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CONSTRUCTION
WITH
HOLLOW STEEL SECTION

Edited by: Comit International pour le Dveloppement et |Etude


de la Construction Tubulaire
Authors: Jacques Rondal, University of Lige
Karl-Gerd Wiirker, Consulting engineer
Dipak Dutta, Chairman of the Technical Commission CIDECT
Jaap Wardenier, Delft University of Technology
Noel Yeomans, Chairman of the Cidect Working Group
Joints behaviour and Fatigue-resistance
QFERWEWE
WZEXHEHWTW
@E H @EE@W
J. Rondal, K.-G. W rker,D. Dutta, J. Wardenier,
N. YYYYYns

Verlag TUV Rheinland


Die Deutsche Bibliothek CIP Einheitsaufnahme

Structural stability of hollow sections / [Comit


International pour le Dveloppement et IEtude de la
Construction Tubulaire]. J. Rondal
TUV Rheinland, 1992
(Construction with hollow steel sections)
Dt. Ausg. u.d.T.: Knick- und Beulverhalten von
Hohlprofilen (rund und rechteckig). Franz. Ausg.
u.d.T.: Stabilit des structures en profils creux
ISBN 3-8249-0075-0
NE: Fiondal, Jasques; Comit International pour Ie
Dveloppement at IEtude de la Construction
Tubulaire

ISBN 3-8249-0075-0

by Verlag TUV Rhein|an_d GmbH, K6ln 1992


Entirely made by: Verlag TUV Rheinland GmbH, Koln
Printed in Germany 1992
Preface

The objective of this design manual is to present the guide lines for the design and calculation
of steel structures consisting of circular and rectangular hollow sections dealing in particular
with the stability of these structural elements. This book describes in a condensed form the
global, local and lateral-torsional buckling behaviour of hollow sections as well as the methods
to determine effective buckling lengths of chords and bracings in lattice girders built with
them. Nearly all design rules and procedures recommended here are based on the results of
the analytical investigations and practical tests, which were initiated and sponsored by
CIDECT. These research works were carried out in the universities and institutes in various
parts of the world.
The technical data evolving from these research projects, the results of their evaluation and
the conclusions derived were used to establish the European buckling curves for circular
and rectangular hollow sections. This was the outcome of a cooperation between ECCS
(European Convention for Constructional Steelwork) and CIDECT. These buckling curves
have now been incorporated in a number of national standards. They have also been
proposed for the buckling design by Eurocode 3, Part 1: General Rules and Rules for
Buildings", which is at present in preparation.
Extensive research works on effective buckling lengths of structural elements of hollow
sections in lattice girders in the late seventies led in 1981 to the publication of Monograph No.
4 Effective lengths of lattice girder members by CIDECT. A recent statistical evaluation of all
data from this research programme resulted in a recommendation for the calculation of the
said buckling length which Eurocode 3, Annex K Hollow section lattice girder connections"
(Draft October 1991) also contains.
This design guide is the second of a series, which CIDECT will publish in the coming years:
Design guide for circular hollow section (CHS) joints under predominantly static loading.
Structural stability of hollow sections.
Design guide for rectangular hollow section joints under predominantly static loading.
Design guide for hollow section columns susceptible to fire.
Design guide for circular and rectangular hollow section joints under fatigue loading.
The first book ofthis series has already been published early 1991 in three languages (english,
french and german). The remaining three design manuals are now in preparation.
All these publications are intended to make architects, engineers and constructors familiar
with the simplified design procedures of hollow section structures. Worked-out examples
make them easy to understand and show how to come to a safe and economic design.
Our sincere thanks go to the authors of this book, who belong to the group of wellknown
specialists in the field of structural applications of hollow sections. We express our special
thanks to Dr. Jacques Ftondal of the University of Liege, Belgium as the main author of this
book. We thank further Mr. D. Grotmann of the Technical University of Aix-la-Chapelle for
numerous stimulating suggestions. Finally we thank all CIDECT members, whose support
made this book possible.

Dipak Dutta
Chairman of the Technical Commission
CIDECT
Quadrangular vierendeel columns
Contents
Page
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.1 Limit states . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 10
1.2 Limit state design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.3 Steel grades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 11
1.4 Increase in yield strength due to cold working . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

2 Cross section classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

3 Members in axial compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19


3.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
3.2 Design method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 19
3.3 Design aids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

Members in bending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
4.1 Design for lateral-torsional buckling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

5 Members in combined compression and bending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28


5.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
5.2 Design method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 28
5.2.1 Design for stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
5.2.2 Design based on stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
5.2.2.1 Stress design without considering shear load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
5.2.2.2 Stress design considering shear load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

6 Thin-walled sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
6.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 34
6.2 Rectangular hollow sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
6.2.1 Effective geometrical properties of class 4 cross sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
6.2.2 Design procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
6.2.3 Design aids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
6.3 Circular hollow sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

7 Buckling length of members in lattice girders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40


7.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 40
7.2 Effective buckling length of chord and bracing members with lateral support . . 40
7.3 Chords of lattice girders, whose joints are not supported laterally . . . . . . . . .6 . . 40

8 Design examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
8.1 Design of a rectangular hollow section column in compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
8.2 Design of a rectangular hollow section column in combined compression and
uni-axial bending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
8.3 Design of a rectangular hollow section column in combined compression and
bi-axial bending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

7
8.4 Design of a thin-walled rectangular hollow section column in compression . . . 47
8.5 Design of a thin-walled rectangular hollow section column in concentric
compression and bi-axial bending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

9 Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 51

10 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 53

CIDECT - International Committee for the Development and Study of Tubular


Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Introduction

It is very often considered that the problems to be solved while designing a steel structure are
only related to the calculation and construction of the members and their connections. They
concern mainly the static or fatigue strength and the stability of the structural members as well
as the load bearing capacity of the joints. This point of view is certainly not correct as one
cannot ignore the important areas dealing with fabrication, erection and when necessary,
protection against fire.
It is very important to bear in mind that the application of hollow sections, circular and
rectangular, necessitates special knowledge in all of the above mentioned areas extending
beyond that for the open profiles in conventional structural engineering.
This book deals with the aspect of buckling of circular and rectangular hollow sections, their
calculations and the solutions to the stability problems.
The aim of this design guide is to provide architects and structural engineers with design aids
based on the most recent research results in the field of application technology of hollow
sections. It is mainly based on the rules given in Eurocode 3 (final draft) Design of Steel
Structures, Part 1: General Rules and Rules for Buildings and its annexes [1, 2]. Small
differences can be found when compared to some national standards. The reader will find in
reference [3] a review of the main differences existing between Eurocode 3 (final draft) and the
codes used in other countries. However, when it is possible, some indications are given on the
rules and recommendations in the codes used in Australia, Canada, Japan and United States
of America as well as in some european countries.

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1 General

1.1 Limit states

Most design codes for seel structures are, at the present time, based on limit state design.
Limit states are those beyond which the structure no longer satisfies the design performance
requirements.
Limit state conditions are classified into
ultimate limit state
serviceability limit state
Ultimate limit states are those associated with collapse of a structure or with other failure
modes, which endanger the safety of human life. For the sake of simplicity, states prior to
structural collapse are classified and treated as ultimate limit states in place of the collapse
itself.
Ultimate limit states, which may require consideration, include:
Loss of equilibrium of a structure or a part of it, considered as a rigid body
Loss of load bearing capacity, as for example, rupture, instability, fatigue or other agreed
limiting states, such as excessive deformations and stresses
Serviceability limit states correspond to states beyond which specified service criteria are no
longer met. They include:
- Deformations or deflections which affect the appearance or effective use of the structure
(including the malfunction of machines or services) or cause damage to finishes or non-
structural elements
Vibration which causes discomfort to people, damage to the building or its contents or
which limits its functional effectiveness
Recent national and international design standards recommend procedures proving limit
state resistance. This implies, in particular for stability analysis, that the imperfections,
mechanical and geometrical, which influence the behaviour of a structure significantly, must
be taken into account. Mechanical imperfections are, for example, residual stresses in
structural members and connections. Geometrical imperfections are possible pre-
'
deformations in members and cross sections as well as tolerances.

1.2 Limit state design

In the Eucrocode 3 format, when considering a limit state, it shall be verified that:
Ft (1.1)
):(y,=-F)s V
7M
where
7,: = Partial safety factor for the action F
W = Partial safety factor for the resistance R
F = Value of an action
R = Value of a resistance for a relevant limit state

YF - F = F, is called the design load while Ft/7M = R,, is designated as the design resistance.
It is not within the scope of this book to discuss in detail these general provisions. They can be
taken from Eurocode 3 and other national codes, which can sometimes show small deviations
from one another. As for example, the calculations in the recent US-codes are made with
d> = 1l'yM.

10
1.3 Steel grades

Table 1 gives the grades of the generally used structural steels with the nominal minimum
values of the yield strength fy, range of the ultimate tensile strength fu and elongations. The
steel grades correspond to the hot-rolled hollow sections as well as to the basic materials for
cold-formed - wsections. The desi nations of the steel grades in Table 1 are in accordance
with ISO 6305 well as EN 10 025 They can be different in other standards. For hot-
rolled hollow sections (circular and rectangular), the draft of the european code EN 10 210,
Part 1 1990 is available.
Table 1 - Steel grades for structural steels

_ _ _ min. percentage elongation


min. yield tensile
steel grade L0 = 565 ,/go
strizength
fy (Nlmm ) strerggth
fu (N/mm ) _ _
longitudinal transverse

Fe 360 235 340. . .470 26 24


Fe 430 275 370. . .540 24 22
Fe 510 355 470. . .630 22 20
FeE 460" 460 550. . .720 17 15

* from EN 10210, Part 1

Table 2 contains the recommended physical properties valid for all structural steels.

Table 2 - Physical properties of structural steels

modulus of elasticity: E = 210 000 N/mm?


shear modulus: G = --E = 81 000 N/mm?
2(l + V)
polsson co-efficient: u = 0.3

co-efficient of linear expansion: at = 12- 105/C


density: 9 = 7850 kg/m3

1.4 Increase In yield strength due to cold working

Cold rolling of profiles provides an increase in the yield strength due to strain hardening. which
may be used in the design by means of the rules given in Table 3. However, this increase can
be used only for HHS in tension or compression elements and cannot be taken into account if
the members are subjected to bending (see Annex A of Eurocode 3
For cold rolled square and rectangular hollow sections, eq. (1 .2) can be simplified (k = 7for all
cold-forming of hollow sections and n = 4) resulting in:

141
fya = fyb + (fu fyb) (1.3)
m
IA fu
IA 1.2 ' fyb

Fig. 1 allows a quick estimation of the average yield strength after cold-forming, for square and
rectangular hollow sections for the four basic structural steels.

11
Table 3 - Increase of yield strength due to cold-forming of RHS profiles

Average yield strength:


The average yield strength fy, may be determined from full size section tests or as follows
fya = fyb + (k - n ~ t2/A) (fu fy,,) (1.2)
where fyb, fu = specified tensile yield strength and ultimate tensile strength of the basic material
(N/mm)
t = material thickness (mm)
A = gross cross-sectional area (mm?)
k = co-efficient depending on the type of forming (k = 7 for cold rolling)
n = number of 90 bends in the section with an internal radius <5t (fractions of 90
bends should be counted as fractions of n)
fya = should not exceed fu or 1.2 fyb
The increase in yield strength due to cold working should not be utilised for members which are
annealed or subject to heating over a long length with a high heat input after forming, which may
produce softening.

Basic material:
Basic material is the flat hot rolled sheet material out of which sections are made by cold forming.

Stress relief annealing at more than 580C or for over one hour may lead to deterioration of the
mechanical properties

Increase in yield strength fya/fyb


1.20

1.15 .

ryb = 275 N/mm?


= 235 N/mm?

\\
- = 355 Nxmmz
\ = 480 N/mm?

1.05 \
\
\x
L
1.00
0 1'0 20 3() 40 5'0 60 70 80 9'0 100
b+h
2:

Fig. 1 - Increase in yield strength for cold-formed square and rectangular hollow sections

12
2 Cross section classification

Different models can be used for the analysis of steel structures and for the calculation of the
stress resultants (normal force, shear force, bending moment and torsional moment in the
members of a structure).
For an ultimate limit state design, the designer is faced mainly with three design methods (see
The cross section classes 3 and 4 with the procedure elastic-elastic differ from each
other only by the requirement for local buckling for class 4.

Procedure plastic-plastic
Cross section class 1
This procedure deals with the plastic design and the formation of plastic hinges and moment
redistribution in the structure. Full plasticity is developed in the cross section (bi-rectangular
stress blocks). The cross section can form a plastic hinge with the rotation capacity required
for plastic analysis. The ultimate limit state is reached when the number of plastic hinges is
sufficient to produce a mechanism. The system must remain in static equilibrium.

Procedure elastic-plastic"
Cross section class 2
In this procedure the stress resultants are determined following an elastic analysis and they
are compared to the plastic resistance capacities of the member cross sections. Cross
sections can develop their plastic resistance, but have limited rotation capacity. Ultimate limit
state is achieved by the formation of the first plastic hinge.

Procedure elastic-elastic"

Cross section class 3


This procedure consists of pure elastic calculation of the stress resultants and the resistance
capacities of the member cross sections. Ultimate limit state is achieved by yielding of the
extreme fibres of a cross section. The calculated stress in the extreme compression fibre of
the member cross section can reach its yield strength, but local buckling is liable to prevent the
development of the plastic moment resistance.

Procedure elastic-elastic

Cross section class 4


The cross section is composed of thinner walls than those of class 3. it is necessary to make
explicit allowances for the effects of local buckling while determining the ultimate moment or
compression resistance capacity of the cross section.
The application of the first three above mentioned procedures is based on the presumption
that the cross sections or their parts do not buckle locally before achieving their ultimate limit
loads; that means, the cross sections must not be thin-walled. In order to fulfil this condition,
the b/t-ratio for rectangular hollow sections or the d/t-ratio for circular hollow sections must not
exceed certain maximum values. They are different for the cross section classes 1 through 3
as given in Tables 4, 5 and 6.
A cross section must be classified according to the least favourable (highest) class of the
elements under compression and/or bending.
Tables 4 through 6 give the slenderness limits blt or d/t for different cross section classes
based on Eurocode 3 Other design codes show slightly different values (compare
Tables 8 and 9).

13
cross section class 1 class 2 class 3 class 4
classes

load resistance full plasticity in full plasticity in elastic cross elastic cross
capacity the cross section the cross section section section
full rotation restricted rotation yield stress in the local buckling to
capacity capacity extreme tibre be taken into
account

stress distribution
and rtatin 21==\-L-=*z 75:95 F91 F55
capacity _f _, _,y
_,y

+ fy + fy + fy + fy

procedure for the plastic elastic i elastic elastic


determination of
the stress
resultants

procedure for the plastic plastic elastic elastic


determination
of the ultimate
resistance
capacity of a
section

Fig. 2 - Cross section classification and design methods

Table 4 - Limiting dlt ratios for circular hollow sections

cross section class compression andlor bending

1 dlt s 50 e2

2 dlt s 70 52

3 dlt s 90 2

fy (N/mm?) 235 275 355 460

e= 3:5 e 1 0.92 0.81 0.72


Y
52 1 0.85 0.66 0.51

14
Table 5 Limltlng h,/t-ratios for webs of rectangular hollow sections

"1 5'
. . . . r I Axis of
webs.. (internal element perpendicular to the axis of bending) , f h1
n~bending
h, = h 3t L4I
_

h, = h 31

class web subject to web subject to web subject to bending and compression
beding compression

stress distribution , fy , fy {Y
",
in element :11"
Am
(compression h if h .11 "1 h
positive) ' E
fv V
1 h,/t 5 725 h,/t 5 33c when a > 0.5
h,/t 5 3965/(13a 1)
when a < 0.5
h,/I 5 36 e/oz

2 h,/t 5 83a h,/t 5 385 when or > 0.5


h,/t 5 456e/(13a 1)
when at < 0.5
h,/t 5 41 .5e/a

stress distribution 9 iv : o v
in element m /2 E
(compression " " hi "
W2
positive) _~
fy ;;;y WW

3 h,/t5124e h,/t542e when>1


h,/t 5 42 5/ (0.67 + 0.33 up)
when < -1
h,It 5 62e(1 \L) x/( :1)

235 fy 235 275 355 460


e = :
fy e 1 0.92 0.81 0.72

15
Table 6 - Llmltlng b,/t-ratios for flanges of rectangular hollow sections

anges: (internal elements parallel to the axis of bending)


b, = b 3t

b, = b 3t

class section in bending section in compression

stress distribution in ;:j_v . i


v
I
element and section 1, 'i1;
cross WH 5:1
(compression positive) Ii ii ||J :| I] { I
E:-1]
l:_|.

1 b,/t 5 33s b,/t _<_ 42:

2 b,/t 5 38s b,/t 5 42e

stress distribution in :I;-Liv 21:0


,y
element and cross section 'i--,7 H
1;. -,1_T
(compression positive)
L::]J 5}.

3 b,/t _<_ 425 b,/t s 42e

fy (N/mm?) 235 275 355 460


235
E_
fy e 1 0.92 0.31 0.72

In Table 7 the blt, hlt and dlt limiting values for the different cross section classes, cross
section types and stress distributions are given for a quick determination of the cross section
class of a hollow section. The values for width b and height h of a rectangular hollow section
are calculated by using the relationship b/t = b,/t + 3 and hit = h,It + 3.
For the application of the procedures p|astic-p|astic (class 1) and elastic-plastic" (class 2),
the ratio of the specified minimum tensile strength fu to yield strength fy must be not less than
1.2.
fully 2 1.2 (2.1)
Further, according to Eurocode 3 [1, 2], the minimum elongation at failure on a gauge length
I0 = 5.65 x/To (where Ac, is the origina cross section area) is not to be less than 15%.
For the application of the procedure plastic-plastic (full rotation), the strain eu corrres-
ponding to the ultimate tensile strength fu must be at least 20 times the yield strain ey
corresponding to the yield strength fy.
The steel grades in Table 1 for hot formed RHS and hot or cold formed CHS may be accepted
as satisfying these requirements.
Tables 8 and 9 give, for circular hollow sections and for square or rectangular hollow sections
respectively, the limiting bit and h/t ratios, which are recommended in various national codes
around the world
Table 8 shows that t ere are significant differences in d/t limits recommended by the national
codes, when a circular hollow section is under bending.
In particular, this is clear in the case of the recent american code AISC 86. For the
concentrically loaded circular hollow sections, the deviations are significantly smaller (less
than about 10%).
Table 9 shows that the differences in b/t limits for rectangular hollow sections between the
national codes are, in general, not as large as those for circular hollow sections.

16
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17
Table 8 - Max. dlt limits for clrcular hollow sections by country and code

(e = \/ ; 1, in N/mm)
y
bending
country code axial compression
mastic limit yield Hm"
(class 2) (class 3)

Australia ASDR 87 164 98.8 s2 76.5 e2 129.7 s2

Belgium NBN B51-002 (08.88) 100 62 70 e3 100 52

Canada CAN/CSA S 16.1-M89 97.9 e2 76.7 52 97.9 62

Germany DIN 18800, Part1 (11.90) 90 ea 70e2 90 52

Japan AIJ so 1005? 1006

Netherlands NEN 6770, publ. draft (08.89) 100 52 70 :2 100 52

United BS 5950, Part 1 (1985) 93.6 62 66.78 93.6 e2


Kingdom

U.S.A. AISC/LRFD (1986) 96.8 52 61.88 268 e2

European Eurocode 3 [1] 90 e? 70 e2 90 52


Community

Tabelle 9 - Max. b,/t limits for rectangular hollow sections by country and code
235 .
(e = ; f, in N/mm)
T v
bending
country code axial compresion
plane limit yield "mu
(class 2) (class 3)

Australia ASDR 87 164 40.2 e 29.95 40.26


45.4e"' 454:"

Belgium NBN B51-002 (08.88) 42 e 34 42 e

Canada CAN/CSA-816.1-M89 37.6e 34.2e 43.6 5

Germany DIN 18 800, Pan 1 (11.90) 37.8 e 37 37.8e

Japan AIJ 80 47.8e - 47.8e

Netherlands NEN 6770, publ. draft (08.89) 42 6 34 42 e

United BS 5950 Part 1 (1985) 422:: 34.6e 42.2e


Kingdom

U.S.A. AISC/LRFD (1986) 40.8; 40.8e

European Eurocode 3 [1] 42c 38c 42c


Community
"
for cold formed non-stress relieved hollow sections

for hot-formed and cold-formed stress relieved hollow sections

18
3 Members in axial compression

3.1 General

This chapter of the book is devoted to the buckling of compressed hollow section members
belonging to the cross section classes 1, 2 and 3. Thinwalled cross sections (class 4) will be
dealt with in chapter 6.
The buckling of a concentrically compressed column is, historically speaking, the oldest
- roblem of stability and was already investigated by Euler and later by many other researchers
_At the present time, the buckling design of a steel element under compression is
pe ormed by using the so called European buckling curves? in most european countries.
They are based on many extensive experimental and theoretical investigations, which, in
particular, take mechanical (as for example residual stress, yield stress distribution) and
geometrical (as for example, linear deviation) imperfections in the members into account.

3%\\
N
0.50

0.25

00
0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
/1
Fig. 3 European buckling curves E]

A detailed discussion on the differences between buckling curves used in codes around the
world is given in reference Both design methods, allowable stress design and limit state
design, have been covere . or ultimate limit state design, multiple buckling curves are
mostly used (as for example, Eurocode 3 with a0, a, b, c curves, similarly in Australia and
Canada). Other standards adopt a single buckling curve, presumably due to the fact that
emphasis is placed on simplicity. Differences up to 15% can be observed between the various
buckling curves in the region of medium slenderness (X).

3.2 Design method

At present, a large number of cesign codes exist and the recommended procedures are often
very similar. Eurocode 3 [1, 2] is referred to in the following.
For hollow sections, the on y buckling mode to be considered is flexural buckling. It is not
required to take account of lateral-torsional buckling, since very large torsional rigidity of a
hollow section prevents any torsional buckling.

19
The design buckling load of a compression member is given by the condition;

Nd 5 Nana
where Nd = Design load of the compressed member (7 times working load)
Nmd = Design buckling resistance capacity of the member
ft
NbRd= TA":
'YM

A is the area of the cross section;


x is the reduction factor of the relevant buckling curve Fig. 3, Tables 11 through 14)
dependent on the non-dimensional slenderness X of a co umn;
fy is the yield strength of the material used;
7M is the partial safety factor on the resistance side (in U.S.A.: 1/7", = q5)

The reduction factor x is the ratio of the buckling resistance N,,_Rd to the axial plastic
resistance Npmd:

Nb,Rd fb,Rd
=
Np|,Rd fy,d
. . Nb,Rd
fwd = design buckling stress =
A
f
fyyd = design yield strength = _;
M

The non-dimensional slenderness X is determined by


)\
(3.2)
)\=)E

I
with X =

X5 = 7r-
Y

[TI II 210 000 N/mm?

Table 10 a - Eulerlan slenderness for varlus structural steels

steelgrade Fe 360 Fe 430 Fe 510 Fe E 460

fy (N/mm?) 235 275 355 460

XE 93.9 86.8 76.4 67.1

The selection of the buckling curve (a through c in Fig. 3) depends on the cross section type.
This is mainly based on the various levels of rest ua stresses occurring due to different
manufacturing processes. Table 10b shows the curves for hollow sections.

20
Table 10 b - Buckling curves according to manufacturing process
iyb = Yield strength of the basic (not cold-formed) material
iv, = Yield strength of the material after cold-forming

cross section manufacturing process buckling curves


1 hot-forming a
__
i
T_.
T h
| . | Y (Yb used)
_J LY V M
LaJ b1 cold-forming c
(fya used)

Table 11 - Reduction factor x - buckling curve a,

X 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0.00 1 .0000 1.0000 1 .0000 1.0000 1 .0000 1 .0000 1.0000 1 .0000 1 .0000 1 .0000
.10 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000
.20 1.0000 0.9986 0.9973 0.9959 0.9945 0.9931 0.9917 0.9903 0.9889 0.9874
.30 0.9859 0.9845 0.9829 0.9814 0.9799 0.9783 0.9767 0.9751 0.9735 0.9718
.40 0.9701 0.9684 0.9667 0.9649 0.9631 0.9612 0.9593 0.9574 0.9554 0.9534
.50 0.9513 0.9492 0.9470 0.9448 0.9425 0.9402 0.9378 0.9354 0.9328 0.9302
.60 0.9276 0.9248 0.9220 0.9191 0.9161 0.9130 0.9099 0.9066 0.9032 0.8997
.70 0.8961 0.8924 0.8886 0.8847 0.8806 0.8764 0.8721 0.8676 0.8630 0.8582
.80 0.8533 0.8483 0.8431 0.8377 0.8322 0.8266 0.8208 0.8148 0.8087 0.8025
.90 0.7961 0.7895 0.7828 0.7760 0.7691 0.7620 0.7549 0.7476 0.7403 0.7329
1.00 0.7253 0.7178 0.7101 0.7025 0.6948 0.6870 0.6793 0.6715 0.6637 0.6560
1.10 0.6482 0.6405 0.6329 0.6252 0.6176 0.6101 0.6026 0.5951 0.5877 0.5804
1.20 0.5732 0.5660 0.5590 0.5520 0.5450 0.5382 0.5314 0.5248 0.5182 0.5117
1.30 0.5053 0.4990 0.4927 0.4866 0.4806 0.4746 0.4687 0.4629 0.4572 0.4516
1.40 0.4461 0.4407 0.4353 0.4300 0.4248 0.4197 0.4147 0.4097 0.4049 0.4001
1.50 0.3953 0.3907 0.3861 0.3816 0.3772 0.3728 0.3685 0.3643 0.3601 0.3560
1.60 0.3520 0.3480 0.3441 0.3403 0.3365 0.3328 0.3291 0.3255 0.3219 0.3184
1.70 0.3150 0.3116 0.3083 0.3050 0.3017 0.2985 0.2954 0.2923 0.2892 0.2862
1.80 0.2833 0.2804 0.2775 0.2746 0.2719 0.2691 0.2664 0.2637 0.2611 0.2585
1.90 0.2559 0.2534 0.2509 0.2485 0.2461 0.2437 0.2414 0.2390 0.2368 0.2345
2.00 0.2323 0.2301 0.2280 0.2258 0.2237 0.2217 0.2196 0.2176 0.2156 0.2136
2.10 0.2117 0.2098 0.2079 0.2061 0.2042 0.2024 0.2006 0.1989 0.1971 0.1954
2.20 0.1937 0.1920 0.1904 0.1887 0.1871 0.1855 0.1840 0.1824 0.1809 0.1794
2.30 0.1779 0.1764 0.1749 0.1735 0.1721 0.1707 0.1693 0.1679 0.1665 0.1652
2.40 0.1639 0.1626 0.1613 0.1600 0.1587 0.1575 0.1563 0.1550 0.1538 0.1526
2.50 0.1515 0.1503 0.1491 0.1480 0.1469 0.1458 0.1447 0.1436 0.1425 0.1414
2.60 0.1404 0.1394 0.1383 0.1373 0.1363 0.1353 0.1343 0.1333 0.1324 0.1314
2.70 0.1305 0.1296 0.1286 0.1277 0.1268 0.1259 0.1250 0.1242 0.1233 0.1224
2.80 0.1216 0.1207 0.1199 0.1191 0.1183 0.1175 0.1167 0.1159 0.1151 0.1143
2.90 0.1136 0.1128 0.1120 0.1113 0.1106 0.1098 0.1091 0.1084 0.1077 0.1070
3.00 0.1063 0.1056 0.1049 0.1043 0.1036 0.1029 0.1023 0.1016 0.1010 0.1003
3.10 0.0997 0.0991 0.0985 0.0979 0.0972 0.0966 0.0960 0.0955 0.0949 0.0943
3.20 0.0937 0.0931 0.0926 0.0920 0.0915 0.0909 0.0904" 0.0898 0.0893 0.0888
3.30 0.0882 0.0877 0.0872 0.0867 0.0862 0.0857 0.0852 0.0847 0.0842 0.0837
3.40 0.0832 0.0828 0.0823 0.0818 0.0814 0.0809 0.0804 0.0800 0.0795 0.0791
3.50 0.0786 0.0782 0.0778 0.0773 0.0769 0.0765 0.0761 0.0756 0.0752 0.0748
3.60 0.0744 0.0740 0.0736 0.0732 0.0728 0.0724 0.0720 0.0717 0.0713 0.0709

21
Table 12 Reduction factor x - buckling curve a"

X 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0.00 1 .0000 1 .0000 1 .0000 1 .0000 1 .0000 1 .0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000
.10 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000
.20 1.0000 0.9978 0.9956 0.9934 0.9912 0.9889 0.9867 0.9844 0.9821 0.9798
.30 0.9775 0.9751 0.9728 0.9704 0.9680 0.9655 0.9630 0.9605 0.9580 0.9554
.40 0.9528 0.9501 0.9474 0.9447 0.9419 0.9391 0.9363 0.9333 0.9304 0.9273
.50 0.9243 0.9211 0.9179 0.9147 0.9114 0.9080 0.9045 0.9010 0.8974 0.8937
.60 0.8900 0.8862 0.8823 0.8783 0.8742 0.8700 0.8657 0.8614 0.8569 0.8524
.70 0.8477 0.8430 0.8382 0.8332 0.8282 0.8230 0.8178 0.8124 0.8069 0.8014
.80 0.7957 0.7899 0.7841 0.7781 0.7721 0.7659 0.7597 0.7534 0.7470 0.7405
.90 0.7339 0.7273 0.7206 0.7139 0.7071 0.7003 0.6934 0.6865 0.6796 0.6726
1.00 0.6656 0.6586 0.6516 0.6446 0.6376 0.6306 0.6236 0.6167 0.6098 0.6029
1.10 0.5960 0.5892 0.5824 0.5757 0_.5690 0.5623 0.5557 0.5492 0.5427 0.5363
1.20 0.5300 0.5237 0.5175 0.5114 0.5053 0.4993 0.4934 0.4875 0.4817 0.4760
1 .30 0.4703 0.4648 0.4593 0.4538 0.4485 0.4432 0.4380 0.4329 0.4278 0.4228
1 .40 0.4179 0.4130 0.4083 0.4036 0.3989 .03943 0.3898 0.3854 0.3810 0.3767
1 .50 0.3724 0.3682 0.3641 0.3601 0.3561 0.3521 0.3482 0.3444 0.3406 0.3369
1.60 0.3332 0.3296 0.3261 0.3226 0.3191 0.3157 0.3124 0.3091 0.3058 0.3026
1.70 0.2994 0.2963 0.2933 0.2902 0.2872 0.2843 0.2814 0.2786 0.2757 0.2730
1.80 0.2702 0.2675 0.2649 0.2623 0.2597 0.2571 0.2546 0.2522 0.2497 0.2473
1.90 0.2449 0.2426 0.2403 0.2380 0.2358 0.2335 0.2314 0.2292 0.2271 0.2250
2.00 0.2229 0.2209 0.2188 0.2168 0.2149 0.2129 0.2110 0.2091 0.2073 0.2054
2.10 0.2036 0.2018 0.2001 0.1983 0.1966 0.1949 0.1932 0.1915 0.1899 0.1883
2.20 0.1867 0.1851 0.1836 0.1820 0.1805 0.1790 0.1775 0.1760 0.1746 0.1732
2.30 0.1717 0.1704 0.1690 0.1676 0.1663 0.1649 0.1636 0.1623 0.1610 0.1598
2.40 0.1585 0.1573 0.1560 0.1548 0.1536 0.1524 0.1513 0.1501 0.1490 0.1478
2.50 0.1467 0.1456 0.1445 0.1434 0.1424 0.1413 0.1403 0.1392 0.1382 0.1372
2.60 0.1362 0.1352 0.1342 0.1332 0.1323 0.1313 0.1304 0.1295 0.1285 0.1276
2.70 0.1267 0.1258 0.1250 0.1241 0.1232 0.1224 0.1215 0.1207 0.1198 0.1190
2.80 0.1182 0.1174 0.1166 0.1158 0.1150 0.1143 0.1135 0.1128 0.1120 0.1113
2.90 0.1105 0.1098 0.1091 0.1084 0.1077 0.1070 0.1063 0.1056 0.1049 0.1042
3.00 0.1036 0.1029 0.1022 0.1016 0.1010 0.1003 0.0997 0.0991 0.0985 0.0978
3.10 0.0972 0.0966 0.0960 0.0954 0.0949 0.0943 0.0937 0.0931 0.0926 0.0920
3.20 0.0915 0.0909 0.0904 0.0898 0.0893 0.0888 0.0882 0.0877 0.0872 0.0867
3.30 0.0862 0.0857 0.0852 0.0847 0.0842 0.0837 0.0832 0.0828 0.0823 0.0818
3.40 0.0814 0.0809 0.0804 0.0800 0.0795 0.0791 0.0786 0.0782 0.0778 0.0773
3.50 0.0769 0.0765 0.0761 0.0757 0.0752 0.0748 0.0744 0.0740 0.0736 0.0732
3.60 0.0728 0.0724 0.0721 0.0717 0.0713 0.0709 0.0705 0.0702 0.0698 0.0694

The buckling curves can be described analytically (for computer calculations) by the equation:
1
X =6 jg, but x 51 (3-3)
+ 2_)\2
with .1. = 0,511 + a (X 0.2) + X2} ~ (3.4)
The imperfection factor 01 (in equation 3.4) for the corresponding buckling curve can be
obtained from the following table:

buckling curve a, a b c
See Tables 11 through 14 for the reduction
imperfection factor oz 0.13 0.21 0.34 0.49
tacmr X as a mnc on0

22
Table 13 - Reduction factor x - buckllng curve b"

X 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0.00 1 .0000 1 .0000 1 .0000 1 .0000 1 .0000 1 .0000 1.0000 1 .0000 1.0000 1 .0000
.10 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000
.20 1.0000 0.9965 0.9929 0.9894 0.9858 0.9822 0.9786 0.9750 0.9714 0.9678
.30 0.9641 0.9604 0.9567 0.9530 0.9492 0.9455 0.9417 0.9378 0.9339 0.9300
.40 0.9261 0.9221 0.9181 0.9140 0.9099 0.9057 0.9015 0.8973 0.8930 0.8886
.50 0.8842 0.8798 0.8752 0.8707 0.8661 0.8614 0.8566 0.8518 0.8470 0.8420
.60 0.8371 0.8320 0.8269 0.8217 0.8165 0.8112 0.8058 0.8004 0.7949 0.7893
.70 0.7837 0.7780 0.7723 0.7665 0.7606 0.7547 0.7488 0.7428 0.7367 0.7306
.80 0.7245 0.7183 0.7120 0.7058 0.6995 0.6931 0.6868 0.6804 0.6740 0.6676
.90 0.6612 0.6547 0.6483 0.6419 0.6354 0.6290 0.6226 0.6162 0.6098 0.6034
1.00 0.5970 0.5907 0.5844 0.5781 0.5719 0.5657 0.5595 0.5534 0.5473 0.5412
1.10 0.5352 0.5293 0.5234 0.5175 0.5117 0.5060 0.5003 0.4947 0.4891 0.4836
1.20 0.4781 0.4727 0.4674 0.4621 0.4569 0.4517 0.4466 0.4416 0.4366 0.4317
1.30 0.4269 0.4221 0.4174 0.4127 0.4081 0.4035 0.3991 0.3946 0.3903 0.3860
1.40 0.3817 0.3775 0.3734 0.3693 0.3653 0.3613 0.3574 0.3535 0.3497 0.3459
1.50 0.3422 0.3386 0.3350 0.3314 0.3279 0.3245 0.3211 0.3177 0.3144 0.3111
1.60 0.3079 0.3047 0.3016 0.2985 0.2955 0.2925 0.2895 0.2866 0.2837 0.2809
1.70 0.2781 0.2753 0.2726 0.2699 0.2672 0.2646 0.2620 0.2595 0.2570 0.2545
1.80 0.2521 0.2496 0.2473 0.2449 0.2426 0.2403 0.2381 0.2359 0.2337 0.2315
1.90 0.2294 0.2272 0.2252 0.2231 0.2211 0.2191 0.2171 0.2152 0.2132 0.2113
2.00 0.2095 0.2076 0.2058 0.2040 0.2022 0.2004 0.1987 0.1970 0.1953 0.1936
2.10 0.1920 0.1903 0.1887 0.1871 0.1855 0.1840 0.1825 0.1809 0.1794 0.1780
2.20 0.1765 0.1751 0.1736 0.1722 0.1708 0.1694 0.1681 0.1667 0.1654 0.1641
2.30 0.1628 0.1615 0.1602 0.1590 0.1577 0.1565 0.1553 0.1541 0.1529 0.1517
2.40 0.1506 0.1494 0.1483 0.1472 0.1461 0.1450 0.1439 0.1428 0.1418 0.1407
2.50 0.1397 0.1387 0.1376 0.1366 0.1356 0.1347 0.1337 0.1327 0.1318 0.1308
2.60 0.1299 0.1290 0.1281 0.1272 0.1263 0.1254 0.1245 0.1237 0.1228 0.1219
2.70 0.1211 0.1203 0.1195 0.1186 0.1178 0.1170 0.1162 0.1155 0.1147 0.1139
2.80 0.1132 0.1124 0.1117 0.1109 0.1102 0.1095 0.1088 0.1081 0.1074 0.1067
2.90 0.1060 0.1053 0.1046 0.1039 0.1033 0.1026 0.1020 0.1013 0.1007 0.1001
3.00 0.0994 0.0988 0.0982 0.0976 0.0970 0.0964 0.0958 0.0952 0.0946 0.0940
3.10 0.0935 0.0929 0.0924 0.0918 0.0912 0.0907 0.0902 0.0896 0.0891 0.0886
3.20 0.0880 0.0875 0.0870 0.0865 0.0860 0.0855 0.0850 0.0845 0.0840 0.0835
3.30 0.0831 0.0826 0.0821 0.0816 0.0812 0.0807 0.0803 0.0798 0.0794 0.0789
3.40 0.0785 0.0781 0.0776 0.0772 0.0768 0.0763 0.0759 0.0755 0.0751 0.0747
3.50 0.0743 0.0739 0.0735 0.0731 0.0727 0.0723 0.0719 0.0715 0.0712 0.0708
3.60 0.0704 0.0700 0.0697 0.0693 0.0689 0.0686 0.0682 0.0679 0.0675 0.0672

Eurocode 3, Annex D allows the use of the higher buckling curve a,, instead of a for
compressed members of I-sections of certain demensions and steel grade FeE 460 This is
based on the fact that, in case of high strength steel, the imperfections (geometrical and
structural) play a less detrimental role on the buckling behaviour, as shown by numerical
calculations and experimental tests on I-section columns of FeE 460. As a consequence hot
formed hollow sections using FeE 460 steel grade may be designed with respect to buckling
curve a" instead of a.

23
Table 14 Reduction factor x - buckling curve c

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

1 .0000 1 .0000 1 .0000 1 .0000 1 .0000 1 .0000 1 .0000 1.0000 1 .0000 1 .0000
1 .0000 1 .0000 1 .0000 1 .0000 1 .0000 1 .0000 1 .0000 1.0000 1.0000 1 .0000
1.0000 0.9949 0.9898 0.9847 0.9797 0.9746 0.9695 0.9644 0.9593 0.9542
0.9491 0.9440 0.9389 0.9338 0.9286 0.9235 0.9183 0.9131 0.9078 0.9026
0.8973 0.8920 0.8867 0.8813 0.8760 0.8705 0.8651 0.8596 0.8541 0.8486
0.8430 0.8374 0.8317 0.8261 0.8204 0.8146 0.8088 0.8030 0.7972 0.7913
0.7854 0.7794 0.7735 0.7675 0.7614 0.7554 0.7493 0.7432 0.7370 0.7309
0.7247 0.7185 0.7123 0.7060 0.6998 0.6935 0.6873 0.6810 0.6747 0.6684
0.6622 0.6559 0.6496 0.6433 0.6371 0.6308 0.6246 0.6184 0.6122 0.6060
0.5998 0.5937 0.5876 0.5815 0.5755 0.5695 0.5635 0.5575 0.5516 0.5458
0.5399 0.5342 0.5284 0.5227 0.5171 0.5115 0.5059 0.5004 0.4950 0.4896
0.4842 0.4790 0.4737 0.4685 0.4634 0.4583 0.4533 0.4483 0.4434 0.4386
0.4338 0.4290 0.4243 0.4197 0.4151 0.4106 0.4061 0.4017 0.3974 0.3931
0.3888 0.3846 0.3805 0.3764 0.3724 0.3684 0.3644 0.3606 0.3567 0.3529
0.3492 0.3455 0.3419 0.3383 0.3348 0.3313 0.3279 0.3245 0.3211 0.3178
0.3145 0.3113 0.3081 0.3050 0.3019 0.2989 0.2959 0.2929 0.2900 0.2871
0.2842 0.2814 0.2786 0.2759 0.2732 0.2705 0.2679 0.2653 0.2627 0.2602
0.2577 0.2553 0.2528 0.2504 0.2481 0.2457 0.2434 0.2412 0.2389 0.2367
0.2345 0.2324 0.2302 0.2281 0.2260 0.2240 0.2220 0.2200 0.2180 0.2161
0.2141 0.2122 0.2104 0.2085 0.2067 0.2049 0.2031 0.2013 0.1996 0.1979
0.1962 0.1945 0.1929 0.1912 0.1896 0.1880 0.1864 0.1849 0.1833 0.1818
2.10 0.1803 0.1788 0.1774 0.1759 0.1745 0.1731 0.1717 0.1703 0.1689 0.1676
2.20 0.1662 0.1649 0.1636 0.1623 0.1611 0.1598 0.1585 0.1573 0.1561 0.1549
2.30 0.1537 0.1525 0.1514 0.1502 0.1491 0.1480 0.1468 0.1457 0.1446 0.1436
2.40 0.1425 0.1415 0.1404 0.1394 0.1384 0.1374 0.1364 0.1354 0.1344 0.1334
2.50 0.1325 0.1315 0.1306 0.1297 0.1287 0.1278 0.1269 0.1260 0.1252 0.1243
2.60 0.1234 0.1226 0.1217 0.1209 0.1201 0.1193 0.1184 0.1176 0.1168 0.1161
2.70 0.1153 0.1145 0.1137 0.1130 0.1122 0.1 1 15 0.1108 0.1100 0.1093 0.1086
2.80 0.1079 0.1072 0.1065 0.1058 0.1051 0.1045 0.1038 0.1031 0.1025 0.1018
2.90 0.1012 0.1006 0.0999 0.0993 0.0987 0.0981 0.0975 0.0969 0.0963 0.0957
3.00 0.0951 0.0945 0.0939 0.0934 0.0928 0.0922 0.0917 0.0911 0.0906 0.0901
3.10 0.0895 0.0890 0.0885 0.0879 0.0874 0.0869 0.0864 0.0859 0.0854 0.0849
3.20 0.0844 0.0839 0.0835 0.0830 0.0825 0.0820 0.0816 0.0811 0.0806 0.0802
3.30 0.0797 0.0793 0.0789 0.0784 0.0780 0.0775 0.0771 0.0767 0.0763 0.0759
3.40 0.0754 0.0750 0.0746 0.0742 0.0738 0.0734 0.0730 0.0726 0.0722 0.0719
3.50 0.0715 0.071 1 0.0707 0.0703 0.0700 0.0696 0.0692 0.0689 0.0685 0.0682
3.60 0.0678 0.0675 0.0671 0.0668 0.0664 0.0661 0.0657 0.0654 0.0651 0.0647

24
3.3 Design aids

The reduction factor for buckling x is equal to 1.0 for X s 0.2.


When this limit is exceeded, the design resistance must take the buckling reduction factor x
into acount. For identical X, x is independent of the steel grade (yield strength fy)
Figures 4 through 7 allow a quick determination of buckling resistance. The diagrams give the
l
buckling strength asafunction of) =

strength of the material as a parameter.

Buckling strength (Nbm 7M/A) Nlmmi Buckling strength (NM, . WM/A) N/mm?
450 450

400 400
350 350
fy = 4so N/mm?
300 300 V = 355 N/mm?
250
fy = 275 N/mm?
250 = 235 N/mm2
Y
200 200
150 150

100 100

50 50
0 0
0 so 100 150 200 250 ,1=:~ o so 100 150 zoo 250 /1:?
j?1
o 20 40 so so I/(dtl o 2o 40 so so l/(dt)
ljT'l'
0 2o 40 so so we l/(bt) o 20 40 so so 100 |/(btl
Fig. 4 Buckling curve for hot-formed Fig. 5 Buckling curves for hollow sections
hollow sections of FeE 460, basis of various steel grades, basis a'
a0 (see Table 11) (see Table 12)

Buckling strength (Nbm - /MIA) Nlmm Buckling strength (N,,_., - VMIA) N/mm?
450
400

350 fy = 460 : 355 N/mm2


N/mm:
fy :: 355 N/mm
fv
: 275 N/mmz
300 fy
fy
fy
250

200

150

100
so

/1=iI /t=TI
l??+% r:
0 20 40 60 80 I/ld -t) O 20 40 60 80 I/ld ~t)

0 2o 40 so so 100 I/(bt) 0 2o 40 so so 1oo I/(b~tl


Fig. 6 - Buckling curves tor hollow sections Fig. 7 Buckling curves for hollow section of
of various steel grades, basis b various steel grades, basis c" (see
(see Table 13) Table 14)

For circular and square hollow sections the abscissa values l/(dt) or l/(bt) can
approximately replace the slenderness x. This is precisely valid for t < d or t < b.

25
////////

\\\\\\\i\\\}\$%A\\\\.
.\;\\\m.\\\x\\x
_~uli"

Tubular triangular arched truss for the roof structure of a stadium

26
4 Members in bending

In general, lateral-torsional buckling resistance need not be checked for circular hollow
sections and rectangular hollow sections normally used in practice (bl h 2 0.5). This is due to
the fact that their polar moment of intertia I, is" very large in comparison with that of open
profiles.

4.1 Design for Iaterlal-torsional buckling

The critical lateral-torsional moment decreases with increasing length of a beam.


Table 15 shows the length of a beam (of various steel grades) exceeding which lateral-
torsional failure occurs.
The values are based on the relation:

1 113400 15 /3+7)
S
ht f, 1+ 7, 1+'yy (4'1)
fy = Yield strength in N/mm?
= b t
W ht
gquation (4.1) has been established on the basis of the non-dimensional slenderness limit
kg = 04* (see Eurocode 3@, which is defined by the relation:
_ 1V
)LT = (4.2)
fCr,LT
where fem is the critical elastic stress for lateral-torsional buckling.
Equation 4.1 is based on pure bending of a beam (most conservative loading case) for elastic
stress distribution (cross section class 3). However, it is also valid for plastic stress
destribution (cross section classes 1 and 2).
The lowest value for I/(ht) is 37.7 (FeE460) according to Table 15. Assuming a size of
100 x 200 mm, the critical length, for which lateral-torsional buckling can be expected, is:
IC, = 37.7 - 0.2 = 7.54 m,
This span length can be regarded as quite large for the given size (and full utilization of yield
strength for 7,: times load).

Table 15 - Limiting I/(h - t) ratios for a rectangular hollow section, below which no lateral-torsional
buckling check is necessary

I/(ht)s
M( 3M W
1, = 235 N/mm f, = 275 N/mm? 1, - 355 N/mm? 1, - 460 N/mm
0.5 73.7 63.0 48.8 37.7
0.6 93.1 79.5 61.6 47.5
0.7 112.5 96.2 74.5 57.5
1
0.9 132.0 112.3 37.4 67.4
,,_t 0.9 151.3 129.3 100.2 77.3
= = bm
W T K 1.0 170.6 145.8 112.9 87.2
XL, 5 0.4 is also recommended
by some other codes

27
5 Members in combined compression and bending

5.1 General

Besides concentrically compressed columns, structural elements are most often loaded
simultaneously by axial compression and bending moments. This chapter is devoted to
classes 1, 2 and 3 beam-columns. Thin-walled members (class 4) are considered in chapter 6.

5.2 Design method

5.2.1 Design for stability


Lateral-torsional buckling is not a potential failure mode for hollow sections (see chapter 4).
According to Eurocode 3he relation is based on the following linear interaction formulae:

yMy,Rd KMm s 1 5.1


:
NSd Y
M Sd ' M2 Sd

Nb.Fld
+K

where
Nsd = Design value of axial compression (7; times load)
N A-f
NW = KT? = x W (5.2)
x = min (xy, 1(2) = Reduction factor (smaller of xy and x,), see chapter 3.2
A = Cross sectional area
fy = Yield strength
W = Partial safety factor for resistance

My_sd, Mz_Sd = Maximum absolute design value of the bending moment about y-y or 2-2 axis
according to the first order theory)

f
M, = We, - by elastic utilization of a cross section (class 3)
'YM
f
or My d = wp|.y ' by plastic utilization of a cross section (class 1 and 2)
;"
M
f (5-3)
' L by elastic utilization of a cross section (class 3).
Mz,Rd = wel,z
7M

or M, = WW - by plastic utilization of a cross section (class 1 and 2)


7:;
N
Ky = 1

_ WW
_- )\y(2i8My4) + -1 ,howeverpy s 0.9 (5.5)
Ly
we

) l_ncremnt of bending moments according to the second order theory is considered by determining
X, and X, by buckling lengths of whole structural system

28
NSd
K, = 1 .Iz however K, s 1.5 (5.6)
Jty ' Np,

_ Wp,_,
u, = X, (2)6M,,4) + -1 , however )4, s 0.9 (5.7)
W-
el.z

For elastic sections (class 3) the value i in the equations (5.5) and (5.7) is taken to be
Wel,z
equal to 1.

BM, and Mz are equivalent uniform moment factors according to Table 16, column 2, in order
to determine the form of the bending moment distribution My and M2.

Remark 1:
For uni-axial bending with axial force, the reduction factor x is related to the loaded bending
axis, as for example, xy for the applied My with M2 = 0.
Then the following additional requirement has to be fulfilled:
A - fy
Nsds 7(z'
YM
(5.8)

Table 16 - Equivalent unlform moment factors {3M and B,"

1 2 3
moment diagram equivalent uniform moment equivalent uniform moment
factor BM factor B",

edge moments BM, = 1.8 o.7 gm = 0.66 + 0.44 .,r,,


M1 however 3M 2 1
-M1
1<=; 1 and BM 2 0.44

moment from lateratfoad /Kw, = 1.3 mvo = 1.0

T " = M
M0

M0

moment due to combined


lateral load plus edge
0
moments BM = l3M, + -A-5; (BM,aBM,) 5 0.77:
Ma: |maxM|dueto 3m=1'
M1 iA M lateral load only
Mo 1/; > 0.77:
__ AM=|maxM|for M O +M,5
1 sM . 1 m,\l
moment diagram
M _
m
MO withoutchange of Mo + M 1
sign
M1 AM |maxM| + |minM|
MQ where sign of
moment changes

29
Remark 2:
A further design method for the loading case of bending moment and axial compression is
available in the literature . 21 , 22, 23], which is called substituting member method
It is based on the formu a or uni-axial bending moment and axial force), which is used
frequently:
N 5 6'" - M "*"
+
1
- $1 (5.9)
'
"y Np|.Rd My.Rd NSd
1

where, besides the definitions already described,


A - fy
Np|,Fld =
m
12 - El Np, _ _
NKi = = (Eulerlan buckling load)
T
b V
Kim Equivalent uniform moment factor from Table 16, column 3.
)6," <1, allowed only for fixed ends of a member and constant compression without
lateral load
MW, according to equation (5.3) (elastic or plastic)

Equation (5.9) can be written conservatively in a simplified manner:



T NSd Bm My Sd
'
' + _
< 0.9 ( 5.9 a)
"y Np|,Rd My,Fld

5.2.2 Design based on stress


A compressed member has to be designed on the basis of the most stressed cross section in
addition to stability. Axial force, bending moments M and M, and shear force have to be
considered simultaneously. According to Eurocode 3 an applied shear force Vsd can be
neglected, when the following condition is fulfilled:
V3,, 5 0.5 Vpmd (5.10)
where Vpm = Design plastic shear resistance of a cross section

=2t-d,,,- -
/ ,
fl!

W
for CHS i 5.11 )
2t h m f (5 . 12)
E ' 7M
for RHS (bm instead of h,,, when shear force is parallel to b)
AV=2t~d,,, or2t-hm

<1

1) Corresponding formulae for uni- or bi-axial bending and axial force are given in [21, 23].

30
Equation (5.10) is satisfied in nearly all practical cases.
VSd
In some other codesllthe limiting values for , up to which the shear force can be
Vp|,F1d
disregarded, is significantly lower than 0.5.

5.2.2.1 Stress design without considering shear load|E|


The following relationship is valid for plastic design (cross section classes 1 and 2):
(1 B
j
My Sd M2 ' Sd

+ _
< 1 ( 5.13 )
<MNy,Rd MNz,Rd

where at = 6 = 2 for CHS


1.66
at = =

n = N 5 = :3;
N N
with (5.15)
pI,Rd A._y
'YM

MN, and MN, are the reduced plastic resistance moments taking axial forces into
account. These reduced moments are described by the relations given below.
For rectangular hollow sections:
MNy'Rd =

1 _
MN, = Mp,'z'Rd E , however 5 Mp,z_Rd (5.17)

For square hollow sections:


MNM = 1,26 Mp. (1 n), however 5 Mpmd (5.18)

For circular hollow sections:


MNM = 1,04 - Mp, (1 n"7), however 5 Mp. (5.19)

For circular hollow sections, the following exact and simple equation also valid instead
of the equation
Msd NSd 7
5 CO8 (E; ' (5.20)
Tpmd *2

where M3,, = ]/ M_Sd + M_sd (5.21)


V S
But the shear force must be limited to s 0.25
V p|.Rd
For elastic design the following simple linear equation can be applied instead of the equation
(5.13):
Nsd My ' so Mz ' so < 1
' + ' + ' _ ( 5.22 )
A fyd Wel,y fyd we|,z fyd

where fyd = fy/W,


This equation can also be used, as a lower bound, but more simple to use, for plastic design
of cross section classes 1 and 2 instead of the equation (5.13).

31
5.2.2.2 Stress design considering shear load El
If the shear load Vsd exceeds 50% of the plastic design resistance of the cross section Vpmd,
the design resistance of the cross section to combinations of moment and axial force shall be
calculated using a reduced yield strength for the shear area, where:

red. fy = (1 g)fy (5.23)


V 2
Q = <2/i
pI,Rd
1> (5.24)
Vpmd is according to equation (5.11) or (5.12).
2A
For circular hollow section: A, =
T
For rectangular hollow section:
shear load parallel to depth._ A, _
_
Ah
b + h

- shear load parallel to width' A = Ab


b+ h
For circular hollow section, the following exact but simple equation can be given taking also
the shear force into account [23]:
M Sd N
5 n-cos
M p|.Rd pl,Rd

Vsd 2
wheren = 1 (5.26)
Vpl,Rd

vsd = 1/vgsd + V573,, (5.27)


Vpmd is according to the equation (5.11).
Msd is according to the equation (5.21).
No reduction for fy as shown in the equation (5.23) has to be made.

32
;, ,:/
Tubular supports for a canvas roof construction

33
6 Thin-walled sections

6.1 General

The optimisation of the buckling behaviour of hollow sections leads, for a constant value of
cross sectional area, to profiles of large dimensions and small thicknesses (large moment of
inertia).
Small thicknesses (relative to outer dimensions) can cause failure, before reaching yield
strength in the outer fibres, by local buckling. The unavoidable imperfections of the profiles
involve an interaction between local buckling in the cross section and flexural buckling in the
column. This decreases the resistance to both types of buckling.
By keeping within the d/t or b/t limits for the respective cross section classes given in Tables
4, 5 and 6, it is not required to check local buckling.
Only when exceeding the dlt or b/t limits for class 3 sections, does the influence of local
buckling on the load bearing capacity of the structural members have to be taken into account.
The cross section thus involved shall be classified as class 4 (see
it should be noted that the phenomenon of local buckling can become more critical by applying
and utilizing higher yield strength, so that smaller b/t ratios have to be selected (see Tables 4
and 5, last line).
Eurocode Sakes account of local buckling by the determining the load bearing capacity
using effective cross section dimensions, which are smaller than the real ones.
in the structures, which are dealt with in this book, circular hollow sections with a d/t ratio
higher than the limiting values given in Table 4 are seldom used; in general, d/t values are 50
at the highest. In consequence, this chapter is mainly devoted to class 4 square and
rectangular hollow sections.

6.2 Rectangular hollow sections

6.2.1 Effective geometrical properties of class 4 cross sections

The effective cross section properties of class 4 cross sections are based on the effective
widths of the compression elements.
The effective widths of flat compression elements shall be obtained using Table 17.
The plate buckling reduction facor Q shall be calculated by means of the relations given in
Table 18. For the sake of simple calculation, the equation (6.2) and (6.1) are described in
(9 = fix and. = W.
In order to determine the effective width of a flange element, the stress ratio ll used in Table
17 shall be based on the properties of the gross (not reduced) cross section. To calculate the
effective depth (he,.) of web elements, the effective area of the compressed flange (b,,, - t) but
the gross area of the webs (h - t) has to be used. This simplification allows a direct calculation
of effective widths.
Strictly speaking, an exact calculation of the effective width of a web element requires an
iterative procedure.
Under bending moment loading it is possible that the effective (reduced) width becomes valid
only for one flange. This results in a mono-symmetrical cross section with a corresponding
shift of the neutral axis. As a consquence, the effective section modulas has to be calculated
with reference to the new neutral axis.

Note: Eurocode 3 not consistent regarding the definition of a so-called thin-walled


is
profile.

34
Table 17 - Effective widths and buckling factors for thin-walled rectangular hollow sections

stress distribution (compression positive) effective width


b,=h3torb3i be"

0 (mm HHHIIU2 ;"_ 05;


9 o b = . b
Q

e1 - eff
W bez
_* bi be; = 0.5 be"

'
bait = Q b1
2bs,,
"1 b _

'"
be be? ba2 = beff bei
b1
02
11/ =
01
bc 1: .
be" = Q bc
1 be = O.4be,,
01
M

1151 0| L12! "2 bez = 0.6139,,


b1

=a2/a, +1 +1>>o 0 o>.p>1 1 1>.p>2

b""'L9 "' 4.0 % 7.31 7.81 6.2911 + 9.73172 23.9 5.98 (1 ()2
Alternatively: for 1 2 1/7 2 -1

= 16 (6.1)
]/(1+ 1;)? + 0.112 (1 ()2 + (1 + (1)

Plate buckling reduction factor 9 Buckling factor Kg


1.0 60

0.9 55

50
0.8
45
0.7
40
0.6
35
0.5 30

0.4 25

0.3 20
15
0.2

0.1

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 -2 -1 0 + 1
Nond1mensiona| slenderness /Tp Stress ratio 1;

Fig. 8 Plate buckling reduction faktor Q Fig.9 ka vs. ((7

35
Table 18 - Plate buckling reduction factor 9

Xp 0.22
Q = S 1.0 (6.2)
f

where xp, the non-dimensional slenderness of the flat compression element, is given by:
_ b,/t
xp = |/fy/ts = (6.3)
--K/E
where fE is the critical plate buckling stress
and k0 is the plate buckling factor (see Table 17 and Fig. 9)

. 235 . .
with e = and fy = yield strength in N/mmz
7 V
Reference [2] considers that the inuence of the internal corner radius need not to be taken into
account provided that:

r 5 5t
r
5 0.15
b1
These conditions are fulfilled by practically all actually produced square and rectangular hollow
sections.

The b,/t limit above which local buckling needs to be taken into account according to Tables
8 and 9 is b/t > 42 e for a uniformly compressed flange. However equation (6.2) in Table 18 for
an identically loaded flange gives Xp > 0.673; this results in b,/t > 38.2 e, some what smaller
than the 42 e above.
It is well known, that the equation (6.3) for plate buckling gives conservative results. On
account of this, possible local buckling of thin-walled sections has to be considered first, when
the b,/t limits given in Tables 5 through 7 are exceeded.

6.2.2 Design procedure


When the effective geometrical properties of a class 4 cross section, e. g. effective area As",
effective radius of gyration is", effective section modulus We", have been calculated, it is easy
to check the stability and the resistance. indeed, it is just necessary to use these effective
properties in place of the geometrical properties of the gross section in class 3 calculations.
For dimensioning thin-walled cross section, equation (5.21) is replaced by the relation:
Nsa My ' sa Mzsu 6.4
A... - at we", - fyd Wm - no
'
_ 1

WI'th t yd _ f
WM
Hollow sections have two axes of symmetry and therefore there is no shift of the neutral axis
when the cross section is subject to uniform compression. This leads to an important
simplification of class 4 beam-column equations, because additional bending moments due to
this shift do not exist in the case of structural hollow section.
The use of effective geometrical properties of thin-walled sections is recommended in the
codes of the most countries around the world. Only in the japanese code, the load bearing
capacity of a thin-walled rectangular hollow section is given by the smaller of the maximum
plate buckling load and global buckling load.
At last, as shown in reference [10], the lateral-torsional buckling can also be disregarded for
thin-walled hollow sections of c ass 4.

36
6.2.3 Design aids
For practical application, the transition from the cross section class 3 to class 4 is of special
imporance showing the b/t limits, below which local buckling can be disregarded. With 9 = 1,
the equation (6.2) leads to the limit Xp 5 0.673.
Fig. 10 gives - on base of the depth or width-to-thickness ratio and of the k, coefficient (Table
17) as well as of the yield strength fy - the possibility of a quick check of the zone where no
allowance for local buckling is necessary. The area to the left of the curves belongs to cross
section class 3, while that to the right covers class 4, all of them lying in the elastic range. When
b/t limits given by the curves are exceeded (local buckling), the plate buckling reduction factor
Q according to the equation (6.2) has to be determined.

100
K17 (N/mm2)= 460 355 275 235
0.90 fy = 235 N/mm?
50 rv : 275 N/mm?
Q30 fy:355N/mmz
fv : 460 N/mm?
0.70
40

__ __> 0.60
no local buckling local buckling
30 0.50
l
Simple bending
23.9 0.40
20
0.30

0.20

Compression 0.10

25 50 75 100 125 150 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80


b1 M b1/t
'
T T VG
Fig. 10 b,/t or h,/t limits, below which local Fig. 11 - Plate buckling curves
buckling can be disregarded

_
+ 33?...
- _
Z

I l A r

+v E/2+t

beff/2+ I ZL__ bgff/2+ t


bm=b-t

baff/2+! beff
l"l zl"l
hm/2
1 l l ,
i -l
L l __l_ ___l
av [.
T V I I
I
_ __+__
l

'1
bm=bt

Fig. 12 Effective HHS cross section under axial force N and bending moments My, M1

37
b,/t
Plate buckling reduction factor 9 vs. for various structural steel grades is drawn in
\/E"
Fig. 11 see equation 6.3).
Effective geometrical values for the cross sections of class 4 can be calculated b means of
the formulae given in Table 19. The notations in Table 19 are explained in

Table 19 - Effective geometrical properties

axial force:

A8,, = 2t(be,, + he" + 4f)

_ _
he,,+2t 2 3hmhe,,2t
= 0.289
|"'y hm J3
< hm > beff 1- half 1- 41

_ b,,+2i 2 3b b,,2t
'9"-= ='289b'"\/3< ab rn )<bm+he+4t
eff eff

bending moments:
h_,,, b,,,be,,2t
6V __
2 2h,,,+bm+be,,+2t
bm hm-he,,2t
6I =
2 2b,,,+hm+h,,,,+2t

an h
We",y=t (b,,,,+2t)<T'"a,>2<a,>(h,,+b,,,,+2t)

2
+h,3,,
h
bm '1s,
+
hm
7+"v
3b b
w,,,,_,=t (h,,,,+2t) '5, -2 ".5, (b,,,+h,,,+2t)
2 2
2
hm b26z +b,3,,
+
t<<b
_b_nl+6
2 t<<h

6.3 Circular hollow sections

For thin-walled circular hollow sections, it is more difficult to judge the local buckling
behaviour, especially the interaction between global and local buckling, than in the case of
plates. This is due to the local instability behaviour of cylindrical shells, their high susce tibility
to imperfections and sudden reduction of load bearing capacity without reserve
Local buckling has also to be considered for CHS, when the d/t limits for the cross section 3 are
exceeded (see Tables 4 and 7).

38
Circular hollow sections, which are applied in practice, do not or seldom, possess d/t ratios
exceeding those given in Tables 4 and 7; in general d/t s 50.
In cases, where thin-walled circular hollow sections are applied, the procedure of substituting
the yield strength fy in the already mentioned formulae by the real buckling stresses for a
short cylinder, can be used.
These buckling stresses can be calculated by the procedure shown in The
procedures in both cases are simple; however, there is no equation describing the
MI? uckling
stress explicitly.

" ou
in [26]; axSVRK in [27]

39
7 Buckling length of members in lattice girders

7.1 General

Chord and bracing members of a welded lattice girder are partiallyfixed at the nodes, although
the static calculation of the forces in the members is carried out assuming the joints to be
hinged.
As a consequence of this partial restraint, a reduction of the system length I is made to obtain
the effective buckling length lb.

7.2 Effective buckling length of chord'and bracing members with lateral support

The buckling of hollow sections in lattice girders has been treated in Based on
this, Eurocode 3 {E} Annex K] recommends the buckling lengths for hollow sections in
lattice girders as follows:
Chords:
in-plane: lb = 0.9 x system length between joints
- out-of-plane: lb = 0.9 x system length between the later supports
Bracings:
in- and out-of-plane: lb = 0.75 x system length between joints.
When the ratio of the outer diameter or width of a bracing to that of a chord is smaller than 0.6,
the buckling length of the bracing member can be determined in accord with Table 20.
The equations given are only valid for bracing members, which are welded on the chords
along the full perimeter length without cropping or flattening of the ends of the members. Due
to the fact that no test results are, at present time, available on fully overlapped joints, the
equation given in Table 20 cannot be applied to this type of joint.

M
Fully overlapped joints

In both of the last cases, a buckling length equal to the system length of the bracing member
has to be used.

7.3 Chords of lattice girders, whose joints are not supported laterally

The calculation is difficult and lengthy. Therefore, it is convenient to use a computer.


For laterally unsupported truss chords the effective buckling length can be considerably
smaller than the actual unsupported length.
References two calculation methods for the case of compression chords in lattice
give
girders without lateral support. Both methods are based on an iterative melhod and require the
use of a computer. However. in order to facilitate the application for commonly encountered
cases (laterally restrained in direction), 64 design charts have been drawn and appear as
appendices in CIDECT Monograph no. 4
The effective buckling length of a bottom c ord loaded in compression (as for example, by
uplift loading) depends on the loading in the chord, the torsional rigidity of the truss, the

40
bending rigidity of the pulins and the purlin to truss connections. For detailed information,
reference is given to [12, 15]."
For the example given in the following figure, the buckling length of the unsupported bottom
chord can be reduced to 0.32 times the chord length L.

IPE 140

139.7x4
T
0 60x3

139.7x4
we

000
RV
buckling length
bottom chord lb: ~ 0.32 L L///
Lateral buckling of laterally unsupported chords

Table 20 Buckling length of a bracing member in a lattice glrder

do: outer diameter of a circular chord member ._


d1: outer diameter of a circular bracing member
be: external width of a square chord member [i=El or i or E
b1: external width of square bracing member do be be
for all 3: lb/I 5 0.75

I
when 5 < 0.6, in general 0.5 s T 5 0.75
calculate with:
0'25
chord: CHS _
" 2'20 d
bracing: CHS I/I <l-do) (11)
0'25
chord: SHS dg
bracing: CHS '" 2'35 <| - b> (72)
b ? 025
chord: SHS
IH 2.30 <| _ b> (7.3)
bracing:SHS

41
\\\\\\\\\\

/
//////////

&v

General view of a HHS roof structure

42
8 Design examples

8.1 Design of a rectangular hollow section column in compression

N5d=l15Ol<N 1150kN
l
Z
/
/ 7 / LEI/2
/

I |by| -_ .__ 300


l 8 Y Y
\ t }
\\ __l 2
i 9 200

Fig. 13 - Column under concentric compression

A column is to be designed using a rectangular hollow section 300 x 200 x 7.1 mm, hot-
formed with a yield strength of 235 N/mm? (steel grade Fe 360).
The length of the column is 8 m. It has hinged support at both ends. An intermediate support
at the middle of the column length exists against buckling about the weak axis y-y.
Given: Concentric compression (design load) Nsd = 1150 kN
buckling length: lbyy = 8 m
lb: = 4 m
steel grade: Fe 360; fy = 235 N/mm?
geometric properties: A = 67.7 cmz; iy = 11.3 cm; i2 = 8.24 cm

max.
5_ 3ooa~7.1 = 39.25 < 42 (compare with Tab. 5 and 6)
I 7.1
800 - 400 _
)\y = 70.8,_ X2 _ 48.6 < )\y
11-3 -18.24
70.8
)\y =

uy = 0.821 (Tab. 12, buckling curve a")


Acc. to equation (3.1):
235 -
Nb'Rd = 0.821 -6770- 10'3 = 1187 kN > 1150 kN. Therefore column okay.
T

8.2 Design of a rectangular hollow section column in combined compression and unl-
axlal bending

N5d:8O0kN

60 kNm
2

/
Z
1
L .5
I/ : I
v 3
lb _ _ L _ __
1 y=8m v
\ l
\ I
Z
1
1 18 kNm 200
Z-Z
Myysd

Fig. 14 Column under combined compression and uni-axial bending

43
given: hot-formed rectangular hollow section column 300 x 200 x 8 mm
compression Nsd = 800 kN
bending moment My_Sd 60 kNm or 18 kNm at both ends
buckling length lb, I,,_, = 8.0 m
steel grade Fe 430; fy = 275 N/mm?
geometric properties: A = 75.8 cmz; iy = 11.2 cm; i, = 8.20 cm
Wy = 634 W, = 510
cm:;;
WW = 765 cm cm:
WW = 580 cm

31. _39_Q:_3'__22 <38-0.92=35


t 8 for class 2 cross section of Fe 430
D1. = '
t 8

a) Calculation for flexural buckling:


800 800
>\,==97.6
ky=11T=71.4;
71.4 = 97.6 =
x, = 0.823 (see Tab. 10a),_ X, = 1.124
533 E

xy = 0.782 (see Tab. 12, buckling curve a"); u, = 0.580

Acc. to Table 16: BM), = 1.8 0.7 - 0.3 = 1.59 <with 11/ = E = 0.3)
60

Acc. to equation (5.5): )4, = 0.823 (2 - 1.59 4) +


765 634 _ 0.468 < 0.9
634
' ' 3

Acc. to equation (5.4). Ky = 1 1j)e038:6_875gg?2;g = 1.23 < 1.5


- u
'

Calculation for the stability about y-y axis acc. to equation (5.1):

800- 103- 1.1 1.23-60- 105- 1,1 =


+ 0.540 + 0.386 = 0.926 <1.0
0.782 ~ 7580 - 275 765 - 103 - 275
Calculation for buckling about z-z axis:
Nsd 5 Nb,z.Fld
235 '10'3 =
800 < 0.580 ' 7580 ' 939 kN. Therefore column okay.
1 1

b) Calculation for the load bearing capacity


60 18
Shear load V: Vy_s,, = = 5.25 kN
8
" = 2- a(3oo 3) -31 = 674 kN
. -3
Acc. to equation (5.11): v,,.,F.., 1.1 \/-
Vysd
Vp|'y]Rd
= =
574 o.ooa < 0.5
5.25

The shear load can be disregarded.


Acc. to equation (5.13): My.ScI 51.0
MNy,Rd

Myvsd = 60 kNm (max)

44
. 3.
Acc. to equation (5.16): MNYM =
7580 ' 275
,_33.,65.,oa.<1_8_o<3__1o_1;>
1.1
= 147 ' 106 Nmm

= 147 kNm

M , = so =
0.41 < 1.0. Therefore column okay.
W:S:; T5

8.3 Design of a rectangular hollow section column in combined compression and


bi-axial bending

Nsd =1000 kN 1000 kN


21 60kNm 50kNm
2 i
, 1 /,
Z _
I 'b,z=0.7-8 {+5.8 1
I |b'
=|
=5.6m
300
y=8m \ Y_ L "_Y
\ l \ \ vJ I
\ I
1 1 I2
f -25 kNm 200
,
zZ Mv,sd Y'Y Mz,sd

Fig. 15 - Column under combined compression and


bi-axial bending

Given: Hot formed rectangular hollow section column 300 x 200 x 8.8 mm
The length of the column is 8 m.
Both ends of the columns have hinged support about the strong axis 2-2 and fixed
support at the foot end about the weak axis y-y.

Compression Nsd = 1000 kN

Bending moment My_Sd = 60 kNm


Mzvsd = 50 kNm

Steel grade: Fe 510; fy = 355 N/mm?

Buckling length: I my = 8m
l,,_, 0.7- 8.0 = 5.6 m

Geometric properties:
A = 82.9 cm3
W, = 689 cm3; W, = 553 cm3
WW = 834 cm3; WM, = 632 cm3
iy = 11.2 cm; iz = 8.16 cm

b h _ .
maxt = t = 9993j&
8.8
= 31.0=38-0.81 =31
The cross section just satisfies the requirements for the class 2 of Fe 510 (Tables 5 and 6).

45
3) Calculation for the global buckling acc. to equation (5.1)
800 = 560 =
x, = 71.4 >12 = 68.6
_2 -8_16
71.4 = 68.6
x, = 0.935 X, = = 0.898
76_4 76_4
xy = 0.711 (= xmin) xz = 0.735 (buckling curve a")

Acc. to equation (5.2): Nbmd = 0.711 -8290-

N,,',,F.,, = 0.735 - 8290- % -103 = 1966 KN

. 355 -
Acc. to equation (5.3)._ Mpmad = 834- 103 - 10 _6 = 269 kNm
1:1

Mp,,,_Rd = 632 - 103-

Acc. to Tab. 16: myy = 1.8


Acc. to equation (5.5): ,1, = 0.935 (2 - 1.8 4) + (3% 1) = 0.164 < 0.9
0.164 1000
Acc. to equation (5.4): Ky = 1 - %$ = 1.09 < 1.5

Acc. to Tab. 16: BM, = 1.8 0.7( 0.5) = 2.15

Acc. to equation (5.7): u, = 0.898 (2 - 2.15 4) +

Acc. to equation (5.6): K, =19 = o.79o<1.5


Finally, acc. to equation (5.1): 133; 1'9%6 ';%;15 = 0.526+ 0.243 +0.194
= 0.963 < 1.0

b) Calculation for load bearing capacity


In order to obtain sufficient load bearing capacity of the cross section the elastic equation
(5.22) is applied conservatively (all values in kN and mm):
1000 60-103 50-103 = 0.340 + 0.245 + 0.255
8290 - 0.355 689 ' 103 - 0.355 553 - 103 - 0.355
= 0.84 < 1.0
If this calculation would not have led to a satisfactory result (that means > 1.0), then the
calculation must be carried out using equation (5.13).
The assumption to ne Iect shear load in equations (5.13) and (5.22) is V3,, s 0.5 VPW, see
equation (5.10)
The shear resistance acc. to equation (5.12) is decisive in this case:
355 * 10-3
VPLLRG = 2 ' 8.8 (200
"
8.8)
= 627 kN

vs. = "8f0L = 9.4 kN


V5d
= 0.015 < 0.5. Therefore shear is not critical.
V p|,Rd

46
8.4 Design of a thin-walled rectangular hollow section column In compression

Nsd = 500 kN

Ll
Fig. 16 Thin-walled column under concentric
compression

Given: Cold-formed rectangular hollow section column 400 x 200 x 4 mm (acc. to ISO 4019
-7])
e ength of the column is 10 m.
Both ends of the column have hinged support about the strong axis 2-2 and fixed
supports at both ends about the weak axis y-y.
Steel grade: Fe 430, fy = 275 N/mm2 (basic hot rolled strip)
Buckling length: Ibly 10m

lb, =%=5m

Nsd = 500 kN
Cross sectional area A = 46.8 cm?

1. Calculation of average increased yield strength after cold-forming


Acc. to equation (1.3): fya = 275 + 4%+'65 (430 275)
= 289 N/mmz < 1.2- 275 = 330 N/mm2

2. Cross section classification

Long side:
__ 400-3-4 _97
t 4 > 42 E =
b1 200-3-4 275 38.8 (Tables 5 and 6)
Short side:
_t"?4_"'47
The cross section is thin-walled (class 4) and the calculation shall be made using effective
width.
According to Fig. 8, the limit for plate buckling: Xp, mi, = 0.673 (Xp acc. to equation (6.2)
with 9 = 1.0).
Non-dimensional slenderness taking yield strength of the basic material fyb acc. to
equation (6.3):

X = j= 1.85 > 0.673


28.4 - 1/2'1/Z32 5/275
"" 23.4 - 1/I1/235/275
= 0.90 > 0.673

47
Non-dimensional slenderness taking average increased yield strength fya (289 N/mmz)
after cold-forming:
97
X"" = e___ = 1.89 > 0.673
28.4 - 1/T1/235/289
47
x"" = j-
= 0.92 > 0.673
28.4 1/4"]/235/269
In all cases, the cross section belongs to class 4.

Effective geometric values


a) With yield strength of the basic material fyb (275 Nlmmz) and K, = 4 (simple
compression):
Q = 0.476 .
Q: = 0340 acc. to equation (6.2)

h ,, = 0.476 (400 3-4) = 184.7 mm a- Ta 7


6;, = 0.840 (200 3-4) = 157.7 mm
A9,, = 28.69 cm2
ievy = 17.50 cm acc. to Tab. 19
i eff,z = 8.76 cm

b) With average increased yield strength after cold forming (fy, = 289 N/mm?)

91/
= 0.468
= 0.827 } acc. to equation (6.2)

w
:1, : 2:21:32 :21; : 12:22:} o
Q2

e . _ .
A6,, = 28.25 cm?
ism = 17.60 cm
eftz = 8.33 cm

4. Design for global buckling


a) With yield strength of the basic material (fyb = 275 N/mm2):
0 Strong axis
= 1000
x, = 57.1
17.5
X, = 3;:3 = 0.66 (see Tab. 10a)
xy (acc. to Tab. 13, curve b")
= 0.806
275 = .
NW, = 0.806 - 2869- 578 kN (see equation (3.1))

0 Week axis

x, = 5 0 _ 57.1
8.76
57.1
X, = _ 0.66
8&8
x, = 0.806 (acc. to Tab. 13, curve b)

NW = 0.606 - 2669-
0.275
1.1
= 562 kN

48
b) With average increased yield strength after cold-forming (289 N/mm2):
XE = 93.9 1/235/28 = 84.7 (see Tab. 10a)

0 Strong axis

x, = 56.8
17_6
56.8
)\y =

xy = 0.743 (acc. to Tab. 14, curve c)

Nbvnd = 0.743-2825-

0 Weak axis

X, = 500 60.0
8.33
60
X, _ 0.71
84}
x, = 0.719 (acc. to Tab. 14, curve c)

NW = 0.719 - 2325- 7 0.289 =


534 kN
Conclusion:
_ Assuming both criteria (basic and average increased yield strength, the design com-
pressive load (= 500 kN) lies lower than the calculated lead bearing capacity. The
calculated values for the strong and weak axis differ by a small margin from each other. An
economic selection of the cross section has been made. -

8.5 Design of a thln-walled rectangular hollow section column in concentric com-


presslon and bi-axlal bending

Nsd=250kN
23 l2.5l<Nm -12.5 kNm
Z

/
I

_ l I
{ lbvl lb, f V 400
Y
I

tr-l_
\\
'z
1} 25 kNm l25l<Nm 200
Z! My,sd V'V Mz,sd

Fig. 17 Thin-walled column under combined


compression and b-axial bending

Given: Cold-formed rectangular hollow section column 400 x 200 x 4 mm.


Concentric compression Nsd = 250 kN
Bending moments: Myvsd = 25 kNm and 12.5 kNm at the ends of the column
Mzvsd = 12.5 kNm and 12.5 kNm at the ends of the column

49
Under bending moment the yield strength of the basic material is always to be assumed even
for cold-formed profiles. The strain hardening of cold-formed section is desregarded.
Steel grade: Fe430; fy = fyvb = 275 N/mm?
Column system length I = 10 m
Buckling lengths: |,,_y = 10m
Nbyz =
10
=

12

From design example 8.4:

u, = 0.806 X, = 0.66
x2 = um, = 0.806 > X, = 0.66
he = 184.7 mm
be" = 157.9 mm
A9,, = 28.69 cm2
ism, = 17.5 cm
ism = 8.76 cm
Ratio of the end moments:

= 12.5 = 0'5 1'45


y 25 BM acc. to Tab. 16,
second column
0, = _12_5
125
= -1.0 aM,,=2.5o

Further effective geometric values acc. to Tab. 19:

8, = 5.2 mm
6, = 20.3 mm
We, = 482.2 cm3
Wen, = 219.9 cm3
Acc. to equation (5.5): Y = X, (2M,y 4) = 0.66 (2 - 1.45 4) = - 0.726 < 0.9

Acc. to equation (5.4): K


v _1_ -0.726-250-103
0.806-2869-275 = 1.256 <1.5

Acc. to equation (5.7): N H 0.65 (2 - 2.50 4) = 0.65 < 0.9


Acc. to equation (5.6): K, = 1 _ 0.65 - 250 - -103
0.811 -2869 275 = 0.746 < 1.5

Calculation to check stability acc. to equation (5.1):

250000-1.1 1.256 - 25 - 10 - 1.1 0.746-12.5-10-1.1


+ +
- ~
0.806 2869 275 482.2- 103 ~ 275 219.9 - 103 - 275
= 0.432 + 0.260 + 0.170 = 0.862 < 1.0
Calculation to check maximum stress at the foot end acc. to equation (5.22):
250-10-1.1 25~10-1.1 12.5-10-1.1
2869-275 482.2- 103 ~ 275 219.9 ~ 103 - 275
= 0.348 + 0.207 + 0.227 = 0.782 < 1.0

Conclusion:
The cross section 400 x 200 x 4 mm satisfies the requirements.

50
9 Symbols

A, A0 Gross area of the cross section


Aelf Effective area of the cross section
CHS Circular hollow section
Modulus of elasticity
Calculated value of an action
Shear modulus
Moment of inertia
Effective moment of inertia
Amplification co-efficient for a beam-column (see equations 5.1, 5.4, 5.6)
MN,Fld Reduced design plastic resistance moment allowing for the axial force
Design value of the bending moment
Nb,Rd Design value of the buckling resistance of a compression member
NpI,Rd Plastic design value of the resistance of a compression member
NSd Design value of the axial force
Resistance
RHS Rectangular hollow section
Vpl,Rd Plastic design shear resistance
Design value of the shear force
Section modulus
Effective section modulus
Plastic section modulus

External width of RHS


Width of a flat element (see Tab. 6)
Average width of RHS (b t)
Average width of RHS (h -0

see Tab. 17

External diameter of CHS


Critical plate buckling stress
Ultimate tensile strength of the basic material of a hollow section
Tensile yield strength
Average design yield strength of a cold-formed section
Tensile yield strength of the basic material of a hollow section
1
Design yield strength <= y)
YM

Critical stress (elastic) for lateral buckling


External depth of RHS
Radius of gyration
Effective radius of gyration
Buckling factor (see Tab. 18)
Length
Effective buckling length
Internal corner radius for RHS
Wall thickness

51
Strong axis of the cross section
Weak axis of the cross section

Co-efficient of linear expansion (see Tab. 1)


imperfection co-efficient of the buckling curves
Exponents of the criterion for the resistance of a beam-column
Equivalent uniform moment factor (see Tab. 16)
Ratio of the width minus thickness to depth minus thickness of RHS
Partial safety factor for the resistance
Shift of the neutral axis of a thin-walled section
Ultimate strain
Yield strain
Slenderness of a column
Eulerian slenderness
Non-dimensional slenderness of a column
Non-dimensional slenderness of a flat plate for lateral-torsional buckling
Non-dimensional slenderness of a flat plate
Co-efficient used for a beam-column (see equations 5.5 and 5.7)
Poissons ratio
Density
Reduction factor of the yield strength to take account of the shear force and effective
width
Reduction factor for buckling curves (see
Stress or moment ratio (see Tab. 17)

52
10 References

[1] EC3: Eurocode no. 3, Design of Steel Structures, Part I General Rules and Rules for
Buildings. Commission of the European Communities, volume 1, chapters 1 to 9,
November 1990 (Draft).

[2] EC3: Eurocode no. 3, Design of Steel Structures, Part 1 General Rules and Rules for
Buildings. Commission of the European Communities, volume 2 annexes, July 1990
(Draft).

[3] SSRC: Stability of Metal Structures A World View. Structural Stability Research
Council, 2nd Edition, 1991.

[4] Sherman, D.R.: Inelastic Flexural Buckling of Cylinders. Steel Structures Recent
Research Advances and their Application to Design, International Conference, Budva,
M. N. Pavlovic editor, Elsevier, London, 1986.

[5] Johnston, B.G.: Column Buckling Theory Historic Highlights. A. S. C. E., Journal of
the Structural Division, Vol. 109, no. 9, September 1983.

I6] EC3: Eurocode no. 3, Design of Steel Structures, Part 1 General Rules and Rules for
Buildings. Annex D - The Use of Steel Grade FeE 460, Commission of the European
Communities, Report EC3 90-Cl-D3Rev, July 1990.

[7] Beer, H., and Schulz, G.: The European Buckling Curves, International Association for
Bridge and Structural Engineering, Proceedings of the International Colloqium on
Column Strength, Paris, November 1972.
[8] Austin, W.J.:: Strength and Design of Metal Beam-Columns, A. S. C. E. Journal of the
Structural Devision, Vol. 87, no. 4, April 1961.

[9] Chen, W. F., and Atsuta, T.: Theory of Beam-Columns, Volume 1: In-Plane Behaviour
and Design. Mc.Graw Hill, New-York, 1976.

[10] Rondal, J., and Maquoi, R.: Stabilit des poteaux en profils creux en acier, Soditube,
Notice 1117, Paris, Mai 1986.

[11] Ellinas, C. P., and Croll, J. G. A.: Design Loads for Elastic-Plastic Buckling of Cylinders
under Combined Axial and Pressure Loading, Proceedings of the BOSS 82 Confe-
rence, Boston, August 1982.

[12] CIDECT: Construction with Hollow Steel Sections, ISBN O-9510062-07, December
1984.

[13] Grimault, J.P.: Longueur de flambement des treillis en profils creux souds sur
membrures en profils creux, Cidect report 3E-3G-80/3. January 1980.
[14] Rondal, J.: Effective Lengths of Tubular Lattice Girder Members, Statistical Tests.
Cidect report 3K 88/9, August 1988.

[15] Mouty, J.: Effective Lengths of Lattice Girder Members, Cidect, Monograph no. 4, 1980.
[15] ISO/DIS 657-14: Hot-rolled steel Sections; Part 14: Hot formed structural hollow
sections - Dimensions and sectional properties, Draft Revision of Second edition ISO
657: 14-1982.

[17] ISO 4019: Cold-finished steel structural hollow sections Dimensions and sectional
properties, 1st edition, 1982.

[18] ISO 630: Structural Steels, 1st edition, 1980.

53
[19] IIW XV 701/89: Design Recommendations for hollow section joints Predominantly
statically loaded, 2nd Edition, 1989, International Institute of Welding.
[20] prEN 10210: Hot finished structural hollow section of non-alloy and fine grained
structural steels
Part 1: Technical delivery requirements, 1991.
Part 2: Tolerrances, dimensions and sectional properties (in preparation).

[211 DIN 18 800.


Teil 1: Stahlbauten, Bemessung und Konstruktion, November 1990.
Tell 2: Stahlbauten, Stabilitatsfalle, Knicken von Staben und Stabwerken, November
1990.
[22] ECCS-CECM-EKS: European Recommendation for Steel Structures 2E, March 1978
[23] Dutta, D., und Wiirker K.-G.: Handbuch Hohlprofile in Stahlkonstruktionen, Verlag TUV
Rheinland-GmbH, Koln 1988.

[24] Floik, K., und Kindmann, R.: Das Ersatzstabverfahren Tragsicherheitsnachweise fur
Stabwerke bei einachsiger Biegung und Normalkraft, Der Stahlbau 5/1982.
[25] Roik, K., und Kindmann, R.: Das Ersatzstabverfahren eine Nachweisform fiir den
einfeldrigen Stab bei planmiBig einachsiger Biegung mit Druckkraft, Der Stahlbau
12/1981.
[25] European Convention for Constructional Steelwork (ECCSEKS): Buckling of Steel
shells, European Recommendations (section 4.6 als selbstandige Schrift), 4th Edition,
1988.
[27] DIN 18 800, Teil 4: Stahlbeton, Stabilittsfalle, Schalenbeulen, November 1990.
[28] Sedlacek, G., Wardenier, J.., Dutta. D., und Grotmann, D.: Eurocode 3 (draft), Annex K
- Hollow section lattice girder connections, October 1991.

[29] prEN 10 219-1, 1991: Cold formed structural hollow section of non-alloy and fine grain
structural steels, Part 1 Technical delivery conditions, ECISSITC 10/SC 1, Structural
Steels: Hollow Sections.

[301 Boeraeve, P., Maquoi, R., und Flondal, J.: influence of imperfections on the ultimate
carrying capacity of centrically loaded columns, 1st International Correspondence
Conference ,,Design Limit States of Steel Structures, Technical University of Brno,
Czechoslovakia, Brno, 1983.
[31] EN 10025: Hot-rolled products of non-alloy structural steels, Technical delivery
conditions, March 1991.
I32] European Convention for Constructional Steelwork: ECCS-E6-76, Appendix no. 5: Thin
walled cold formed members.

Acknowledgements for photographs:


The authors express their appreciation to the following firms for making available the
photographs used in this Design Guide:
British Steel pic.
Mannesmannrohren-Werke A.G.
Mannhardt Stahlbau
llva Form
Valexy

54
Comit International pour le Dveloppement et lEtude de la Construction Tubulaire

International Committee
for the Development and Study
of Tubular Structures
CIDECT founded in 1962 as an international association joins together the research
resources of major hollow steel section manufacturers to create a major force in the
research and application of hollow steel sections worldwide.

The objectives of CIDECT are:


O to increase knowledge of hollow steel sections and their potential application by
initiating and participating in appropriate researches and studies

0 to establish and maintain contacts and exchanges between the producers of the
hollow steel sections and the ever increasing number of architects and engineers
using hollow steel sections throughout the world.
0 to promote hollow steel section usage wherever this makes for good engineering
practice and suitable architecture, in general by disseminating information,
organizing congresses etc.

O to co-operate with organizations concerned with practical design recommen-


dations, regulations or standards at national and international level.

Technical activities

The technical activities of CIDECT have centred on the following research aspects of
hollow steel section design:
Buckling behaviour of empty and concrete-filled columns
Effective buckling lengths of members in trusses
Fire resistance of concrete-filled columns
Static strength of welded and bolted joints
Fatigue resistance of joints
Aerodynamic properties
Bending strength
Corrosion resistance
O O O O O Workshop fabrication
The results of CIDECT research form the basis of many national and international
design requirements for hollow steel sections.

55
CIDECT, the future

Current work is chiefly aimed at filling up the gaps in the knowledge regarding the
structural behaviour of hollow steel sections and the interpretation and imple-
mentation of the completed fundamental research. As this proceeds, a new
complementary phase is opening that will be directly concerned with practical,
economical and labour saving design.

CIDECT Publications

The current situation relating to CIDECT publications reflects the ever increasing
emphasis on the dissemination of research results.
Apart from the final reports of the CIDECT sponsored research programmes, which
are available at the Technical Secretariat on demand at nominal price, CIDECT has
published a number of monographs concerning various aspects of design with
hollow steel sections. These are available in English, French and German as
indicated.

Monograph 3 Windloads for Lattice Structures (E, F,.G)


No.
Monograph 4 - Effective Lengths of Lattice Girder Members (E, F, G)
No.
Monograph 5 - Concrete-filled Hollow Section Columns (E, F)
No.
Monograph 6 The Strength and Behaviour of Statically Loaded Welded
No.
Connections in Structural Hollow Sections (E)
Monograph No. 7 Fatigue Behaviour of Hollow Section Joints (E, G)
A book Construction with Hollow Steel Sections, prepared under the direction of
CIDECT in English, French, German and Spanish, was published with the sponsor-
ship of the European Community presenting the actual state of the knowledge
acquired throughout the world with regard to hollow steel sections and the design
methods and application technologies related to them.
In addition, copies of these publications can be obtained from the individual
members given below to whom technical questions relating to CIDECT work or the
design using hollow steel sections should be addressed.

The organization of CIDECT comprises:


0 President: J. C. Ehlers (Federal Republic of Germany)
Vice-President: C. L. Bijl (The Netherlands)
O A General Assembly of all members meeting once a year and appointing an
Executive Committee responsible for adiministration and executing of esta-
bished policy
0 Technical Commission and Working Groups meeting at least once a year and
directly responsible for the research and technical promotion work

56
O Secretariat in Dusseldorf responsible for the day to day running of the orga-
nization.

Present members of CIDECT are:


(1992)

Altos Hornos de Vizkaya S.A., Spain


British Steel PLC, United Kingdom
Hoesch Rohr AG, Federal Republic of Germany
ILVA Form, ltaly
IPSCO Inc., Canada
Laminoirs de Longtain, Belgium
Mannesmannrohren-Werke AG, Federal Republic of Germany
Mannst'a'dt Werke GmbH, Federal Republic of Germany
Nippon Steel Metal Products Co. Ltd., Japan
Rautaruukki Oy, Finland
Sonnichsen A/S, Norway
Tubemakers of Australia, Australia
Van Leeuwen, The Nietherlands
Valexy, France
Verenigde Buizenfabrieken (VBF), The Netherlands
O O O O O O O O VOEST Alpine Krems, Austria

Cidect Research Reports can be obtained through:


Mr. D. Dutta
Office of the Chairman of the CIDECT Technical Commission
c/o Mannesmannrohren-Werke AG
Mannesmannufer 3
D-4000 Dusseldorf 1
Federal Republic of Germany
Telephone: (49) 211/875-34 80
Telex: 8 581 421
Telefax: (49) 21 1 I875-46 89

Care has been taken to ensure that all data and information herein is factual and that
numerical values are accurate. To the best of our knowledge, all information in this book is
accurate at the time of publication.
CIDECT, its members and the authors assume no responsibility for errors or misinterpretation
of the information contained in this book or in its use.

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