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2014

Gas Turbine Theory (ME-817)(Old Syllabus)

Time Allotted: 3 Hours Full Marks: 70
The figures in the margin indicate full marks
GROUP-A
(Multiple Choice Type Questions)
101=10
1. Choose the correct alternatives for the following (any ten):

(i) Ramjet engines are used for

a) Supersonic engines
b) Subsonic engines
c) Rocket engines
d) Marine engines
a) product of radius and blade velocity remains constant
b) product of radius and tangential velocity remains constant
c) product of blade velocity and tangential velocity remains constant
d) ratio of radius and tangential velocity remains constant
(iii) Number of blades in a 2D cascade is
a) 5
b) 50
c) 5000
d) infinity
(iv) Gas turbine power plants operate on
a) Bell Colman cycle
b) Rankine cycle
c) Brayton cycle
d) Atkinson cycle
(v) Slip factor may be defined as the ratio of
a) absolute tangential velocity and hypothetical tangential velocity
b) hypothetical tangential velocity and absolute tangential velocity
c) absolute radial velocity and hypothetical radial velocity
d) absolute tangential velocity and hypothetical radial velocity
(vi) Inconel is used in
a) Centrifugal fans
b) Combustion chambers
c) blowers
d) None of the above
(vii) In axial flow compressor, blockage in compressor annulus occurs due to
a) Storage of dust particles
b) Formation of boundary layer
c) Storage of soot
d) Storage of ash
(viii) In a compressible flow situation, Mach number is 0.931 and temperature is -50C. Calculate
the stagnation temperature if .
0
a) 40 C
b) 440C
c) 41.440C
d) 44.410C
(ix) The conventional definition of stage reaction for axial compressors is
a) Pressure rise across the rotor/Temperature rise across the stage
b) Specific enthalpy rise across the rotor/Pressure rise across the stage
c) Pressure rise across the rotor/Specific enthalpy rise across the stage
d) Specific enthalpy rise across the rotor/Specific enthalpy rise across the stage
(x) For a gas turbine without swirl, total to total efficiency is 0.9 and reaction is 0.4, the
blade/speed ratio or velocity ratio is
a) 0.614
b) 0.5
c) 0.77
d) 0.557
(xi) A flow chokes when
a) The flow velocity is less than sonic velocity
b) The flow velocity is greater than sonic velocity
c) The flow velocity is equal to sonic velocity
d) The flow velocity is zero
(xii) The difference between a fan and a blower is
a) Fan is of axial type but blower is of radial type
b) Fans deal with cold air but blowers deal with hot air
c) Fans deal with air but blowers deal with water
d) Total pressure rise across a fan is much lower compared to blower

GROUP-B

(Short Answer Type Questions)

Answer any three of the following 35=15

2. For an axial turbine with zero inter-stage swirl, blade speed Um= 100 m s -1 and reaction Rm = 0.5 at
the mean radius rm. calculate the stagnation enthalpy drop, assuming TT= 0.93. For constant load at
all radii calculate the appropriate reaction at the hub radius rh = 0.75rm. 5

3. Why blade cooling is necessary for gas turbines? State different blade cooling methods.
2+3

4. What do you understand by free vortex turbine stage? Write down the mathematical expression
that describes free vortex design of turbine stage. 3+2
5. Define (a) diffuser efficiency (b) loss coefficient (c) lift coefficient (d) drag coefficient (e) camber
line for a compressor cascade. 1+1+1+1+1=5

6. Derive Eulers Equation for turbomachinery. State all the assumptions made. 5

GROUP-C
(Long Answer Type Questions)
Answer any three of the following. 315=45

7. (a) Draw and explain the Mollier diagram for the complete centrifugal compressor stage.
10

(b) Give a brief description of a turbojet engine with suitable diagram.

8. Air at a stagnation temperature of 22C enters the impeller of a centrifugal compressor in the axial
direction. The rotor, which has 17 radial vanes, rotates at 15,000 rev/min. The stagnation pressure
ratio between diffuser outlet and impeller inlet is 4.2 and the overall efficiency (total-to-total) is 83%.
Determine the impeller tip radius and power required to drive the compressor when the mass flow rate
is 2 kg/s and the mechanical efficiency is 97%. Given that the air density at impeller outlet is 2 kg/m3
and the axial width at entrance to the diffuser is 11 mm, determine the absolute Mach number at that
point. Assume that the slip factor s=1-2/Z, where Z is the number of vanes. (For air take
=1.4 and R =0.287 kJ/(kg K). 15

9. (a) Illustrate the comparison of return flow combustion system and straight through combustion
system. 5

5

(c) Explain the cascade nomenclature with a neat sketch. 5

10. An axial flow compressor stage is designed to give free-vortex tangential velocity distributions for
all radii before and after the rotor blade row. The tip diameter is constant and 1.0 m; the hub diameter
is 0.9m and constant for the stage. At the rotor tip the flow angles are as follows:

Determine,

(iii) the power absorbed by the stage;

(iv) the flow angles at the hub;

(v) the reaction ratio of the stage at the hub;

given that the rotational speed of the rotor is 6000 rev/min and the gas density is 1.5 kg/m3 which can
be assumed constant for the stage. It can be further assumed that stagnation enthalpy and entropy are
constant before and after the rotor row for the purpose of simplifying the calculations.

15

(i) High temperature metallurgy

(ii) Surging and choking of compressors
(iii) Degree of reaction
(iv) Pressure drop in combustion chambers
(v) Brayton cycle