Buckling - Nonlinear FEM

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Xu Buckling Analysis of Tri Axial Woven Fabric Composite Structures Part I Non Linear Finite Element Formulation

Buckling - Nonlinear FEM

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www.elsevier.com/locate/compstruct

Part I: Non-linear ﬁnite element formulation

Duosheng Xu, Rajamohan Ganesan, Suong V. Hoa *

Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1M8

Available online 7 February 2004

Abstract

This paper deals with the stability analysis of curved woven tri-axial composite tow structures. A non-linear ﬁnite element

analysis is presented. Based on the continuum mechanics principles, the ﬁnite element updated Langrangian incremental formu-

lation for non-linear analysis is derived. Example problems are solved and comparison of the present results with the results

available in existing reference has been made. The eﬀectiveness of the formulation and the validity of the corresponding computer

code are demonstrated. The buckling analysis of tri-axial composite straight beam and curved beam that is a part of woven fabric

tri-axial composite tow structures subjected to diﬀerent boundary conditions is performed. In order to further conﬁrm the accuracy

of the numerical solutions, approximate analytical solutions corresponding to the diﬀerent structures have been derived. The

numerical results obtained are in very good agreement with the analytical solutions for the straight beam, curved beam and curved

beam structures. The eﬀect of the resin on the curved woven tri-axial composite tow structures is also investigated.

2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

mechanical behavior of the tri-axial composite structure.

Due to their attractive properties such as light weight, Works on the characterization of the mechanical prop-

high strength, high stiﬀness, low density, etc., composite erties of the materials such as the determination of

materials have been increasingly used in many engi- elastic modulus, deﬂection due to bending and thermal

neering ﬁelds such as aerospace, automobile, sports expansion coeﬃcient have been carried out by col-

equipment, and marine structures. One of the interesting leagues of the authors of the present paper at the same

applications of composites due to their light weight institution [1–5]. Due to the complex nature of the

properties is the satellite dish made of tri-axial weaves. structure, it is of great interest to understand its stability

In this application, a single layer of tri-axial fabric is when subjected to compressive loads. This is the objec-

used to make up the thickness of the dish of the satellite. tive of the present study, namely the buckling behavior

The tri-axial composite material is made by weaving of the tri-axial composite structure subjected to in-plane

three tows along three directions making an angle of 60 compressive loading.

or 120 with each other. A portion of this tri-axial The tri-axial structure consists of three yarns inter-

structure is shown in Fig. 1. The cross-section of a tow is lacing one over the other along the three directions. In

about 0.2 mm · 0.84 mm. It can also be seen that holes order to study this structure subjected to in-plane

occupy more than 50% of the surface area of the loading condition, it is appropriate to examine the

structure. These holes reduce the mass of the material behavior of a representative unit cell of the structure.

and at the same time allow the escape of impacting air, The understanding of the behavior of this unit cell may

which in turn reduces the load to be supported. then be extended to understand the behavior of the

larger structure. A representative unit of the tri-axial

structure can be the one shown in Fig. 2. It consists of

*

Corresponding author. three tows interlaced over each other along the corre-

E-mail address: mieng@vax2.concordia.ca (S.V. Hoa). sponding directions. The curvature of the tow is

0263-8223/$ - see front matter 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.compstruct.2004.01.004

38 D. Xu et al. / Composite Structures 67 (2005) 37–55

x3

x2

P P

o

x1

B

x3

P′

xC 3 x B1 x2 60° A PA

PB A x1

Resin

C B

x3 P2 B

x2 P1′ PB

60° A PA L x B1

A

60 ° x1

P3′ Fig. 4. Tri-axial tow structure with two intersected curved tows.

resin

x B3 and this connection is positioned at mid-lengths of the

C beams for the sake of symmetry. The initial conﬁgura-

B

PC tions of the beams follow half of a sine curve. This sit-

xC1 uation is not representative of the unit cell in Fig. 4, but

L it serves to give some insight into the interaction be-

tween two beams. The lateral load P0 is still used to

Fig. 2. Woven tri-axial tow structure with three intersected curved initiate the instability. The values of the axial loads for

tows. the two beams will be kept to be the same, that are PA

and PB .

The analysis of the tow structure consisting of three

maintained. The resin layer at the crossover of the tows curved beams as shown in Fig. 2 is conducted next. The

can be represented by bars. The ends of the tows are values of the axial loads, PA , PB and PC are kept to be

represented by pins at one end of the tow and by pin- equal and they are increased by the same increment each

on-rollers at the other end of the tow. The tows are time. The values of the three lateral loads P01 , P02 and P03

constrained at the ends such that the reaction forces at are also kept to be equal throughout.

the constraints are perpendicular to the orientation of The results of the more complicated investigations

the tows at these ends. Loads are applied along the will be presented in a series of articles. This paper pre-

directions of the center lines of the tows. sents the analytical formulation for the single curved

In order to arrive at the analysis of this structure, it is beam element and also the numerical analysis for a

necessary to analyze ﬁrst simpler structures to build up single curved beam, and two intersected and three

the experience and the knowledge base. Also it would be intersected beam structures.

easier to check the results at diﬀerent steps. The basic

unit in the unit cell is a curved beam with resin con-

nection with other beams at locations situated at 1/4 and

3/4 of its length. To model this beam, the analysis of a 2. Stability analysis of a single curved composite beam

curved beam as shown in Fig. 3 will be ﬁrst conducted.

Lateral load P0 is applied to simulate the connection From the dimensions of a tow in a unit cell (0.2

with other beams, and also to provide the initial mm · 0.84 mm cross-section with length of about 9.16

imperfections for the instability analysis. The critical mm), the eﬀective length of the basic unit cell of the

values of the axial load P will be determined. structure is much larger than its cross-sectional dimen-

Subsequently the analysis of two curved beams con- sions. Since the ratio of the dimension of the cross-sec-

nected with each other by a bar that represents the tion of a tow to its length is small, we can consider the

adhesive layer is conducted. This structure is shown in individual tow to behave like a beam when performing

Fig. 4. There is only one connection between two beams buckling analysis. These tows will be modeled as curved

D. Xu et al. / Composite Structures 67 (2005) 37–55 39

and rotations of the structure could be very large and P( x1 , t +∆ t x 2 , t +∆t x3 )

the kinematic relations between displacements and

t

rotations of the structure and loads applied will no P( x1 ,t x2 ,t x3 )

Configuration at time t+∆t

longer be linear. A non-linear analysis will be used.

Non-linear analyses can be classiﬁed into three types: P(

0

x1 , 0 x 2 , 0 x3 )

materially-non-linear analysis, geometrically-non-linear Configuration at time t

analysis and combination of both. As a start, we will

only perform the geometrically-non-linear buckling

analysis. Configuration at time 0

For the curved beam model, the cross-section shape x1

t+ t t +∆ t t +∆ t

of the tow is assumed to be rectangular. This is slightly t

xi = xi + u i ,

0 t

xi = xi +

0

ui , ui = ui t

u i , i = 1,2,3

diﬀerent from the actual cross-section of the tow which x3

is elliptic in reality. However, the real cross-section is Fig. 5. Motion of body in Cartesian co-ordinate system.

fairly ﬂat and for buckling analysis, the approximation

of rectangular cross-section may be acceptable. This

simpliﬁes the analysis greatly. The torsional rigidity of strains. The aim is to evaluate the equilibrium positions

the tow is not taken into consideration. This is not taken of the body at the discrete time points 0; Dt; 2 Dt; 3 Dt; . . .,

into account to imply negligible eﬀects of stress com- where Dt is an increment in time. To develop the solu-

ponents corresponding to deformation of the cross-sec- tion strategy, assume that the solutions measured in the

tion in its own plane. In modeling, we also assume that co-ordinate system corresponding to all time steps from

the plane sections originally normal to the centerline time 0 to time t, inclusive, have been obtained. Then the

axis remain plane and undistorted under deformation solution process for the next required equilibrium posi-

but not necessarily normal to this axis. This kinematic tion corresponding to time t þ Dt is typical and is ap-

assumption does not allow for warping eﬀects in torsion. plied repetitively until the complete solution path has

Buckling analysis of curved beam structures has been been solved for. Hence, in the analysis we follow all the

conducted by many researchers during the past decades. particles of the body in their motion, from original to

Many methods proposed have shown their eﬀectiveness the ﬁnal conﬁguration of the body.

to perform the analysis. For example, Bathe and Bo- Consider the equilibrium of the body in Fig. 5 again

lourchi [6] presented the curved beam element model for at time t þ Dt. The principle of virtual displacements

large displacement analysis. Hu et al. [7] used constant requires that

and linear strain curved beam elements to perform the Z

tþDt tþDt tþDt

buckling analysis of arched beams. Most of them were t Sij d t eij d V ¼ d tþDt W ð1Þ

tþDt V

based on incremental continuum Lagrangian formula-

tion. Bathe and Bolourchi [6] has shown that the up- where t tþDt Sij are Cartesian components of second

dated Lagrangian formulation and total Lagrangian Piola–Kirchoﬀ stress tensor and t tþDt eij are Cartesian

formulation are consistent in formulating the large components of the Green–Lagrange strain tensor cor-

rotation non-linear three-dimensional beam elements, responding to the deformatiom from the conﬁguration

but the updated Lagrangian-based element is compu- at time t to the conﬁguration at time t þ Dt and referring

tationally more eﬀective. We will use this method in this to the conﬁguration at time t. tþDt W is the total external

paper to carry out the buckling analysis of tri-axial virtual work. The left-hand side of Eq. (1) includes the

woven fabric composite structures. The theoretical contributions from both resin and tows of the struc-

development that follows the formulation in Bathe [8] is tures. Finite element models for both of them will be

presented in the following. presented in the following two sections, respectively. Eq.

(1) cannot be solved directly since the conﬁguration at

time t þ Dt is unknown.

3. Theoretical development for a general curved beam for

buckling analysis 3.2. Formulation for tow elements

Consider a general three-dimensional curved beam of

The basis of the displacement-based ﬁnite element rectangular cross-section as shown in Fig. 6. Co-ordi-

solution is the principle of virtual displacements. Con- nates x1 ; x2 ; x3 form the global co-ordinate system,

sider the motion of a general body in a ﬁxed Cartesian g1 ; g2 ; g3 represent the local co-ordinate system attached

co-ordinate system as shown in Fig. 5, and assume that to the beam (so-called body attached co-ordinate sys-

the body can experience large displacements and large tem), and r; s; q is the natural co-ordinate system. The

40 D. Xu et al. / Composite Structures 67 (2005) 37–55

at time t are interpolated in terms of the nodal transla-

tions t uki , i ¼ 1; 2; 3 along the global co-ordinate axes

a2 and the rotations t hki , i ¼ 1; 2; 3 about global co-ordinate

2

r ,η1 axes using

4 Xm

qX m

t

ui ¼ t x i 0 x i ¼ hk t uki þ ak hk ðt Vqik 0 Vqik Þ

s,ηη2 2

b1 k¼1 k¼1

q,η 3

3 sX m

Node þ bk hk ðt Vsik 0 Vsik Þ ð3Þ

a1 1 2 k¼1

θ3 t

Vs1

ui ¼ tþDt ui t ui

x3 ,u 3 X m

qX m

sX m

t

Vq1 ¼ hk uki þ ak hk Vqik þ bk hk Vsik ð4Þ

k¼1

2 k¼1

2 k¼1

x 2 ,u 2 θ2 where

x1 ,u1 Vqik ¼ tþDt Vqik t Vqik ð5Þ

θ1

Vsik ¼ tþDt

Vsik t

Vsik ð6Þ

Fig. 6. Three-dimensional curved beam element. are the increments of unit directional vectors at node k

and can be obtained by using the following second-order

section dimensions can be speciﬁed by ak and bk and a approximations

set of vectors t Vkq , t Vks and t Vkr at a node k at time t

1

(where the left superscript t could also be 0 or t þ Dt, Vkq ¼ hk t Vkq þ hk ðhk t Vkq Þ ð7Þ

referring to time 0 or time t þ Dt, respectively. The same 2

notation will be employed in the following sections). The 1

Vks ¼ hk t Vks þ hk ðhk t Vks Þ ð8Þ

directions of t Vkq ; t Vks can be conveniently selected to be 2

the q; s directions at time t. In this case the Cartesian co- By substituting Eqs. (5)–(8) into Eq. (4), incremental

ordinates (x1 ; x2 ; x3 ) of a point P ðr; s; qÞ within the ele- displacements can be expressed as

ui ¼ tþDt ui t ui

X m

qX m

sX m

¼ hk uki þ ak hk ðhkiþ1 t Vqðiþ2Þ

k

hkiþ2 t Vqðiþ1Þ

k

Þþ bk hk ðhkiþ1 t Vsðiþ2Þ

k

hkiþ2 t Vsðiþ1Þ

k

Þ

k¼1

2 k¼1

2 k¼1

qX m

ak hk ðððhkiþ1 Þ2 þ ðhkiþ2 Þ2 Þ t Vqik hki hkiþ1 t Vqðiþ1Þ

k

hki hkiþ2 t Vqðiþ2Þ

k

Þ

4 k¼1

sX m

bk hk ðððhkiþ1 Þ2 þ ðhkiþ2 Þ2 Þ t Vsik hki hkiþ1 t Vsðiþ1Þ

k

hki hkiþ2 t Vsðiþ2Þ

k

Þ

4 k¼1

ment for a m-noded element at time t can be written as where i ¼ 1; 2; 3, and i þ 1 takes the value of 1 when i ¼

X 3 and i 1 takes the value of 3 when i ¼ 1; uLi , uNi are

m

qX m

sX m

t

xi ¼ hk t xki þ ak hk t Vqik þ bk hk t Vsik linear terms and non-linear terms speciﬁed by single

k¼1

2 k¼1 2 k¼1 underlining and double underlining in Eq. (9), respec-

i ¼ 1; 2; 3 ð2Þ tively.

3.2.2. Displacement approximation of element

Green–Lagrangian strain tensor in the conﬁguration

The displacement ﬁeld follows from the assumptions

at time t referred to the initial conﬁguration is deﬁned as

that the cross-section normals remain straight during

deformation. In the iso-parametric element solution, the 1

t

0e ¼ ð0t XT 0t X IÞ ð10Þ

displacements approximation and their increment at a 2

D. Xu et al. / Composite Structures 67 (2005) 37–55 41

2t t t

3

0 x1;1 0 x1;2 0 x1;3 3.3.1. Basic assumptions

t

0 X ¼

4 t t

0 x2;1 0 x2;2

t

0 x2;3

5 ð11Þ

t t t

The resin is placed between the two interlaced tows

0 x3;1 0 x3;2 0 x3;3 and is used to bond the tows together. The bonded tows

in which comma subscript denotes the diﬀerentiation constitute an integral body. The thickness of the resin is

with respect to 0 xi . Considering the strain increments about one-third of the thickness of the tow and has the

tþDt

eij , the following relations hold value of 0.067 mm. The horizontal cross-section of the

t

resin is a parallelogram as shown in Fig. 7. Each side is

tþDt along one of the interlaced tows, but is intersected with

t eij ¼ t eij ð12Þ

another tow at an angle of 60. Its dimensions of the

t eij ¼ t eij þ t gij ð13Þ both sides are 0.87 · 0.87 mm. For the strains of the

resin, only out-of-plane normal strain and in-plane shear

in which the linear parts of strain increments are strain are assumed to be non-zero. Details are as fol-

1 lows.

t eij ¼ ðt ui;j þ t uj;i Þ ð14Þ First, the strains of resin, egR2 gR2 and egR3 gR3 , in local

2

resin co-ordinate system shown in Fig. 10 can be ne-

the non-linear parts of strain increments are glected. Actually, no strains of the resin at the interfaces

between resin and tow 1 along y1 direction and between

1

t gij ¼ t uk;i t uk;j ð15Þ resin and tow 2 along y2 direction, corresponding to ey1 y1

2 and ey2 y2 in local beam co-ordinate systems O1 x1 y1 z1 and

where the comma subscript denotes the diﬀerentiation O2 x2 y2 z2 in Fig. 7, will be allowed since the strains of the

with respect to t xi . interlaced tows in these two directions are neglected due

to their higher order nature as stated in the previous

section. The top tow tends to stretch the resin if it de-

3.2.4. Stress–strain relationship

forms downward; while the bottom tow tries to com-

Stresses and strains employed in updated Lagrangian

press the resin, and vice versa. Because the thickness of

formulation are second Piola–Kirchoﬀ stresses, Cauchy

the resin is very small compared with the horizontal

stresses and Green–Lagrangian strains.

dimensions of the resin, deformation due to compres-

The relation between the second Piola–Kirchoﬀ stress

sion of bottom part of the resin may cancel a part of the

tensor in the conﬁguration at time t and measured in the

deformation due to tension of the top part of the resin

conﬁguration at time 0 and Green–Lagrangian strain

shown in Fig. 8. Therefore, the strains of the resin in

tensor at time t referred to the initial conﬁguration can

be expressed as

t

0 Sij ¼ t0 Cijrs t0 ers ð16Þ

Tow 2

where 0 t Cijrs is the constitutive tensor.

The relation between the second Piola–Kirchoﬀ Resin 60 ˚

y1

stresses and Cauchy stresses is as follows:

t o1 Tow 1

t q

smn ¼ 0 t0 xm;i t0 Sij t0 xn;j ð17Þ z1

x1

q

where t q and 0 q are mass densities of the element in the x2

conﬁguration at time t and time 0, respectively. The

relation between them is as follows: y2

o2

t

z2

q 1

¼ ð18Þ

0q detð0t XÞ Fig. 7. Tows and resin.

tþDt

t Sij ¼ t sij þ t Sij ð19Þ Tow 1

Tension

where t sij is Cartesian components of the Cauchy stress Resin

Compression

tensor and t Sij is Cartesian components of Second Piola– Tow 2

Kirchoﬀ stress increment tensor referred to the conﬁg-

uration at time t. Fig. 8. Deformation of cross-section of tows and resin.

42 D. Xu et al. / Composite Structures 67 (2005) 37–55

horizontal plane, corresponding to egR2 gR2 and egR3 gR3 in Consider a general three-dimensional two-node bar of

local resin co-ordinate system shown in Fig. 10, should rectangular cross-section as shown in Fig. 10. Co-ordi-

be of small order of magnitude and will be neglected in nates gR1 ; gR2 ; gR3 represent the mapped local co-ordi-

the present case. nate system attached to the bar. The cross-sectional

Second, the shear strains, egR1 gR2 and egR1 gR3 , are neg- dimensions can be speciﬁed by aRk and bRk , which are the

ligible. This is because the shear deformations of the dimensions of the parallelogram, and a set of vectors

t k

tows in their local co-ordinate planes O1 y1 z1 and O2 y2 z2 VRq , t VkRs and t VkRr at a node k at time t. The Cartesian

corresponding to tow 1 and tow 2, respectively, are ne- co-ordinates (x1 ; x2 ; x3 ) of a point P ðr; s; qÞ within the

glected. These planes approximately are corresponding element for a m-noded element at time t can be written as

to the two local vertical co-ordinate planes, Og gR1 gR2 Xm

qX m

sX m

t

and Og gR1 gR3 , of the resin. Therefore, the shear strains, xi ¼ hk t xki þ aRk hk t VRqi

k

þ bRk hk t VRsi

k

i ¼ 1;2;3

2 k¼1 2 k¼1

egR1 gR2 and egR1 gR3 , may be of small order of magnitude k¼1

Third, uniform shear strain, egR2 gR3 , (or no warping where the nodal co-ordinates t k

are also the co-ordi-

xi

due to torsion) will be assumed due to small thickness of nates of the nodes corresponding to the related tows.

the resin. The equation used to express the relation be- This is because the above mapping did not change the

tween the shear stress and shear strain is SgR2 gR3 ¼ scaling in xR1 direction and the co-ordinates of each

GR egR2 gR3 . center of the cross-section.

Finally, the linear stress–strain relation of the resin, In the iso-parametric element solution, the displace-

SgR1 gR1 ¼ ER egR1 gR1 , in local co-ordinate system of the ments approximation and their increment at a point

resin is assumed. The displacements of the two inter- P ðr; s; qÞ within the element for a m-noded element at

secting points between the center lines of the two time t are interpolated in terms of the nodal translations

interlaced tows and the resin may be diﬀerent. It will t k

ui , i ¼ 1; 2; 3 along the global co-ordinate axes and the

cause deformation, either stretching or compressing the rotations t hki , i ¼ 1; 2; 3 about global co-ordinate axes

resin along its thickness. Due to small thickness and using

large cross-sectional dimensions of the resin, corre-

X m

qX m

spondingly, the linear stress–strain relation of the resin t

ui ¼ t x i 0 x i ¼ hk t uki þ aRk hk ðt VRmi

k

0 VRmi

k

Þ

will be employed in the present analysis. k¼1

2 k¼1

sX m

3.3.2. Element geometry and displacement description þ bRk hk ðt VRsi

k

0 VRsi

k

Þ ð22Þ

2 k¼1

In order to employ the geometric interpolation

functions used in the case of a rectangular cross-sec-

tional beam, the following mapping, which maps the

parallelogram on the plane of xR2 xR3 in the local co- r ,η R1

ordinate system xR1 xR2 xR3 into a rectangular on the

plane of gR2 gR3 in co-ordinate system gR1 gR2 gR3 (body 2

attached, so-called mapped local co-ordinate system) as oη

shown in Fig. 9 (xR1 and gR1 are not shown in Fig. 9), is

used. After the strains are found in global co-ordinate θ3 q, η R 3

system, they will be transformed into the mapped local x3 , u3 Node 1

s,η R 2 t 1 VRq

t 1

a R1 VRs

gration points.

8 9 2 38 9 o

< gR1 = 1 0 0 < xR1 = x2 , u 2 θ

2

g ¼ 4 0 1 p1ﬃﬃ3 5 xR2 or gR ¼ TM xR x1 , u1

: R2 ; : ; θ1

gR3 0 0 1 xR3

ð20Þ Fig. 10. Two-node resin element.

ηR 3

xR 3 x R 3 = bR / 2 (– aR / 2, bR / 2) (aR / 2, bR / 2)

x R 3 = 3 ( x R 2 + a R / 2) x R 3 = 3 ( x R 2 + a R / 2)

oR o

600 xR 2 ηR2

x R3 = – bR / 2 (– aR / 2,– bR / 2) (aR / 2,– bR / 2)

D. Xu et al. / Composite Structures 67 (2005) 37–55 43

ui ¼ tþDt ui t ui Since only the strain along the thickness in xR1 direction

and shear strain in xR2 xR3 plane are considered, the

X m

qX m

sX m

strain vector in local co-ordinate system can be written

¼ hk uki þ k

aRk hk VRqi þ k

bRk hk VRsi ð23Þ

k¼1

2 k¼1

2 k¼1

as

where ^ t

eR11

e

t R ¼ ð33Þ

k 2 t eR23

VRqi ¼ tþDt VRqi

k

t VRqi

k

ð24Þ

k where the over-bar of the quantities corresponds to their

VRsi ¼ tþDt VRsi

k

t VRsi

k

ð25Þ

local values.

are the increments of unit directional vectors at node k Transformation matrix of strains from the global co-

and can be obtained by using the following ﬁrst-order ordinate system into the mapped local co-ordinate sys-

approximations tem is given by

2 3

l211 l212 l213 l11 l12 l12 l13 l11 l13

6 l2 l222 l223 l21 l22 l22 l23 l21 l23 7

6 21 7

6 l2 l232 l233 l31 l32 l32 l33 l31 l33 7

Te ¼ 6 31

6 2l11 l12

7 ð34Þ

6 2l12 l22 2l13 l23 l12 l21 þ l11 l22 l13 l22 þ l12 l23 l13 l21 þ l11 l23 7

7

4 2l21 l31 2l22 l32 2l23 l33 l22 l31 þ l21 l32 l23 l32 þ l22 l33 l23 l31 þ l21 l33 5

2l11 l31 2l12 l32 2l13 l33 l12 l31 þ l11 l32 l13 l32 þ l12 l33 l13 l31 þ l11 l33

VkRq ¼ hk t VkRq ð26Þ ordinate axes in mapped local co-ordinate system at

Gauss integration points.

VkRs ¼ hk t VkRs ð27Þ

Transformation matrix of strains from the mapped

By substituting Eqs. (24)–(27) into Eq. (23), incremental local co-ordinate system into the local co-ordinate sys-

displacements can be expressed as tem is given by

ui ¼ tþDt ui t ui 1 0 0 0 0 0

TL ¼ 0 p2ﬃﬃ 0 0 1 0 ð35Þ

X m

qX m

3

¼ hk uki þ aRk hk ðhkiþ1 t VRqðiþ2Þ

k

hkiþ2 t VRqðiþ1Þ

k

Þ

k¼1

2 k¼1 The incremental Piola–Kirchoﬀ stress–strain relation

sX m in local co-ordinate system at time t is as follows:

þ bRk hk ðhkiþ1 t VRsðiþ2Þ

k

hkiþ2 t VRsðiþ1Þ

k

Þ ð28Þ

2 k¼1 t SR11 ER 0 t eR11

¼ ð36Þ

t SR23 0 GR 2 t eR23

where i ¼ 1; 2; 3 and i þ 1 takes the value of 1 when i ¼ 3

and i 1 takes the value of 3 when i ¼ 1. where the ER and GR are Young’s modulus and shear

modulus of elasticity of the resin.

3.3.3. Strain–displacement and stress–strain relationships

The incremental decomposition of Piola–Kirchoﬀ 3.4. Equilibrium equation

stress of the resin is

tþDt Substituting the stress–strain relation of both tow and

t SRij ¼ t sRij þ t SRij ð29Þ

resin into Eq. (1), and considering that all variables in

where t sRij is Cauchy stress of the resin at time t. Eq. (1) are referred to the conﬁguration at time t, i.e. the

Considering that only the linear strain terms are in- updated conﬁguration of the body, one obtains the

cluded, the Green–Lagrangian strain of the resin can be equilibrium equation of body in global co-ordinate

expressed as system at time t þ Dt as follows

tþDt

Z Z Z

t eRij ¼ t eRij ¼ t eRij ð30Þ t t t t

S d e

t ij t ij d V T þ s ij dg ij d V T þ t SRij d t eRij d VR

tV tV tV

Stress–strain relation in incremental form is given by T

Z T

Z R

tþDt t t t

t SRij ¼ t CRijrs t eRrs ð31Þ ¼d W sij d t eij d VT sRij d t eRij d t VR

tV tV

T R

The incremental strain–displacement relation in the

ð37Þ

tensor form in global co-ordinate system is given by

where the subscript T of V denotes the volume of the

1 tow and R of V the volume of the resin. Substituting the

t eij ¼ ðt ui;j þ t uj;i Þ ð32Þ

2 stress–strain and strain–displacement relations and the

44 D. Xu et al. / Composite Structures 67 (2005) 37–55

displacement interpolation into Eq. (37), one can obtain where ds0 and ds are the undeformed and deformed

the formulation of iso-parametric ﬁnite elements. This lengths of elements on the reference line.

procedure has been presented in Bathe [8]. In order to Since

conﬁrm the numerical results of Eq. (37), approximate

ðdsÞ2 ¼ ðdx1 þ du1 Þ2 þ ðdu3 Þ2

analytical solutions will be given ﬁrst. ð40Þ

ðds0 Þ2 ¼ ðdx1 Þ2 þ ðdu30 Þ2

and are approximated to the second order by using

Taylor series expansion, one obtains

4. Approximate solutions for curved beam structures

8 2 2

>

> du1 1 du1 1 du3

< ds ¼ dx1 1 þ dx1 þ 2 dx1 þ 2 dx1

4.1. Simply-supported full sinusoidal beam 2 ð41Þ

>

> 1 1 1 du30

: ds0 ¼ dx1 1 2 dx1

Suppose that the curved beam takes the form of a full

sinusoidal beam that is simply-supported at both ends

Substituting Eq. (41) into Eq. (39) and considering that

under loads shown in Fig. 11. 1 2 3 2

ðdu Þ ðdu Þ , the reference plane extensional strain, e0 ,

Assume that the plane sections remain plane after dx1 dx1

bending; the eﬀect of transverse shear is negligible; the can be further written in the following form:

loads and the bending moments act in a plane passing 2 2

du1 1 du3 1 du30

through a principal axis of inertia of the cross-section; e0 ¼ þ

dx1 2 dx1 2 dx1

the initial rise of the beam is not large as compared to 2 2 !

the cross-sectional dimensions; deﬂections are small as 1 du30 du1 1 du3

þ ð42Þ

compared to the cross-sectional dimensions; the mate- 2 dx1 dx1 2 dx1

rial points on the undeformed midline (mid-plane) are

characterized by u30 ðx1 Þ shown in Fig. 11. Let u1 ðx1 Þ and The general expression for the change in the curvature

u3 ðx1 Þ denote the location of material points on the de- of a curved beam, j, is given by

0 1

formed midline. On the basis of these assumptions, the 2 2

d u3 d u30

strain at any material point is given by B C

B dx21 dx21 C

j ¼ B 3 3 C ð43Þ

e ¼ e0 þ x03 j ð38Þ @ 2 2 2 2 A

1 þ du

dx1

3

1 þ dudx1

30

extensional strain and change in curvature, respectively. For small initial curvature, the expression for the change

Let D0 and D denote the undeformed and deformed in curvature, j, after Taylor series expansion of Eq. (43)

positions of a material point of the reference line. The and accurate to the second order of the slope of the

co-ordinates of D0 and D are ðx1 ; u30 Þ and ðx1 þ u1 ; u3 Þ, deﬂection, can be written as

respectively. For small strains, the reference plane 2

d u3 d2 u30

extensional strain, e0 , is given by j¼

dx21 dx21

2 2 !

ds ds0 3 d2 u3 du3 d2 u30 du30

e0 ¼ ð39Þ þ ð44Þ

ds0 2 dx21 dx1 dx21 dx1

x3

q

x1

D Qi

Deformed configuration

u3 u3-u30

x3′

u30 D0 A Mj ML

Mo u1

P x1 x2′

( x1 , u30)

A

x1i A-A Section

Undeformed configuration

x1 j

L

D. Xu et al. / Composite Structures 67 (2005) 37–55 45

and 2

d2 u3 d2 u30 d2 u3 du3

2 3

d2 u3 d2 u30 d2 u3 d2 u30 dx21 dx21 dx21 dx1

j2 ¼ 3

dx21 dx21 dx21 dx21 !!1

2 ! 2 2 !

d2 u3 du3

2

d2 u30 du30 d2 u30 du30 A 1þ1 du3

ð45Þ dx1

dx21 dx1 dx21 dx1 dx21 dx1 2 dx1

Z Z qðu3 u30 Þ þ Qi dðx1 x1i Þðu3 u30 Þ

1 1

U¼ re dV ¼ Ee2 dV ð46Þ 0 i

2 V 2 V

X !

where the stress–strain relation, r ¼ Ee, is employed. du3 du30

þ Mj gðx1 x1j Þ dx1

Assume that the u1 , u3 are functions of x1 , then j

dx1 dx1

Z

"L

x03 dA ¼ 0 ð47Þ du3 du30 ""

A þM Pu1 jL0 ð52Þ

dx1 dx1 "0

Substitution of Eqs. (38) and (47) into Eq. (46) leads to

Z

U¼ ðEAe20 þ EIj2 Þ ds

ð48Þ

2 0 beam. In the present case, if only the compressive axial

load is considered, the total potential takes the following

where I is the moment of inertia of the cross-section, S0

form

is the length of the reference line of the beam and the

ﬁnite element length ds

of the beam can be approxi- 0

Z L 2 2

mated as being accurate to the second order 1 @ EA du1 þ 1 du3 1 du30

UT ¼

qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2 ! 2 0 dx1 2 dx1 2 dx1

2 2 1 du3

ds ¼ ðdx1 Þ þ ðdu3 Þ dx1 1 þ ð49Þ

2 dx1 2 2 !!2

1 du30 du1 1 du3

þ

Substituting from Eq. (49), Eq. (48) can be written as 2 dx1 dx1 2 dx1

Z 2 !

1 L 1 du 3 2

U¼ ðEAe20 þ EIj2 Þ 1 þ dx1 ð50Þ d2 u3 d2 u30

d2 u3 d2 u30

2 0 2 dx1 þ EI 3

dx21 dx21

dx21 dx21

Work done by external forces is given by 1

2 2 !!

Z L X d2 u3 du3 d2 u30 du30

A

W ¼ qðu3 u30 Þ þ Qi dðx1 x1i Þðu3 u30 Þ dx21 dx1 dx21 dx1

0 i

X ! 2 !

du3 du30 1 du3

þ Mj gðx1 x1j Þ dx1 1þ dx1 Pu1 jL0 ð53Þ

j

dx1 dx1 2 dx1

"L

du3 du30 ""

M þ Pu1 jL0 ð51Þ Boundary conditions for a simply-supported beam are

dx1 dx1 "0

where dðx1 x1i Þ is the Dirac d-function and gðx1 x1j Þ u3 ð0Þ ¼ u3 ðLÞ ¼ 0; u003 ð0Þ ¼ u003 ðLÞ ¼ 0;

is the Doublet function. u1 ð0Þ ¼ 0 ðroller supportÞ ð54Þ

The total potential of the beam is given by

UT ¼ U W Assume that the initial conﬁguration of the beam is

Substitution of Eqs. (42), (45) and (51) yields

2p

0 u30 ¼ Z sin x1 0 6 x1 6 L ð55Þ

Z 2 2 L

1 L@ du1 1 du3 1 du30

UT ¼ EA þ

2 0 dx1 2 dx1 2 dx1 where the Z is the initial rise parameter.

2 2 !!2 The deﬂection of the beam may be represented by an

1 du30 du1 1 du3 inﬁnite sine series, each term of which satisﬁes the

þ

2 dx1 dx1 2 dx1 boundary conditions (54),

2 2 np

d u3 d2 u30 X

1

þ EI u3 ¼ u30 þ an sin x1 0 6 x1 6 L ð56Þ

dx21 dx21 L

n¼1

46 D. Xu et al. / Composite Structures 67 (2005) 37–55

1 p 4 X1

of the deﬂection of the beam. EA b an n2 þ EAL a21 an n2

2 L 8 L

The axial displacement of the material points may be n¼2

!

n¼2

1 p 4 X

1

5 p 6

3 4

(54), þ an n þ EIL an n4 EIL

n¼2

2 L n¼2 8 L

p !

X

1 X

1 X

1

u1 ¼ b 1 cos x1 0 6 x1 6 L ð57Þ a21 2 2

an n ð1 þ n Þ þ a3n n6 þ 4Z 2

an n 4

2L

n¼2 n¼2 n¼2

placement of the beam.

Substituting Eqs. (55) through (57) into the exp- 2 !

EA 61 2 Z

ression for the total potential, Eq. (53), and perform- Pþ b 1 p

L 63 L

ing the corresponding integration and neglecting !

the higher order terms of undetermined coeﬃcients 1 p 2 2 X 1

4 L n¼2

2 !

EA 2 61 2 Z There are two possible cases that result from Eqs. (60)–

UT ¼ Pb þ b 1 p

2L 63 L (62).

! Case I: a1 6¼ 0 and an ¼ 0 for n ¼ 2; 3; 4; . . ..

1 p 2 2

X1

2 2 Case II: a1 6¼ 0, am 6¼ 0 and an ¼ 0 for n ¼ 2; 3; 4; . . .

þ EA b a1 þ an n

4 L n¼2

except n ¼ m.

! Case I: Substituting an ¼ 0 for n ¼ 2; 3; 4; . . . into

1 p 4 X 1 X1

þ EAL a41 þ 2a21 a2n n2 þ a4n n4 Eqs. (60) and (62) and rearranging them, one obtains

32 L n¼2 n¼2

! 2 !

1 p 4 X1 P 5 p 2 2 2 61 2 Z

þ EIL 2

a1 þ 2 4

an n ¼ 1 ða1 þ 4Z Þ 1 p

4 L p2 EI=L2 4 L 63 L

n¼2

61 EA p 2 2 2

5 p 6 X1 Z a1 ð63Þ

EIL a41 þ 2a21 a2n n2 ð1 þ n2 Þ 252 EI L

32 L n¼2

!! The load reaches maximum when a1 approaches zero.

X

1 X1

þ a4n n6 þ 8Z 2 a21 þ a2n n4 ð58Þ The buckling load for this case is

n¼2 n¼2 2 4

Pcr1 376 2 Z 305 4 Z

We are interested in ﬁnding buckling load at which ¼1 p þ p ð64Þ

p2 EI=L2 63 L 63 L

instability is possible. We ﬁnd it by ﬁrst writing the

equilibrium equations and then studying the character Case II: Eliminating b and am from Eqs. (60) through

of these static equilibrium equations. To ﬁnd the static (62) and rearranging them, one obtains

equilibrium positions, we use the principle of the sta-

tionary value of the total potential, or 2 !

P 61 2 Z 5

¼ 1 p m4 p2

( oUT p EI=L2

2 63 L 4

¼ 0; n ¼ 1; 2; 3; . . .

oan

ð59Þ a 2 2 !!

oUT

¼0 2 4 1 Z

ob ð1 þ m þ m Þ þ4 m4

L L

This leads to a 2

61 EAZ 2 2 1

! p ð1 þ m2 Þ

252 EI L

1 p 2 1 p 4 X1

EA ba1 þ EAL a31 þ a1 a2n n2 2 !

2 L 8 L n¼2 Z 2 61 EAZ 2

þ4 ðm 1Þ ð1 m2 Þ

p 4 p 6 L 315 EI

1 5

þ EIL a1 EIL

2 L 8 L ð65Þ

!

X

1

a31 þ a1 a2n n2 ð1 þ n2 Þ þ 4a1 Z 2 ¼0 ð60Þ The maximum load corresponds to a1 approaching zero.

n¼2 This yields

D. Xu et al. / Composite Structures 67 (2005) 37–55 47

P Z 61 Z

¼ m4 1 5p2 1 p2 ing that the resin acts like a stretching spring and its

p2 EI=L2 L 63 L

shear eﬀect is neglected due to its small order of mag-

2 !

61 EAZ 2 2 1 2 Z

nitude,

þ ðm 1Þ p ð66Þ

63 EI 5 L 2

1 aR bR LA LB

UR ¼ E R DuA3 DuB3 ð72Þ

The lowest value of P with respect to values of integer m 2 tR 2 2

corresponds to m ¼ 2 and where

2 ! 2 ! ( $ % $ % $ %

Pcrm 2 Z 61 2 Z

¼ 16 1 5p 1 p DuA3 L2A ¼ uA3 L2A uA30 L2A

p2 EI=L2 L 63 L $ % $ % $ % ð73Þ

! DuB3 L2A ¼ uB3 L2B uB30 L2B

2

61 EAZ 2 1 Z

þ p2 ð67Þ are the displacements of the beams AA and BB at their

21 EI 5 L

midpoints.

Comparing the Case I with Case II, the critical load W is the work done by the external forces, which is

should be the smaller one of them, which is given by Eq. given in the present case by

(64).

From Eq. (64), two observations can be seen: ﬁrst, the W ¼ PA uA1 ðLA Þ PB uB1 ðLB Þ ð74Þ

change of buckling load for a curved beam with respect

to the Euler buckling load for straight beam is propor- The formulae for strain and change of curvature of the

tional to the square of the initial rise of the beam. Sec- reference line are given by Eqs. (42) and (44). Substi-

ond, when the initial rise, Z, of the beam is very small, tuting Eqs. (42), (44), (70) through (74) into Eq. (69),

i.e., Z 1, one obtains from Eq. (64) by neglecting the one can obtain the formula for the total potential in the

last two terms that the buckling load is the same as the same form as Eq. (53).

Euler’s buckling load for a straight beam. This means Boundary conditions:

that the buckling load for a curved beam is the same as Beam AA : DuA3 ð0Þ ¼ DuA3 ðLA Þ ¼ 0;

the one for a straight beam. Actually, a beam with small

initial rise corresponds to a shallow curved beam. In this Du00A3 ð0Þ ¼ Du00A3 ðLA Þ ¼ 0; uA1 ð0Þ ¼ 0

case, initial deﬂection may be considered as a kind of ð75Þ

small imperfection of the beam. As we have known that

Beam BB : DuB3 ð0Þ ¼ DuB3 ðLB Þ ¼ 0;

the small imperfection due to small deﬂection does not

change Euler buckling load. Du00B3 ð0Þ ¼ Du00B3 ðLB Þ ¼ 0; uB1 ð0Þ ¼ 0

Substituting Z ¼ 0:133 mm and L ¼ 4:58 mm into Eq.

ð76Þ

(64) in the present case, one obtains

Pcr Initial shape:

¼ 0:9507 ð68Þ

p2 EI=L2 p

Beam AA : uA30 ¼ ZA sin xA1 0 6 xA1 6 LA

It is seen that there is 4.93% decrease for the buckling LA

load with respect to the Euler buckling load. ð77Þ

p

4.2. Two intersected half sinusoidal beam structure Beam AA : uB30 ¼ ZB sin xB1 0 6 xB1 6 LB

LB

ð78Þ

As shown in Fig. 4, the two intersected beam structure

is constituted by two half-sinusoidal beams and resin, Deﬂections:

which bonds the beams together at their midpoints.

Beam AA : uA3

The total potential is given by

X

1

nA p

UT ¼ UAT þ UBT þ UR ð69Þ ¼ uA30 þ aAn sin xA1 0 6 xA1 6 LA

n¼1

LA

where the total potentials of beams AA and BB are gi-

ven, respectively, by ð79Þ

Z LA Beam BB : uB3

1

UAT ¼ ðEA AA eA 02 þ EA IA j2A Þ dx1 þ PA u1 jL0 A ð70Þ X

1

2 0 nB p

Z ¼ uB30 þ aBn sin xB1 0 6 xB1 6 LB

1 LB

n¼1

LB

UBT ¼ ðEB AB e2B0 þ EB IB j2B Þ dxB1 þ PB uB1 jL0 B ð71Þ

2 0 ð80Þ

48 D. Xu et al. / Composite Structures 67 (2005) 37–55

¼ 1:0105; 1:0019 and 1:0106

p2 EI=L2

Beam AA : uA1

p It is seen that Eq. (85) is a very good approximation.

¼ bA 1 cos xA1 0 6 xA1 6 LA From Eq. (83) or (85) one observes that the buckling

2LA

load of two intersected half-sinusoidal beam structure

ð81Þ

with ﬂat cross-section not only depends on the factor of

initial rise parameter, (Z=L2 ) but also depends on the

Beam BB : uB1

ratio of the tension stiﬀness (EA) to the bending stiﬀness

p (EI) of the beam.

¼ bB 1 cos xB1 0 6 xB1 6 LB

2LB

ð82Þ 4.3. Three intersected full sinusoidal beam structure

Substituting all the assumed initial shapes, deﬂections As shown in Fig. 2, the total potential of unit cell is

and axial displacements into total potential expression, given by

using the same material properties and geometries for

UT ¼ UA þ UB þ UC þ UR W ð86Þ

the two beams but diﬀerent initial rise parameters, i.e.

ZA and ZB , setting ZB ¼ ZA ¼ Z and performing the where UA ; UB ; UC are strain energies of beams AA, BB

same procedure of operation as in Section 4.1, one and CC, respectively. UA is given by

obtains the buckling loads as follows: Z

1 LA

UA ¼ ðEA AA e2A0 þ EA IA j2A Þ dx1 ð87Þ

Pcr 2 0

$ p %2

EI L UB and UC can be obtained simply by changing the

2 subscript A in Eq. (87) into B and C.

2 2 2

13 2 Z p2 Z 4 169 EA UR is the strain energy of the resin, which is given by

¼1 p þ Z4

60 L 8 L 1800 EI 2

1 aR bR L L

2 !2 U R ¼ ER DuA3 DuB3

13 2 Z 2 tR 4 4

þ 11 1 p 2

60 L 1 aR bR 3L 3L

3 þ ER DuC3 DuA3

2 ! ," 2 tR 4 4

143 EA 2 13 2 Z 5 13 EA 2 2

þ Z 1 p Z 1 aR bR 3L L

60 EI 60 L 60 EI þ ER DuB3 DuC3 ð88Þ

2 !# 2 tR 4 4

13 2 Z

þ5 1 p ð83Þ W is the work done by the external forces, which is given

60 L in the present case by

For accuracy to the second order of the initial rise, W ¼ PA uA1 ðLA Þ PB uB1 ðLB Þ PC uC1 ðLC Þ ð89Þ

buckling load in Eq. (83) can be approximated by

2 Boundary conditions:

Pcr 7 2 Z

$ %2 1 þ p ð84Þ Beam AA : DuA3 ð0Þ ¼ DuA3 ðLA Þ ¼ 0;

EI p 120 L

L

Du00A3 ð0Þ ¼ Du00A3 ðLA Þ ¼ 0; uA1 ð0Þ ¼ 0

If the beam is very ﬂat and the initial rise has the ð90Þ

same order as the height of the cross-section of the

beam, the factor, EAZ 2 =EI, will not be a small quantity. Beam BB : DuB3 ð0Þ ¼ DuB3 ðLB Þ ¼ 0;

In this case the buckling load can be approximated by Du00B3 ð0Þ ¼ Du00B3 ðLB Þ ¼ 0; uB1 ð0Þ ¼ 0

2 ( " 2 ð91Þ

Pcr pZ 13 1 169 EAZ 2

$ %2 ¼ 1 þ þ Beam CC : DuC3 ð0Þ ¼ DuC3 ðLC Þ ¼ 0;

EI pL 2L 15 2 1800 EI

#, ) Du00C3 ð0Þ ¼ Du00C3 ðLC Þ ¼ 0; uC1 ð0Þ ¼ 0

143 EAZ 2 13 EAZ 2

þ 11 þ þ5 ð85Þ ð92Þ

60 EI 60 EI

Initial shape:

Substituting Z ¼ 0:133 mm and L ¼ 2:29 mm into Eqs.

2p

(83)–(85) in the present case, one obtains the unitless Beam AA : uA30 ¼ ZA sin xA1 0 6 xA1 6 LA

LA

buckling loads in these three cases, respectively, as fol-

lows ð93Þ

D. Xu et al. / Composite Structures 67 (2005) 37–55 49

2p 5. Buckling analysis of tri-axial woven fabric composite

Beam BB : uB30 ¼ ZB sin xB1 0 6 xB1 6 LB structures

LB

ð94Þ

Using the above formulation, the buckling behavior

of a few conﬁgurations of the curved composite beam

2p

Beam CC : uC30 ¼ ZC sin xC1 0 6 xC1 6 LC will be presented in the following. The material prop-

LC erties of the beam and resin used in the following cases

ð95Þ are given in Table 1:

Deﬂections: The geometric parameters of the tow are as

X

1 follows:

nA p

Beam AA: uA3 ¼ uA30 þ aAn sin xA1 06xA1 6LA Height of cross-section of tow, a ¼ 0:2 mm

n¼1

LA

Width of cross-section of tow, b ¼ 0:84 mm

ð96Þ The geometric parameters of the resin are

Width · Length · Thickness ¼ 0.87 · 0.87 · 0.067

X

1

nB p

Beam BB: uB3 ¼ uB30 þ aBn sin xB1 06 xB1 6 LB mm

n¼1

LB Transverse loads used in the following case,

ð97Þ P 0 ¼ 0:005 N.

X

1

nC p 5.1. Buckling loads of single isotropic arch beam with

Beam CC: uC3 ¼ uC30 þ aCn sin xC1 06xC1 6LC

LC clamped ends

n¼1

ð98Þ

The single isotropic circular arch beam is shown in

Axial displacement: Fig. 12. It is clamped at both ends with a single load at

the apex. The material of the arch is assumed to be

p isotropic and linearly elastic. The arch is idealized using

Beam AA: uA1 ¼ bA 1 cos xA1 0 6 xA1 6 LA

2LA eight equal curved beam elements. The maximum

ð99Þ deﬂection w is measured from the apex of the conﬁgu-

ration before loading.

p

Beam BB: uB1 ¼ bB 1 cos xB1 06 xB1 6 LB Geometry and material properties

2LB

of the beam are as follows:

ð100Þ

The radius of the arch, R ¼ 3381:1

mm (133.114 in.)

p

Beam CC: uC1 ¼ bC 1 cos xC1 0 6 xC1 6 LC Height of the cross-section, a ¼ 4:8

2LC

mm (3/16 in.)

ð101Þ Width of the cross-section,

Substituting all the assumed initial shapes, deﬂections b ¼ 25:4 mm (1.0 in.)

and axial displacements into total potential expression, Length of the arch, L ¼ 863:6 mm

using the same material properties and geometries for (34.0 in.)

the three beams but diﬀerent initial parameters, i.e. ZA , Young’s modulus of elasticity,

ZB and ZC , setting ZC ¼ ZB ¼ ZA ¼ Z and performing E ¼ 68:95 GPa (107 lb/in2 .)

the same procedure of operation as in Section 1, one Poison’s ratio, m ¼ 0:2.

obtains the buckling load

Comparison of the results with the one given in Ref.

2 4

Pcr 376 2 Z 305 4 Z [7] is shown in Fig. 13. It can be seen that very good

¼1 p þ p ð102Þ agreement is obtained, proving the accuracy of the for-

p2 EI=L2 63 L 63 L

mulation and also of the computer program developed

Substituting Z ¼ 0:133 mm and L ¼ 4:58 mm into Eq. for the analysis.

(102) in the present case, one obtains

Pcr 5.2. Simply-supported straight beam made of tri-axial

¼ 0:9507 composite

p2 EI=L2

It is seen that nearly 5% of decrease for the critical load Simply-supported straight composite beam with a

with respect to the Euler critical load for single straight pair of static compressive loads at both ends and a small

beam case is predicted. lateral downward static load at the center is shown in

50 D. Xu et al. / Composite Structures 67 (2005) 37–55

Table 1

Material properties of tri-axial composite tow and resina

Material EL (GPa) ET (GPa) GLT (GPa) GTT (GPa) mLT

Composite tow 500.0 40.0 24.0 14.3 0.26

Resin 3.5 3.5 1.3 1.3 0.35

a

Subscript L denotes longitudinal; subscript T denotes transverse.

P

Node 7 10 13 16

4 19

1 4 5 22

3 6 24

2 7

1 8

Element w

R

tow.

beam in non-linear analysis is shown in Fig. 15. In this

ﬁgure and in similar ﬁgures that follow, the word pi

denotes p.

Solving the eigenvalue problem, one obtains that the

non-linear ﬁnite element solution for the unitless buck-

ling load in this case is Pcr =ðp2 EI=L2 Þ ¼ 0:9648. This

result is very close to the result obtained using well

Fig. 13. Load versus maximum deﬂection curve for the arch.

known Euler’s beam-column formula, that is,

Pcr =ðp2 EI=L2 Þ ¼ 1. There is about 3.5% diﬀerence that is

predicted. The reason for this is that the shear eﬀect is

included in the present case while the shear eﬀect is not

Node

1 P′ 10 13 considered in Euler case. The shear eﬀect will ‘‘soften’’

4 7 P

the beam and decrease the buckling load. Therefore, a

1 2 3 4 very good consistency is obtained.

Element w

L

5.3. Straight cantilever beam made of tri-axial composite

Fig. 14. Simply-supported straight tri-axial composite beam.

Straight cantilever composite beam with a single

static compressive load at the free end and a small lat-

Fig. 14. The beam is composed of a single composite eral downward static load at the same end is shown in

tow which is assumed to be orthotropic and linearly Fig. 16. It was analyzed using four elements. The length

elastic. The same assumption holds in the following of the beam is 4.58 mm. The maximum deﬂection w is

sections. The length of the beam is 4.58 mm. It is ana- measured from the free end corresponding to the un-

lyzed using four elements. The maximum deﬂection w loaded conﬁguration. The load versus maximum

was measured from the center corresponding to the deﬂection curve of the beam in non-linear analysis is

unloaded conﬁguration. shown in Fig. 17.

D. Xu et al. / Composite Structures 67 (2005) 37–55 51

1 4 7 10 13 P ′ center line can be expressed as:

1 P

2 3 4 x3 ¼ Z sinð2px=LÞ

Element ð103Þ

L w x2 ¼ 0

where the maximum value of the co-ordinate in z

Fig. 16. Straight cantilever composite beam made of tri-ax. direction is Z ¼ 0:133 mm. This value is obtained from

observation of the microphotograph of a section of the

tri-axial tow as shown in Fig. 18.

Load versus maximum deﬂection curve of simply-

supported single curved composite beam is shown in

Fig. 19.

Solving the eigenvalue problem, one obtains that the

non-linear ﬁnite element solution for the unitless buck-

ling load of a simply-supported individual curved tow is

Pcr =ðp2 EI=L2 Þ ¼ 0:9185. It is 4.8% less than the ﬁnite

element result in straight beam case and 3.4% less than

analytical result. It is also worthy to note that the dif-

ference (4.8%) of the non-linear ﬁnite element solution

for buckling loads between straight beam and curved

beam almost has the same amount of diﬀerence (4.9%)

from analytical solution for the two beams. It shows

that the change of the buckling load due to curving the

Fig. 17. Load versus deﬂection curve for clamped straight tow.

non-linear ﬁnite element solution for the unitless buck-

ling load in this case is Pcr =ðp2 EI=L2 Þ ¼ 0:2429. This

result is very close to the result obtained using Euler’s

beam-column theory given by Pcr =ðp2 EI=L2 Þ ¼ 0:25.

There is about 2.84% diﬀerence between them. The

reason for this is also the shear eﬀect. The diﬀerence has

the same order as the simply-supported straight beam. It

can be seen that excellent agreement is also obtained. Fig. 18. Conﬁguration of the ﬁber tow and resin.

It is worthy to mention that the ratio of the critical

loads corresponding to the simply-supported beam and

cantilever beam obtained using Euler’s theory is 4. In

the present non-linear ﬁnite element analysis the ratio is

3.972, which is very close to 4. The agreement is there-

fore conﬁrmed. This further proves the accuracy of the

formulation and the computer program developed for

the analysis.

composite

with a pair of static compressive loads at both the ends

and a small lateral downward static load at the middle

of the beam is shown in Fig. 3. It was analyzed using

four elements. The span of the beam is 4.58 mm. The

maximum deﬂection w is measured from its center line Fig. 19. Load versus deﬂection curve for simply-supported curved

corresponding to the unloaded conﬁguration. The tow.

52 D. Xu et al. / Composite Structures 67 (2005) 37–55

Fig. 20. Deformed and undeformed shapes of simply-supported Fig. 22. Deformed and undeformed shapes of cantilever curved beam.

curved composite tow.

beam in ﬁnite element solution obeys the same law given larger deformation rate of the curved beam compared

by Eq. (64) if the buckling load is measured based on the with the cantilever straight beam case in Section 5.3 at a

straight beam buckling load. Next, from Figs. 15 and 19 certain amount of axial compressive load. We did not

we can see that the slope of the load versus maximum draw the curve together with the curves of other cases

deﬂection curve of a curved beam before buckling is less due to this reason. This further conﬁrms the observa-

than the slope of the load versus maximum deﬂection tions made in Section 5.4.

curve of a straight beam before buckling. It means that Solving the eigenvalue problem, one obtains that the

curving the beam will increase the deforming rate of the non-linear ﬁnite element solution for the unitless buck-

beam before buckling and as a result, as we have ex- ling load of a cantilever single curved tow is

pected, the deformation of a curved beam will be larger Pcr =ðp2 EI=L2 Þ ¼ 0:2201. The ratio of the buckling load

than the deformation of a straight beam at the same for simply-supported curved beam to the one in the

amount of axial compressive load. Therefore, good present case is 4.17. It is very close to 4. It shows that the

agreement is thus conﬁrmed. Euler buckling load relation between a simply-sup-

Deformed and undeformed shapes of simply-sup- ported beam and a cantilever beam also holds for the

ported single curved composite tow are shown in Fig. 20 present case. Deformed and undeformed shapes of

when load is equal to 120 N. cantilever single curved composite tow are shown in Fig.

22 when load is equal to 27 N. It may be noted here that

5.5. Cantilever curved tri-axial composite beam for the curved beam the original conﬁguration is ori-

ented at an angle with respect to x1 -axis at both the ﬁxed

Using the same beam conﬁguration, the same mate- and free ends.

rial properties and the same ﬁnite element mesh, using

the clamped boundary condition at the left end of the

5.6. Simply-supported two intersected curved tri-axial

beam and free end condition at the other end and per-

composite tow structure

forming the non-linear analysis, one obtains the load

versus maximum deﬂection curve as shown in Fig. 21.

Simply supported curved tri-axial composite tow

We see from Fig. 21 a much larger deﬂection and much

structure with two pairs of static compressive loads

along the connection lines of corresponding supported

ends and a small lateral downward static load at the

apex is shown in Fig. 4. The structure is made of two

intersected curved composite tows at angle of 60, which

are bonded together by resin at the midpoints of each

tow. It is analyzed using four elements. The maximum

deﬂection w is measured from its central line corre-

sponding to its unloaded conﬁguration. The dotted lines

in the ﬁgure constitute the x1 x2 plane of co-ordinate

system. The length of the beam is 2.29 mm. Geometries

of the structure are as follows:

The beam AA is in x1 x3 plane and the equation of its

central line is given by

$ %

x3 ¼ Z sin pL x1

ð104Þ

x2 ¼ 0

Fig. 21. Load versus maximum deﬂection curve for cantilever curved The beam BB is in xB1 xB3 plane, where xB3 is parallel

tow. to x3 -axis and xB1 is in ox1 x2 plane and is intersected with

D. Xu et al. / Composite Structures 67 (2005) 37–55 53

ox1 -axis at angle of 60, as shown in Fig. 4. The equation shear eﬀect into consideration while the analytical

of central line of beam BB is as follows: approximate solution does not.

p In order to know the eﬀect of the resin on the buck-

xB3 ¼ Z sin xB1 ð105Þ ling behavior of simply-supported two oppositely curved

L

tow structure, 10 times of variation, both increasing and

Load versus maximum deﬂection curve is plotted in Fig. decreasing, of Young’s modulus of resin is made.

23. The unitless buckling load obtained from the non- Buckling loads at diﬀerent Young’s modulus values are

linear ﬁnite element solution in this case is Pcr =ðp2 EI= plotted in Fig. 24. From the ﬁgure one observes that

L2 Þ ¼ 0:9862. It is 6.86% larger than the single curved buckling load increases as the Young’s modulus be-

beam case and 2.22% larger than the single straight comes smaller and this is because smaller Young’s

beam case. It shows that the resin used for bonding two modulus leads to smaller stiﬀness of the resin as a bar,

oppositely curved tows may have the eﬀect to resist correspondingly, the resin is deformed more easily. This

further deformation of the structure. The result obtained leads to further increase in curvature of each beam when

from the approximation solution given in Section 4.2 is loads are smaller. Note that each beam is curved along

1.01. It is 1% larger than the Euler buckling load in diﬀerent directions. In order to make the two beams to

straight beam case. This further conﬁrms the eﬀect of buckle together, great eﬀort needs to be exerted in order

the resin on resisting the deformation of the structure. to reverse the curvature of one beam. Therefore, larger

Comparing the two results, the non-linear ﬁnite element load P is needed to buckle the structure if the two beams

solution is seen to be 2.36% less than the approximate are to buckle on the same side, either up or down. For

solution. It is a very good agreement. The reason for the the case of stiﬀ resin, the two tows are held together

diﬀerence between the two solutions is the shear eﬀect of more rigidly. As such they tend to deform together at

the beams. Non-linear ﬁnite element solution takes the the initial low loads. That makes buckling easier. This

Fig. 23. Load versus maximum deﬂection curve of simply-supported Fig. 24. Buckling load for two-tow structure versus Young’s modulus

two intersected tow structure. of the resin.

PB PB PB

Deformed shapes

Deformed shapes Deformed shapes

P P P

PA PA PA

Undeformed configurations

Undeformed configurations Undeformed configurations

when axial loads are small when axial loads are large

54 D. Xu et al. / Composite Structures 67 (2005) 37–55

Fig. 25 is buckled downward due to a downward small

transverse load P0 .

composite structure

structure with three pairs of static compressive loads at

the six supported ends and three small lateral downward

static loads at the three apexes is shown in Fig. 2. The

structure is made of three composite tows woven at

angles of 0, 60 and )60 with each other and bonded

together by resin. It is modeled using 12 elements with

four elements for each tow. The maximum deﬂection w

is measured from its central line corresponding to its

Fig. 27. Buckling load for three-tow structure versus Young’s modu-

unloaded conﬁguration. The dotted lines in the ﬁgure

lus of the resin.

constitute the x1 x2 plane of co-ordinate system. Geom-

etries of the structure are as follows:

The beam AA is in x1 x3 plane and the equation of its 2p

xB3 ¼ Z sin xB1 ð109Þ

central line is given by L

2p The load and maximum deﬂection curve of the structure

x3 ¼ Z sin x1 ð106Þ is shown in Fig. 26. The buckling load from non-linear

L

ﬁnite element solution in this case is Pcr =ðp2 EI=L2 Þ ¼

x2 ¼ 0 ð107Þ

0:9564. The result obtained from approximate solution

The beam CC is in xC1 xC3 plane, where xC3 is parallel to in Section 4.3 is 0.9507. Comparing the two solutions,

x3 -axis and xC1 is in ox1 x2 plane and is intersected with the diﬀerence of the buckling load for a unit cell between

ox1 -axis at angle of )60. The equation of central line of them is 0.6%. It is an excellent agreement. The eﬀect of

beam CC is given by the resin on three intersected tow structure is shown in

Fig. 27.

2p

xC3 ¼ Z sin xC1 ð108Þ

L

The beam BB is in xB1 xB3 plane, where xB3 is parallel to 6. Conclusion

x3 -axis and xB1 is in ox1 x2 plane and is intersected with

ox1 -axis at angle of 60. The equation of central line of A non-linear formulation for the buckling analysis of

beam BB is given by tri-axial composite curved beam structures has been

developed. Corresponding approximate analytical solu-

tions to the structures are also presented. The accuracy

of the numerical solutions has been conﬁrmed by the

approximate analytical solutions for corresponding

structures. Therefore, the non-linear formulation can be

used for analyzing the buckling behavior of the com-

plicated woven fabric tri-axial composite tow structures,

which will be presented in a later paper.

7. List of symbols

Notation

The following convention for tensor and vector sub-

scripts and superscripts is employed:

A left superscript denotes the time of the conﬁgura-

tion in which the quantity occurs.

A left subscript denotes the time of the conﬁguration,

Fig. 26. Load versus maximum deﬂection curve of simply-supported in which the co-ordinate is measured with respect to

three intersected tow structure. which is diﬀerentiated, if the quantity considered is a

D. Xu et al. / Composite Structures 67 (2005) 37–55 55

t k tþDt k

derivative; otherwise the left subscript denotes the time xi ; xi Cartesian co-ordinate of nodal point k in con-

of the conﬁguration in which the quantity is measured. ﬁguration at time t and t þ Dt

0 t

Right lower case subscripts denote the components of t xi;j ; 0 xi;j derivative of co-ordinate in conﬁguration at

a tensor or vector. Diﬀerentiation is denoted by a sub- time 0 and t with respect to co-ordinates 0 xj and

t

script following a comma, with the subscript indicating xj

t

the co-ordinate with respect to which is diﬀerentiated. 0 X deformation gradient of the conﬁguration at

Right upper case subscript R corresponds to the re- time t referred to conﬁguration at time 0

sin. d denoting variation

t

0 e ij component of Green–Lagrange strain tensor in

ak ; bk height and width of cross-sectional dimensions conﬁguration at time t, referred to conﬁgura-

of the beam at nodal point k tion at time 0

t tþDt

0 C ijrs component of constitutive tensor at time t re- t eij component of Green–Lagrange strain tensor in

ferred to conﬁguration at time 0 and t conﬁguration at time t þ Dt, referred to conﬁg-

t Cijrs component of tangent constitutive tensor at uration at time t

time t referred to conﬁguration at time t t eij component of strain increment Green–Lag-

t eij component of linear part of strain increment of range tensor referred to conﬁguration at time t

conﬁguration at time t t gij component of non-linear part of strain incre-

EL ; ET longitudinal and transverse Young’s moduli ment of conﬁguration at time t.

0

GLT ; GTT longitudinal–transverse and transverse–trans- q; t q speciﬁc mass of body in conﬁguration at time 0

verse shear moduli and t

t

hi ﬁnite element interpolation function associated sij component of Cauchy stress tensor in conﬁgu-

with nodal point k ration at time t matrices

P; P0 axial load and transverse load t

s Cauchy stress matrix and vector of in conﬁgu-

r; s; q natural element co-ordinates ration at time t

t

0 Sij component of second Piola–Kirchoﬀ stress

tensor in conﬁguration at time t referred to

conﬁguration at time 0

tþDt References

t Sij component of second Piola–Kirchoﬀ stress

tensor in conﬁguration at time t þ Dt referred to

conﬁguration at time t [1] Zhao Q, Hoa SV. Tri-axial woven fabric (TWF) composite with

open holes (Part I): Finite element models for composites.

t Sij component of second Piola–Kirchoﬀ stress

J Compos Mater 2003;37(9):763–91.

increment at time t [2] Zhao Q, Hoa SV, Ouellette P. Tri-axial woven fabric (TWF)

t; t þ Dt time composite with open holes (Part II): Veriﬁcation of the ﬁnite

t

ui ; tþDt ui component of displacement vector from initial element model. J Compos Mater 2003;37(10):849–75.

position at time 0 to conﬁguration at time t and [3] Zhao Q, Hoa SV. Thermal deformation behavior of triaxial woven

fabric (TWF) composites with open holes. J Compos Mater

t þ Dt

2003;37(18):1629–49.

ui increment in displacement component, ui ¼ [4] Zhao Q, Hoa SV, Moudrik R. Finite element modeling of a

tDt

ui t ui membrane sector of an art em reﬂector. J Compos Mater, accepted

t k

ui displacement component of nodal point k in for publication.

conﬁguration at time t [5] Zhao Q, Hoa SV, Ouellette P. Progressive failure of triaxial woven

fabric (TWF) composites with open holes. J Compos Struct, in

uki increment in t uki

press.

t i;j tþDt i;j derivative of displacement increment with

u ; u [6] Bathe KJ, Bolourchi S. Large displacement analysis of three-

respect to co-ordinate t xj and tþDt xj dimensional beam structure. Int J Numer Meth Eng 1979;14:961–

t

V ; tþDt V volume of body in conﬁguration at time t and 86.

t þ Dt [7] Hu N, Hu B, Yan B, Funkunga H, Sekine H. Two kinds of

tþDt C 0 -type elements for buckling analysis of thin-walled curved

W external virtual work expression corresponding

beams. Comput Meth Appl Mech Eng 1999;171(1–2):87–

to conﬁguration at time t þ Dt 108.

t tþDt

x; x Cartesian co-ordinate in conﬁguration at time t [8] Bathe KJ. Finite element procedures. Englewood Cliﬀs, NJ:

and t þ Dt Prentice Hall; 1996.

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