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# CHAPTER 19 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS

## Exercise 108, Page 307

1. A differential amplifier has an open-loop voltage gain of 150 when the input signals are 3.55 V

## From equation (1), output voltage, V o = A o (V 2 - V 1 ) = 150(3.55 3.40)

= (150)(0.15) = 22.5 V

2. Calculate the differential voltage gain of an op amp that has a common-mode gain of 6.0 and a

CMRR of 80 dB

## differential voltage gain

CMRR = 20log10 dB
common mod e gain

## diferential voltage gain

i.e. 80 = 20 log10
6.0

## 80 differential voltage gain

from which, log10
20 6.0

80
differential voltage gain
Hence, 10 20
6.0

## and differential voltage gain = 6.0 10 = 6 104

4

3. A differential amplifier has an open-loop voltage gain of 150 and a common input signal of

4.0 V to both terminals. An output signal of 15 mV results. Determine the common-mode gain

## and the CMRR.

Vo 15 103
Common-mode gain, A com = 0.00375 or 3.75 10 3
Vcom 4.0

differential voltage gain
CMRR = 20log10 dB
common mod e gain

150
= 20 log10 dB 20 log10 40000 = 92.04 dB
0.00375

4. In the inverting amplifier of shown below, R i = 1.5 k and R f = 2.5 k. Determine the output

voltage when the input voltage is: (a) + 0.6 V (b) - 0.9 V

R f
From equation (5), V o = Vi
Ri
2500
(a) When V i = + 0.4 V, V o = (+ 0.6) = - 1.0 V
1500
2500
(b) When V i = - 1.2 V, V o = (- 0.9) = + 1.5 V
1500

5. The op amp shown below has an input bias current of 90 nA at 20C. Calculate (a) the voltage

gain, and (b) the output offset voltage due to the input bias current.

Rf 1.2 106
(a) Voltage gain, A = = - 80
Ri 15 103

## Ri Rf 15 103 1.2 106

90 10
9
(b) Offset voltage, Vos IB

6
i
R R f 15 103
1.2 10

=
90 10 18 10
9 9

= 1.33 mV
1215000

6. Determine (a) the value of the feedback resistor, and (b) the frequency for an inverting amplifier

to have a voltage gain of 45 dB, a closed-loop bandwidth of 10 kHz and an input resistance of

20 k.

## (a) Gain in decibels = 20log10 voltagegain

45
i.e. 45 = 20 log10 A from which, log10 A
20

45
and A = 10 20 = 177.83

Rf Rf
Also, A= i.e. 177.83 =
Ri 20 103

## (b) Frequency = gain bandwidth = 177.83 10 103 = 1.78 MHz

Exercise 109, Page 313

1. If the input voltage for the op amp shown below is 0.5 V, determine (a) the voltage gain,

## (b) the output voltage.

Rf 15 103
(a) Voltage gain, A = 1 + =1+ = 1 + 2.206 = 3.206 or 3.21
Ri 6.8 103

R
(b) Output voltage, Vo 1 f Vi (3.206)(0.5) = - 1.60 V
Ri

2. In the circuit shown below, determine the value of the output voltage, Vo , when (a) V1 = + 1 V

## and V2 = + 3 V (b) V1 = + 1 V and V2 = - 3 V

V V 1 3
(a) Output voltage, Vo R f 1 2 25 103 3
10 10 10 10
3
R1 R 2

## = 25 103 400 106 = - 10 V

V V 1 3

(b) Output voltage, Vo R f 1 2 25 103 3
10 10 10 10
3
R1 R 2

## = 25 103 100 106 300 10 6

= 25 103 200 106 = + 5 V

3. For the summing op amp shown below, determine the output voltage, Vo

V V V 0.3 0.8
Output voltage, Vo R f 1 2 3 60 103
0.5
3
15 10 25 10 32 10
3 3
R1 R 2 R 3

## 4. A steady voltage of 1.25 V is applied to an op amp integrator having component values of

R = 125 k and C = 4.0 F. Calculate the value of the output voltage 120 ms after applying the

## input, assuming that the initial capacitor charge is zero.

1 1
1.25 dt
4.0 106 125 103
Output voltage, Vo Vi dt
CR

1
1.25 dt 2 1.25 t = 2.5 t
0.5
=

When time t = 120 ms, output voltage, Vo 2.5 120 103 = 0.3 V

5. In the differential amplifier shown below, determine the output voltage, Vo , if: (a) V1 = 4 mV

## and V2 = 0 (b) V1 = 0 and V2 = 6 mV (c) V1 = 40 mV and V2 = 30 mV (d) V1 = 25 mV and

V2 = 40 mV

120 103
3
4 103 = - 60 mV
Rf
(a) Output voltage, Vo Vi
Ri 8 10

R 3 R f 120 120
6 10
3
(b) Output voltage, Vo 1 V2 1
R 2 R3 Ri 8 120 8

120
1 15 6 10 = + 90 mV
3
=
128

R 120
(c) V1 V2 hence, output voltage, Vo V1 V2 f 40 30 mV = - 150 mV
Ri 8

R 3 R f
(d) V2 V1 hence, output voltage, Vo V2 V1 1
2
R R 3 Ri

120 120
= 40 25 1 = + 225 mV
128 8