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# Name/s: _________________________ Date Performed: _____________________

## _________________________ Date Submitted: _____________________

_________________________

EXERCISE 1: GAIN
Description of the simulated system
The simulator simulates a gain having the gain K as its parameter. The relation between the input variable, u, and the
output variable, y, is:
y(t) = K u(t)
There is no dynamics (that is, no time-dependent relation) between the output and the input.

Aims
The aims of the simulator is to give insight into the non-dynamic behavior of a gain.

Motivation
Many physical systems are approximately gains, e.g.:
A control valve where the valve control signal u gives approximately a proportional valve opening z.
A tachometer (which is a rotational speed sensor for motors etc.) produces an output voltage which is
approximately proportional to speed.
A (very quick) motor where the rotational speed is approximately proportional to the motor control signal.
The proportional term of a PID-controller, which is proportional to the control error.

Start the simulator.
1. Adjust the gain K to any positive value. Adjust the input signal to any value. Observe how the output value y
varies. Is there any dynamic relation between the input and the output?

## 2. Repeat Task 1, but with a negative K-value.

Reference
Haugen, Finn. "Gain." TechTeach: SimView. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Nov. 2016.
http://techteach.no/simview/gain/index.php
Name/s: _________________________ Date Performed: _____________________
_________________________ Date Submitted: _____________________
_________________________

EXERCISE 2: INTEGRATOR
Description of the simulated system
In this simulator a general integrator is simulated. You can freely adjust the input signal u(t) and the gain of the
integrator, K. The relation between the input signal u and the output signal y can be expressed with the following
t
integral equation: y(t) = K 0 u(t) dt

## This integral equation is equivalent with the following differential equation:

dy(t)
= K u(t)
dt
The transfer function of the integrator is:
y(s) K
h(s) = =
u(s) s
The simulator is based on discretizing the integrator with the Runge-Kutta second-order method with time-step of 0.05
sec.

Aims
The aims of the simulator is to give insight into the dynamic behavior of an integrator.

Motivation
There are many dynamic systems with integrating behavior, e.g.:
Liquid tanks where the outflow is independent of the level, as if the outflow is produced by a pump. In such a
system the pump control signal can be the input variable and the level is the output variable of the integrator.
Thermal systems without heat loss to the environment. The input variable is heat supply (via a heating element),
and the output variable is the temperature.
A motor having neglectable (or very quick) dynamics. The input variable is the motor control signal, and the
output variable is the motor rotational position.
The integrator-term of a PID-controller. The input variable is the control error, and the output variable is the
integrator term, ui.

Below, U is the amplitude of the input step, and K is the gain of the integrator.
1. The shape of the step response: Set K = 1. Simulate with an input step amplitude of U = 1. Characterize the
shape of the step response.
2. The importance of the gain K: Simulate with input step amplitude U = 1 for different values of K, both positive
and negative. How does the slope of the step response depend on K?
3. The integrator effect: Simulate while adjusting the input u(t). Do you see that the integrator actually integrates
("stores") the input?

Reference
Haugen, Finn. "Integrator." TechTeach: SimView. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Nov. 2016.
http://techteach.no/simview/integrator/index.php
Name/s: _________________________ Date Performed: _____________________
_________________________ Date Submitted: _____________________
_________________________

## EXERCISE 3: TIME CONSTANT

Description of the system to be simulated
In this lab the step response of a general or standard first order system is simulated (that is, the time response on the
output of the system is calculated numerically). A mathematical model of the first order system is the following
differential equation:
dy(t)
T + y(t) = K u(t) (Eq. 1)
dt
Where - K is the gain
- T is the time-constant
An alternative way of representing this model is by Laplace transforming the differential equation, and taking the ratio
of output to input (in the Laplace domain), to get the transfer function from input u to output y:
y(s) K
h(s) = = (Eq. 2)
u(s) Ts+1

## Aim of this lab

The aim is to develop both a qualitative and a quantitative understanding of the impact that the gain K and the time-
constant T, and the step input height U have on the step response of a first-order system.

Motivation
First order systems constitute an important class of dynamic systems: Many physical systems behave (approximately) as
first order systems, e.g. stirred liquid tanks, motors, and sensors. And a very common low-pass filter algorithm is a first
order system.

Note: The equality sign "=" in the following text can be regarded as "approximately equal to" (so that you do not have to
enter exact numeric values).
1. Impact of gain K: Set U=2 and T=1. Adjust K.
a. What is the impact of K on the stationary response?
b. What is the impact of K on the response-time?
2. Impact of time-constant T: Unless otherwise instructed, set U=2 and K=2. Adjust T.
a. What is the impact of T on the stationary response?
b. What is the impact of T on the response-time?
c. Adjust U up and down continuously (like a sinusoidal variation) for a small and for a large value of T. How
does T influate the "speed" of the system?
3. Impact of step height U: Set K=2 and T=1. Adjust U.
a. What is the impact of U on the stationary response?
b. What is the impact of U on the response-time?
4. Very large time-constant: Set U=1, T=100, and K=100 (enter these values into the respective numeric displays).
Characterize the step response. Explain that this step response is (almost) the same response as for an
integrator.
Reference
Haugen, Finn. "Time Constant." TechTeach: SimView. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Nov. 2016.
http://techteach.no/simview/time_constant/index.php