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Chapter 7: 3-6,20,63-66

7.3 Describe (a) the similarities and (b) the differences between the bulk-deformation processes
described in Chapter 6 and the sheet-metal forming processes described in this chapter.

By the student. The most obvious difference between sheet-metal parts and those made by bulk-
deformation processes, described in Chapter 6, is the difference in cross section or thickness of the
workpiece. Sheet-metal parts typically have less net volume and are usually much easier to deform or
flex. Sheet-metal parts are rarely structural unless they are loaded in tension (because otherwise their
small thickness causes them to buckle at relatively low loads) or they are fabricated to produce high
section modulus. They can be very large by assembling individual pieces, as in the fuselage of an aircraft.
Structural parts that are made by forging and extrusion are commonly loaded in various configurations.

7.4 Discuss the material and process variables that influence the shape of the curve for punch force vs.
stroke for shearing, such as that shown in Fig. 7.7 on p. 354, including its height and width.

The factors that contribute to the punch force and how they affect this force are: (a) the shear strength of
the material and its strain-hardening exponent; they increase the force, (b) the area being sheared and
the sheet thickness; they increase the force and the stroke, (c) the area that is being burnished by
rubbing against the punch and die walls; it increases the force, and (d) parameters such as punch and die
radii, clearance, punch speed, and lubrication.

7.5 Describe your observations concerning Figs. 7.5 and 7.6.

The student should comment on the magnitude of the deformation zone in the sheared region, as
influenced by clearance and speed of operation, and its influence on edge quality and hardness
distribution throughout the edge. Note the higher temperatures observed in higher-speed shearing. Other
features depicted in Fig. 7.5 on p. 352 should also be commented upon.

7.6 Inspect a common paper punch and comment on the shape of the tip of the punch as compared with
those shown in Fig. 7.12.

By the student. Note that most punches are unlike those shown in Fig. 7.12 on p. 346; they have a
convex curved shape.

7.20 Explain why negative springback does not occur in air bending of sheet metals.

The reason is that in air bending (shown in Fig. 7.24a on p. 368), the situation depicted in Fig. 7.20 on p.
365 cannot develop. Bending in the opposite direction, as depicted between stages (b) and (c), cannot
occur because of the absence of a lower die in air bending.

7.63 Referring to Eq. (7.5), it is stated that actual values of eo are significantly higher than values of ei,
due to the shifting of the neutral axis during bending. With an appropriate sketch, explain this
phenomenon.

The shifting of the neutral axis in bending is described in mechanics of solids texts. Briefly, the outer
fibers in tension shrink laterally due to the Poisson effect (see Fig. 7.17c), and the inner fibers expand.
Thus, the cross section is no longer rectangular but has the shape of a trapezoid, as shown below. The
neutral axis has to shift in order to satisfy the equilibrium equations regarding forces and internal
moments in bending.
7.64 Note in Eq. (7.11) that the bending force is a function of t2. Why? (Hint: Consider bending moment
equations in mechanics of solids.)

This question is best answered by referring to formulas for bending of beams in the study of mechanics of
solids. Consider the well-known equation

where c is directly proportional to the thickness, and I is directly proportional to the third power of
thickness. For a cantilever beam, the force can be taken as F = M/L, where L is the moment arm. For
plastic deformation, _ is the material flow stress. Therefore:

7.65 Calculate the minimum tensile true fracture strain that a sheet metal should have in order to be bent
to the following R/t ratios: (a) 0.5, (b) 2, and (c) 4. (See Table 7.2.)

To determine the true strains, we first refer to Eq. (7.7) to obtain the tensile reduction of area as a function
of R/T as

The strain at fracture can be calculated from Eq. (2.10) as

This equation gives for R/T = 0.5, and Ef is found to be 0.51. For R/T = 2, we have Ef = 0.22, and for R/T =
4, Ef = 0.13.

7.66 Estimate the maximum bending force required for a 1/8 -in. thick and 12-in. wide Ti-5Al-2.5Sn
titanium alloy in a V -die with a width of 6 in.
The bending force is calculated from Eq. (7.11). Note that Section 7.4.3 states that k takes a range from
1.2 to 1.33 for a V-die, so an average value of k = 1.265 will be used. From Table 3.14, we find that
UTS=860 MPa = 125,000 psi. Also, the problem statement gives us L = 12 in., T = 1/8 in = 0.125 in, and W
= 6 in. Therefore, Eq. (7.11) gives