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Base support to hold shape, prevent bending, and provide support for

the emulsion
X-ray Film made of flexible thin transparent base coated on both sides
with a sensitive emulsion.
Emulsion is the layer with the sensitivity to light and x-rays.
- heart of the film
- special type of jelly
Silver Halide sand like granules or tiny microscopic structures
- Made up of primarily of silver bromide and iodide
- Crystal like structure
Silver is a polluting agent.
Sensitivity Specks Imperfection of silver halide
Luminescence glowing of light caused by radiation
Latent Image visible
Darkroom it is where the latent images is processed
Passbox allows the cassettes to be passed to the darkroom without
opening the door and exposing the room to light.
Types of Door/Entrance
1. Revolving Door
2. Maze
3. Double-lock
Darkroom Illuminating in as much a x-ray film is more sensitive after
exposure to radiation and before processing takes place, attention to the
lighting system for the darkroom is very important
Low/Dim Lighting used with special filters to prevent exposure to x-ray
Wall are generally a light gray or ivory color to provide reflection from
the safe lighting system.
Safelight System is the special illumination system used in the darkroom
- calling the lights a safelight system means that the
illumination will not affect the very
Processor it is where the film is placed and becomes a visible and
permanent image.

Processing System it is exposed x-ray film changes the latent image to

visible image that is made permanent for handling, viewing and storage.
Automatic Processor System consists of a processor unit containing
individual systems operating in unison.
- Standelarized the processing of radiograph with consistency and
7.5 15 watts bulb used with a Kodak wratten GB FILTER
Sodium Vapor Lights produce illumination in the orange-yellow range
Kodak GBX all-purpose filter
- more versatile and provide illumination in the darker red
- allows for the use green/blue


1. Transport System moves the film through the processor
- begins with the rack rollers in the developers
tank and moves the film from feed tray.
- - agitates the solution and helps maintain the
- temperature
Turn Around special component of the transport system
Cross-over film rises to the top; moved to the next tank/section
Guide shoe special device that guide the film to change direction
Squeegee Squeeze the excess developer
- maintain the strength and activity of the fixer chemical
2. Recirculation System purpose to provide continuous mixing of the
- system is composed of a heater thermostat
and filters
Filters serves to maintain volume and strength of the solution
3. Replenishment System key element to the successful use of
automatic processor
- contains a pump controlled by a
microswitch that stops the operation
of the replenisher pump
Replenisher serves to maintain volume and strength of the solution
Replenishment adding solutions to the developer and fixer as each
film is processed
Adequate Replenishment stable and helps prevent tackiness
4. Wash System prevent deterioration of the film after it is stored.
- washing of the film is necessary to remove excess
5. Dryer System must be dried for handling and storage
Dryer blows hot air across the surface of the film temperature 110
and 120 degrees F
Dehumidifier device for drying up film
1. Developer softens the gelatin and develop the latent image
2. Fixer removes the unexposed silver halide crystal and hardens the
Daylight Processing System eliminates the need for conventional
- uses special cassettes
Silver Recovery available for recycling
1. Electrolytic uses electric cathode
- negative charge
- immersed in a canister containing a positive charge
2. Chemical Replacement most common method of recovering the
silver from the fixer
- uses a cartridge through which the fixer

X-ray Film Characteristics

*Speed is the films ability to respond to light or x-rays
Imaging System is the combination of a particular film and screen
*Latitude is the films ability to record an acceptable range of densities.
*Contrast is the inherent ability to record minute differences in density
across the film
Screen Type Film made to use with intensifying screens, because of the
films sensitivity to light.
Direct Exposure Film designed for use without the need for intensifying
Single-Emulsion Film emulsion coated on one side of the base only
Duplication Film type of single emulsion film that responds differently to
light photons
Subtraction Film single emulsion film designed to produce a copy that is
opposite of the original of the original radiograph
Imaging System combination of a particular film and screen type
Panchromatic term used to described the film that is used in
- sensitive to all
Orthochromatic known as green sensitive
- all color except red
Grid used in radiography for improving image quality
- complements the effects of beam restrictions
- placed between the patient and the image receptors
- serves to reduce the number of scatter rays striking the film
Radiography is an art and science
Technique the systematic procedure used to produce a high-quality

1. KILOVOLTAGE the force that accelerates the electrons from the
cathode to anode.
- major controlling factor contrast
2. MILLIAMPERE represents the current flow through the cathode
filament at the time of the exposure.
*Increase of milliampere will increase the number of x-ray photons in
the primary beam

Primary Beam useful beam

- travels through straight path

Doubling of the milliamperes will double the amount of

blackening on the film
3. EXPOSURE TIME factor that controls the length of the exposure
4. DISTANCE length of space from the focal spot to the recording
Recording Medium film or image receptors
Chesteleo chest radiograph with a 72 inches distance
- order to avoid magnification of the rear
KILOVOLTAGE SELECTION determines the energy of the x-ray beam
KILOVOLTAGE PEAK represents the photon energy
WAVELENGTH distance from the crest of a wave to the crest of the next
SPECTRUM range of energy
FREQUENCY number of waves
FIFTEEN PERCENT RULE a rule that the kilovoltage increases by 15%
doubling the amount of blackening.
- the ability of the x-ray photons to penetrate the
part will increase
FOG unwanted density
- degrades the image
REMNANT RADIATION exit radiation
TRANSPARENT total transmission of light
TRANSLUSCENT partial transmission of light
OPAQUE total absorption of light
RADIOPARENT total transmission of x-ray
- black
RADIOLUSCENT partial transmission and partial absorption
- gray
RADIO OPAQUE total absorption of x-ray
- white
ATTENUATION the reduction in intensity of an x-ray beam as it passes
through an object due to the absorption and scattering of photons
Radio Opaque
STENIC normal
SCATTER RADIATION produced by kilovoltage
- Exits the body and travels in different directions
with many energy levels
- danger to the patient and the radiographer and it
becomes a determined to the
film quality

Collimators is a box-like structure attached to the port of the x-ray tube

for the purpose of restricting
x-ray beam
Bremsstrahlung BRAKING
- breaking away
Reciprocity Law indicates that the film remains constant as the total
energy exposing the film is


1. CLASSICAL SCATTERING is an interaction bet
- low energy and atoms
- the x-ray loses no energy but changes
direction slightly
- the wavelength of the incident x-ray is
equal to the scattered x-ray
2. COMPTON EFFECT occurs bet
- moderate energy x-rays and outer shell
- the wavelength of the scattered x-ray is greater
3. than that of the incident x-ray
4. PHOTO ELECTRIC EFFECT occurs when an incident x-ray is totally
absorbed during the
ionization of an inner shell electron
5. PAIR PRODUCTION occurs when x-rays that have energies greater
than 1.022 MEV.
- the x-ray interacts with the nuclear force field
and two electrons that have
opposite electrostatic charges are created
6. PHOTODISENTEGRATION is an interaction bet
- high energy x-rays and the nucleus


DENSITY radiographic density is the overall blackening on the film
- Controlled by mAs
CONTRAST represents a variation in density levels across the film and
serves to make anatomic detail
- It is controlled by kVp
DEFINITION/RESOLUTION refers to the clarity and distinctness of the
structural lines or borders of
anatomic parts
DISTORTION is the misrepresentation of the size or shape of the anatomic
part of interest
RADIOGRAPHIC DENSITY is the opacity of the radiograph, also described
as the amount of blackening on the film
VIEWBOX wall mounted or portable device with fluorescent light bulbs
that is covered with white transparent material
DENSITOMETER an instrument used to measure density
- it contains light source with a known amount of
illumination. The light source is covered with a
transluscent material containing a very small pinhole
The pinhole allows the light to pass through the cover without hitting any
absorbing material.
ANODE HEEL EFFECT causes the beam intensify to be less on the side of
the anode
RARE EARTH SCREENS greatly reduces the amount of radiation exposure
to the patient
FILTERS are thin metal amount of radiation are located to the primary
beam to alter its intensify
ALUMINUM where the filters are made
DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL the relationship of mAs and density