.66 (2 - 1.45 4) = - 0.726 < 0.9

v _1_ -0.726-250-103

0.806-2869-275 = 1.256 <1.5

Acc. to equation (5.6): K, = 1 _ 0.65 - 250 - -103

0.811 -2869 275 = 0.746 < 1.5

+ +

- ~

0.806 2869 275 482.2- 103 ~ 275 219.9 - 103 - 275

= 0.432 + 0.260 + 0.170 = 0.862 < 1.0

Calculation to check maximum stress at the foot end acc. to equation (5.22):

250-10-1.1 25~10-1.1 12.5-10-1.1

2869-275 482.2- 103 ~ 275 219.9 ~ 103 - 275

= 0.348 + 0.207 + 0.227 = 0.782 < 1.0

Conclusion:

The cross section 400 x 200 x 4 mm satisfies the requirements.

50

9 Symbols

Aelf Effective area of the cross section

CHS Circular hollow section

Modulus of elasticity

Calculated value of an action

Shear modulus

Moment of inertia

Effective moment of inertia

Amplification co-efficient for a beam-column (see equations 5.1, 5.4, 5.6)

MN,Fld Reduced design plastic resistance moment allowing for the axial force

Design value of the bending moment

Nb,Rd Design value of the buckling resistance of a compression member

NpI,Rd Plastic design value of the resistance of a compression member

NSd Design value of the axial force

Resistance

RHS Rectangular hollow section

Vpl,Rd Plastic design shear resistance

Design value of the shear force

Section modulus

Effective section modulus

Plastic section modulus

Width of a flat element (see Tab. 6)

Average width of RHS (b t)

Average width of RHS (h -0

see Tab. 17

Critical plate buckling stress

Ultimate tensile strength of the basic material of a hollow section

Tensile yield strength

Average design yield strength of a cold-formed section

Tensile yield strength of the basic material of a hollow section

1

Design yield strength <= y)

YM

External depth of RHS

Radius of gyration

Effective radius of gyration

Buckling factor (see Tab. 18)

Length

Effective buckling length

Internal corner radius for RHS

Wall thickness

51

Strong axis of the cross section

Weak axis of the cross section

imperfection co-efficient of the buckling curves

Exponents of the criterion for the resistance of a beam-column

Equivalent uniform moment factor (see Tab. 16)

Ratio of the width minus thickness to depth minus thickness of RHS

Partial safety factor for the resistance

Shift of the neutral axis of a thin-walled section

Ultimate strain

Yield strain

Slenderness of a column

Eulerian slenderness

Non-dimensional slenderness of a column

Non-dimensional slenderness of a flat plate for lateral-torsional buckling

Non-dimensional slenderness of a flat plate

Co-efficient used for a beam-column (see equations 5.5 and 5.7)

Poissons ratio

Density

Reduction factor of the yield strength to take account of the shear force and effective

width

Reduction factor for buckling curves (see

Stress or moment ratio (see Tab. 17)

52

10 References

[1] EC3: Eurocode no. 3, Design of Steel Structures, Part I General Rules and Rules for

Buildings. Commission of the European Communities, volume 1, chapters 1 to 9,

November 1990 (Draft).

[2] EC3: Eurocode no. 3, Design of Steel Structures, Part 1 General Rules and Rules for

Buildings. Commission of the European Communities, volume 2 annexes, July 1990

(Draft).

[3] SSRC: Stability of Metal Structures A World View. Structural Stability Research

Council, 2nd Edition, 1991.

[4] Sherman, D.R.: Inelastic Flexural Buckling of Cylinders. Steel Structures Recent

Research Advances and their Application to Design, International Conference, Budva,

M. N. Pavlovic editor, Elsevier, London, 1986.

[5] Johnston, B.G.: Column Buckling Theory Historic Highlights. A. S. C. E., Journal of

the Structural Division, Vol. 109, no. 9, September 1983.

I6] EC3: Eurocode no. 3, Design of Steel Structures, Part 1 General Rules and Rules for

Buildings. Annex D - The Use of Steel Grade FeE 460, Commission of the European

Communities, Report EC3 90-Cl-D3Rev, July 1990.

[7] Beer, H., and Schulz, G.: The European Buckling Curves, International Association for

Bridge and Structural Engineering, Proceedings of the International Colloqium on

Column Strength, Paris, November 1972.

[8] Austin, W.J.:: Strength and Design of Metal Beam-Columns, A. S. C. E. Journal of the

Structural Devision, Vol. 87, no. 4, April 1961.

[9] Chen, W. F., and Atsuta, T.: Theory of Beam-Columns, Volume 1: In-Plane Behaviour

and Design. Mc.Graw Hill, New-York, 1976.

[10] Rondal, J., and Maquoi, R.: Stabilit des poteaux en profils creux en acier, Soditube,

Notice 1117, Paris, Mai 1986.

[11] Ellinas, C. P., and Croll, J. G. A.: Design Loads for Elastic-Plastic Buckling of Cylinders

under Combined Axial and Pressure Loading, Proceedings of the BOSS 82 Confe-

rence, Boston, August 1982.

[12] CIDECT: Construction with Hollow Steel Sections, ISBN O-9510062-07, December

1984.

[13] Grimault, J.P.: Longueur de flambement des treillis en profils creux souds sur

membrures en profils creux, Cidect report 3E-3G-80/3. January 1980.

[14] Rondal, J.: Effective Lengths of Tubular Lattice Girder Members, Statistical Tests.

Cidect report 3K 88/9, August 1988.

[15] Mouty, J.: Effective Lengths of Lattice Girder Members, Cidect, Monograph no. 4, 1980.

[15] ISO/DIS 657-14: Hot-rolled steel Sections; Part 14: Hot formed structural hollow

sections - Dimensions and sectional properties, Draft Revision of Second edition ISO

657: 14-1982.

[17] ISO 4019: Cold-finished steel structural hollow sections Dimensions and sectional

properties, 1st edition, 1982.

53

[19] IIW XV 701/89: Design Recommendations for hollow section joints Predominantly

statically loaded, 2nd Edition, 1989, International Institute of Welding.

[20] prEN 10210: Hot finished structural hollow section of non-alloy and fine grained

structural steels

Part 1: Technical delivery requirements, 1991.

Part 2: Tolerrances, dimensions and sectional properties (in preparation).

Teil 1: Stahlbauten, Bemessung und Konstruktion, November 1990.

Tell 2: Stahlbauten, Stabilitatsfalle, Knicken von Staben und Stabwerken, November

1990.

[22] ECCS-CECM-EKS: European Recommendation for Steel Structures 2E, March 1978

[23] Dutta, D., und Wiirker K.-G.: Handbuch Hohlprofile in Stahlkonstruktionen, Verlag TUV

Rheinland-GmbH, Koln 1988.

[24] Floik, K., und Kindmann, R.: Das Ersatzstabverfahren Tragsicherheitsnachweise fur

Stabwerke bei einachsiger Biegung und Normalkraft, Der Stahlbau 5/1982.

[25] Roik, K., und Kindmann, R.: Das Ersatzstabverfahren eine Nachweisform fiir den

einfeldrigen Stab bei planmiBig einachsiger Biegung mit Druckkraft, Der Stahlbau

12/1981.

[25] European Convention for Constructional Steelwork (ECCSEKS): Buckling of Steel

shells, European Recommendations (section 4.6 als selbstandige Schrift), 4th Edition,

1988.

[27] DIN 18 800, Teil 4: Stahlbeton, Stabilittsfalle, Schalenbeulen, November 1990.

[28] Sedlacek, G., Wardenier, J.., Dutta. D., und Grotmann, D.: Eurocode 3 (draft), Annex K

- Hollow section lattice girder connections, October 1991.

[29] prEN 10 219-1, 1991: Cold formed structural hollow section of non-alloy and fine grain

structural steels, Part 1 Technical delivery conditions, ECISSITC 10/SC 1, Structural

Steels: Hollow Sections.

[301 Boeraeve, P., Maquoi, R., und Flondal, J.: influence of imperfections on the ultimate

carrying capacity of centrically loaded columns, 1st International Correspondence

Conference ,,Design Limit States of Steel Structures, Technical University of Brno,

Czechoslovakia, Brno, 1983.

[31] EN 10025: Hot-rolled products of non-alloy structural steels, Technical delivery

conditions, March 1991.

I32] European Convention for Constructional Steelwork: ECCS-E6-76, Appendix no. 5: Thin

walled cold formed members.

The authors express their appreciation to the following firms for making available the

photographs used in this Design Guide:

British Steel pic.

Mannesmannrohren-Werke A.G.

Mannhardt Stahlbau

llva Form

Valexy

54

Comit International pour le Dveloppement et lEtude de la Construction Tubulaire

International Committee

for the Development and Study

of Tubular Structures

CIDECT founded in 1962 as an international association joins together the research

resources of major hollow steel section manufacturers to create a major force in the

research and application of hollow steel sections worldwide.

O to increase knowledge of hollow steel sections and their potential application by

initiating and participating in appropriate researches and studies

0 to establish and maintain contacts and exchanges between the producers of the

hollow steel sections and the ever increasing number of architects and engineers

using hollow steel sections throughout the world.

0 to promote hollow steel section usage wherever this makes for good engineering

practice and suitable architecture, in general by disseminating information,

organizing congresses etc.

dations, regulations or standards at national and international level.

Technical activities

The technical activities of CIDECT have centred on the following research aspects of

hollow steel section design:

Buckling behaviour of empty and concrete-filled columns

Effective buckling lengths of members in trusses

Fire resistance of concrete-filled columns

Static strength of welded and bolted joints

Fatigue resistance of joints

Aerodynamic properties

Bending strength

Corrosion resistance

O O O O O Workshop fabrication

The results of CIDECT research form the basis of many national and international

design requirements for hollow steel sections.

55

CIDECT, the future

Current work is chiefly aimed at filling up the gaps in the knowledge regarding the

structural behaviour of hollow steel sections and the interpretation and imple-

mentation of the completed fundamental research. As this proceeds, a new

complementary phase is opening that will be directly concerned with practical,

economical and labour saving design.

CIDECT Publications

The current situation relating to CIDECT publications reflects the ever increasing

emphasis on the dissemination of research results.

Apart from the final reports of the CIDECT sponsored research programmes, which

are available at the Technical Secretariat on demand at nominal price, CIDECT has

published a number of monographs concerning various aspects of design with

hollow steel sections. These are available in English, French and German as

indicated.

No.

Monograph 4 - Effective Lengths of Lattice Girder Members (E, F, G)

No.

Monograph 5 - Concrete-filled Hollow Section Columns (E, F)

No.

Monograph 6 The Strength and Behaviour of Statically Loaded Welded

No.

Connections in Structural Hollow Sections (E)

Monograph No. 7 Fatigue Behaviour of Hollow Section Joints (E, G)

A book Construction with Hollow Steel Sections, prepared under the direction of

CIDECT in English, French, German and Spanish, was published with the sponsor-

ship of the European Community presenting the actual state of the knowledge

acquired throughout the world with regard to hollow steel sections and the design

methods and application technologies related to them.

In addition, copies of these publications can be obtained from the individual

members given below to whom technical questions relating to CIDECT work or the

design using hollow steel sections should be addressed.

0 President: J. C. Ehlers (Federal Republic of Germany)

Vice-President: C. L. Bijl (The Netherlands)

O A General Assembly of all members meeting once a year and appointing an

Executive Committee responsible for adiministration and executing of esta-

bished policy

0 Technical Commission and Working Groups meeting at least once a year and

directly responsible for the research and technical promotion work

56

O Secretariat in Dusseldorf responsible for the day to day running of the orga-

nization.

(1992)

British Steel PLC, United Kingdom

Hoesch Rohr AG, Federal Republic of Germany

ILVA Form, ltaly

IPSCO Inc., Canada

Laminoirs de Longtain, Belgium

Mannesmannrohren-Werke AG, Federal Republic of Germany

Mannst'a'dt Werke GmbH, Federal Republic of Germany

Nippon Steel Metal Products Co. Ltd., Japan

Rautaruukki Oy, Finland

Sonnichsen A/S, Norway

Tubemakers of Australia, Australia

Van Leeuwen, The Nietherlands

Valexy, France

Verenigde Buizenfabrieken (VBF), The Netherlands

O O O O O O O O VOEST Alpine Krems, Austria

Mr. D. Dutta

Office of the Chairman of the CIDECT Technical Commission

c/o Mannesmannrohren-Werke AG

Mannesmannufer 3

D-4000 Dusseldorf 1

Federal Republic of Germany

Telephone: (49) 211/875-34 80

Telex: 8 581 421

Telefax: (49) 21 1 I875-46 89

Care has been taken to ensure that all data and information herein is factual and that

numerical values are accurate. To the best of our knowledge, all information in this book is

accurate at the time of publication.

CIDECT, its members and the authors assume no responsibility for errors or misinterpretation

of the information contained in this book or in its use.

57

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