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[1] What is real [2] How do we know. [3] What is good, right, or beautiful.
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[1] "The love of wisdom." [2] "Philosophy is the name for a subject area of
study". [3] Philosophy is a term to identify an individual's general approach to
life". [4] Philosophy is the identification of the presuppositions and
assumptions underlying a subject matter [for example, the philosophy of
science, the philosophy of history, and so forth]; [5] Philosophy as a
3 _____________Yâ 2007yŽ i‚ _____________

techniques to clarify the way language is used. [6] Philosophy is an activity


undertaken by human beings who are deeply concerned about who they are
and what everything means, and that a philosopher is a person who perceives
in some measure the ways in which the various experiences and awarenesses
of existence form a pattern of meaning. [7] Philosophy, without apology,
forcefully directs attention to the relentless efforts of human beings to achieve
an organized view of themselves and the universe in which they live.
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"Philosophic study means the habit of always seeing an alternative". This
statement, by the American philosopher William James, introduces another
aspect of the issue approach to philosophy. The issue approach exposes
students to a provocative variety of positions taken by philosophers on major
questions. By examining this diversity of ideas students are forced to
speculate about the range of the possible. The aim is to stretch the mind, to
explore the realm of the conceivable. By scanning the horizon in many
directions, students can more firmly fix their own positions or the positions of
others.
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The philosophy questions everything and settles nothing, some reassurance
may be found in the words of the late English journalist-critic G.K.
Chesterton, who remarked: "Merely having an open mind is nothing. The
object of opening the mind, as of opening the mouth, is to shut it on
something solid."
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z Z LZ
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X N YƒT
[1] Eros and Civilization 1955 [2] Reason and Revolution 1941. [3] One
dimensional man - studies in the Ideology of adranced Industrial Soceity
1964. [4] Negations: Essays in Critical theory 1968. [5] Connter revolution
and Revolt 1972.
Å àì ×zg r
# ™ ~æ¸ a ÆKgzZ + Y ÔG
g ã¹ Å VLZ Æ yK̈Z Æ h
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·_» The dialectic of Enlightenment[ ÂÅÎ; uc*
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[1] Towards a Rational Soceity: Student Protest, Science and Politic 1971 [2]
Knowledge and Human Intrest 1972 [3] Theory and Practice 1973. [4]
Legitimization Crisis 1976. [5] Communication and Evolution of Soceity
11 _____________Yâ 2007yŽi‚ _____________

1979. [6] Theory of Communicative Action 1984. [7] The Philosphical


discourse of Modrenity 1988. [8] Post Metaphysical Thinking 1992.
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birth of Clinic. [4] History of Sexuality
:ÁÂÅx Z ,
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[1] The Heart of Man. [2] The anatomy of human Desructiveness
12 _____________Yâ 2007yŽi‚ _____________

m{aÆKÃ]ZāÆyZgzZ]Z7Æh
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[1] Culler, Jonathan, on Deconstruction: Theory and Criticism after
structuralism, 1982. [2]D, James and Williams, The Great Reckoning, 1992.
[3] Derrida, Jacques, of Grammatology, 1975. [4] Derrida, Jacques. Writing
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1993.
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