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Disusun untuk memenuhi tugas

mata kuliah Bahasa Inggris untuk Biologi yang
dibimbing oleh bapak Drs. I Wayan Sumberartha, M.Sc

Kelompok 1, Offering B 2017:

Dinda Ratu Ragil Ayu 170341615049

Karlina Syabania 170341615099
Nida Layli Asfia 170341615020
Syerly Afifatul Khorinah 170341615053


November 2017
Pranotomongso as Traditional Science in Java
The word pranotomongso, derived from the Javanese language, consists of two
words namely pronoto meaning provision and mongso which means
season. Pranotomongso is a matter of years based on the course of the sun that shifted
from the equator to the north and south for six months. Ecologically, the circulation of the
sun in one year affects the state of the season on earth.
According to Daldjoeni (1983) in Hakim (2002), pranotomongo has been known
by agrarian societies on the island of Java in the past. They recognize the time of planting
and rest time of agricultural land, so as to enable agricultural land and surrounding
ecosystems have time to restore the condition. The basic idea that the soil takes time to
rest after performing its function in producing food has been well understood by the
traditional community at the time, so that this pranotomongso system is considered more
able to ensure land sustainability.
Pranotomongso divides a year into 12 mangsa is kasa or kaji (I), karo (II), katelu
(III), kapat (IV), kalima (V), kanem (VI), kapitu (VII), kawolu (VIII), kasanga (IX),
kasapuluh (X), dhesta (XI), and saddha (XII) (Shindhunata, 2011). Pranotomongso is
also divided into four major seasons namely katigo (dry season), labuh (rainy season
often), rendheng (rainy season many), and mareng (season transition to the dry
season). Each season is divided into several different months. Katigo season is divided
into three months is kaso (kasa), karo and katigo (katiga). The labuh season is divided
into three months is kapat, kalimo (kalima), kanem. The rendheng season is divided into
three months namely kapitu, kawolu (kawalu), kesongo (kasanga). Season mareng
divided into three months that is kasepuluh (kadasa), apit lemah (hapitlemah), apit kayu
(hapitkayu). Each month has different natural clues as a basis for determining activities in
their land management (Hilmanto, 2010).
Prantamongso is also divided into 3 groups of seasons. The first season group is
called the main season consisting of 4 major seasons of bright seasons (82 days), semplah
(99 days), udan (82 days) and pengarep-arep (98 days). The second season group consists
of katiga (88 days), labuh (95 days) rendheng (94 days) and mareng (88 days). The third
season group called the mangsa consisting of 12 seasons in a year. In the third season
division is done by dividing a year consisting of 365 days into two. Then each half year is
broken down into six long-day prey as follows 41 days, 23 days, 24 days, 25 days, 27
days, and 43 days. The mangsa kasa starts at a time when the sun is in the zenith for the
North Line of June 22 and the mangsa of capiti begins on the 22nd of December when the
sun is in the Southern Limitian zenith. Both the mid-year periods are hand-in-hand with
the longest mangsa of bright or saddha and kasa for 82 days and the udan or kanem and
kapitu periods for 86 days. The bright mangsa is squeezed by two contrasting prey
namely harvest (destha) and famine (karo). While the udan mangsa is flanked by two
mangsa is kalima and kawolu. Pengarep-arep (kawolu, kasanga, and kasapuluh) which is
the breeding season of animals and staple food crops, dealing with prey semplah (katelu,
kapat and kalima) (Shindhunata, 2011).

Pranotomongso is one of the local wisdom of Javanese people related to

agricultural land management. The application of pranotomongso shows that Javanese
people will never get out of the environment. Pranata prey has been used as a method of
determining the seasons for farmers on the island of Java since the Hindu era. The
calendar is called the Saka calendar because it is believed to be composed by Aji Saka a
king of Medhang Kamulan. Along with the entry of Islam around the 16th century, Sultan
Agung changed the calendar Saka into Hijri calendar. This has an impact on the
computation of unfavorable prey (Sarwanto et al., 2010).

Pranotomongso is an inherited knowledge that is hereditary and local and

temporal. This means that pranotomongso is a certain knowledge at a certain time and
place. The standardization of pranotomongso was done during the reign of Sri Susuhunan
Paku Buwana VII in Surakarta on June 22, 1856 (Sindhunata, 2011). Actually the term
pranotomongso has been published in Centini fiber compiled in 1820-1833 by Paku
Buwono V which is published in the book The History of Java and Hien. The purpose of
pranotomongso treatment is to strengthen the dating system that regulates the farmers'
working procedures in following the seasonal cycle from year to year.
Pranotomongso has a cosmographic and bioclimatological aspect both of which
underlie the life of Indonesian society in economic and socio-cultural aspects.
Pranotomongso uses natural signs as a hint of time to grow crops. Natural signs used are
plant conditions, bediding phenomena or striking temperature changes early in the dry
season, animal behavior, movement of objects such as constellations of stars. The use of
signs made by the farmers can be used as a determinant of when the right time to start
and carry out agricultural activities.

Beside that pranoto mongso can be explained bioclimatologically.

Bioclimatology is the branch of climatology that study to the relation between climate
and living creature especially in plant. According Sindhunata (2011) there are twelve
relation and heres the following relation

1. Mangsa Kasa, sotya murca ing embanan (Ratna jatuh dari tatahan) describes the
foliage began to fall. Natural phenomena with foliage, dry land, and shrinking
springs \.
2. Mangsa Karo, bantala rengka (tanah retak) this season Palawija began to grow,
Randu tree, and Mango leaf began to bloom.
3. Manga Katigo, suta manut ing bapa means that in this season lungan starts
creeping, lungan means child (suta), lanjaran means father.
4. Mangsa Kapat, wasspo kunembang jroning kalbu means the sources begin to dry,
the tears are likened, kalbu is the heart which means the source of the spring.
These natural phenomena signify the harvest of Palawija, Bamboo and others.
5. Mangsa Kalima, pancuran emas sumawur ing jagad means that pancuran is like
rain, sumawur spread on earth. The condition began to cold, Tamarind and
Palawija trees began to sprout, snakes and flies sprang up.
6. Mangasa Kanem, rasa mulyo kasucen means the season of fruits. The nature
condition of rambutan, durian, and mangosteen began to ripe. The time to
cultivate rice field and disperse paddy in rice field.
7. Mangsa Kapitu, wisa kentar ing maruto means the season of deceases, for
example rain, flood, and slide.
8. Mangsa Kawolu, ajrah jronging kayun ( tersiar dalam kehendak) means paddy in
the rice field starts to grow and caterpillar starts to sprang up.
9. Mangsa Kasongo, wedare wacana mulya (keluarnya sabda mulya) means crickets
and gangsir start to ring, the gareng start to sound ngereng.
10. Mangsa Kasepuluh, gedong minep jroning kalbu ( gedong tertutup kalbu) means
paddy starts yellowing and harvesting, small birds start making nests, incubating,
and hatching.
11. Mangsa Dhesto, sotya sinarawedi (intan diasah) means sotya means little birds,
sinar wedi is fed. The paddy starts to harvest also pala pendhem and tubers.
12. Mangsa Soddha, tirta sah saking sasana (air lenyap dari tempatnya) means water
is sweat and sasana is body because in this season people rarely dry as the
weather is cold.

According to Thomas Berry from Sindhunata (2011) pranotomongso showed the

spirituality of earth that is a tribute and an appreciation of the earth where people live.
Nature is the origin place of humans who provide what we need like eating, supporting,
guiding, and showing the way in humans. In addition, pranotomongso shows that
Javanese farmers dare to live from the spirituality of the earth by capturing the signs of
the earth. It is based on an interconnected relationship between man and nature.

Pranotomongso system is one of the systems Indigenous Science or pure science

which comes from Javanese. Pranototmongso system becomes reflection system for
human to learn and see the changing in nature. Furthermore pranotomongso helps farmer
in designing economic life of season-to-season crops. In the other words, pranotomongso
is ethnoscience which is develop in people. Ethnoscience examine the classification to
find out the structures used to regulate the environment and what is considered important
by an ethnic, resident of a culture. Ethnoscience in society is still in the form of concrete
experience as a result of human interaction and environment. Therefore, it is necessary to
translate ethnoscience into a high science language (Sarwanto et al, 2010).
Along with the marked changes in time the advancement of knowledge of many
farmers leave the pranotomongso system as a guide. This is due to global climate change
that makes the season is erratic and make it difficult for traditional farmers. However,
farmers in Yogyakarta are still trying to preserve the use of pranotomongso as a planting

Implementation of prey in the field of agriculture is necessary to keep in mind that

pranotomongso is a local wisdom that is able to overcome the problems of agriculture
such as the effectiveness of the use of agricultural land and the high demand for food.
Pranotomongso must be seated back in the right place so that this local wisdom can still
be utilized according to the portion. Some efforts that can be done is to integrate the
indigenous science of pranotomongso system in Biology learning in school and provide
guidance to farmers to plant rice by following the planting season calendar.

Indigenous science or original science in the form of pranotomongso system in

one of the student teaching materials on ecosystem and environmental material that
includes conservation and environmental management. By teaching students the
pranotomongso system provides students with conservation education as early as
possible. Inside the pranotomongso system there is a concept of environmental
management with the aim of maintaining environmental functions in order to remain
sustainable. In the application of the pranotomongso system makes the farmers
automatically plant the plants according to the nature with the characteristics of planting
in each season. In addition, by applying a system of pranotomongso farmers also do
intercropping that can inhibit the fragility of the soil. Land management conducted with
agricultural timings can also improve sustainable yields on crops, improve ecological
conditions on land, and harmonize with nature so that sustainable natural functions are

Biology learning by using indigenous science is very possible applied in Biology

learning, so that Biology learning will run contextually according to the condition faced.
In addition, by raising the indigenous science will open opportunities for regions and
organizer education to adapt, modify and contextualize the curriculum in accordance with
the reality of conditions in the field, both demographic, geographic, sociological,
psychological and cultural students. It also opens up the opportunity to innovate
pedagogic based on local wisdom, so students can learn according to their own traditions
by learning based on local wisdom owned area, so that it can not be separated from the
prevailing culture in the social system of students (Sarwanto et al., 2014)

Pranotomongso can be one of Biology teaching materials in schools with the goal
of continuing to preserve local wisdom and as an effort to conserve natural resources in
the agricultural sector, pranotomongso can also be used as a reference for various natural
phenomena that are thought to emerge in response or weather conditions or climate
change. By studying pranotomongso expected people able to read natural phenomena
well, because society must be able to adapt in case of change of weather condition or
climate. In relation to this, the prey order remains reliable in relation to the observation of
various natural phenomena of the present age, especially in agriculture.

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bekerja sama dengan Bentara Budaya.