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InstallationManual Revised: COSU Revision: 08

forStructuralBearingsand Checked: MDEL Date: 22Aug2014


SeismicIsolators Approved:NMEN Page: 1/24

InstallationManual
for
magebastructuralbearings
andseismicisolators



InstallationManual Revised: COSU Revision: 08
forStructuralBearingsand Checked: MDEL Date: 22Aug2014
SeismicIsolators Approved:NMEN Page: 2/24

TABLEOFCONTENTS

1 APPLICABILITY.............................................................................................................................................3
2 INTRODUCTION...........................................................................................................................................3
2.1 PURPOSEOFTHISMANUAL...................................................................................................................................3
2.2 PURPOSEOFSTRUCTURALBEARINGS...................................................................................................................4
3 KEYBEARINGFEATURES..............................................................................................................................4
3.1 TYPEPLATE............................................................................................................................................................4
3.2 MOVEMENTSCALE................................................................................................................................................4
3.3 PRESETTING..........................................................................................................................................................5
3.4 TRANSPORTATIONFITTINGS.................................................................................................................................5
3.5 MARKINGSONTOPOFBEARING...........................................................................................................................6
3.6 LEVELLINGSURFACES............................................................................................................................................7
3.7 DUSTPROTECTION................................................................................................................................................7
4 TRANSPORT,CHECKINGANDSTORAGEOFBEARINGS..................................................................................8
4.1 TRANSPORT...........................................................................................................................................................8
4.2 CHECKINGOFBEARINGS.......................................................................................................................................8
4.3 STORAGE................................................................................................................................................................8
5 DESIGNOFCONNECTINGSTRUCTURES........................................................................................................9
6 POSITIONINGOFBEARINGS.........................................................................................................................9
6.1 LOCATION(WHICHBEARINGGOESWHERE)ANDORIENTATIONONTHESTRUCTURE........................................9
6.2 ADJUSTMENTOFPRESETTING...............................................................................................................................9
6.3 PRECISEPOSITIONINGOFBEARINGS...................................................................................................................10
6.4 POSSIBLEMETHODFORADJUSTINGELEVATIONORINCLINATION....................................................................11
6.5 GENERAL..............................................................................................................................................................11
7 SUPPORTOFBEARINGSANDCONNECTIONTOSUBSTRUCTURE.................................................................12
7.1 CONCRETESUBSTRUCTURE.................................................................................................................................12
7.2 STEELSUBSTRUCTURE.........................................................................................................................................14
8 CONNECTIONOFBEARINGSTOSUPERSTRUCTURE.....................................................................................15
8.1 CONCRETESUPERSTRUCTURE.............................................................................................................................15
8.2 STEELSUPERSTRUCTURE.....................................................................................................................................15
9 CUTTING/REMOVALOFTRANSPORTFITTINGS.........................................................................................16
10 CAREOFINSTALLEDBEARINGS..................................................................................................................16
11 COMPETENCEOFINSTALLATIONPERSONNEL.............................................................................................16
12 SUPERVISIONOFINSTALLATION................................................................................................................17
13 HEALTH&SAFETYISSUESDURINGINSTALLATION......................................................................................17
14 RECORDINGOFWORKCARRIEDOUT.........................................................................................................17
APPENDIX1:TOOLSETC.TOBEPROVIDEDBYTHECONTRACTOR...........................................................................18
APPENDIX2:INSTALLATIONREPORT......................................................................................................................19

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forStructuralBearingsand Checked: MDEL Date: 22Aug2014
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1 APPLICABILITY
Thisinstallationmanualcanbeusedinconnectionwiththenewinstallationofalltypesofmagebabridge
type structural bearing, including RESTONPOT, RESTONSPHERICAL, RESTONDISC, RESTONFORCE,
RESTONLINEAR and LASTOBLOCK. It also applies to the new installation of all types of mageba seismic
isolator, including LASTOLRB, LASTOHDRB and RESTONPENDULUM, since these can be considered a
particulartypeofbearing.Thetermbearing,whereitappearsinthismanual,canthusbeunderstoodto
applyalsotosuchseismicisolators.
Thebearingsandseismicisolatorstowhichthismanualapplieshavegenerallybeendevelopedforusein
bridge structures, but the manual can also be used, as appropriate, where such bearings or isolators are
installedinbuildingsandothernonbridgestructures.Wherethewordbridgeappearsinthismanual,the
wordstructureorstructuralcanbeunderstoodtoapply,asappropriate.
Theextenttowhichthegeneralguidelinesinthismanualshouldbeappliedtoanyparticularbearingtype
andsituationrequiresengineeringjudgement,andmagebashouldbecontactedincaseofanydoubt.
This manual primarily applies to the installation of bearings during the initial construction of a structure,
beforethesuperstructurehasbeenconstructedorliftedintoplace.Installationofreplacementbearingsin
anexistingstructurerequiresprojectspecificplanning,andmagebashouldbeconsultedinsuchcasesfor
appropriateguidance.

2 INTRODUCTION
Structural bearings are carefully engineered components which are typically subjected to intense fatigue
loading during their lifetime despite generally being considerably less robust than the main structure.
Proper installation, and care at all times, is therefore essential to ensure that the bearing will perform
safely and well for its intended service life. Supervision of installation, which also serves to train the
contractors staff for future installation work (unless they have already been appropriately trained and
certified in bearing installation by a competent body), can be provided by mageba on request, and is
stronglyrecommendedunlessthecontractorhassufficientexperienceandexpertise.
Bearings must be kept clean and safe from damage at all times. Dust, dirt, grit, mortar and all foreign
mattermustnotbeallowedtoenterthemovingpartsofbearings.Forthisreason,bearingsshouldnotbe
dismantled after leaving the manufacturers workshop. If, for any reason, it is necessary to do so, this
shouldonlybedoneundermagebassupervision.

2.1 Purposeofthismanual
This installation manual provides guidance on how mageba bridgetype structural bearings should be
installedundertypicalandnormalcircumstancestoensureproperfunctioningandalonglife.However,the
installationshouldnotrelyentirelyontheguidancegiveninthisdocumenttheengineeringjudgementof
theresponsibleinstallationsupervisorandteamarealsoimportant.Themostuptodatedrawingsofthe
bearings and the connecting structures must be at hand and referenced so that special features and the
functioningofthebearingcanbefullyunderstoodbytheinstallationteam.Recordsfromtheinstallation
aretobekeptasdetailedbelow,forusebyinspectorswhowillcarryoutsubsequentinspections.
Thismanualdoesnotseektoaddressnontechnicalaspectsofbearinginstallation.Thus,issuessuchassafe
access,PersonalProtectiveEquipment(PPE)andotherHealth,Safety&Environment(HSE)considerations
areoutsidethescopeofthisdocument.Trafficmanagementmeasures(suchasclosureofatrafficlaneor
theentireroadway,etc.),whichmayberequiredwhereinstallationworkiscarriedoutonabridgewhichis
alreadyinservice,arealsonotincludedinthescopeofthisdocument.

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2.2 Purposeofstructuralbearings
Structural bearings are used to form the connections between a structures superstructure and its
substructures(inthecaseofabridge,betweenitsdeckandthedeckssupportabutmentsorpiers).They
typicallytransmitverticalloading(includingweightofsuperstructureandliveloadingfromtrafficetc.,and
possibly uplift forces), and allow the superstructure to move as required by the structures design.
Movementsofthesuperstructuremayariseduetoexpansionandcontractionofthesuperstructuredueto
temperature changes, shrinkage/creep of concrete, wind, traffic forces, settlement of substructures,
seismiceffectsand/orothersources.Thesemovementsmaytaketheformoftranslationsinanydirection
(insofar as these are permitted by the structures design), and rotations about any axis. Conversely,
bearingsmaybedesigned,asrequired,toresisthorizontal(transverseorlongitudinal)forces.
There are various types of bearing, such as the pot bearing, spherical bearing, rocker bearing, roller
bearing,discbearingandelastomericbearing,eachofwhichoffersitsownadvantagesincertainsituations.

3 KEYBEARINGFEATURES
Thefollowingfeaturesandaspectsapplytomanybearingtypes,andtheirpurposeandfunctioningmustbe
understoodasappropriate.

3.1 Typeplate
Thetypeplate,ifprovided,containskeydatarelatingtothebearinganditsdesign.

PNo. = magebaprojectnumber
Location = Bearinglocationonthestructure
vx/vy = Movementrangeinxandydirections
ex/ey = Presettingvalues
NEd,max/VEd,max = Max.normalandtransversedesignlevel(ULS)forces,respectively

3.2 MovementScale
Movementscalesaretypicallyprovidedforslidingbearingswithamovementrangeofover100mm.These
enablecurrentvaluesofbearingdisplacementstobeeasilyreadatanytime.

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3.3 Presetting
Presettingofbearings,ifrequired,isdoneinthefactorybeforedelivery.Presettingmayberequired,for
example, if the movements of the superstructure following bearing installation will be more in one
directionthanintheoppositedirection(e.g.duetocreepandshrinkageofaconcretestructure,orbecause
thebearingsareinstalledataparticularlycoldorparticularlywarmtimeofyear).Itisnecessarytoaccount
forthisbypresettingthebearingsaccordingly,toensurethattheremainingslidingcapacityofthebearing
ineachdirectionisadequatetoaccommodateanyfuturemovementsthatcanarise.
Intheexampleshownbelow,thebearingistobeinstalledwithapresettingvalueofapproximately8cm
tooneside.Althoughthebearinghasatotalmovementcapabilityof30cm(+/15cmifthebearingwas
installed at its central position, with the pointer indicating 0 on the movement scale), it has been
determined by the structures designer that superstructure movements following installation will be
predominantlytowardstheleftasshown.If thebearingwasinstalledwithoutanypresetting, thelarger
movementstowardstheleft(ofapproximately22cm)couldnotbeaccommodatedbythebearing.

Presettingofbearingsisdoneatmagebasworkshopaccordingtovaluesadvisedbythestructuredesigner
(who has the knowledge of the structures design and behaviour that is required to determine these
values). Should presetting need to be adjusted following delivery of the bearings, mageba must be
consulted,asthisisspecialisedworkwhichmustgenerallybedonebyapprovedbearingexperts.

3.4 Transportationfittings
Bearingsaregenerallyfittedwithtemporarytransportationfittings(suchasmetalorplasticthreadedrods)
whichholdthebearingtogetheruntilithasbeeninstalledandmaysetthebearing(ifaslidingtype)ata
specifiedpresettingvalue.

Thesetemporaryfittingsmustnotbecutorremoveduntilthebearinghasbeeninstalled,astodosowould
allowthebearingtorotateorfallapartandbecomedamagedandinternallycontaminated.Plasticrodswill
generally selfshear when the bearing is in service and the superstructure starts to move. Metal rods
generally have to be cut immediately after fixing of the bearing to both the substructure and
superstructure, when they are no longer required to serve their purpose and before superstructure
movementswouldberesistedbythefittings(whichcouldresultindamagetothebearing).Ifitisnecessary
toadjustthepresettingvalueofthebearingbeforeithasbeenfinallyconnectedtothestructuresabove
andbelow,thisrequiresexpertsupervisionandguidancefromthemanufacturer.

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3.5 Markingsontopofbearing
Markings on the top plate of a bearing may provide
information such as the type of bearing, bearing number
(asnotedonthedrawings),xandyaxes(xaxisindicating
the structures longitudinal axis in the case of a bridge),
bearingweightandprojectnumber.Themarkingsmustbe
read in the presetting direction. The arrows on sliding
bearings indicate the directions of horizontal movement,
with doublearrows indicating the presetting direction
(see example on right). All markings must be checked
againsttherelevantdrawingspriortoinstallation.

3.6 Levellingsurfaces
Toassistwithproperlevellingofbearingsduringinstallation(toensurehorizontal),adevicecontainingtwo
spiritlevels(atrightanglestoeachother)isoftenused,asshowninthephotographbelow.Somebearings
havespeciallypreparedsurfaces(machinedintheworkshoptobeperfectlyparalleltothebearingssliding
interface,ifany,orotherwisetothebearingsbottomsurface)wherethisdeviceshouldbeusedeitheron
top of the bearing or on a steel plate welded to the side of the bearing. If this surface is on top of the
bearing, and the bearing is supplied with a separate anchor plate for the upper connection, the anchor
platemayfeatureasetofthreeholeswhichallowsthelegsofthelevellingdevicetoreachthespecially
preparedsurface,throughtheanchorplate.
Alternatively,wherecircumstancesallow,commonspiritlevelswithsufficientaccuracymaybeused.

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3.7 Dustprotection
Bearingsthataccommodateslidingmovementsaretypicallyprovidedwithsomeformofdustprotectionto
preventcontaminationoftheslidingsurface.Suchcontaminationcanresultinscratchingorotherdamage
to sliding surfaces such as stainless steel and PTFE/RoboSlide, and loss of performance of lubricating
greasethatmaybeappliedtothesurfaces.
Thisdustprotectionistypicallyintheformofarubberskirtwhichhangsaroundthebearing,oramultiple
leaf skirt (a folding sheet similar to that used in a bellows or an accordian) which is placed horizontally
acrosstheslidingsurfaceateachendofthebearing.
Rubber skirt protection: This type of protection is attached to the bearing by Velcro tape and is
thereforeeasytoremoveandreattach,toallowthebearingtobecleanedandinspected.


Multipleleafskirt(bellows)protection:Dismantlingofthistypeofprotectionrequiresmoreeffort
so the extent to which it must be temporarily removed for any inspection should be considered
based on the circumstances. However, multiple leaf skirts protect the sliding surface more
completely.Inthecaseofbearingsthataredesignedtobeinstalledupsidedown,withthesliding
plateatthebottom,thiskindofprotectionisgenerallypreferred.


The dust protection should only be removed if necessary (e.g. if required during inspections), and must
thenbequicklyreplacedafterensuringthatnocontaminationoftheslidingsurfacesetc.hasoccurred.Any
contaminationmustbeproperlycleaned,withoutdamagingsurfaces.Theproperconditionandfunctioning
ofthedustprotectionmustbeensuredatalltimes.

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4 TRANSPORT,CHECKINGANDSTORAGEOFBEARINGS
Theproperconditionofbearingsmustbeensuredatallstagespriortoinstallation.

4.1 Transport
Bearingsareprecisioncomponentswhichmustbehandledcarefullytoensuretheirproperfunctioning.
Anytemporarytransportationfixings(suchasmetalorplasticrods,seeSection3.4above)mustnotbecut
orremoveduntilthebearinghasbeenfixedtoboththesubstructureandsuperstructure,astodosowould
enablethebearingtorotateorfallapartandbecomedamagedandinternallycontaminated.
Bearingsmustbeliftedwithcaretoensuretheywillnotbeallowedtofallorsufferanyimpactsordamage.
Corrosionprotectioncanbeeasilydamagedbyevenlightimpacts.Ringnuts,whichcanbescrewedintothe
topsurfaceofthebearing,aretypicallysuppliedwiththefirstbatchofbearingsofeachkind.Thesering
nutsmustbeusedforliftingallbearings(firsttolastdelivery).
Bearingsmustnotbeliftedbytheiranchoragefittings(headbolts,dowelsetc.),oranyotherelementsthat
arenotdesignedforuseinliftingandindicatedassuch.

4.2 Checkingofbearings
Bearingsmustbecheckedasfollowsimmediatelyfollowingdelivery:

Checkthatbearingsarefreeofexternalvisibledamage
Checkthatbearingsareclean
Checkthatcorrosionprotectionhasnotbeendamaged
Checkthattemporarytransportationfixingsaretightandinorder
Checkthattypeplateandmarkingsareasexpected(seeSection3)
Checkmovementscale,andvalueanddirectionofpresettingagainststructuredrawings

Ifanydamageisdetected,orifabearingisfoundtonotcomplywithspecificationsorfulfilrequirementsin
anyway,thismustbemarkedonthedeliverynoteandmagebamustbenotifiedinwritingwithin3daysof
delivery.Intheabsenceofanysuchnotification,thebearingsaredeemedtobeacceptedasdelivered.

4.3 Storage
If bearings are not installed upon delivery, they must be stored on wooden pallets in an appropriate
location. During storage, bearings must be kept clean and protected from mechanical damage, moisture,
excessiveheat,sunlight,oils,fuelsandotherdeleteriouseffects.Inordertopreventcondensationofwater,
aircirculationmustbeensured.

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5 DESIGNOFCONNECTINGSTRUCTURES
The design of connecting structures (substructure beneath bearing and superstructure above) is not the
responsibilityofthebearingsupplier(generally,itistheresponsibilityofthemainstructuresdesigner).In
general, the design and construction of connecting structures must ensure the following points, among
others.
All loads that can arise in any design case (including SLS and ULS) must be properly and safely
carried and transferred, without damage to bearings or connecting structures. In the case of
concrete connecting structures, this requires, in particular, suitably designed and placed
reinforcementandsuitablydesigned,placedandcompactedconcrete.
Allbearingmovementsandrotationsthatcanariseinanydesigncase(includingSLSandULS)must
beaccommodatedbytheconnectingstructures,withoutunintendedcontactsorimpacts.
Adequate access (for bearing inspection or maintenance, etc.) must be possible in any state or
condition.
Bearingreplacementmustbepossiblewhenthetimeforreplacementcomes.Asappropriate,this
shouldincludeconsiderationofallaspectsofthebearingreplacementprocess,includingliftingof
thesuperstructure(e.g.positioningofhydraulicjacks)andaccess.
Where uplift forces must be resisted, or where otherwise required to resist large horizontal forces etc.,
appropriately designed tension anchors are required. The design and supply of such anchors is not the
responsibilityofthebearingsupplier.

6 POSITIONINGOFBEARINGS

6.1 Location(whichbearinggoeswhere)andorientationonthestructure
The correct location in the structure of each bearing, and its orientation, must first be established with
referencetoallrelevantstructureandbearingdrawings,includinganybearinglocationdrawingsthatmay
exist.Thelocationsofindividualbearingsaregenerallyindicatedonmagebasbearingdrawings,bymeans
of a sketch and/or a table. Reference must also be made to the bearings type plate (if any) and any
markings that may have been made on the top surface of the bearing (see Section 3). In case of any
discrepancy or doubt, or should the location and orientation of any bearing not be clearly identifiable,
clarificationmustbesoughtfromthestructuresdesignerand/ormagebaasappropriate.

6.2 Adjustmentofpresetting
Ifitisnecessarytoadjustthepresettingvalueofaslidingbearingbeforeithasbeenfinallyconnectedto
thestructureaboveandbelow,toensurethatitwillbeabletoaccommodateallfutureslidingmovements
inalldirections(consideringthesuperstructurescurrentposition),thisrequiresmagebasupervision.

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6.3 Precisepositioningofbearings
Therequiredlocation(twoaxes)andelevationofthebearing(withreferencetomagebasdesigndrawing)
mustbedefinedinadvancebythestructuresdesigner,andmarkedonthesubstructure.Ifthebearingisto
beinstalledwithaninclination(i.e.nothorizontal),thismustalsobeindicatedandunderstood.
Thecorrectlocation,elevationandinclinationofthebearingmustbeachievedasfollows:

6.3.1 Location
Thebearingaxes(xandy)aregenerallyindicatedonthebearingwithpunchmarksandhighlightedwith
yellowpaint.Thebearingsmustbecarefullyandpreciselypositionedsuchthatthepunchmarkscoincide
withtheaxesmarkedonthesubstructure.

6.3.2 Elevation
Thereferencepointforelevationisthecentreofthebearingstopplateorslidingplate(notincludingany
additionalanchorplatesetc.).Theinstallationlevelcanbeadjustedasrequiredusingshimplates/adjusting
screws,e.g.asdescribedbelow.Lightbearingsshouldbesecuredtopreventdisplacementduringgrouting.

6.3.3 Inclination
Parallelness of the upper and lower parts of the bearing is generally ensured by the temporary
transportationfittings(typicallythreadedrods)whichholdthebearingtogetherduringtransportationand
installation.Thereferenceplaneforcheckinghorizontalness(orforsettinginclination,whereinclinationis
allowed)isasfollows:
o IfthebearingcontainsaspeciallycreatedlevellingsurfaceasdescribedinSection3.6above,this
mustbeused.
o In the case of sliding bearings which do not have such a specially created levelling surface and
whereaccessallows,thereferenceplaneisthestainlesssteelslidingsurface.
o In all other cases assuming the bearing has been delivered with transportation fittings (e.g.
threaded rods) that ensure the parallelness of the top and bottom parts of the bearing the
reference plane is the top surface of the bearing (excluding any separate anchor plates etc.), but
notingasfollows:
- If the bearing is connected to (hung from) the superstructure first before connecting to the
substructure,thebottomsurfaceofthebearingmaybeusedasthereferenceplane.
- Theexternalsurfaceofanytaperedplate(whichdoesnothaveparallelsides)isnotsuitable
foruseasareferenceplane;insuchcases,theinternalsurfaceshouldbeused.
o Incaseofanydoubt,magebashouldbeconsulted.
Inclinationsaregenerallynotallowedforseismicisolatorsunlessexplicitlydesignedforthisandconfirmed
bythedesignengineer.
Inmanycases,inclinationcanbeadjustedusingadjustingscrewsasdescribedbelow.
The inclination error (from horizontal or approved inclination) should not exceed 0.3% (3 mm/m) unless
confirmedacceptablebycalculationsoranylowervaluethatmaybespecifiedbythedesignengineer.

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6.4 Possiblemethodforadjustingelevationorinclination
Elevation and/or inclination of a bearing can often be adjusted during installation as follows, to ensure
correct:
- Placethreeadjustingscrews,verticallyoriented,inthetopsurfaceofthesubstructure,toform
atriangleofroughlyequalsides.
- Adjustthelevelsofthetopsofthescrewssothattheplanetheydefinehastheelevationand
inclinationthatareappropriatefortheundersideofthebearing.
- Placethebearingontopoftheadjustingscrews,andaftertheelevationandinclinationofthe
bearingareconfirmedoncemore,thespacebeneaththebearingcanbegroutedusingsuitable
nonshrinking mortar, properly placed and compacted (where appropriate, refer to Section 7
below).

Topofsubstructure

6.5 General
The construction company / contractor is required to provide all required tools (see APPENDIX 1: TOOLS
ETC. TO BE PROVIDED BY THE CONTRACTOR), lifting equipment and, if necessary, scaffolding for the
bearinginstallation.
Afterpositioning,anyliftingringsmustberemovedandreplacedbyplasticholecoverstopreventingress
ofmortaretc.Bearingandconnectingstructuresmustbefreeofgreaseandoil(e.g.formworkoil).

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7 SUPPORTOFBEARINGSANDCONNECTIONTOSUBSTRUCTURE
It is essential to ensure that bearings are evenly supported over their entire area, on flat surfaces of
adequatestrengthandstability.Highpressureatanylocationduetounevensupportandloaddistribution
mayleadtodeformationandfailureofthebearingorofthesupportingsurface.
Particularcareisrequiredinthecaseofdiscbearings,whichtendtodistributeloadingtotheconnecting
structuresaboveandbelowlessevenlythanotherbearingtypes,withhigherpressureatthecentreof
the bearing. Therefore, it is particularly important in the case of disc bearings to ensure that the
grout/mortarbed(ifany)isproperlydesignedandexecutedwithoutvoids.
Bearingsaretypically(inthecaseofaconcretesubstructure)supportedonamortar/groutbedtoensure
flatnessofsurfaceandevendistributionofloading.Insomecases,however,bearingscanbeplaceddirectly
onasteelsubstructure.Eachoftheseconnectiontypesisdescribedinthefollowingsections.

7.1 Concretesubstructure
In the case of a concrete substructure, bearings must be supported on a mortar/grout bed to ensure
flatness of surface and even distribution of loading. The thickness of the bedding material should be
determinedwithreferencetotheconstructiondrawings,andinparticulartoensurethatthelevelofthe
installedbearingwillbecorrect.
Thechoiceofbeddingmaterialisinfluencedbythesizeofthegaptobefilledandwhetheritisbelow,the
sizeofthebearing,thestrengthrequired,accessaroundthebearingandtherequiredsettingtime.Insome
casesitmaybenecessarytocarryouttrialstoascertainthemostsuitablematerial,particularlyifflowable
mortar/groutisused.Selectionofbeddingtypeandmix,andplacing/installation,aretheresponsibilityof
thecontractor.Often,groutoftypeBETEC140byGraceConstructionMaterialsisappropriate.
Forbearingswithsocketsorshearconnectors,itisoftenmostpracticaltotemporarilysupportthebearing
in its final position, and pour flowable mortar/grout into the space beneath the bearing, including the
recesses in which the sockets or shear connectors are located. If desired, bearings can be rested on
levellingaidswhilethematerialisplaced,aslongasthelevellingaidsareadequatelycompressibleorcan
beremovedafterwards.
The fluid material can be poured through a flexible plastic hose (with the help of a funnel), as
illustratedbelowbyVHFL,theGermanybasedassociationofmanufacturersofstructuralexpansion
joints and bearings. To prevent any voids, the grout should be poured from one side only, slowly
retractingthepipeasthebedfills.


Alternatively, a halfpipe can be used instead of a hose and funnel, but this requires more care to
ensure that the space beneath the bearing is completely filled and to avoid spilling grout/mortar
ontothebearing.

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Recessesforthesocketsorshearconnectorsshouldbefilledandallowedtosetbeforeplacingthemain
bed, in order to avoid local shrinkage deformation at these locations. It is essential to immediately and
thoroughlydeaeratethefreshlyplacedmaterial,e.g.usingmetalchainspulledbackandforththroughthe
material.Thespacingbetweenchainsshouldtypicallybeapprox.15to20cm.Thegrout/mortarmustbe
poureduntil thespace beneaththebearingiscompletelyfilled,leavingnovoids.Assumingthebearings
bottomplate(e.g.ananchorplateifpresent)doesnothavetobereadilyremovable,thematerialshould
befurtherplaceduntilitextendsabout1cmabovethelowersurfaceofthebottomplate.
For bearings without sockets or shear connectors, flowable mortar/grout can be poured into the space
beneath the bearing as described above, or nonflowing mortar can be packed into the space from one
side. Alternatively, and especially in the case of very large bearings (due to the increased difficulty of
properly introducing grout or mortar from the side), it may be most practical to prepare a flat, smooth
mortar bed and place the bearing on top. Regardless of which method is chosen, the structure designer
mustensurethatbearingdisplacementsduringservicewillbeprevented(e.g.byadequatefrictionforces).
Ifthebearing,oritsbottomplate,doesnothavetoberemovableinthefuture,andifapproved,resistance
to displacements can be increased by placing mortar/grout around the edge of the steel plate (e.g. by
pressingitintothefreshmortar,wherethemortarbedisplacedbeforethebearing).

Inthecaseofverylargebearings,atrialgroutingisrecommendedtoensurethatthedesiredresultwillbe
achievedwiththeactualbearings,withthematerialspreadingproperlyandfullyfillingthespacebeneath
the bearing. The use of a transparent plastic sheet to simulate the bearing can be considered, as this
enablesthematerialsspreadingbehaviourtobeobservedduringplacing(seepicturesbelow).


Bearingsmustbepreventedfrommovingorvibratinguntilthemortar/grouthasproperlyset.Ifnecessary,
bearingsshouldbesecurelyfixedinpositioninadvance,e.g.byweldingofanchorstudstoreinforcement.
Ifmortar/groutgetsonthebearingatanytime,itmustimmediatelybeproperlycleanedoff.

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7.2 Steelsubstructure
Ifthebearingisplaceddirectlyonasteelsubstructure,theconnectingsurfacemustbemachined,witha
tolerance of 0.0003 x [diameter or diagonal]. If this flatness is confirmed, and the inclination of the
connectingsurfaceissuitable,thenthebearingsbottomplatemaybebolteddirectlytothesubstructure,
orweldedtoitbymeansofafilletweld.Otherwise,athinlayerofspecialmortar/groutshouldbeplacedto
achievetherequiredconditions,asdescribedbelow.

7.2.1 Creationofasuitablebearingsurfaceifrequired
If necessary, the correct bearing conditions (in terms of flatness and inclination) for the bearing can be
achievedusingshimplatesasillustratedbelow(nottoscale).Toensurethatcontactpressureisdistributed
evenly, the gap between the bearing and the substructure must be filled with a suitable special heat
resistant,superfluid mortarofsufficientstrength.Itmustbeensuredthatnovoidsremainbetweenthe
bearingand thesubstructure,e.g.by placingasdescribedaboveforthecaseofaconcretesubstructure.
Thematerialmustalsobeplacedinsuchawayastonotinterferewiththeweldingthatfollows.

7.2.2 Connectionbybolting
Supplyoftheboltsistheresponsibilityofthecontractor,unlessotherwisearranged.

7.2.3 Connectionbywelding
Thelength,sizeandqualityoftheweldseamareasindicatedontheapplicabledesigndrawings.
Thesurfacesbeingweldedtogethermustbecleanandfreeofanydirtorgrease.
Specialcaremustbetakenduringweldingtoavoiddamagetothebearingorthemainstructure.Anypart
ofabearingthatisnotmadeofpuresteelcanbeeasilydamagedbywelding,ifsuitablemeasuresarenot
takentopreventthis.PTFE/RoboSlideslidingmaterials,elastomers(asareused,forexample,insidethe
pots of pot bearings and in elastomeric bearings), and features such as dust protection should not be
subjectedtotemperaturesofover150C.Thetemperaturedevelopmentofthesteelbetweenthewelding
and all temperaturesensitive parts of the bearing must be monitored, e.g. using temperaturesensitive
chalk(seebelow).


Aftercompletionofwelding,corrosionprotectionmustbeappliedtotheweldedareasandanydamaged
corrosionprotectionmustberepaired.

InstallationManual Revised: COSU Revision: 08


forStructuralBearingsand Checked: MDEL Date: 22Aug2014
SeismicIsolators Approved:NMEN Page: 15/24

8 CONNECTIONOFBEARINGSTOSUPERSTRUCTURE
Similarlytothesubstructureconnection,thesuperstructureconnectioncanbeconcretedorgrouted(ifthe
superstructureisofconcrete),orcanalternativelybebolted/weldeddirectlytoasteelsuperstructure.Each
oftheseconnectiontypesisdescribedinthefollowingsections.

8.1 Concretesuperstructure
Generally,aconcretesuperstructurecanbepoureddirectlyontothebearing,afterplacingofformworkall
around the bearing. The formwork must be placed as tight as possible to the bearing plate, and the
remaining gap must be carefully sealed using appropriate material (e.g. Hilti shuttering foam CFFW 500
(D)) to ensure that no concrete/grout leaks through onto the vertical face of the bearing. Sliding plates
must be fully supported, to prevent distortion or rotation of the bearing under the weight of the fresh
concrete.


If concrete leaks through the formwork to the bearing, it should be cleaned off immediately. This is
especially important in the case of elastomeric bearings, whose ability to compress and rotate could be
diminished.
After removal of the formwork, the bearings must be cleaned and any damage to corrosion protection
mustberepaired.

8.2 Steelsuperstructure
The connecting surface of a steel superstructure should be machined, with a tolerance of 0.0003 x
[diameter or diagonal]. Otherwise, flatness must be achieved with a thin layer of special mortar (refer
Section7.2.1asappropriate).
Bearingsaregenerallyconnectedtoasteelsuperstructurebyboltingorbywelding(seebelow).

8.2.1 Connectionsequence
Inthecaseofasteelsuperstructure,thebearingmustgenerallybeconnectedtothesuperstructurefirst,
andthentothesubstructure,toensurethatthesteelsurfacesofthebearingandthesuperstructurecome
perfectlytogetherwithoutanyvoidsinbetween.

InstallationManual Revised: COSU Revision: 08


forStructuralBearingsand Checked: MDEL Date: 22Aug2014
SeismicIsolators Approved:NMEN Page: 16/24

8.2.2 Connectionbybolting
Supplyofboltsistheresponsibilityofthecontractor,unlessotherwisearranged.

8.2.3 Connectionbywelding
Thelength,sizeandqualityoftheweldseamareasindicatedontheapplicabledesigndrawings.
Thesurfacesbeingweldedtogethermustbecleanandfreeofanydirtorgrease.
Specialcaremustbetakenduringweldingtoavoiddamagetothebearingorthestructure.Anypartofa
bearingthatisnotmadeofpuresteelcanbeeasilydamagedbywelding,ifsuitablemeasuresarenottaken
topreventthis.PTFE/RoboSlideslidingmaterials,elastomers(asareused,forexample,insidethepotsof
pot bearings and in elastomeric bearings), discs of disc bearings, and features such as dust protection
should not be subjected to temperatures of over 150C. The temperature development of the steel
between the welding and all temperaturesensitive parts of the bearing must be monitored, e.g. using
temperaturesensitivechalk.

9 CUTTING/REMOVALOFTRANSPORTFITTINGS
Assoonasthebearingsarefullyinstalledandproperlysupported(withanyconcreteormortarhardened
enough typically after about 8 hours, depending on mix, temperature, etc.), and prior to any pre
stressing,anytemporarysteeltransportfittings(seeaboveandrefertobearingdrawing)mustberemoved
toavoidconstraintforcesanddamageasthesuperstructurestartstomove.(Ifthetransportfixingrodsare
ofplastic,thesewillselfshearwhenthesuperstructurestartstomove,sotheydonotnecessarilyhaveto
becutandremoved.)Itshouldbeensured,whenplacinganyscaffolding/formworketc.,thataccesstoany
steeltransportationfittingswillbepossible.Steelrodscanbecutusingacuttingdisc,takingcaretoprotect
thebearing.Ifsuchsteelrodsserveadoublepurpose,andwillbeusedtoconnectthebearingtothemain
structure,thentheendsmustnottoberemoved.Otherwise,theendsoftherodsmustberemovedand
theholesfilledwithsiliconeorepoxyresin.

10 CAREOFINSTALLEDBEARINGS
Careshouldbetakenafterinstallation,asatalltimes,toprotectbearingsfromdamage.Damagecanresult,
for example, from construction activities such as sandblasting of superstructure steel or application of
corrosionprotectionetc.Bearingsmustnotbeusedforanyunforeseenpurposes,suchasfortemporary
supportofconstructionmaterials.Impactsofanysortmustbeprevented,andsplashingorcontamination
ofthebearing,andespeciallyitsslidingsurfaces,mustbeavoided.Anysplashingofpaintormortaronto
thebearingshouldbeimmediatelycleaned,andanydamagetothebearingmustbeimmediatelyreported
tomageba.

11 COMPETENCEOFINSTALLATIONPERSONNEL
Installation of bearings must be carried out by competent and properly informed/inducted personnel.
Thesepersonsshouldhavegoodgeneralknowledgeofmechanicalstructuresingeneralandoftherelevant
type of bearing in particular, and should have been appropriately trained and certified in bearing
installationbyacompetentbody.
The installation personnel should be provided with the appropriate information and drawings to enable
themtoundertaketheworkproperly.

InstallationManual Revised: COSU Revision: 08


forStructuralBearingsand Checked: MDEL Date: 22Aug2014
SeismicIsolators Approved:NMEN Page: 17/24

12 SUPERVISIONOFINSTALLATION
A mageba Installation Supervisor should be in attendance during installation of the bearings to ensure
proper installation, unless the contractor has the necessary knowledge, capabilities and experience. If
bearingsareinstalledwithoutamagebainstallationsupervision,magebashallnotberesponsibleforany
possibledamagesorconsequencesoffaultyinstallation.
A suitably qualified professional structural engineer must oversee and be responsible for all works for
whichamagebainstallationsupervisorisnotresponsible.

13 HEALTH&SAFETYISSUESDURINGINSTALLATION
Thefollowingrisksmaytypicallyariseduringinstallationofbearings.Thislistisnotexhaustive,andevery
worker must carefully consider the conditions and circumstances on site before commencing work, and
ensurethatanyotherrisksareidentified,andappropriatemeasurestakentoensurehis/hersafety.
Riskoffallingfromaheight
Theworker mustensure thatthemeasurestaken bythemaincontractortopreventfallingfroma
height are adequate to ensure his/her safety. If necessary, additional safety fencing or otherwise
shouldbeerected,and/orasafetyharnessshouldbeworn.
Riskofbeinghitbyalarge,heavyobjectduringlifting
Theworkermuststandwellbackduringliftingandmovingofanylargeobjects,inparticularduring
liftingthebearingintoposition.Ifcontrollingtheliftingoperation,theworkermustensurethatall
othersarealsosufficientlyfarbacktoensuretheywillnotbehitbytheobject.
Riskofdamagetohealththroughcontactwithfreshmortar
Theworkermustensurethathis/herhealthisnotjeopardisedbycontactwithfreshmortarorother
constructionmaterials,bywearingsuitableclothing,safetyglovesandsafetygogglesasappropriate
toprotecthis/herskinandeyesfromsplashes.
Riskduringwelding(ifapplicable)
Suitableequipmentmustbeusedduringanywelding,includingsafetyshieldandgloves.
RiskfromgeneralconstructionhazardsuseofappropriatePPE
PPE(PersonalProtectiveEquipment)mustbewornasappropriatedependingonthecircumstances
on site. This should include safety boots where injuries to feet may occur, a safety helmet where
swingingorfallingobjectsmayoccur,safetyglasseswhereeyeinjuriesmayoccur,andhighvisibility
vestorjacketwherehighvisibilityoftheworkerisappropriate.

14 RECORDINGOFWORKCARRIEDOUT
TheinstallationworkmustbeproperlyrecordedasaminimumusingtheInstallationReportincludedin
APPENDIX2:INSTALLATIONREPORT.Certaintypesofbearing(pot,sphericalanddisc)requirerecordingof
key dimensions (sliding and tilting gaps) immediately following installation, for reference during future
inspections.Thisisnotedandillustratedwithsketchesinthesameappendix.
Aphotographicrecord(usingadigitalcamera)shouldbecreated.Afterallworkshavebeencompletedand
allnecessarymeasureshavebeentakenandconfirmed,allreportsandrecordsmustbecarefullyfiledfor
futurereference.

InstallationManual Revised: COSU Revision: 08


forStructuralBearingsand Checked: MDEL Date: 22Aug2014
SeismicIsolators Approved:NMEN Page: 18/24

APPENDIX1:TOOLSETC.TOBEPROVIDEDBYTHECONTRACTOR

Liftingequipment(crane/forklift)tounloadgoodsandliftbearingsintoplace
Surveyorforpreciselevellingandpositioningofbearings
Twospiritlevelsforhorizontalpositioningofthebearings
Handtoolssuchashammersandwrenches
Weldingequipment
Gascutter(e.g.OxyAcetylene)
Cuttingdisc/anglegrinder
Shimplatestoplacebeneathbearings
Woodfortemporarysupportofbearings
Compressorset(foradjustingrecessesinconcreteifnecessary)
Pickuptruckfortransportation

Forgrouting:

Plastichalfpipe(100mm),or
flexibleplastichose(30mm)andafunnel
Formwork
Metalchains,numberdependingonbearingsizeandnumber
Toolsformixinggrout/mortar

InstallationManual Revised: COSU Revision: 08


forStructuralBearingsand Checked: MDEL Date: 22Aug2014
SeismicIsolators Approved:NMEN Page: 19/24

APPENDIX2:INSTALLATIONREPORT
NameofProject
ProjectInformation

StructureType(Steel/Concreteetc.)
Client
Contractor
BearingLocationDrawing(No.)
ResponsiblePersonforBearingInstallation
BrandNameandTypeofMortarProduct
ConstructionMethodoftheMortarBed
BearingLocation(accordingtoInstallationDrawing)
BearingTypeandNo.
AppliedLoadV[kN]
Presetting[mm]
BeforeInstallation

Movementrange[mm]
DateofDelivery
UnloadingandStoringaccordingtoManual
MarkingoftheBearings(TopPlate)
TypePlate(rightnotations)
WorkingScale(inorder)
CleanlinessandCorrosionProtection
TappedRods(typicallyPos.16,correctlyfixed)
CleanlinessofContactSurfacetoMortarBed
LiftingofSuperstructure(Date,Time)
PouringofMortarBed(Date,Time),Bottom
PouringofMortarBed(Date,Time),Top
Installation

ThicknessofMortarBed[mm],Top/Bottom / / / /
AirTemperature[C]
HorizontalInclinationErrorx/y[mm/m] / / / /
PreSettingandDirection[mm]
LoweringofSuperstructure(Date,Time)
Beginningofservice

RemovalofTemporaryTransportRods(Date,Time)
AirTemperature[C]
Checkofhoriz.inclinationerrorx/y[mm/m](Sect.6) / / / /
Displacementx/y[mm](sliding/deformingbearings) / / / /
Sliding,GuidebarandTiltingGaps Recordinitialvaluesfollowinginstallationinthetableonthe
(forspecifictypesofbearingasdetailed) followingpage,asappropriate

Comments


DateandSignature:Client
DateandSignature:MainContractor
DateandSignature:Engineer

InstallationManual Revised: COSU Revision: 08


forStructuralBearingsand Checked: MDEL Date: 22Aug2014
SeismicIsolators Approved:NMEN Page: 20/24

MeasurementofSlidinggaps,TiltinggapsandGuidebargaps

The following extract from the Inspection Report of the mageba Inspection & Maintenance Manual for
mageba bearings must be completed immediately following installation of each bearing, also to provide
referencedataforfutureinspections.

ElementofInspection Results/Remarks

(8.1) Slidinggaph(4locations) A: B: C: D:
slidingbearingsonly Conclusion:Minimumvalue=

(8.2) Tiltinggaps1(4locations) A: B: C: D:
tiltingbearingsonly Conclusion:Average=(A+B+C+D)/4=

(8.3) Guidebarclearances3(4sectors) A: B: C: D:
guidedslidingbearingsonly Conclusion:A+B= Conclusion:C+D=

Theslidinggap,h,isthethicknessofslidingmaterial(PTFE/RoboSlide)
whichcanbeseenfromtheside,i.e.whichextendsfromthesteelplate
inwhichitisrecessed.Itisillustratedbelowforspecifictypesofbearing,
butmustbemeasuredforallslidingbearings.Theslidinggapshouldbe
measured at the four locations A, B, C and D as shown on horizontal
sectionXX.
The tilting gap, s1, at any side of a bearing is the vertical distance that
the bearing can tilt at that side (i.e. the minimum vertical clearance at
that point between the upper and lower parts of the bearing). It is
illustratedbelowforspecifictypesofbearing,butmustbemeasuredfor
allbearingsthathaveupperandlowerpartsthat canrotaterelativeto
eachotheraboutahorizontalaxis.Thetiltinggapshouldbemeasuredat
thefourlocationsA,B,CandDasshownonhorizontalsectionXX.
The guidebar gap, s3, is the clearance between the sliding material on
theguidebaranditsopposingsurface.Itisillustratedbelowforspecific
types of bearing, but must be measured for all guided sliding bearings.
Theguidebargapshouldbemeasuredinthefoursectorsofthebearing,
A, B, C and D (which contain the measurement points A, B, C and D in HorizontalsectionXX
horizontalsectionXX,respectively).
Themeasuringdevice(e.g.feelergauge)mustprojectatleast10mmintothegapineachcase.Inthecase
of s3, the gauge should extend as far as possible into the gap (ideally as far as the bearings axis).
Measurementofthegapsmayrequirethetemporaryremovalofdustprotection.

InstallationManual Revised: COSU Revision: 08


forStructuralBearingsand Checked: MDEL Date: 22Aug2014
SeismicIsolators Approved:NMEN Page: 21/24

Illustrationofdimensionsh,s1ands3:

RESTONPOTbearings:

RESTONSPHERICALbearings:

RESTONDISCbearings:

InstallationManual Revised: COSU Revision: 08


forStructuralBearingsand Checked: MDEL Date: 22Aug2014
SeismicIsolators Approved:NMEN Page: 22/24

Ifcorrectlyinstalled,andproperlyinspectedandmaintained,magebastructuralbearingscanbeexpectedtoperform
wellformanyyearsasdemonstratedbythethousandsofbridgesandotherstructuresaroundtheworldthat
alreadyrelyonmagebabearings.Pleaseenablethebearingsyouinstalltoperformjustaswell.








RESTONPOTbearings:HongKongConventionCenter,with RESTONSPHERICALbearings:TranThiLyBridge,Vietnam,
loadsofupto209,000kNonasinglebearing eachcarryingloadsofupto250,000kN

RESTONDISCbearings:BandraWorliSeaLink,India LASTOBLOCKbearings:OaklandAirportshuttletrain,USA

RESTONPENDULUMseismicisolators:StavrosNiarchos Specialbearings:GoldenEarsBridge,Canada.Precompressed

FoundationCulturalCenter,Athens,Greece upliftbearingsallowing3.1mmovements




InstallationManual Revised: COSU Revision: 08


forStructuralBearingsand Checked: MDEL Date: 22Aug2014
SeismicIsolators Approved:NMEN Page: 23/24

Notes/Sketches

WORLDWIDECONNECTIONS

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