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1

CHAPTER I
DISCUSSION

II
2

DEFINITION OF TERMS

1. ABSORPTION LOSS loss of energy in one circuit caused by conversion into


another form of energy. The absorption of signal energy in the transmission
medium to the presence of raindrops, water vapor, and molecular oxygen in the
atmosphere.
2. ANTENNA- is an electrical device which converts electrical power into radio
waves, and vice versa. It is usually used with a radio transmitter or radio receiver.
3. ANTENNA GAIN - refers to the directivity gain of an antenna compared to a
reference antenna (isotropic antenna).
4. COORDINATES two magnitude (longitude and latitude) that describe and
determine the position or location of any place on the earth`s surface.
5. EARTH BULGE (EB) refers to the ideal of the earth curve as a circle.
6. EFFECTIVE ISOTROPIC RADIATED POWER (EIRP) output power on the
transmitted side.
7. FREQUENCY (F) number of cycles per second.
8. FADE MARGIN is the measure of how much attenuation due to multipath and
rain fading can be accommodation by the radio system without exceeding a
minimum level performance.
9. FADING it is the variation in signal strength due to some factors.
10. FREE SPACE LOSS (FSL) the signal attenuation that would result if all
obstructing, scattering or reflecting influences were sufficiently removed so as to
have no effect on propagation.
11. FRESNEL CLEARANCE (H) is the criterion to determine whether the earth is
sufficiency removed from the radio horizon of signal to free space propagation.
12. FRESNEL ZONE sense of concentric ellipsoid surface which surrounds the
straight line path between the antennas.
13. ISOTROPIC RECEIVE LEVEL (ISL) output on the receive side.
14. LINK BUDGET is accounting of all the gains and losses from the transmitter,
through the medium (free space, cable, waveguide, fiber, etc.) to the receiver in a
telecommunication system.
3

15. MICROWAVES are radio waves with wavelengths ranging from as long as one
meter to as short as one millimeter, or equivalently, with frequencies between
300MHz (0.3GHz) and 300 GHz.
16. MICROWAVE COMMUNICATION high radio frequency link specially designed
to provide signal connection between two specific points.
17. NET PATH LOSS (NPL) the sum of all gains and losses within the path length.
18. PATH ANALYSIS refers to the means of determining the system performance
as a function of the desired path length, required configuration, and prevailing
climate and terrain characteristic.
19. PATH LOSS is the reduction in power density (attenuation) of an
electromagnetic wave as it propagates through space. Path loss is a major
component in the analysis and design of the link budget of a telecommunication
system.
20. PATH PROFILE a graph showing the path of the beam relative to the earth`s
surface indicating the high and low contours take a set of a topographical maps.
21. RADOME is a structural, weather proof enclosure that protects a microwave
antenna. The radome is constructed of material that minimally attenuates the
electromagnetic signal transmitted or receive by the antenna.
22. RECEIVED SIGNAL LEVEL it is the amount of input signal into the receiver from
the waveguide. It is also refers to the sum of all losses and gains on the transmitter
output.
23. RECEIVER SENSITIVITY refers to the minimum signal level required for proper
receiver operation.
24. REFLECTION LOSS it occurs in a line which results in part of energy being
reflected back to the source.
25. RELIABILITY the ability of the system or subsystem to perform within the
prescribed parameters of quality of service.
26. TRANSMISSION LINE LOSS it is the actual power that is loss in transmitting a
signal from one point to another through a medium or along the line.
27. TRANSMITTED POWER (PT) it is the amount of microwave carrier output,
usually expressed in dBm.
4

28. TRANSMITTER a set of equipment used to generate and transmit


electromagnetic waves carrying messages or signals.
29. WATER VAPOR LOSS it is the attenuation due to the absorption of radio
frequency energy by water vapor in the atmosphere.
30. WAVEGUIDE LOSS it is the amount of loss, usually expressed in dB per unit
length (dB or dB/m) of signal it travels in the waveguide.
5

FORMULAS

COORDINATES
Find a reference point nearest to the site namely
Xref and Yref
Then use,

=
5

=
5
Where:
A and A is in millimeters (mm)
B and B is in millimeters (mm)
X is in minute
Y is in minute
SITE COORDINATES
Longitude= Yref+Y
Latitude= Xref+X
GREAT CIRCLE DISTANCE
A= |Longitudesite2- Longitudesite1|
B=90- Latitudesite1
C=90- Latitudesite2
cos = (cos ) (cos ) + [(sin )(sin )(cos )]
60 1.151 1.609
= = () ( )( )( )
1 1 1
EARTH BULGE ( ):
1 2
=
12.75()

where: d1 = distance of less elevated site to obstruction, (km)


d2 = distance of more elevated site to obstruction, (km)
4
k = effective earth radius factor ( 3 )
6

GROUND ELEVATION ( )
= +
where: e0 = elevation of the considered obstruction, (m)
eb = earth bulge, (m)

OBSTRUCTION HEIGHT( )
= + +
where: e0 = elevation of the considered obstruction, (m)
eb= earth bulge, (m)
TG= Tree Growth (15m)

CENTER FREQUENCY ( )
+
() =
2
where: F = Transmit Frequency, (GHz)
F= Receive Frequency, (GHz)

FIRST FRESNEL ZONE (f1):


1 2
f1=17.3

where: d1 = distance of less elevated site to obstruction, (km)


d2 = distance of more elevated site to obstruction, (km)
D = great circle distance, (km)
Fc= center frequency, (GHz)

FRESNEL CLEARANCE (H):


H= 0.6 x f1
1 (21)
H= - h0 + h1

h1 = a 1 + e 1
h2 = a 2 + e 2
7

where: d1 = distance of less elevated site to obstruction, (km)


d2 = distance of more elevated site to obstruction, (km)
D = great circle distance, (km)
H = Fresnel Clearance, (m)
h0 = total height of the obstruction, (m)
h1 = total height elevation at the lower site, (m)
h2 = total height elevation at the higher site, (m)
a1 = antenna height of less elevated site, (km)
a2 = antenna height of more elevated site, (km)
e1 = elevation of the less elevated site, (m)
e2 = elevation of the more elevated site, (m)
f1 = radius of first Fresnel zone, (m)

ANTENNA HEIGHT
an = h n + e n

ANTENNA ORIENTATION
A= |Longitudesite2- Longitudesite1|

2 1
sin( 2 )
tan = [cot( )][
2 2 2 + 1)
cos( 2

2 1
+ cos( 2 )
tan = [cot( )] [
2 2 2 + 1)
sin( 2

+
=( )( )
2 2
+
=( )( )
2 2
8

DIRECTION OF ANTENNA
N or S (90-X) E or W
N or S (Y-90) E or W
ANTENNA PANNING
2 - h1
1=2=tan1 ( )

where:h1 = total height elevation at the lower site, (m)


h2 = total height elevation at the higher site, (m)

D = great circle distance, (km)

1=2= Vertical Planning Angle

COEFFICIENT OF REFLECTION

1 2
= 1 = 2

1
=
1+

where:h1 = total height elevation at the lower site, (m)


h2 = total height elevation at the higher site, (m)
d1 = distance of less elevated site to obstruction, (km)
d2 = distance of more elevated site to obstruction, (km)
=coefficient of reflection

POINT OF REFLECTION
dR1 =
dR2 = D dR1
where: =coefficient of reflection
D = great circle distance, (km)

REFLECTION ANGLE
1
A =tan1 ( )
1
2
B =tan1 ( )
2
9

CONSIDERED LOSSES
ATMOSPHERIC LOSSES (AL)
AL = A0 + + AR
2

Where: AL= Atmospheric Loss


Ao= Oxygen Absorption Loss, (dB)
Ah2o= Water Vapor Loss, (dB)
AR= Rain Loss, (dB)

OXYGEN ABSORPTION LOSS (AO)


6.09 4.81
AO = [7.19x103 + 2 +0.227 + ] ( 2 )(103 )()
( 57)2 +1.5

Where: Ao= Oxygen Absorption Loss, (dB)


Fc = Center Frequency, (GHz)
D = Distance, (km)

WATER VAPOR LOSS ( )


3 9
= [0.067 + +
( 22.3) + 7.3 ( 183.3)2 + 6
2

4.3
+ ] ( 2 )(12104 )()
( 323.8)2 + 10
Where: Ah2o= Water Vapor Loss, (dB)
Fc = Center Frequency, (GHz)
D = Distance, (km)

RAINFALL ATTENUATION (M)

log( 1 ) log( )
=
log( 1 ) log( 2 )
10

NOTE:
F1 < FC < F2
k1 < k < k2
a1 < a < a2

= log 1 [log(1 ) [] [log 1 ) log( 2 )]

a = a1 M (a1 a2)
where: M= Rain Attenuation
Fc = Center Frequency, (GHz)
a1 = antenna height of less elevated site, (km)
a2 = antenna height of more elevated site, (km)

EFFECTIVE RAIN PATH LENGTH

DO = 35e(-0.015)(R)
Y = (K) (R)

Where: R= Rainfall Amount, ( )

RAIN LOSS (AR)



DE =
1+

AR = (DE)(Y)

MISCELLANEOUS PATH LOSS(MPL)


= + +
Where: RL= Reflection Loss, (dB)
DL= Diffraction Loss, (dB)
AL= Absorption Loss, (dB)
11

FREE PATH SPACE LOSS (FSL)


= 92.44 + 20 log + 20 log

COUPLING LOSS
ODU: There is typically a 3 dB in the coupler

TOTAL FIXED LOSS (TFL)


= 2 () + () + 2 ( )
where: TFL= Total Fixed Loss, (dB)
RL= Radome Loss, (dB)*radome specification
AML= Antenna Misalignment Loss, (dB)*0.25
IL= Insertion Loss, (dB) *connector specification

TOTAL LOSS (TL)


= + +
Where: TL= Total Loss, (dB)
FSL= Free Space Loss, dB)
TFL= Total Fixed Loss, (dB)

ANTENNA GAIN (AG)


= 17.8 + 20 log + 20 log
Where: Bm= antenna Diameter, (m) *antenna specification

TOTAL GAIN (TG)


= ( )(2)
Where: AG= Antenna Gain, (dB)
TG = Total Gain (dB)
12

NET PATH LOSS


= | |
Where: NPL= Net Path Loss, (dB)
TG = Total Gain (dB)
TL= Total Loss, (dB)

RECEIVED SIGNAL LEVEL (RSL)


=
Where: NPL= Net Path Loss, (dB)
RSL= Received Signal Level, (dBm)
Pt= transmitter Power, (dBm) *radio specification

FADE MARGIN (FM)


=
Where: RSL= Received Signal Level, (dBm)
FM= Fade Margin. (dB)
IT= Improvement threshold, (dBm) *radio specification

NON-DIVERSITY ANNUAL OUTAGE



( )
= ()()(1.5 )(3 )(1.25106 ) [10 10 ]

= 1
Where: a= Roughness factor/terrain characteristics
b= Climate factor/characteristics

R = Rainfall Amount, ( )

RELIABILITY
= 100%(1 )
= 100%(1 )
13

IMPROVEMENT FACTOR OF FREQUENCY DIVERSITY



7105 2 10 10
=


=

where: UNDP = Non-diversity probability for a given Path
OR= Over Reliability

OVERALL RELIABILITY
= 1 2
where: R = Reliability

OR= Over Reliability


14

CHAPTER II
LOCATION OF SITE
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Site Description

Cotabato City is the regional center of the Autonomous Region in Muslim

Mindanao (ARMM) but the city is administratively part of the Soccsksargen region, which

is composed of the provinces of South Cotabato, (North) Cotabato, Sultan Kudarat,

and Saranggani, as well as the highly urbanized city of General Santos. The name

Cotabato was derived from the Maguindanao word kuta wato and the Malay Bruneian

word of Kota Batu, or City of Stone; kota mean city or fortress, and batu mean rock or

stone. Cotabato City has a total land area of 176.0 square kilometers with 17

municipalities and one city consisting of: Alamada, Aleosan, Antipas, Arakan, Banisilan,

Carmen, Kabacan, Kidapawan, Libungan, Mlang, Magpet, Makilala, Matalam, Midsayap,

Pigcawayan, Pikit, President Roxas, and Tulunan.

The Province of Cotabato through COTELCO will intensify its electrification

projects to serve those unenergized barangays for as long as its settlement areas are not

encroaching over protection lands. Upgrading and expansion of the existing power lines

will be prioritized to minimize frequent power interruption. The operation of the Mt. Apo

Geothermal project will augment the service electricity.

Telecommunications facilities in the province are not a problem considering that

Cellular Mobile Phones or cellphones are popularly used nowadays both in rural and

urban areas. Postal services are still in place in all municipalities though not all have

permanent postal office buildings. There are also existing private companies which are

engage in mail and package delivery such as LBC, JRS, and FedEx. The province has
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access to the internet services serving almost all municipalities/city. Radio stations are

also established in several municipality/city in the province.

The development of other potential sources of energy shall be explored and

promoted. Among the options that could be considered are mini-hydro, windmill, and

solar. Household level generation of bio-gas may be developed. The Pulangi V HEP

(hydro-electric plant) project located in the Municipality of Pres.Roxas is expected to

generate 300MW of electricity. Field survey and preparatory civil works could commence

when favorable situation is attained in the project area.

Targeted to augment the supply of power in the province is the promotion of small

hydro-electric plants. Identified for build-operate-transfer (BOT) scheme is the

construction of HEP located in Arakan Valley Complex. This is expected to generate 11.9

MW of electricity. COTELCO is also vigorously exploring the potential of Kabacan River

in Pangoan, Magpet for their own hydro-electric power plant.


17

SITE A

Pigcawayan,Cotabato

HISTORY

Before its creation as a separate and independent Political Unit, Pigcawayan

together with Alamada and Libungan were component barangays of

Midsayap. Pigcawayan, however at that time was more progressive than the two

mentioned.

How Pigcawayan got its name remains undocumented, however two version had

been given by the early settlers which was passed on from one generation to another.

The first version was that, the place now known as Pigcawayan was considered as a

battle ground for the Iranons and the Maguindanaoans. Due to this fighting the inhabitants

would abandon the place to be occupied by the victors. From this evolved the Muslim

word Pighawaan which meant an abandoned place.

The second version, refers to an incident when an American School

Superintendent visited the place. By coincidence it was also the time when folks were

roasting a pig with the use of bamboo pole rotated over live charcoal. The word pig

bamboo as said by the superintendent was translated into the local dialect Pigcawayan

the present name of the municipality.


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MAP AND LOCATION

Country: Philippines

Region: SOCCSKARGEN (Region XII)

Province: Cotabato

District: 2nd District of Cotabato

Land Area: 340.1 km


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CLIMATE

Pigcawayan is the last municipality of Cotabato Province coming from Davao City

to Cotabato City. It is 26 kilometres (16 mi) from Cotabato City, 32 kilometres (20 mi)

from Awang Airport and 30 kilometres (19 mi) from the nearest seaport which is the Polloc

Port of Parang, Maguindanao. The coldest months are December and January. The

hottest are April and May.

POLITICAL SUBDIVISION

Pigcawayan is politically subdivided into 40 barangays:

Anick (Upper Balogo) Libungan Torreta Payong-payong

Upper Baguer (Baguer) Lower Baguer Poblacion I

Balacayon Lower Pangangkal Poblacion II

Balogo Malagakit Poblacion III

Banucagon Maluao Poblacion IV

Bulucaon North Manuangan Presbitero

Buluan Matilac Renibon

Buricain Midpapan I Simsiman

Capayuran Mulok South Manuangan

Central Panatan New Culasi Tigbawan

Datu Binasing New Igbaras Tubon

Datu Mantil New Panay Midpapan II

Kadingilan Upper Pangangkal Cabpangi


20

Kimarayag Patot

POPULATIONS

Based on the 2010 census, the city has a total population of 59,975 people. The

religion is predominantly Christian, although there are many Muslims residing in the city

as well. The main languages are Cebuano and Hiligaynon, while Tagalog

and English are the secondary languages.

Cebuanos and Hiligaynons are the major ethnic groups in the city. Other ethnic

groups residing in the area are the Ilocanos, Maguindanaons and Manobos. Cebuano is

the most widely spoken language, especially in the city proper. English is considered as

the medium of instruction in schools and other learning institutions; it is also

predominantly used in major government agencies in their transactions and reports. Laws

and ordinances in the city are all written in English. Most of the inhabitants can also speak

Filipino.

ECONOMY

The Municipality of Pigcawayan is purely an agricultural area. Common Industrial

activities are rice and corn mills. There are 11 Ricemills (electric operated) found in

Poblacion (2), Tubon (4), North and South Manuangan (2), Upper Baguer (10), Balogo

(1), and Capayuran (1). Aside from these, there are also Twenty 20 Baby Cono/Kiskisan

that can be found in (13) barangays.


21

Processed milled rice by Rice Mills are usually brought/sold to Cotabato City,

Davao City and in some parts of South Cotabato. Milled rice produced by "Kiskisan/Baby

Cono" were usually for households consumption by residents of barangays.

There are three cottage industries such as furniture shops using wood, bamboo

and rattan. Other industries are Rice grinder, mini sawmill and machine shops .

POWER AND ELECTRICITY

Power utility in the province comes from two energy sources the NAPOCOR Agus

Grid in Iligan transmitted through its Tacurong Substations and the Mindanao 1

Geothermal Power Plant at the foot of Mt. Apo in Ilomavis, Kidapawan City which

produces 97MW of electricity power distribution handled by COTELCO.


22

SITE B

Barangay Sudapin, Kidapawan City, Cotabato

HISTORY

Sudapin is one of the barangays of Kidapawan City. Kidapawan City is in the

Province of North Cotabato.

Kidapawan, the city hailed as A Spring in the Highland, comes from the words

tida which means spring and pawan meaning highland. The city is found at the bottom

of the majestic Mt. Apo, the countrys tallest mountain making it a great spot and first-rate

tourist attraction. Kidapawan is situated at the southeastern section of Cotabato province,

placed in the middle of three other major cities of Davao, Cotabato,General Santos and

Koronadal city.

Its first settlers were predominantly Manobos. The influx of Christian settlers from

Luzon and the Visayas has resulted in the evolution of the word Tidapawan

to Kidapawan.

Strategically located at the foot of Mount Apo, the Philippines' tallest peak at

10,311 feet above sea level, Kidapawan City bustles with renewed energy as it opens its

doors to the world. Mount Apo and its other scenic attractions make the province of

Cotabato a potential world-class tourist destination.


23

MAP AND LOCATION

Country: Philippines

Region: SOCCSKARGEN (Region XII)

Province: Cotabato

District: 2nd District of Cotabato

Land Area: 358.47 km2

CLIMATE

Kidapawan is located at the foot of Mount Apo in the south-eastern section of

Cotabato province, placed in the middle of other major cities of General Santos, Davao
24

City, and Cagayan de Oro. Kidapawan lies outside the typhoon belt and has a mild climate

characterized by wet and dry seasons. The coldest months are December and January.

The hottest are April and May.

POLITICAL SUBDIVISION

Kidapawan City is politically subdivided into 40 barangays.

Amas - (Urban) Lanao - (Urban) Paco - (Rural)


Amazion - (Rural) Linangcob - (Rural) Patadon East
Balabag - (Rural) Luvimin - (Rural) Perez - (Rural)
Balindog - (Urban) Macebolig - (Rural) Poblacion - (Urban)
Binoligan - (Rural) Magsaysay - (Rural) San Isidro - (Rural)
Birada - (Urban) Malinan - (Rural) San Roque - (Rural)
Gayola - (Rural) Manongol - (Rural) Santo Nio - (Rural)
Ginatilan - (Rural) Marbel(Embac) - (Rural) Sibawan - (Rural)
Ilomavis - (Rural) Mateo - (Rural) Sikitan - (Rural)
Indangan - (Rural) Meohao - (Rural) Singao - (Rural)
Junction - (Rural) Mua-an - (Rural) Sudapin - (Urban)
Kalaisan - (Rural) New Bohol - (Rural) Sumbac - (Rural)
Kalasuyan - (Rural) Nuangan - (Urban)
Katipunan - (Rural) Onica - (Rural)

POPULATIONS

Based on the 2010 census, the city has a total population of 125,447 people, up

from 117,610 in 2007. The religion is predominantly Christian, although there are many

Muslims residing in the city as well. The main languages are Cebuano and Hiligaynon,

while Tagalog and English are the secondary languages.

Cebuanos and Hiligaynons are the major ethnic groups in the city. Other ethnic

groups residing in the area are the Ilocanos, Maguindanaons and Manobos. Cebuano is
25

the most widely spoken language, especially in the city proper. English is considered as

the medium of instruction in schools and other learning institutions; it is also

predominantly used in major government agencies in their transactions and reports. Laws

and ordinances in the city are all written in English. Most of the inhabitants can also speak

Filipino.

ECONOMY

Kidapawan City is classified as a 2nd-class component city in accordance to

Department of Finance order No.23-08. In 2006, it yielded an income of Php268.94

million, of which 73.8 percent constituted the Internal Revenue Allotment. Of its

Php314.22 million total expenditures for the year, 25.9 percent were expended on

economic services.

The City is considered as the provinces industrial hub. It plays a pivotal role in the

economic development of the province and its adjacent areas. It is the commercial and

trading hub of six neighboring municipalities. It lies at the heart of two large domestic

markets: General Santos City, Davao City and Cotabato City.

The flower-cutting industry is a primary source of livelihood among Cotabateos,

especially those residing in Kidapawan City. In addition to ornamental and forest tree

seedlings, flowers such as roses, anthuriums and orchids are abundantly grown locally

providing a very promising and highly profitable source of livelihood and business in the

area.
26

Crops abundantly grown in the area include abaca, rubber, corn, rice, coconut,

and vegetables.

POWER AND ELECTRICITY

Kidapawan City, which is the capital of North Cotabato, and the gateway to Mt.

Apo, is host to two large geothermal plants, whose private operator is the Energy

Development Corporation, only supplies power to large-scale buyers outside of Central

Mindanao, and not to residents. Cotabato Electric Cooperative is the electric cooperative

which also extend electric utilities in some Barangays.


27

Repeater 1: Aleosan, Cotabato

Physical

Aleosan is within the political boundary of Cotabato Province. It is approximately

65 kilometres (40 mi) from the capital town of Amas which is barely two (2) hours ride

from the seat of its municipal government. It is bounded on the west by Midsayap; on the

north by Libungan and on the east and south by Pikit. It is accessible to land transportation

from Cotabato City traversing the municipalities of Maguindanao to Kidapawan up to

Davao City, as it is located along the major transport route linking the provinces of

Maguindanao, Cotabato and Davao del Sur.

Economy

The municipality is endowed with abundant agricultural raw materials suitable for

processing. These include coconut, banana, rubber, mango and coffee. There are small-

scale enterprises but these are not sustainable due to inadequate capital. A cassava

processing plant was shut down due to insufficient supply of raw materials and low quality

of starch produced. The area however, is best suited for mango production and there is

a need to develop the industry to cater the growing needs of the locality. The

municipality's livestock industry has great potentials being one of the top producers and

supplier of livestock in the province.

Climate

Aleosan area belongs to the fourth type of climate or the intermediate "E" with no

distinct dry season. Rainfall is evenly distributed throughout the year with heavier rains

from May to September. This type of climate conditions is suitable for the production of
28

crops like rice, corn, mangoes, jackfruit, vegetables and root crops, which are considered

seasonal crops and permanent crops like coconut, rubber, coffee, cacao and orchard

crops.

Population

As of 2015 census, the population is 39,405


29

Repeater 2: Kabacan, Cotabato

Physical

Kabacan is centrally located in Cotabato Province, bounded on the north by Pres.

Roxas, on the east by the Mun. of Matalam, Mlang on the south and on the west by the

municipalities of Carmen and Datu Montawal, Maguindanao. It is approximately 94

kilometres (58 mi) from Cotabato airport, 194 kilometres (121 mi) to Davao airport and

188 kilometres (117 mi) to General Santos International Airport.

The landscape is characterized by almost regular landscape of flat terrain. The

high mountains and rolling hills leaping close to the river plus the narrow plains have

varied topographical features. Other features are moderately sloping and strongly sloping.

Economy

Commercial activities are in the Public Market and along the National Highway and

USM Avenue. Kabacan serve as a business and trading center for the adjacent

municipalities of Carmen, Pagagawan, Pikit and Matalam. The majority of the commercial

establishments are engaged in general merchandizing, sari-sari and dry goods. One big

shopping center and drug store owned by a big company are along the National Highway.

There are four banks and three gasoline stations.

Climate

Type B climate prevails in the municipality. It is characterized by dry season for

one to three months with less than 76 millimeters or more rainfall per month throughout

the year. The wettest month has more than three times the rainfall of the driest month.
30

This type of climate is conducive to intensive rice cultivation and plantings of bananas

and other fruit trees.

Population

In the 2015 census, the population of Kabacan, Cotabato, was 89,161 people.
31

SITE CONSIDERATIONS

SITE SELECTION

Before the construction of transmitting and receiving stations, one must conduct

feasibility studies on the site where it should rise. There are factors to be

considered in the selection of site.

1. Geographical coordinates of the proposed sites, political subdivisions,

access roads and physical objects with which the sites can be identified.

2. Mean sea level elevation of the sites.

3. Access roads from the nearest improved roads to the proposed

locations.

4. Nearest location where commercial electrical power may be obtained.

5. Any unusual weather conditions to be expected in the area, including the

maximum expected wind velocity and range of temperatures.

MICROWAVE ANTENNA SELECTION

1. Operating frequency band. To be approved by NTC.

2. Gain. For a given frequency band, gain is primarily a function of antenna

size.

3. Wind load.
32

RADIO SYSTEM CONSIDERATION

1. The amount of radio gain available, as determined by transmitter power

output and receiver noise characteristics.

2. Operating frequency band and required frequency spacing between radio

channels, as determined by transmitter deviation, receiver selectivity, and

frequency stability.

3. Primary power requirements and options available.

4. The receiver threshold or receiver sensitivity should always be considered.

5. The data capacity of the radio equipment to determine how much

information it can carry.

RADOME

A radome is a protective covering used to prevent snow, ice, water, or debris

from accumulating on a microwave antenna. Heated radomes are available for

use in areas where severe ice and snow conditions exist. The use of a radome

results in lower antenna gain.

TRANSMISSION LINE

Transmission lines provide the means of coupling the transmitter and receiver

to the antenna. The radiated output power of the transmitter will be substantially

reduced if the transmission line is incorrectly used or if length is too long, so

precautions should be taken to use the correct type of line for the radio equipment

used, and to keep all transmission line length is short.Tower Consideration


33

1. Size and weight of the antenna and transmission line system.

2. The anticipated wind loading.

3. The required antenna beam stability.

4. The height necessary to permit the antenna to clear all surrounding and

path obstacles.

5. The amount of land available in the erection of the tower.

6. Soil conditions where the tower to be built.

7. Proximity to airports or airlines, which brings possibility of government

restriction on permissible.

8. Color coding of the tower is considered.


9. Provided with beacon light and lightning protection system.
34

CHAPTER III
PATH PROFILE
35

HOP 1
36

COORDINATES CALCULATION

SITE A
Latitude: (1min=37.2mm)
1
1.1842 = 0.03183333 = 01 54.6" + 715 00"
37.2
= 716 54.6"

Longitude: (1min=36.6mm)
1
0.1139 = 0.003112021 = 00 11.2" + 12425 00"
36.6
= 12425 11.2"

REPEATER 1
Latitude: (1min=37.2mm)
1
1.426 = 0.3833333 = 02 18" + 710 00"
37.2
= 712 18"

Longitude: (1min=36.6mm)
1
0.1139 = 0.0366667 = 02 12" + 12435 00"
36.6
= 12437 12"
37

GREAT CIRCLE DISTANCE

@HOP1 (Site A to Repeater 1)


Site A:
Longitude : 124 25 11.2
Latitude : 7 1654. 6
Repeater 1:
Longitude : 124 37 12
Latitude : 7 12 18

A= |Longitudesite2- Longitudesite1|
= |124 37 12- 124 25 11.2 |
= 0 12 0.8 = 0.2

B= 90- Latitudesite1
= 90-7 1654. 6
= 82.71816667

C=90- Latitudesite2
= 90-7 1218
= 82.795

cos = (cos ) (cos ) + [(sin )(sin )(cos )]


cos = (cos 82.71816667) (cos 82.795)
+ [(sin 82.71816667)(sin 82.795)(cos 0.2)]
cos = 0.9999931054
= 0.2127615022

60 1.151 1.609
= = () ( )( )( )
1 1 1

60 1.151 1.609
= = (0.2127615022) ( )( )( )
1 1 1
= 23.64
38

EARTH BULGE AND OBSTRUCTION


HOP1
SITE A: Pigcawayan, Cotabato REPEATER 1: Aleosan, Cotabato
Longitude : 124 25 11.2 Longitude : 124 37 12
Latitude : 7 1654. 6 Latitude : 7 12 18

d1 d2
=
4
12.75
3
203.5
= 4 H= 0.6xF
12.75
3

1 2
= . f1=17.3

,
= + +
, = 98 + 4.117647059 + 15
, = .
TOTAL DISTANCE: 23.5km
Path Path Distance Distance Earth Buldge Ground Type of Tree Obstruction First Fresnel Clearance
Profil Elevatio from from (E.B) Elevation (EO Terrain Growt Height (H'O)
e No. n (E.O.) Site A Site B + EB) h (TG) (f1) (H)
(d1) (d2)
0 13 0 23.5 0 13 Rice Paddy, 15 28 0 0
Settlements
1 13 0.5 23 0.676470588 13.67647059 Rice Paddy 0 13.67647059 3.359774278 2.015864567
2 13 1 22.5 1.323529412 14.32352941 Rice Paddy 15 29.32352941 4.699508504 2.819705102
3 13 1.5 22 1.941176471 14.94117647 Rice Paddy 15 29.94117647 5.691387434 3.41483246
4 13 2 21.5 2.529411765 15.52941176 Rice Paddy 0 15.52941176 6.496738832 3.898043299
5 13 2.5 21 3.088235294 16.08823529 Rice Paddy 0 16.08823529 7.178617816 4.307170689
6 13 3 20.5 3.617647059 16.61764706 Rice Paddy 0 16.61764706 7.769601393 4.661760836
7 13 3.5 20 4.117647059 17.11764706 Rice Paddy 0 17.11764706 8.289153857 4.973492314
8 15 4 19.5 4.588235294 19.58823529 Rice Paddy 0 19.58823529 8.750008644 5.250005187
39

9 15 4.5 19 5.029411765 20.02941176 Rice Paddy 0 20.02941176 9.161028581 5.496617149


10 15 5 18.5 5.441176471 20.44117647 Rice Paddy 0 20.44117647 9.528664746 5.717198847
11 13 5.5 18 5.823529412 18.82352941 Rice Paddy 0 18.82352941 9.857772201 5.914663321
12 13 6 17.5 6.176470588 19.17647059 Rice Paddy 0 19.17647059 10.15209867 6.091259204
13 13 6.5 17 6.5 19.5 Rice Paddy 0 19.5 10.41459341 6.248756048
14 10 7 16.5 6.794117647 16.79411765 Rice Paddy 0 16.79411765 10.64761092 6.38856655
15 10 7.5 16 7.058823529 17.05882353 Rice Paddy 0 17.05882353 10.85305 6.511829999
16 10 8 15.5 7.294117647 17.29411765 Rice Paddy 0 17.29411765 11.03245141 6.619470845
17 10 8.5 15 7.5 17.5 Rice Paddy 0 17.5 11.18706788 6.712240726
18 10 9 14.5 7.676470588 17.67647059 Rice Paddy 0 17.67647059 11.31791522 6.790749134
19 10 9.5 14 7.823529412 17.82352941 Rice Paddy 0 17.82352941 11.42581009 6.855486052
20 10 10 13.5 7.941176471 17.94117647 Plantation 0 17.94117647 11.51139788 6.906838725
21 20 10.5 13 8.029411765 28.02941176 Plantation 0 28.02941176 11.57517342 6.945104053
22 20 11 12.5 8.088235294 28.08823529 Plantation 0 28.08823529 11.61749595 6.970497571
23 23 11.5 12 8.117647059 31.11764706 Plantation 0 31.11764706 11.6385995 6.983159702
24 23 12 11.5 8.117647059 31.11764706 Plantation, 20 51.11764706 11.6385995 6.983159702
Levee
25 23 12.5 11 8.088235294 31.08823529 Rice Paddy 0 31.08823529 11.61749595 6.970497571
26 30 13 10.5 8.029411765 38.02941176 Rice Paddy 0 38.02941176 11.57517342 6.945104053
27 30 13.5 10 7.941176471 37.94117647 Rice Paddy 0 37.94117647 11.51139788 6.906838725
28 30 14 9.5 7.823529412 37.82352941 Woods 15 52.82352941 11.42581009 6.855486052
29 30 14.5 9 7.676470588 37.67647059 Woods 15 52.67647059 11.31791522 6.790749134
30 30 15 8.5 7.5 37.5 Woods 15 52.5 11.18706788 6.712240726
31 63 15.5 8 7.294117647 70.29411765 Woods 15 85.29411765 11.03245141 6.619470845
32 63 16 7.5 7.058823529 70.05882353 Woods 15 85.05882353 10.85305 6.511829999
33 63 16.5 7 6.794117647 69.79411765 Reservoir 0 69.79411765 10.64761092 6.38856655
34 50 17 6.5 6.5 56.5 Reservoir 0 56.5 10.41459341 6.248756048
35 50 17.5 6 6.176470588 56.17647059 Woods 15 71.17647059 10.15209867 6.091259204
36 85 18 5.5 5.823529412 90.82352941 Woods 15 105.8235294 9.857772201 5.914663321
37 85 18.5 5 5.441176471 90.44117647 Woods 15 105.4411765 9.528664746 5.717198847
40

38 98 19 4.5 5.029411765 103.0294118 Woods 15 118.0294118 9.161028581 5.496617149


39 70 19.5 4 4.588235294 74.58823529 Woods 15 89.58823529 8.750008644 5.250005187
40 98 20 3.5 4.117647059 102.1176471 Woods 15 117.1176471 8.289153857 4.973492314
41 90 20.5 3 3.617647059 93.61764706 Woods 15 108.6176471 7.769601393 4.661760836
42 70 21 2.5 3.088235294 73.08823529 Woods 15 88.08823529 7.178617816 4.307170689
43 70 21.5 2 2.529411765 72.52941176 Woods 15 87.52941176 6.496738832 3.898043299
44 70 22 1.5 1.941176471 71.94117647 Woods 15 86.94117647 5.691387434 3.41483246
45 70 22.5 1 1.323529412 71.32352941 Woods 15 86.32352941 4.699508504 2.819705102
46 120 23 0.5 0.676470588 120.6764706 Woods 15 135.6764706 3.359774278 2.015864567
47 140 23.5 0 0 140 Woods 15 155 0 0
41

180

160

140

120

100

80

60

40

20

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48

Obstructions Ground Elevation Earth Buldge

Graphical Representation

Path Profile for Hop 1


42

HOP 2
43

COORDINATES CALCULATION

REPEATER 1
Latitude: (1min=37.2mm)
1
1.426 = 0.3833333 = 02 18" + 710 00"
37.2
= 712 18"

Longitude: (1min=36.6mm)
1
0.1139 = 0.0366667 = 02 12" + 12435 00"
36.6
= 12437 12"

REPEATER 2
Latitude: (1min=37.2mm)
1
1.333 = 0.03583333 = 02 9" + 705 00"
37.2
= 77 9"

Longitude: (1min=36.6mm)
1
0.1139 = 0.266667 = 01 36" + 12450 00"
36.6
= 12451 36"
44

GREAT CIRCLE DISTANCE

@HOP2 (Repeater 1 to Repeater 2)

Repeater 1:
Longitude : 124 37 12
Latitude : 7 12 18
Repeater 2:
Longitude : 124 51 36
Latitude : 7 7 9

A= |Longitudesite2- Longitudesite1|
= |124 51 36- 124 37 12|
= 0 14 24 = 0.24

B= 90- Latitudesite1
= 90-7 12 18
= 82.795

C=90- Latitudesite2
= 90-7 7 9
= 82.88083333

cos = (cos ) (cos ) + [(sin )(sin )(cos )]


cos = (cos 82.795) (cos 82.88083333)
+ [(sin 82.795)(sin 82.88083333)(cos 0.24)]
cos = 0.99999902413
= 0.2531244731

60 1.151 1.609
= = () ( )( )( )
1 1 1

60 1.151 1.609
= = (0.2531244731) ( )( )( )
1 1 1
= 28.1266
45

EARTH BULGE AND OBSTRUCTION


HOP2
REPEATER 1: Aleosan, Cotabato REPEATER 2: Kabacan, Cotabato
Longitude : 124 37 12 Longitude: 124 51 36
Latitude : 7 12 18 Latitude: 7 7 9
d1 d2
=
4
12.75 3
1 27
=
4
12.75 3
H= 0.6xF
1 2
= . f1=17.3

,
= + +
, = 1.588235294 + 120 + 15
, = .
TOTAL DISTANCE: 28km
Path Path Distance Distance Earth Buldge Ground Type of Tree Obstruction First Fresnel Clearance
Profile Elevation from from (E.B) Elevation Terrain Growth Height (H'O)
No. (E.O.) Site A Site B (EO + EB) (TG) (f1) (H)
(d1) (d2)
47 140 0 28 0 140 Woods 15 155 0 0
48 120 0.5 27.5 0.808823529 120.8088235 Woods 15 135.8088235 3.368043154 2.020825893
49 120 1 27 1.588235294 121.5882353 Woods 15 136.5882353 4.719632471 2.831779483
50 100 1.5 26.5 2.338235294 102.3382353 Woods 15 117.3382353 5.726573838 3.435944303
51 100 2 26 3.058823529 103.0588235 Woods 15 118.0588235 6.549798964 3.929879378
52 0 2.5 25.5 3.75 3.75 Water 0 3.75 7.252143565 4.351286139
53 90 3 25 4.411764706 94.41176471 Woods 15 109.4117647 7.866054119 4.719632471
54 90 3.5 24.5 5.044117647 95.04411765 Woods 15 110.0441176 8.410917298 5.046550379
55 70 4 24 5.647058824 75.64705882 Woods 15 90.64705882 8.899424334 5.3396546
56 70 4.5 23.5 6.220588235 76.22058824 Woods 15 91.22058824 9.340421748 5.604253049
46

57 70 5 23 6.764705882 76.76470588 Woods 15 91.76470588 9.74036471 5.844218826


58 70 5.5 22.5 7.279411765 77.27941176 Woods 15 92.27941176 10.10412946 6.062477678
59 70 6 22 7.764705882 77.76470588 Woods 15 92.76470588 10.43550004 6.261300022
60 63 6.5 21.5 8.220588235 71.22058824 Woods 15 86.22058824 10.73747601 6.442485608
61 50 7 21 8.647058824 58.64705882 Woods 15 73.64705882 11.01247577 6.60748546
62 44 7.5 20.5 9.044117647 53.04411765 Woods 15 68.04411765 11.26247553 6.757485321
63 44 8 20 9.411764706 53.41176471 Woods 15 68.41176471 11.48910741 6.893464447
64 34 8.5 19.5 9.75 43.75 Woods 15 58.75 11.69373013 7.016238078
65 34 9 19 10.05882353 44.05882353 Woods 15 59.05882353 11.87748125 7.126488751
66 34 9.5 18.5 10.33823529 44.33823529 Woods 15 59.33823529 12.04131632 7.224789791
67 34 10 18 10.58823529 44.58823529 Woods 15 59.58823529 12.18603864 7.311623185
68 36 10.5 17.5 10.80882353 46.80882353 Woods 15 61.80882353 12.31232221 7.387393324
69 36 11 17 11 47 Woods 15 62 12.42072944 7.452437663
70 36 11.5 16.5 11.16176471 47.16176471 Woods 15 62.16176471 12.51172501 7.507035006
71 35 12 16 11.29411765 46.29411765 Woods 15 61.29411765 12.58568659 7.551411954
72 35 12.5 15.5 11.39705882 46.39705882 Woods 15 61.39705882 12.64291313 7.585747879
73 35 13 15 11.47058824 46.47058824 Woods 15 61.47058824 12.68363115 7.610178692
74 31 13.5 14.5 11.51470588 42.51470588 Woods 15 57.51470588 12.70799934 7.624799606
75 30 14 14 11.52941176 41.52941176 Woods 15 56.52941176 12.7161117 7.629667018
76 30 14.5 13.5 11.51470588 41.51470588 Woods 15 56.51470588 12.70799934 7.624799606
77 30 15 13 11.47058824 41.47058824 Woods 15 56.47058824 12.68363115 7.610178692
78 30 15.5 12.5 11.39705882 41.39705882 Woods 15 56.39705882 12.64291313 7.585747879
79 24 16 12 11.29411765 35.29411765 Woods 15 50.29411765 12.58568659 7.551411954
80 20 16.5 11.5 11.16176471 31.16176471 Woods 15 46.16176471 12.51172501 7.507035006
81 20 17 11 11 31 Woods, 15 46 12.42072944 7.452437663
Rice Paddy
82 20 17.5 10.5 10.80882353 30.80882353 Woods, 15 45.80882353 12.31232221 7.387393324
Rice Paddy
83 19 18 10 10.58823529 29.58823529 Woods, 15 44.58823529 12.18603864 7.311623185
Rice Paddy
47

84 19 18.5 9.5 10.33823529 29.33823529 Woods, 15 44.33823529 12.04131632 7.224789791


Rice Paddy
85 19 19 9 10.05882353 29.05882353 Woods, 15 44.05882353 11.87748125 7.126488751
Rice Paddy
86 19 19.5 8.5 9.75 28.75 Woods, 15 43.75 11.69373013 7.016238078
Marsh
87 19 20 8 9.411764706 28.41176471 Woods, 15 43.41176471 11.48910741 6.893464447
Reservoir
88 0 20.5 7.5 9.044117647 9.044117647 Reservoir 0 9.044117647 11.26247553 6.757485321
89 20 21 7 8.647058824 28.64705882 Woods, 15 43.64705882 11.01247577 6.60748546
Reservoir
90 20 21.5 6.5 8.220588235 28.22058824 Woods, 15 43.22058824 10.73747601 6.442485608
Levee
91 20 22 6 7.764705882 27.76470588 Woods, 15 42.76470588 10.43550004 6.261300022
Levee
92 20 22.5 5.5 7.279411765 27.27941176 Woods, 15 42.27941176 10.10412946 6.062477678
Levee,
Plantation
93 20 23 5 6.764705882 26.76470588 Woods, 15 41.76470588 9.74036471 5.844218826
Levee
94 0 23.5 4.5 6.220588235 6.220588235 Levee 0 6.220588235 9.340421748 5.604253049
95 18 24 4 5.647058824 23.64705882 Woods, 15 38.64705882 8.899424334 5.3396546
Reservoir
96 18 24.5 3.5 5.044117647 23.04411765 Woods, 15 38.04411765 8.410917298 5.046550379
Reservoir
97 18 25 3 4.411764706 22.41176471 Woods, 15 37.41176471 7.866054119 4.719632471
Reservoir
98 18 25.5 2.5 3.75 21.75 Rice Paddy, 0 21.75 7.252143565 4.351286139
Plantation
99 21 26 2 3.058823529 24.05882353 Rice Paddy, 0 24.05882353 6.549798964 3.929879378
Plantation
100 20 26.5 1.5 2.338235294 22.33823529 Rice Paddy, 0 22.33823529 5.726573838 3.435944303
Plantation
48

101 24 27 1 1.588235294 25.58823529 Woods, 15 40.58823529 4.719632471 2.831779483


Plantation
102 24 27.5 0.5 0.808823529 24.80882353 Woods 15 39.80882353 3.368043154 2.020825893
103 24 28 0 0 24 Woods 15 39 0 0
49

180

160

140

120

100

80

60

40

20

0
47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 67 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 87 89 91 93 95 97 99 101 103

Obstructions Ground Elevation Earth Buldge

Graphical Representation

Path Profile for Hop 2


50

HOP 3
51

COORDINATES CALCULATION

REPEATER 2
Latitude: (1min=37.2mm)
1
1.333 = 0.03583333 = 02 9" + 705 00"
37.2
= 77 9"

Longitude: (1min=36.6mm)
1
0.1139 = 0.266667 = 01 36" + 12450 00"
36.6
= 12451 36"

SITE B
Latitude: (1min=37.2mm)
1
0.40 = 0.01080555556 = 00 38.9" + 71
37.2
= 71 38.9"

Longitude: (1min=36.6mm)
1
0.61 = 0.01666666667 = 01 + 1255 00"
36.6
= 1256
52

GREAT CIRCLE DISTANCE

@HOP3 (Repeater 2 to Site B)


Repeater 2:
Longitude : 124 51 36
Latitude : 7 7 9
Site B:
Longitude : 1256
Latitude : 7 1 38.9

A= |Longitudesite2- Longitudesite1|
= |125 6 - 124 51 36 |
= 0 14 24 = 0.24

B= 90- Latitudesite1
= 90-7 7 9
= 82.88083333

C=90- Latitudesite2
= 90-7 1 38.9
= 82.87252778

cos = (cos ) (cos ) + [(sin )(sin )(cos )]


cos = (cos 82.88083333) (cos 82.87252778)
+ [(sin 82.88083333)(sin 82.87252778)(cos 0.2401666667)]
cos = 0.9999900795
= 0.2552145205

60 1.151 1.609
= = () ( )( )( )
1 1 1

60 1.151 1.609
= = ( )( )( )
1 1 1
= 28.5388
53

EARTH BULGE AND OBSTRUCTION


HOP 3
REPEATER 2: Kabacan, Cotabato REPEATER 2: Kidapawan City, Cotabato
Longitude : 124 51 36 Longitude: 125 6 00.6
Latitude : 7 7 9 Latitude: 7 7 38.9
d1 d2
=
4
12.75 3
0.528
= 4
12.75
3
= . H= 0.6xF
1 2
f1=17.3

,
= + +
, = 0.8235294118 + 300 + 15
, = .
TOTAL DISTANCE: 28.5km
Distance Distance
Path Path Ground First Fresnel Clearance
from from Type of Tree Obstruction
Profile Elevation Elevation
Site A Site B Earth Buldge Terrain Growth Height (H'O)
No. (E.O.) (EO + EB) (f1) (H)
(d1) (d2) (E.B) (TG)
103 24 0 28.5 0 24 Woods 15 39 0 0
104 0 0.5 28 0.823529412 0.823529412 Reservoir 0 0.823529412 3.501484602 2.100890761
105 0 1 27.5 1.617647059 1.617647059 Reservoir 0 1.617647059 4.907434931 2.944460959
106 30 1.5 27 2.382352941 32.38235294 Woods 15 47.38235294 5.95546552 3.573279312
107 30 2 26.5 3.117647059 33.11764706 Woods 15 48.11764706 6.812807813 4.087684688
108 33 2.5 26 3.823529412 36.82352941 Woods 15 51.82352941 7.544750479 4.526850288
109 33 3 25.5 4.5 37.5 Woods 15 52.5 8.185004463 4.911002678
110 33 3.5 25 5.147058824 38.14705882 Woods 15 53.14705882 8.753711505 5.252226903
111 33 4 24.5 5.764705882 38.76470588 Woods 15 53.76470588 9.264057476 5.558434486
112 33 4.5 24 6.352941176 39.35294118 Woods 15 54.35294118 9.72523447 5.835140682
113 42 5 23.5 6.911764706 48.91176471 Woods 15 63.91176471 10.14395085 6.08637051
54

114 42 5.5 23 7.441176471 49.44117647 Woods 15 64.44117647 10.52527534 6.315165204


115 42 6 22.5 7.941176471 49.94117647 Woods 15 64.94117647 10.87314269 6.523885612
116 42 6.5 22 8.411764706 50.41176471 Woods 15 65.41176471 11.19067342 6.714404051
117 40 7 21.5 8.852941176 48.85294118 Woods 15 63.85294118 11.48038501 6.888231006
118 40 7.5 21 9.264705882 49.26470588 Woods 15 64.26470588 11.74433639 7.046601833
119 50 8 20.5 9.647058824 59.64705882 Woods 15 74.64705882 11.98422977 7.190537862
120 50 8.5 20 10 60 Woods 15 75 12.20148425 7.32089055
121 50 9 19.5 10.32352941 60.32352941 Woods 15 75.32352941 12.39729008 7.438374051
122 50 9.5 19 10.61764706 60.61764706 Woods 15 75.61764706 12.57264943 7.543589659
123 60 10 18.5 10.88235294 70.88235294 Woods 15 85.88235294 12.72840739 7.637044437
124 60 10.5 18 11.11764706 71.11764706 Woods 15 86.11764706 12.86527593 7.719165555
125 90 11 17.5 11.32352941 101.3235294 Woods 15 116.3235294 12.9838524 7.790311442
126 90 11.5 17 11.5 101.5 Woods 15 116.5 13.08463414 7.850780485
127 90 12 16.5 11.64705882 101.6470588 Woods 15 116.6470588 13.16802972 7.900817833
128 90 12.5 16 11.76470588 101.7647059 Woods 15 116.7647059 13.23436782 7.940620694
129 90 13 15.5 11.85294118 101.8529412 Woods 15 116.8529412 13.283904 7.970342397
130 90 13.5 15 11.91176471 101.9117647 Woods 15 116.9117647 13.31682574 7.990095445
131 90 14 14.5 11.94117647 101.9411765 Woods 15 116.9411765 13.33325613 7.999953678
132 90 14.5 14 11.94117647 101.9411765 Woods 15 116.9411765 13.33325613 7.999953678
133 95 15 13.5 11.91176471 106.9117647 Woods 15 121.9117647 13.31682574 7.990095445
134 90 15.5 13 11.85294118 101.8529412 Woods 15 116.8529412 13.283904 7.970342397
135 100 16 12.5 11.76470588 111.7647059 Woods 15 126.7647059 13.23436782 7.940620694
136 100 16.5 12 11.64705882 111.6470588 Woods 15 126.6470588 13.16802972 7.900817833
137 100 17 11.5 11.5 111.5 Woods 15 126.5 13.08463414 7.850780485
138 100 17.5 11 11.32352941 111.3235294 Woods 15 126.3235294 12.9838524 7.790311442
139 113 18 10.5 11.11764706 124.1176471 Woods 15 139.1176471 12.86527593 7.719165555
140 113 18.5 10 10.88235294 123.8823529 Woods 15 138.8823529 12.72840739 7.637044437
141 113 19 9.5 10.61764706 123.6176471 Woods 15 138.6176471 12.57264943 7.543589659
142 113 19.5 9 10.32352941 123.3235294 Woods 15 138.3235294 12.39729008 7.438374051
143 125 20 8.5 10 135 Woods 15 150 12.20148425 7.32089055
144 125 20.5 8 9.647058824 134.6470588 Woods 15 149.6470588 11.98422977 7.190537862
55

145 125 21 7.5 9.264705882 134.2647059 Woods 15 149.2647059 11.74433639 7.046601833


146 125 21.5 7 8.852941176 133.8529412 Woods 15 148.8529412 11.48038501 6.888231006
147 125 22 6.5 8.411764706 133.4117647 Woods 15 148.4117647 11.19067342 6.714404051
148 125 22.5 6 7.941176471 132.9411765 Woods 15 147.9411765 10.87314269 6.523885612
149 125 23 5.5 7.441176471 132.4411765 Woods 15 147.4411765 10.52527534 6.315165204
Woods,
125 23.5
150 5 6.911764706 131.9117647 Plantation 15 146.9117647 10.14395085 6.08637051
151 180 24 4.5 6.352941176 186.3529412 Woods 15 201.3529412 9.72523447 5.835140682
152 180 24.5 4 5.764705882 185.7647059 Woods 15 200.7647059 9.264057476 5.558434486
153 200 25 3.5 5.147058824 205.1470588 Woods 15 220.1470588 8.753711505 5.252226903
154 220 25.5 3 4.5 224.5 Woods 15 239.5 8.185004463 4.911002678
155 240 26 2.5 3.823529412 243.8235294 Woods 15 258.8235294 7.544750479 4.526850288
156 240 26.5 2 3.117647059 243.1176471 Woods 15 258.1176471 6.812807813 4.087684688
157 260 27 1.5 2.382352941 262.3823529 Woods 15 277.3823529 5.95546552 3.573279312
158 280 27.5 1 1.617647059 281.6176471 Woods 15 296.6176471 4.907434931 2.944460959
Woods,
300 28
159 0.5 0.823529412 300.8235294 Plantation 15 315.8235294 3.501484602 2.100890761
Woods,
320 28.5
160 0 0 320 Plantation 15 335 0 0
56

400

350

300

250

200

150

100

50

0
103 105 107 109 111 113 115 117 119 121 123 125 127 129 131 133 135 137 139 141 143 145 147 149 151 153 155 157 159

obstruction height Ground Elavation Earth Buldge

Graphical Representation

Path Profile for Hop 3


57

CHAPTER IV
TRANSMISSION
CALCULATION
58

HOP 1
59

ANTENNA COMPUTATION
ANTENNA HEIGHT
12.765+13.031
Fc = = .
2

1 = 20 d2 = 3.5 km
eo = 98m

d1 d2 203.5
eb= 4 = 4 = .
12.75 12.75
3 3

, = + + = 98 + 4.117647059 + 15 = .

d d (20 3.5)
f1= 17.3 F1 D2 = 17.3(12.898 23.64)= 8.289153857m
c

H = 0.6 x 8.079267793= 4.973492314m

20 (13+a1 )(140+a1 )
4.973492314= [ ] 117.1176471+ (140 + a1)
23.64

a1 = a2 = -12.7430m

NOTE: 20 meters minimum height of antenna

ANTENNA ORIENTATION
HOP 1 (Site A to Repeater 1)

Site A:
Longitude : 124 25 11.2
Latitude : 7 1654. 6
Repeater 1:
Longitude : 124 37 12
Latitude : 7 12 18

C = Longitude 1 Longitude 2
C =124 25 11.2- 124 37 12
C = 0 12 0.8
60

Latitude2 Latitude1
YX C sin ( )
tan ( ) = [cot ( )] [ 2 ]
2 2 cos (Latitude1 + LatitudeA)
2

7 12 18 7 1654. 6
YX 0 12 0.8 sin ( )
tan ( ) = [cot ( )] [ 2 ]
2 2 7 12 18 + 7 1654. 6
cos ( )
2
YX
tan ( ) = (572.3212995)(6.758912591x10 4)
2
YX
tan ( ) = 0.3868269637
2
YX
= 21.14781416=21 8 52.13
2

Latitude2 Latitude1
Y+X C cos ( 2 )
tan ( ) = [cot ( )] [ ]
2 2 Latitude2 + Latitude1
sin ( )
2

7 12 18 7 1654. 6
Y+X 0 12 0.8 cos ( )
tan ( ) = [cot ( )] [ 2 ]
2 2 7 12 18 + 7 1654. 6
sin ( )
2
Y+X
tan ( ) = (572.3212995))(7.931156644)
2
Y+X
tan ( ) = 4539.169877
2
Y+X
= 89.98737748 = 89 59 14.56
2

Y+X YX
X=( )( )
2 2

X = 89.98737748 21.14781416 = 68.83956332


X = 6850 22.43

Y+X YX
Y=( )+( )
2 2

Y = 89.98737748 + 21.14781416 = 111.1351917


Y = 1118 6.69
61

@ Site A:

N(90 x)E
S(90 x)W

90 x = 90 (6850 22.43)
= 393627.55
N(21937.57)W
S(219 37.57)E

@ Repeater 1:

N(Y 90)E
S(Y 90)W

Y 90 = 1118 6.69 90
= 218 6.69

N(218 6.69)W
S(218 6.69)E
ANTENNA PANNING

h2 h1
= = tan1 ( )
D

h1 = 33m
h2 = 160m
D = 23.64 km
160 33
= = tan1 ( ) = 0.3078043146
23.64 x 1000
= = 0 18 28.1
62

CALCULATION FOR REFLECTION


REFLECTION COEFFICIENT
1 = 2 = 20
1 = 13
2 = 140

h1 = 1 + 1
h1 = 20 + 13 ; h1 = 33m = 108.2677ft

h2 = 2 + 2
h2 = 20 + 140 ; h2 = 160m = 524.9344ft

= 23.64 = 14.6892
h1 108.2677ft
= = 2 = 0.5018
2 (14.6892) 2
h2 524.9344ft
= = = 2.4328
2 (14.6892)2 2
1 1
= = 2.4328
= 0.3123193683
Y
1+ 1+
0.5018
X

POINT OF REFLECTION

dR1 = D = (0.3123193683)(23.64)

dR1 = 7.3832km

dR2 = D dR1 = 23.64 7.3832

dR2 = 16.2568km
63

ANGLE OF REFLECTION

h1 = 33 m dR1 = 7.3832km eo = 98m


h2 = 160 m dR2 = 16.2568km eb = 4.117647059m

h1 e0 eb
A = tan1 ( )
dR1

33 98 4.117647059
= tan1 ( )
7.3832

h1 = 83.9027 + 360 = 276.0973

= . "

h2 e0 eb
B = tan1 ( )
dR2

160 98 4.117647059
= tan1 ( )
16.2568

B = 74.3121

= . "

A is not equal to B ()
64

POINT OF REFLECTION
(From Pigcawayan, Cotabato to Aleosan, Cotabato)

PATH PROFILE
65

Graphical Representation
(From Pigcawayan, Cotabato to Aleosan, Cotabato)

200
PATH PROFILE

180

160

140

120

100

80

60

40

20

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48
Obstructions Ground Elevation
Earth Buldge X
-FRESNEL +FRESNEL
66

MICROWAVE PATH CALCULATION


MISCELLANEOUS PATH LOSS

OXYGEN ABSORPTION LOSS (AO)

6.09 4.81
= [7.19x103 + 2 + ] (F 2 )(103 )(D)
F + 0.227 (F 57)2 + 1.5

6.09 4.81
= [7.19x103 + + ] (12.898)(103 )(23.64)
(12.898) + 0.227 (12.898 57)2 + 1.5
2

= .

WATER VAPOR LOSS (AH2O)

3 9
= [0.067 + +
(12.898 22.3)2 + 7.3 (12.898 183.3)2 + 6
4.3
+ ] (12.8982 )(12 x 104 ) (23.64)
(12.898 323.8)2 + 10
= .

RAINFALL LOSS

Based on Regression Coefficient Table:

K2 = 0.0168 a1 = 1.154

K1 = 0.0335 a2 = 1.217

log(1 ) log(F )
=
log(F1 ) log(F2 )
log(12) log(12.898)
= log(12)log(15)

= .

=
1700+2250
2
= 1975

1
365
1
24
= . /

D 23.64
= = 23.64 = .
1+ 1+
350.015xR 350.015x .

= log 1 [log(k1 ) ()(log(k1 ) log(k 2 )]


67

= log 1 [log(0.0335) (0.32340442)(log(0.0335) log(0.0168)]


= .

= 1 (1 2)

= 1.154 0.32340442(1.154 1.217)

= .

= ()()( )

= (14.09057972)(0.02679840914)(0.2254566211.174374478 )

= .

ATMOSPHERIC LOSSES (AL)


AL = A0 + + AR
2

AL = 0.01409255904 + 0.4658051914+ 0.06565859201

= .
MISCELLANEOUS LOSS

= +

= 0.5455563424 + 0.02

= .

FREESPACE PATH LOSS


FSLdB = 92.44 + 20 log F + 20 log D
FSLdB = 92.44 + 20 log 12.898 + 20 log 23.64
FSLdB = 142.1234 dB
68

TRANSMISSION LINE LOSS

COUPLING LOSS

There is typically a 3dB in the coupler (ODU)

=
=

FIXED LOSS

= 2 () + () + 2 () + /
= 2 (0.7) + (0.25) + 3 + 3
= .
TOTAL LOSSES

= + +
= 0.5655563424 + 142.1234dB + 2.8985 + 7.65
= .

TOTAL GAIN
= 17.8 + 20 log + 20 log
= 17.8 + 20 log(12.898) + 20 log(1.2)
= .

= ( )(2)
= (41.5941)(2)
= .

NET PATH LOSS


= | |
= |83.1882 150.3389|
69

= .

RECEIVED SIGNAL LEVEL


=
= 23 67.15
= .
FADE MARGIN
=
= (44.15) (92 )
= .
NON-DIVERSITY ANNUAL OUTAGE

( )
= ()()(1.5 )(3 )(1.25106 ) [10 10 ]

.
( )
= (0.25)(0.125)(12.8981.5 )(14.68923 )(1.25106 ) [10 10 ]

= .
RELIABILITY
= 100%(1 )
= 100%(1 . )
= . %
70

HOP 2
71

ANTENNA COMPUTATION
ANTENNA HEIGHT
12.765+13.031
Fc = = .
2

1 = 1 d2 = 27km

eo = 120m

d1 d2 127
eb= 4 = 4 = .
12.75 12.75
3 3

, = + + = 1.588235294 + 120 + 15 = .

d d (1 27)
f1= 17.3 F1 D2 = 17.3(12.898 28.1266)= 4.719632471m
c

H = 0.6 x 4.719632471= 2.831779483m

1 (24+a1 )(140+a1 )
2.831779483= [ ] 136.5882353+ (140 + a1)
28.1266

a1 = a2 = 23.5442m =24m

NOTE: 24 meters height of antenna

ANTENNA ORIENTATION
HOP 2 (Repeater 1 to Repeater 2)

Repeater 1:
Longitude : 124 37 12
Latitude : 7 12 18
Repeater 2:
Longitude : 124 51 36
Latitude : 7 7 9

C = |Longitude1 Longitude2|
C = 124 37 12- 124 51 36
C = 0 14 24
72

Latitude2 Latitude1
YX C sin ( )
tan ( ) = [cot ( )] [ 2 ]
2 2 cos (Latitude2 + Latitude1)
2

7 7 9 7 12 18
YX 0 14 24 sin ( )
tan ( ) = [cot ( )] [ 2 ]
2 2 7 7 9 + 7 12 18
cos ( )
2
YX
tan ( ) = (477.4641311)(7.549274446x10 4)
2
YX
tan ( ) = 0.3605
2
YX
= 19.82173743=19 49 18.25
2

Latitude2 Latitude1
Y+X C cos ( 2 )
tan ( ) = [cot ( )] [ ]
2 2 Latitude2 + Latitude1
sin ( )
2

7 7 9 7 12 18
Y+X 0 14 24 cos ( )
tan ( ) = [cot ( )] [ 2 ]
2 2 7 7 9 + 7 12 18
sin ( )
2
Y+X
tan ( ) = (477.4641311))(8.02074558)
2
Y+X
tan ( ) = 3829.6183
2
Y+X
= 89.98503878 = 89 59 6.14
2

Y+X YX
X=( )( )
2 2

X = 89.98503878 19.82173743 = 70.1633


X = 709 47.88

Y+X YX
Y=( )+( )
2 2

Y = 89.98503878 + 19.82173743 = 109.8068


Y = 10948 24.39
73

@ Repeater 1:

N(90 x)E
S(90 x)W

90 x = 90 (709 47.88)
= 195012.12
N(195012.12)W
S(195012.12)E

@ Repeater 2:

N(Y 90)E
S(Y 90)W

Y 90 = 10948 24.39 90
= 1948 24.39

N(1948 24.39)W
S(1948 24.39)E

ANTENNA PANNING

h2 h1
= = tan1 ( )
D
h1 = 164m
h2 = 48m
D = 28.1266 km
48 164
= = tan1 ( ) = 0.2362984769
28.1266 x 1000
= = 0 14 10.67
74

CALCULATION FOR REFLECTION


REFLECTION COEFFICIENT
1 = 2 = 24
1 = 140
2 = 24

h1 = 1 + 1
h1 = 24 + 140 ; h1 = 164m = 538.0577ft

h2 = 2 + 2
h2 = 24 + 24 ; h2 = 48m = 157.4803ft

= 28.1266 = 17.4771
h1 538.0577ft
= = 2 = 1.7615
2 (17.4771) 2
h2 157.4803ft
= = = 0.5156
2 (17.4771)2 2
1 1
= = 0.5156
= 0.6489198949
Y
1+ 1+
1.7615
X

POINT OF REFLECTION

dR1 = D = (0.6489198949)(28.1266)

dR1 = 18.2519km

dR2 = D dR1 = 28.1266 18.2519

dR2 = 9.8747km
75

ANGLE OF REFLECTION

h1 = 164m dR1 = 18.2519km eo = 120m


h2 = 48m dR2 = 9.8747km eb = 1.5882353m

h1 e0 eb
A = tan1 ( )
dR1

164 120 1.5882353


= tan1 ( )
18.2519

A = 66.7154

= . "

h2 e0 eb
B = tan1 ( )
dR2

48 120 1.5882353
= tan1 ( )
9.8747

B = 82.3572 + 360 = 277.6428

= . "

A is not equal to B ()
76

POINT OF REFLECTION
(From Aleosan, Cotabato to Kabacan, Cotabato)

PATH PROFILE
77

Graphical Representation
(From Aleosan, Cotabato to Kabacan, Cotabato)

PATH PROFILE

200

180

160

140

120

100

80

60

40

20

0
47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 67 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 87 89 91 93 95 97 99 101 103

Obstructions Ground Elevation Earth Buldge X x-fresnel x+fresnel


78

MICROWAVE PATH CALCULATION


MISCELLANEOUS PATH LOSS

OXYGEN ABSORPTION LOSS (AO)

6.09 4.81
= [7.19x103 + 2 + ] (F 2 )(103 )(D)
F + 0.227 (F 57)2 + 1.5

6.09 4.81
= [7.19x103 + + ] (12.898)(103 )(28.1266)
(12.898) + 0.227 (12.898 57)2 + 1.5
2

= .

WATER VAPOR LOSS (AH2O)

3 9
= [0.067 + +
(12.898 22.3) + 7.3 (12.898 183.3)2 + 6
2

4.3
+ ] (12.8982 )(12 x 104 ) (28.1266)
(12.898 323.8)2 + 10
= .

RAINFALL LOSS

Based on Regression Coefficient Table:

K2 = 0.0168 a1 = 1.154

K1 = 0.0335 a2 = 1.217

log(1 ) log(F )
=
log(F1 ) log(F2 )
log(12) log(12.898)
= log(12)log(15)

= .

=
1700+2250
2
= 1975

1
365
1
24
= .

D 28.1266
= = = .
28.1266
1 + 1 +
35 0.015xR 35 0.015x .
79

= log 1 [log(k1 ) (M)((log(k1 ) log(k 2 )]


= log 1 [log(0.0335) 0.5025779647] x [log(0.0335) log(0.0168)]
= .

= 1 (1 2)

= 1.154 0.32340442(1.154 1.217)

= .

= ()()( )

= (15.5710489)(0.02679840914)(0.2254566211.174374478 )

= .

ATMOSPHERIC LOSSES (AL)


AL = A0 + + AR
2

AL = 0.04621894396 + 0.5687456864+ 0.07255720965

= .
MISCELLANEOUS LOSS

= +

= 0.68752184 + 0.02

= .

FREESPACE PATH LOSS


FSLdB = 92.44 + 20 log F + 20 log D
FSLdB = 92.44 + 20 log 12.898 + 20 log 28.1266
FSLdB = 143.6328 dB
80

TRANSMISSION LINE LOSS

COUPLING LOSS

There is typically a 3dB in the coupler (ODU)

=
=

FIXED LOSS

= 2 () + () + 2 () + /
= 2 (0.7) + (0.25) + 3 + 3
= .
TOTAL LOSSES

= + + +
= 0.70752184 + 143.6328 dB + 7.65
= .

TOTAL GAIN
= 17.8 + 20 log + 20 log
= 17.8 + 20 log(12.898) + 20 log(1.2)
= .

= ( )(2)
= (41.5941)(2)
= .

NET PATH LOSS


= | |
81

= |83.1882 151.9903218|
= .
RECEIVED SIGNAL LEVEL
=
= 23 68.80212184
= .
FADE MARGIN
=
= (45.80212184) (92 )
= .
NON-DIVERSITY ANNUAL OUTAGE

( )
= ()()(1.5 )(3 )(1.25106 ) [10 10 ]

.
( )
= (0.25)(0.125)(12.8981.5 )(17.47713 )(1.25106 ) [10 10 ]

= .
RELIABILITY
= 100%(1 )
= 100%(1 . )
= . %
82

HOP 3
83

ANTENNA COMPUTATION
ANTENNA HEIGHT
12.765+13.031
Fc = = .
2

1 = 28 d2 = 0.5km

eo = 300m

d1 d2 0.528
eb= 4 = 4 = .
12.75 12.75
3 3

, = + + = 0.8235294118 + 300 + 15 = .

d d (0.5 28)
f1= 17.3 F1 D2 = 17.3(12.898 26.4968)= 3.501484602m
c

H = 0.6 x 4.719632471= 2.100890761m

28(320+a1 )(24+a1 )
2.100890761= [ ] 315.8235294+ (24 + a1)
26.4968

a1 = a2 = 21.4582m=22m

NOTE: 22 meters height of antenna

ANTENNA ORIENTATION
HOP 3 (Repeater 2 to Site B )

Repeater 2:
Longitude : 124 51 36
Latitude : 7 7 9
Site B:
Longitude : 125 6
Latitude : 7 1 38.9

C = |Longitude1 Longitude2|
C = 124 51 36- 125 6 00.6
C = 0 44 24.6
84

Latitude2 Latitude1
YX C sin ( )
tan ( ) = [cot ( )] [ 2 ]
2 2 cos (Latitude2 + Latitude1)
2

7 1 38.9 7 7 9
YX 0 44 24.6 sin ( )
tan ( ) = [cot ( )] [ 2 ]
2 2 7 1 38.9 + 7 7 9
cos ( )
2
YX
tan ( ) = (447.4641311)(8.063214961x10 4)
2
YX
tan ( ) = 0.3849895925
2
YX
= 0.6479=213 27"
2

Latitude2 Latitude1
Y+X C cos ( 2 )
tan ( ) = [cot ( )] [ ]
2 2 Latitude2 + Latitude1
sin ( )
2

7 1 38.9 7 7 9
Y+X 0 44 24.6 cos ( )
tan ( ) = [cot ( )] [ 2 ]
2 2 7 1 38.9 + 7 7 9
sin ( )
2
Y+X
tan ( ) = (154.816436)(8.0264168395)
2
Y+X
tan ( ) = 1248.46581
2
Y+X
= 89.95410706 = 89 57 14.79
2

Y+X YX
X=( )( )
2 2

X = 89.95410706 0.6479 = 89.3062


X = 8918 22.35

Y+X YX
Y=( )+( )
2 2

Y = 89.98503878 + 0.6479 = 90.6329


Y = 9037 58.58
85

@ Site B:

N(90 x)E
S(90 x)W

90 x = 90 (8918 22.35)
= 041 37.65
N(041 37.65)W
S(041 37.65)E

@ Repeater 2:

N(Y 90)E
S(Y 90)W

Y 90 = 9037 58.58 90
= 037 58.58

N(037 58.58)W
S(037 58.58)E

ANTENNA PANNING

h2 h1
= = tan1 ( )
D
h1 = 46m
h2 = 342m
D = 26.4968 km
342 46
= = tan1 ( ) = 0.595117376
26.4968x 1000
= = 0 35 42.42
86

CALCULATION FOR REFLECTION


REFLECTION COEFFICIENT
1 = 2 = 22
1 = 24
2 = 320

h1 = 1 + 1
h1 = 22 + 24 ; h1 = 46m = 150.9186ft

h2 = 2 + 2
h2 = 22 + 320 ; h2 = 342m = 1122.0472ft

= 26.4968 = 16.4643
h1 150.9186ft
= = 2 = 0.5567
2 (16.4643) 2
h2 1122.0472ft
= = = 4.1393
2 (16.4643)2 2
1 1
= = 4.1393
= 0.2683269154
Y
1+ 1+
0.5567
X

POINT OF REFLECTION

dR1 = D = (0.2683269154)(26.4968)

dR1 = 7.1098km

dR2 = D dR1 = 26.4968 7.1098

dR2 = 19.387km
87

ANGLE OF REFLECTION

h1 = 46m dR1 = 7.1098km eo = 300m


h2 = 342m dR2 = 19.387km eb = 0.823529412m

h1 e0 eb
A = tan1 ( )
dR1

46 300 0.823529412
= tan1 ( )
7.1098

A = 88.4018 + 360 = 271.5982

A = . "

h2 e0 eb
B = tan1 ( )
dR2

342 300 0.823529412


= tan1 ( )
19.387

B = 64.7877

= . "

A is not equal to B ()
88

POINT OF REFLECTION
(From Kabacan, Cotabato to Kidapawan City, Cotabato)

PATH PROFILE
89

Graphical Representation
(From Kabacan, Cotabato to Kidapawan City, Cotabato)

PATH PROFILE
400

350

300

250

200

150

100

50

0
103 105 107 109 111 113 115 117 119 121 123 125 127 129 131 133 135 137 139 141 143 145 147 149 151 153 155 157 159

obstruction height Ground Elavation Earth Buldge x x-fresnel x+fresnel


90

MICROWAVE PATH CALCULATION


MISCELLANEOUS PATH LOSS

OXYGEN ABSORPTION LOSS (AO)

6.09 4.81
= [7.19x103 + 2 + ] (F 2 )(103 )(D)
F + 0.227 (F 57)2 + 1.5

6.09 4.81
= [7.19x103 + + ] (12.898)(103 )(26.4968)
(12.898) + 0.227 (12.898 57)2 + 1.5
2

= .

WATER VAPOR LOSS (AH2O)

3 9
= [0.067 + +
(12.898 22.3) + 7.3 (12.898 183.3)2 + 6
2

4.3
+ ] (12.8982 )(12 x 104 ) (26.4968)
(12.898 323.8)2 + 10
= .

RAINFALL LOSS

Based on Regression Coefficient Table:

K2 = 0.0168 a1 = 1.154

K1 = 0.0335 a2 = 1.217

log(1 ) log(F )
=
log(F1 ) log(F2 )
log(12) log(12.898)
= log(12)log(15)

= .

=
1700+2250
2
= 1975

1
365
1
24
= .

D 26.4968
= = = .
26.4968
1 + 1 +
35 0.015xR 35 0.015x .
91

= log 1 [log(k1 ) (M)((log(k1 ) log(k 2 )]


= log 1 [log(0.0335) 0.5025779647] x [log(0.0335) log(0.0168)]
= .

= 1 (1 2)

= 1.154 0.32340442(1.154 1.217)

= .

= ()()( )

= (15.05828547)(0.02679840914)(0.2254566211.174374478 )

= .

ATMOSPHERIC LOSSES (AL)


AL = A0 + + AR
2

AL = . + . + .

= .
MISCELLANEOUS LOSS

= +

= 0.7502196438 + 0.02

= .

FREESPACE PATH LOSS


FSLdB = 92.44 + 20 log F + 20 log D
FSLdB = 92.44 + 20 log 12.898 + 20 log 26.4968
FSLdB = 143.114316 dB
92

TRANSMISSION LINE LOSS

COUPLING LOSS

There is typically a 3dB in the coupler (ODU)

=
=
FIXED LOSS

= 2 () + () + 2 () + /
= 2 (0.7) + (0.25) + 3 + 3
= .

TOTAL LOSSES
= + + +
= 0.7702196438 + 143.114316 dB + 7.65
= .

TOTAL GAIN

= 17.8 + 20 log + 20 log


= 17.8 + 20 log(12.898) + 20 log(1.2)
= .

= ( )(2)
= (41.5941)(2)
= .

NET PATH LOSS


= | |
= |83.1882 151.5345356|
93

= .
RECEIVED SIGNAL LEVEL
=
= 23 68.34633564
= .
FADE MARGIN
=
= (45.34633564) (92 )
= .
NON-DIVERSITY ANNUAL OUTAGE

( )
= ()()(1.5 )(3 )(1.25106 ) [10 10 ]

.
( )
= (0.25)(0.125)(12.8981.5 )(16.46433 )(1.25106 ) [10 10 ]

= .
RELIABILITY
= 100%(1 )
= 100%(1 . )
= . %
94

MICROWAVE DATA PATH CALCULATION


(PIGCAWAYAN, COTABATO TO ALEOSAN, COTABATO)

HOP1 SITE A REPEATER 1


SITE Pigcawayan, Aleosan, Cotabato
Cotabato
LATITUDE 7 1654. 6 7 12 18
LONGITUDE 124 25 11.2 124 37 12
SITE ELEVATION (m) 13 140
TOWER HEIGHT (m) 21.2 21.2
TOWER TYPE Self-Supported Self-Supported
CENTER FREQUENCY (GHz) 12.898
PATH LENGTH (km) 23.5
FREE SPACE LOSS (dB) 142.1234
COUPLING LOSS (dB) 3
RADOME LOSS (dB) 0.7
TOTAL FIXED LOSS (dB) 7.65
TOTAL LOSSES (dB) 150.3389563
ANTENNA HEIGHT (m) 20
ANTENNA DIAMETER (m) 1.2
ANTENNA GAIN (dB) 41.5941
TOTAL GAIN (dB) 83.1882
NET PATH LOSS (dB) 67.15
TRANSMITTER POWER (dBm) 23
PRACTICAL THRESHOLD (dBm) -92
FADE MARGIN 47.8492
RELIABILITY (w/o diversity) 99.99999059%
95

MICROWAVE DATA PATH CALCULATION


(ALEOSAN, COTABATO TO KABACAN, COTABATO)

HOP2 REPEATER 1 REPEATER 2


SITE Aleosan, Cotabato Kabacan, Cotabato
LATITUDE 7 12 18 7 7 9
LONGITUDE 124 37 12 124 51 36
SITE ELEVATION (m) 140 24
TOWER HEIGHT (m) 21.2 25.2
TOWER TYPE Self-Supported Self-Supported
CENTER FREQUENCY (GHz) 12.898
PATH LENGTH (km) 28
FREE SPACE LOSS (dB) 143.6328
COUPLING LOSS LOSS (dB) 3
RADOME LOSS (dB) 0.7
TOTAL FIXED LOSS (dB) 7.65
TOTAL LOSSES (dB) 151.9903218
ANTENNA HEIGHT (m) 24
ANTENNA DIAMETER (m) 1.2
ANTENNA GAIN (dB) 41.5941
TOTAL GAIN (dB) 83.1882
NET PATH LOSS (dB) 68.80212184
TRANSMITTER POWER (dBm) 23
PRACTICAL THRESHOLD (dBm) -92
FADE MARGIN 46.19787816
RELIABILITY (w/o diversity) 99.99997682%
96

MICROWAVE DATA PATH CALCULATION


(ALEOSAN, COTABATO TO KABACAN, COTABATO)

HOP3 REPEATER 2 SITE B


SITE Kabacan, Cotabato Kidapawan City,
Cotabato
LATITUDE 7 7 9 7 1 38.9
LONGITUDE 124 51 36 125 6
SITE ELEVATION (m) 24 320
TOWER HEIGHT (m) 25.2 23.2
TOWER TYPE Self-Supported Self-Supported
CENTER FREQUENCY (GHz) 12.898
PATH LENGTH (km) 28.5
FREE SPACE LOSS (dB) 143.114316
WAVEGUIDE LOSS (dB/m) 0.1154
CONNECTOR LOSS (dB) 0.01
RADOME LOSS (dB) 0.7
TOTAL FIXED LOSS (dB) 7.65
TOTAL LOSSES (dB) 151.5345356
ANTENNA HEIGHT (m) 22
ANTENNA DIAMETER (m) 1.2
ANTENNA GAIN (dB) 41.5941
TOTAL GAIN (dB) 83.1882
NET PATH LOSS (dB) 68.34633564
TRANSMITTER POWER (dBm) 23
PRACTICAL THRESHOLD (dBm) -92
FADE MARGIN 46.65366436
RELIABILITY (w/o diversity) 99.99999514%
97

OVERALL RELIABILITY

= 1 2 3

= (0.9999999059)(0.9999997682)(0.9999999514)

= 0.9999996255100%

= 99.99996255%
98

SYSTEM LINK BUDGET

HOP 1

1 =

= 23

2 = 1

= 23 3 0.7

= 19.3

3 = 2 +

= 19.3 + 41.5941

= 60.8941

4 = 3

= 60.9856 142.1234 0.5655563424

= 81.7948

5 = 4 +

= 81.7948 + 41.5941

= 40.2007

6 = 5

= 40.6505 3 0.7

= 44.15 =

= 44.15 (92)

= 47.8492
99

SYSTEM LINK BUDGET

HOP 2

1 =

= 23

2 = 1

= 23 3 0.7

= 19.3

3 = 2 +

= 19.3 + 41.5941

= 60.8941

4 = 3

= 60.8941 143.6328 0.70752184

= 83.4462

5 = 4 +

= 83.4462 + 41.5941

= 41.8521

6 = 5

= 41.8521 3 0.7

= 45.55 =

= 45.55 (92)

= 46.45
100

SYSTEM LINK BUDGET

HOP 3

1 =

= 23

2 = 1

= 23 3 0.7

= 19.3

3 = 2 +

= 19.3 + 41.5941

= 60.8941

4 = 3

= 60.8941 143.1143 0.7702196438

= 82.9904

5 = 4 +

= 82.9904 + 41.5941

= 41.3963

6 = 5

= 41.3963 3 0.7

= 45.0963 =

= 45.0963 (92)

= 46.9037
101

TOWER HEIGHT

SITE A

= 1 +

= 20 + 1.2

= 21.2

REPEATER 1 and REPEATER 2

= 2 +

= 24 + 1.2

= 25.2

SITE B

= 1 +

= 22 + 1.2

= 23.2
102

CHAPTER V
CONCLUSION AND
RECOMMENDATION
103

CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATION

The authors of this design think that design is feasible and can be

implemented in the proposed area. However, further studies should be made.

In this study, NTC licensing and other permits were not included. Radiation

emission clearance required by DOH was not discussed. Site was not personally

visited. Financial profit, manpower and civil works were not shown in this design.

Soil testing was not done to prove the integrity of the soil.

After carefully analyzing the design, the authors recommend that this study

be implemented. If the design needs improvement, the proponents would like to

request the next researchers who will use this as their reference to improve the

design as they see fit.


104

CHAPTER VI
SPECIFICATIONS
105

CHAPTER VII
APPENDICES
106

PATH PROFILE
HOP1

Terrain Type

Path Profile No. Path Elevation (E.O.)

0 13 Rice Paddy, Settlements

1 13 Rice Paddy

2 13 Rice Paddy

3 13 Rice Paddy

4 13 Rice Paddy

5 13 Rice Paddy

6 13 Rice Paddy

7 13 Rice Paddy

8 15 Rice Paddy

9 15 Rice Paddy

10 15 Rice Paddy

11 13 Rice Paddy

12 13 Rice Paddy

13 13 Rice Paddy

14 10 Rice Paddy

15 10 Rice Paddy

16 10 Rice Paddy

17 10 Rice Paddy

18 10 Rice Paddy

19 10 Rice Paddy
107

20 10 Plantation

21 20 Plantation

22 20 Plantation

23 23 Plantation

24 23 Plantation, Levee

25 23 Rice Paddy

26 30 Rice Paddy

27 30 Rice Paddy

28 30 Woods

29 30 Woods

30 30 Woods

31 63 Woods

32 63 Woods

33 63 Reservoir

34 50 Reservoir

35 50 Woods

36 85 Woods

37 85 Woods

38 98 Woods

39 70 Woods

40 98 Woods

41 90 Woods

42 70 Woods

43 70 Woods

44 70 Woods
108

45 70 Woods

46 120 Woods

47 140 Woods
109

PATH PROFILE
HOP2

Path Profile No. Path Elevation (E.O.) Terrain Type

47 140 Woods

48 120 Woods

49 120 Woods

50 100 Woods

51 100 Woods

52 0 Water

53 90 Woods

54 90 Woods

55 70 Woods

56 70 Woods

57 70 Woods

58 70 Woods

59 70 Woods

60 63 Woods

61 50 Woods

62 44 Woods

63 44 Woods

64 34 Woods

65 34 Woods

66 34 Woods

67 34 Woods
110

68 36 Woods

69 36 Woods

70 36 Woods

71 35 Woods

72 35 Woods

73 35 Woods

74 31 Woods

75 30 Woods

76 30 Woods

77 30 Woods

78 30 Woods

79 24 Woods

80 20 Woods

81 20 Woods, Rice Paddy

82 20 Woods, Rice Paddy

83 19 Woods, Rice Paddy

84 19 Woods, Rice Paddy

85 19 Woods, Rice Paddy

86 19 Woods, Marsh

87 19 Woods, Reservoir

88 0 Reservoir

89 20 Woods, Reservoir

90 20 Woods, Levee

91 20 Woods, Levee

92 20 Woods, Levee, Plantation


111

93 20 Woods, Levee

94 0 Levee

95 18 Woods, Reservoir

96 18 Woods, Reservoir

97 18 Woods, Reservoir

98 18 Rice Paddy, Plantation

99 21 Rice Paddy, Plantation

100 20 Rice Paddy, Plantation

101 24 Woods, Plantation

102 24 Woods

103 24 Woods
112

PATH PROFILE
HOP3

Path Profile No. Path Elevation (E.O.) Terrain Type

103 24 Woods

104 0 Reservoir

105 0 Reservoir

106 30 Woods

107 30 Woods

108 33 Woods

109 33 Woods

110 33 Woods

111 33 Woods

112 33 Woods

113 42 Woods

114 42 Woods

115 42 Woods

116 42 Woods

117 40 Woods

118 40 Woods

119 50 Woods

120 50 Woods

121 50 Woods

122 50 Woods

123 60 Woods
113

124 60 Woods

125 90 Woods

126 90 Woods

127 90 Woods

128 90 Woods

129 90 Woods

130 90 Woods

131 90 Woods

132 90 Woods

133 95 Woods

134 90 Woods

135 100 Woods

136 100 Woods

137 100 Woods

138 100 Woods

139 113 Woods

140 113 Woods

141 113 Woods

142 113 Woods

143 125 Woods

144 125 Woods

145 125 Woods

146 125 Woods

147 125 Woods

148 125 Woods


114

149 125 Woods

150 125 Woods, Plantation

151 180 Woods

152 180 Woods

153 200 Woods

154 220 Woods

155 240 Woods

156 240 Woods

157 260 Woods

158 280 Woods

159 300 Woods, Plantation

160 320 Woods, Plantation


115

HOP1

VERTICAL PANNING
(From Pigcawayan, Cotabato to Aleosan, Cotabato)

PATH PROFILE

0 18 28.1

0 18 28.1
116

ANTENNA ORIENTATION

S(219 37.57)E

N(218 6.69)W
117

HOP 2
VERTICAL PANNING
(From Aleosan, Cotabato to Kabacan, Cotabato)

PATH PROFILE

0 14 10.67

0 14 10.67
118

ANTENNA ORIENTATION

S(195012.12)E

N(1948 24.39)W
119

HOP 3

VERTICAL PANNING
(From Kabacan, Cotabato to Kidapawan City, Cotabato)

PATH PROFILE

0 35 42.42

0 35 42.42
120

ANTENNA ORIENTATION

S(037 58.58)E

N(041 37.65)W
121

DESIGN FREQUENCY PLAN

Channel No F F

Selected Channel 5 12765 Mhz 13031 Mhz

Site A Site B
Repeater 1 Repeater 2

12765 Mhz

13031 Mhz

13031 Mhz

12765 Mhz

12765 Mhz

13031 Mhz
122

SITE FLOOR PLAN

GENERATOR
ODU
IDU

TRANSMITTER

c
123

TOWER DESIGN

Tower Height

Hop1 Hop2 Hop3

24m

20m
22m
124

NATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION COMMISSION FREQUENCY PLAN

Frequency Assignment : 12.898 Ghz

FREQUENCY BAND RF CHANNEL REMARKS


ARRANGEMENT

CH # F F ITU-R Rec 497-7

12750-13250 MHz 1 12765 13031

2 12779 13045

POINT-TO-POINT RADIO 3 12793 13059 Recommended RF


SYSTEM channel arrangements for
4 12807 13073
fixed wireless systems for
5 12821 13087 channel spacing of 14 Mhz

6 12835 13101

7 12849 13115 NOTE: 12700-12800 Mhz


and 13000-13100 Mhz are
8 12863 13129
also allocated to BC
9 12877 13143 Auxillary Service (STL)
and CARS
10 12891 13157

11 12905 13171

12 12919 13185

13 12933 13199

14 12947 13213

15 12961 13227
125

REGRESSION COEFFICIENT TABLE

FREQUENCY kh kv av ah
(GHz)

1 0.1111387 0.0000352 0.912 0.88

2 0.000154 0.000138 0.963 0.923

4 0.00065 0.000591 1.121 1.075

6 0.00175 0.00155 1.308 1.265

7 0.00301 0.00265 1.332 1.312

8 0.00454 0.00395 1.327 1.31

10 0.0101 0.00667 1S.276 1.264

12 0.188 0.0168 1.217 1.2

15 0.0367 0.0335 1.154 1.128

20 0.0751 0.0691 1.099 1.065

25 0.124 0.113 14.061 1.03

30 0.167 0.167 1.021 1

35 0.263 0.233 0.979 0.963

40 0.35 0.31 0.939 0.929


126

LINK BUDGET

Hop 1 dBm Level


80
60.8941
60

40 23 19.3
20

0
P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6
-20
-40.2007 -44.15
-40

-60
-81.7948
-80

-100

MICROWAVE RADIO LINK SIGNAL LEVELS RELATIVE TO SYSTEM GAIN AND


LOSSES FOR HOP 1
127

Hop2 dBm Level


80
60.8941
60

40 23 19.3
20

0
P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6
-20
41.8521 45.55
-40

-60

-80
83.4462
-100

MICROWAVE RADIO LINK SIGNAL LEVELS RELATIVE TO SYSTEM GAIN AND


LOSSES FOR HOP 2
128

Hop3 dBm Level


80
60.8941
60

40 23 19.3
20

0
P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6
-20
41.3963 45.0963
-40

-60

-80
82.9904
-100

MICROWAVE RADIO LINK SIGNAL LEVELS RELATIVE TO SYSTEM GAIN AND


LOSSES FOR HOP 3
129

Graphical Location (Map)

Hop 1

Hop 2

Hop 3
130

CHAPTER VIII
AUTHORS PROFILE
131

PERSONAL INFORMATION

NAME: CARMINA JASMIN A. BOCAR

BIRTHDAY: APRIL 23, 1996

AGE: 21

ADDRESS: BLK 61 LOT 8 CARISSA HOMES EAST 1 TERESA, RIZAL

EDUCATION

TERTIARY: UNIVERSITY OF RIZAL SYSTEM-MORONG

Sumulong Street, Morong, Rizal (SY 2012-Present)

SECONDARY: TOMAS CLAUDIO COLLEGES

Morong, Rizal (SY 2008-2012)

PRIMARY: PRINZA ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

Teresa, Rizal (SY 2002-2008)

WORKSHOP/SEMINARS/TRAININGS

September 19, 2012 Communication Technology and ECE


Board Examination Updates
IECEP-URSMSC
Ronnie O. Serfa Juan, PECE
Resource Speaker

December 14, 2012 ROBOTICS


IECEP-URSMSC
Allan R. Pangan, PECE
Resource Speaker

November 28, 2013 MATH AND CALCULATOR


TECHNIQUES
IECEP-URSMSC
Allan R. Pangan, PECE
Resource Speaker
132

PERSONAL INFORMATION

NAME: MARY EDLEEN P. CABOTAJE

BIRTHDAY: SEPTEMBER 10, 1996

AGE: 19

ADDRESS: 9405 A.PAZ STREET BAGUMBAYAN, PILILLA, RIZAL

EDUCATION

TERTIARY: UNIVERSITY OF RIZAL SYSTEM-MORONG

Sumulong Street, Morong, Rizal (SY 2012-Present)

SECONDARY: PILILLA NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL

Bagumbayan, Pililla, Rizal (SY 2008-2012)

PRIMARY: PILILLA ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CENTRAL

Bagumbayan, Pililla, Rizal (SY 2002-2008)

WORKSHOP/SEMINARS/TRAININGS

September 19, 2012 Communication Technology and ECE


Board Examination Updates
IECEP-URSMSC
Ronnie O. Serfa Juan, PECE
Resource Speaker

December 14, 2012 ROBOTICS


IECEP-URSMSC
Allan R. Pangan, PECE
Resource Speaker

November 28, 2013 MATH AND CALCULATOR


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IECEP-URSMSC
Allan R. Pangan, PECE
Resource Speaker
133

PERSONAL INFORMATION

NAME: DAWN CHRISTINE O. DE DIOS

BIRTHDAY: MARCH 28, 1996

AGE: 19

ADDRESS: INT. G. TRINIDAD ST BRGY WAWA TANAY, RIZAL

EDUCATION

TERTIARY: UNIVERSITY OF RIZAL SYSTEM-MORONG

Sumulong Street, Morong, Rizal (SY 2012-Present)

SECONDARY: SUNRISE DEVELOPMENT SCHOOL OF TANAY INC.

Tanay, Rizal (SY 2008-2012)

PRIMARY: LA IMMACULADA CONCEPTION SCHOOL

Pasig City (SY 2002-2008)

WORKSHOP/SEMINARS/TRAININGS

September 19, 2012 Communication Technology and ECE


Board Examination Updates
IECEP-URSMSC
Ronnie O. Serfa Juan, PECE
Resource Speaker

December 14, 2012 ROBOTICS


IECEP-URSMSC
Allan R. Pangan, PECE
Resource Speaker

November 28, 2013 MATH AND CALCULATOR


TECHNIQUES
IECEP-URSMSC
Allan R. Pangan, PECE
Resource Speaker
134

PERSONAL INFORMATION

NAME: JAN MARIE VEATRICE M. PACIA

BIRTHDAY: SEPTEMBER 13, 1995

AGE: 21

ADDRESS: 0750 SAPERIA STREET CALUMPANG, BINANGONAN, RIZAL

EDUCATION

TERTIARY: UNIVERSITY OF RIZAL SYSTEM-MORONG

Sumulong Street, Morong, Rizal (SY 2012-Present)

SECONDARY: VICENTE MADRIGAL NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL

Binangonan, Rizal (SY 2008-2012)

PRIMARY: BINANGONAN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

Binangonan, Rizal (SY 2002-2008)

WORKSHOP/SEMINARS/TRAININGS

September 19, 2012 Communication Technology and ECE


Board Examination Updates
IECEP-URSMSC
Ronnie O. Serfa Juan, PECE
Resource Speaker

December 14, 2012 ROBOTICS


IECEP-URSMSC
Allan R. Pangan, PECE
Resource Speaker

November 28, 2013 MATH AND CALCULATOR


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IECEP-URSMSC
Allan R. Pangan, PECE
Resource Speaker
135

PERSONAL INFORMATION

NAME: TRIXIA MAJAL B. REOYAN

BIRTHDAY: MAY 14, 1996

AGE: 20

ADDRESS: BLK 7 LOT 1 PHASE 2B LOWER MABUHAY HOMES, PANTOK,

BINANGONAN, RIZAL

EDUCATION

TERTIARY: UNIVERSITY OF RIZAL SYSTEM-MORONG

Sumulong Street, Morong, Rizal (SY 2012-Present)

SECONDARY: VICENTE MADRIGAL NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL

Binangonan, Rizal (SY 2008-2012)

PRIMARY: EARLY BIRD LEARNING ACADEMY

Binangonan, Rizal (SY 2002-2008)

WORKSHOP/SEMINARS/TRAININGS

September 19, 2012 Communication Technology and ECE


Board Examination Updates
IECEP-URSMSC
Ronnie O. Serfa Juan, PECE
Resource Speaker

December 14, 2012 ROBOTICS


IECEP-URSMSC
Allan R. Pangan, PECE
Resource Speaker

November 28, 2013 MATH AND CALCULATOR


TECHNIQUES
IECEP-URSMSC
Allan R. Pangan, PECE
Resource Speaker
136

PERSONAL INFORMATION

NAME: MACY BLAYE L LUZONG

BIRTHDAY: FEB 26, 1996

AGE: 21

ADDRESS: BLK 44 LOT 11 PHASE 3A MABUHAY HOMES, DARANGAN,

BINANGONAN, RIZAL

EDUCATION

TERTIARY: UNIVERSITY OF RIZAL SYSTEM-MORONG

Sumulong Street, Morong, Rizal (SY 2012-Present)

SECONDARY: GENESIS DE RIZAL SCHOOL

Binangonan, Rizal (SY 2008-2012)

PRIMARY: GENESIS DE RIZAL SCHOOL

Binangonan, Rizal (SY 2002-2008)

WORKSHOP/SEMINARS/TRAININGS

September 19, 2012 Communication Technology and ECE


Board Examination Updates
IECEP-URSMSC
Ronnie O. Serfa Juan, PECE
Resource Speaker

December 14, 2012 ROBOTICS


IECEP-URSMSC
Allan R. Pangan, PECE
Resource Speaker

November 28, 2013 MATH AND CALCULATOR


TECHNIQUES
IECEP-URSMSC
Allan R. Pangan, PECE
Resource Speaker
137

PERSONAL INFORMATION

NAME: RODESSA TORRES

BIRTHDAY: FEB 26, 1996

AGE: 21

ADDRESS: BLK 44 LOT 11 PHASE 3A MABUHAY HOMES, DARANGAN,

BINANGONAN, RIZAL

EDUCATION

TERTIARY: UNIVERSITY OF RIZAL SYSTEM-MORONG

Sumulong Street, Morong, Rizal (SY 2012-Present)

SECONDARY: GENESIS DE RIZAL SCHOOL

Binangonan, Rizal (SY 2008-2012)

PRIMARY: GENESIS DE RIZAL SCHOOL

Binangonan, Rizal (SY 2002-2008)

WORKSHOP/SEMINARS/TRAININGS

September 19, 2012 Communication Technology and ECE


Board Examination Updates
IECEP-URSMSC
Ronnie O. Serfa Juan, PECE
Resource Speaker

December 14, 2012 ROBOTICS


IECEP-URSMSC
Allan R. Pangan, PECE
Resource Speaker

November 28, 2013 MATH AND CALCULATOR


TECHNIQUES
IECEP-URSMSC
Allan R. Pangan, PECE
Resource Speaker
138

CHAPTER IX
TOPOGRAPHICAL
MAP