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11/18/2017 What is Vortex Motion (Free and Forced)?

Short & Conceptual Notes

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Vortex Motion

Contents [hide]

1 Vortex Motion
1.1 Free Vortex Flow
1.2 Forced Vortex Flow
1.3 Variation of Pressure
1.4 Equation of Free Vortex Flow
1.5 Equation of Forced Vortex Flow
1.6 Differences between Free and Forced Vortex Flow

A whirling or rotating mass of fluid is called vortex flow.


The flow of the fluid in a curved path.
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11/18/2017 What is Vortex Motion (Free and Forced)? Short & Conceptual Notes

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Free Vortex Flow
In this flow fluid mass rotates due to the conservation of angular momentum. The velocity profile is inversely
proportional to the radius.

v r = constant

The point at the centre of rotation is called singular point, where velocity approaches to infinite. An example of free
1
vortex motion is whirling mass of liquid in a wash basin, whirlpool in the river etc.

Points to remember:

No external torque or energy is required.


In free vortex flow, Bernoullis equation can be applied.

Forced Vortex Flow


When a fluid is rotated about a vertical axis at a constant speed, such every particle of it has the same angular velocity,
the motion is known as the forced vortex.

v=r

h = 2r2/2g

Fig. 1- Forced Vortex Motion

Where h is a height of paraboloid, and r is the radius of the cylinder.

Volume of paraboloid = 1/2 r2 h

= 1/2 of volume
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11/18/2017 What is Vortex Motion (Free and Forced)? Short & Conceptual Notes

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The surface profile of a forced vortex flow is parabolic.


Forced vortex requires a constant supply of external energy or torque.

An example of forced vortex flow is rotating cylinder and flow inside the centrifugal pump.

Variation
1 of Pressure

Fig. 2- Pressure Variation

dp = (v2/r) dr g dz

z is in the upward direction

Equation of Free Vortex Flow


We know for free vortex v r = constant = k

and dp = (v2/r) dr g dz

dp = [{( k2)/rr2 } dr] + g dz (putting v = k/r)

On Integration for point 1 to point 2

dp = [{(k2)/r3 } dr] g dz

P2 P1 = /2 (v12 v22) g(z2 z1) (Again putting value of k )

P1 + v12 + gz1 = P2 + v22 + gz2 (Bernoullis Equation is applicable in Free Vortex)


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11/18/2017 What is Vortex Motion (Free and Forced)? Short & Conceptual Notes

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Equation of Forced Vortex Flow
We know for free vortex v/r = = constant

dp = [(2r2)/r] dr + g dz

On Integration for point 1 to point 2

1
dp = 2 r dr + g dz

P2 P1 = 2/2 (r22 r12) g(z2 z1)

On Putting v = r

P2 P1 = /2 (v22 v12) g(z2 z1)

P1 v12 + gh1 = P2 v22 + gz2 (Bernoullis Equation Not Applicable)

Differences between Free and Forced Vortex Flow

Free Vortex Flow Forced Vortex Flow

No external torque i.e. torque required to rotate is External torque is required to rotate the fluid mass.
zero.

We know T = d (mvr)/dt = constant


and since T = 0,So, mvr = constantor v r = constant v/r = constant
(mass is constant)

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11/18/2017 What is Vortex Motion (Free and Forced)? Short & Conceptual Notes

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1
Working of Centrifugal Pump Notes on Dimensional Analysis

Fluid Mechanics : Objective Questions Non-Newtonian Fluids

Surface Tension & Capillary Action Buoyancy and Floatation

Fluid Properties Degrees of Freedom?

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