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Table of Contents:

INTRODUCTION

After researching everything about our topic on abortion, we learned a lot about it that really

answered our questions. Abortion on the other hand, is the termination of a pregnancy before the

birth with the consequent death of a fetus. If the fetus does not develop normally abortion may

occur or the mothers suffers from an injury or disorder there is prevention on her part to stretch

the pregnancy to its full term. Such spontaneous abortion is generally called as miscarriage. You

might be thinking who are the persons who are capable of aborting infants are, well these

people are rape victims, teenagers who got pregnant accidentally, and successful singles that was

not prepared to carry a child inside them. Another thing that bothered you is why is there a need

for them to abort their child? One of their reasons is financial incapability of both couples.

Another reason is unwanted pregnancy because they were not prepared to have it in the first

place. And those who were victims of rape want to abort their infants because they think that, the

infant would be a memory for what had happened to them. Here is a question that really bothered

us all, why is abortion legal to some countries? The answer may be valid or not valid for you, but

it is valid for the country that made that law. Places like the US, and some places in the UK like

England, Scotland and Wales (they allow abortion until at the 24th week of pregnancy). They

made abortion legal because women are, obviously, known human persons. They make up the

majority of known human persons. Human persons have rights that an embryo or fetus does not

have until its personhood can be established. The point at which a fetus can be taken from the

womb and, given the proper medical care, still have a meaningful chance of long-term survival.

The government has a legitimate interest in protecting the potential rights of the fetus, but the
fetus itself does not have rights prior to the viability threshold. While researching about it, we

also found out that there are person that use abortion as a service. Their reason is they learn a lot

from the person that wants to abort their child. Before they abort the baby inside the person, they

ask them why they want to do it, and why is there a need for them to abort the child. They do it

because they see it as a help for the person. They are aware that it is a sin against the church.

Some of us also wanted to know if abortion is also carried out in the hospital. Well, abortions are

not always carried out in hospital. During early medical abortions the tablets are administered at

a hospital or clinic, but most women return home afterwards. Vacuum aspirations and D&Es

may also take place in a hospital or specialised and approved clinic as a day procedure, however

if they involve local or general anaesthetic the stay may be longer or overnight. The question that

really bothered us, is having an abortion a risk to a womans health? Yes, it is a risk to womens

health because they may experience excessive bleeding, damage of the cervix or womb, and

Post-abortion infection that brings with it fever, discharge, bleeding or abdominal pain. Along

our research on abortion we found out that medical abortion, suction curettage, dilation and

curettage, digoxin, and intact dilation and evacuation. Thus, there are many other processes used

for abortion which are vacuum aspiration and dilation and curettage as well as there are surgical

methods for removal of fetus from the uterus with the advancement of science and technology in

medical realm.These are just few processes that are being used for the deletion of an embryo or

fetus of an unborn child from the mothers abdominal tract. Before they become capable of

surviving outside the tract this should be resorted to. There is a strong distinction between

abortion as well as birth of a child.You might be thinking what we could do to prevent abortion,

is to implement strict laws against abortion. Prevention is sex education for teens, if teens were

educated that further about the consequences of sex they would be safer in doing it, and that
could lessen teenage pregnancy as well as the increasing number of abortion. The use of

contraceptives will prevent unwanted pregnancies. And lastly the use of family planning, there is

a lot of families that has 10 or more children; sometimes they have no choice but to abort the

infant that is still inside the mothers womb. This happens because there is lack of knowledge

against family planning. These preventions are just a few; many experts are already moving to

study more about the prevention of abortion in the society, they are hoping that these could

lessen the increasing cases on abortion. There are physical and emotional effects experienced

after abortion. Physical effects of abortion are soreness, cramping, bleeding, vomiting, and

nausea. These are just normal effects after abortion. Severe pain in the pelvis, severe stomach

pain, infection, and hemorrhage could cause death to the person after a couple of weeks after

abortion. Emotional effects are depression, guilt for what they have done, mood swings and

relief because they got rid of something that was a hindrance to their success or goals in life.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM:

The main problem of this issue/ topic is: Perception on the legalization of abortion

Furthermore, we aim to answer the following specific questions:

1. What is abortion?

2. Is it the persons freewill to decide whether she wants to abort her baby or not?

3. Why do some persons perform abortion services?

4. Are abortions carried out in the hospital? Why or why not?

5. Is having an abortion a risk to a womans health?

6. What are the processes used in abortion?


OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY:

This study aims to provide information about the following questions regarding abortion.

This specifically aims to:

A. Find out why is abortion legal?

B. Know the risk of abortion to a womans health.

C. Know why some persons perform abortion services?

D. Know some of the processes used in abortion.


THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

Abortion is simply a medical method that interrupts pregnancy; around the world and in many
regions women have used abortion as part of their health care.

Not all women think abortion is fine, but each has the freedom to stay with the baby or abort the
baby for adoption.

Women choose abortion for various reasons:


1 - there is no way to keep the baby
2 - parents might be angry and throw them in the house
3 - if you have the baby could not finish school and enter college
4 - The baby's father is not going to help with expenses
5 - getting pregnant because of a violation

Types of abortions:

* Abortion spontaneous:

Is defined as pregnancy loss before 26 weeks, when the fetus is not yet able to survive outside
the womb materno.Un guarantees spontaneous abortion occurs when a pregnancy ends abruptly.

Most spontaneous abortions, known and unknown, occurs during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy
and in many cases do not require any type of medical or surgical intervention. Likewise also the
vast majority of abortions occur before 12 weeks.

* Therapeutic Abortion

Is that aims to evacuate scientifically regulated through maneuvers, the uterine cavity, emptying
it of all its contents, this abortion as a qualified check and take the necessary measures to
safeguard the life of the patient, is seriously threatened. It is performed when the life of the fetus
is considered lost (product dead) or represents a serious danger to the mother.

* Abortion induced or caused:

Induced abortion, as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) is the result of
maneuvers practiced deliberately with the intention of terminating the pregnancy. The maneuvers
can be performed by the pregnant woman or by another person on behalf of this.
Since the first laws in the early last century, abortion has been decriminalized in many countries
being both the first, second or third world and its decriminalization in these countries has meant
a drastic reduction of maternal morbidity and mortality. Then we will see the following methods
used to perform the abortion.

* Abortion legal

Induced abortion is considered legal when performed under decriminalization laws of the
country where it is practiced, when performed with her consent, in an accredited facility, and no
danger to the health or life of the pregnant through rape or for fetal malformations.

* Abortion illegal

It is considered illegal or clandestine abortion when performed against any of the laws of the
country where it is practiced.

When abortion is prohibited by law, circumstances dictate that many women look for doctors or
midwives provided to collaborate. But abortion practiced in these circumstances is dangerous
and keeps statistics of maternal mortality and morbidity infinitely superior to legal abortion.

The illegal abortion is generally practiced in the worst hygienic conditions and with limited
opportunities to appeal urgently to hospital. It is important that before proceeding with the
decision you make to values circumstances you may face.

Our legal system in the chapter on abortion, protection of human life dependent, that is, that
human life has no quality of person is a being conceived but not born, an intra uterine life
expectancy.

For the execution of the offense is required:


* Women who are pregnant
* That the embryo or fetus is alive

Moral:
Learn who is still an infant, is an innocent and defenseless child into the world.
We hope that this film will make them think and say NO to abortion.
Conceptual framework for evaluating safe abortion programs (Benson 2005): This figure
describes Benson's framework for evaluating safe abortion programs. Source for this figure is
reference

Benson provides a framework positing that abortion law and policy reform has maximal impact
on abortion-related maternal mortality when it occurs in conjunction with other supportive
programs and services (Figure 1). According to this framework, utilization of safe abortion
services, and, ultimately, a reduction in maternal mortality, is best achieved when liberalized
abortion policies are supplemented with improved availability and distribution of safe abortion
services across a population. Women's knowledge of and attitudes toward abortion, as well as
confidence in obtaining services and access to contraception, can also enhance utilization of safe
abortion services. The framework suggests that only when these elements coordinate with a
loosening of abortion restrictions can real impacts in unsafe abortion and abortion-related
mortality be seen. Although Benson's framework provides a theoretical foundation for the paper,
this study is not intended to specifically test the components of the mode.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY:

The study will be beneficial to the following persons:

1. High School and college students. The findings of our research may give them knowledge

about the real deal on abortion. The knowledge that they have learned in this study could help

them in the future.

2. Persons who had undergone abortion. During our research we have learned that there are

health risks that occur after the abortion.

3. Persons who needs more information regarding the issue/topic. In this research, we focused

more on some questions that people wants to know about abortion.


DEFINITION OF TERMS:

LEGALIZATION-is the process of removing a legal prohibition against something which is

currently not legal. Legalization is a process often applied to what are regarded, by those

working towards legalization, as victimless crimes, of which one example is the consumption

of illegal drugs (see Drug legalization).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Legalization

PERCEPTION- is the process of attaining awareness or understanding of the environment by

organizing and interpreting sensory information. All perception involves signals in the nervous

system, which in turn result from physical stimulation of the sense organs.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perception

MISCARRIAGE- is the spontaneous end of a pregnancy at a stage where the embryo or fetus is

incapable of surviving independently, generally defined in humans at prior to 20 weeks

of gestation. Miscarriage is the most common complication of early pregnancy.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miscarriage

Medical abortion- It is a form of procedure and technique that does not necessitate surgery but

induces the process through the induction of medication for all intents and purposes or

susceptible to miscarriages. Doctors advise various medications such as mifepristone as well as

misoprostol. This procedure takes care of various weeks of implementation for the purposes of

carrying out this process without endangering the life of the mother at the same time.
http://www.bestpregnancytips.com/abortion-techniques-methods-types/

Suction Curettage This procedure is also known as menstrual extraction or vacuum aspiration.

It is the most common technique adopted in the United States of America by involving an

obstetrician or a gynecologist for insertion of a tube akin to the size of a pencil which should be

connected to a powerful vacuum or hand pump into the fetus of the woman which can be dilated

with rods which are in a tapered form. This procedure utilizes a powerful vacuum that rips apart

an unborn childs body by collecting

the various pieces in a jar. The doctor later checks the jar for making sure that none of the parts

of the body were left inside or could cause some kind of an infection.

http://www.bestpregnancytips.com/abortion-techniques-methods-types/

Dilation and Curettage This procedure involves the process of surgery for dilation of the

cervix as well as scraping of the fetus with a curette for removal of contents of fetus. These are

commonly performed during the course of the first trimester of pregnancy.

http://www.bestpregnancytips.com/abortion-techniques-methods-types/

Dilation and Evacuation This procedure is performed during the course of the second

trimester of pregnancy. In this procedure a gynecologist rips open a child apart in the fetus with

the help of forceps or other surgical tools.


http://www.bestpregnancytips.com/abortion-techniques-methods-types/

Digoxin The procedure of Digoxin is utilized during the course of second and third trimesters

for the purposes of carrying on this process. You can also utilize the aids of an ultrasound for

enabling injection of an unborn childs heart with an appropriate chemical by induction of labor

for removal of the body from the fetus.

http://www.bestpregnancytips.com/abortion-techniques-methods-types/

Intact Dilation and Evacuation This procedure is also known as partial abortion and the

methodology is delivery of a baby up to the stage of head remains in the fetus behind the cervix.

http://www.bestpregnancytips.com/abortion-techniques-methods-types/
METHODOLOGY:

The methodology used in this topic was to gather information about the topic using the internet.

We wanted to search everything on the internet because it would be faster and easier for us to

learn more about it. While searching the internet about abortion, we had a lot of references that

talk about abortion much further than those on books. Another thing why we chose the internet

as our source of information is because the internet provides us with both knowledge and

technology. We all know that technology gives us the drive to study and learn more. Researching

everything was not that hard. All you got to do is to organize the meanings, description ant etc.

because everything is found in the internet regarding abortion. It explains further the issues we

have to know about it. Not only that, we discovered things that we thought was kind of

unbelievable. One example of that are the different methods of abortion. The books may provide

us details that we need to know, but in the internet it provides us details and information that we

should know.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE:

ALL ABOUT ABORTION

When making a decision about your pregnancy, it is important to have reliable abortion facts. An

abortion is a procedure where a woman chooses to end her pregnancy. Unintended pregnancy is

a significant concern that affects thousands of people each year. More than half of the 6 million

pregnancies occurring each year in the United States are unplanned. According to a study

published inPerspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, about 50% of the women faced

with these unplanned pregnancies were actually usingcontraception during the month that they

conceived. Abortion is one of the most common medical procedures performed in the United

States as approximately 1.3 million abortions performed each year. Data indicates that more than

40% of all women will end a pregnancy by abortion at some time in their reproductive lives.
Brief Background:

In 1973, the Supreme Court case Roe v. Wade ruled that women have the right to an abortion

during the first 6 months (2 trimesters) of pregnancy, thereby legalizing abortion. The court

asserted that abortion is a fundamental right under the U.S. Constitution and prohibiting abortion

would violate the Due Process Clause of the 14th Amendment (which protects against state

actions to deny the right to privacy, including a woman's qualified right to terminate her

pregnancy).

Abortion Facts - When Women Seek Abortion:

Approximately 88% of abortions are preformed within in the first trimester (3 months) of a

pregnancy. Roughly 59% take place within the first eight weeks of pregnancy, 19% in weeks 9 to

10, and 10% in weeks 11 to 12.

About 10% of abortions occur during the second trimester (6% in weeks 13-15 and 4% by week

20). After 24 weeks or pregnancy, abortions are only provided due to serious health reasons (and

account for less than 1% of total abortions). Earlier abortions are easier, safer, and tend to be less

expensive than abortions taking place later in a pregnancy.


Some Abortion Facts and Demographics:

U.S. women, age 24 and younger, account for about for 52% of those who obtain an

abortion. This number is further broken down into: 19% of these abortions are obtained

by teenagers, and women age 20 to 24 account for 33% of these abortions.

Approximately 60% of abortions are obtained by women who have had at least one child.

Two-thirds of all abortions occur in women who have never been married.

Women of every social class and race elect to have an abortion: 78% of women who have had

an abortion report having a religious affiliation, 88% of women who obtain abortions live in

metropolitan areas, and 57% of women who seek abortion are economically disadvantaged

(living below the federal poverty level).

Of women obtaining abortions, 54% were using a birth control method during the time they

became pregnant. Many of these pregnancies resulted from condoms breaking or being

used incorrectly (49%) and due to women who missed taking their birth control pills (76%).

Half of all women seeking a first abortion had not been using any type of contraception when

they conceived (despite agreement with their sexual partners about not wanting to become

pregnant).
Deciding to Obtain an Abortion:

It is important that a woman make a well-informed decision when she is considering obtaining

an abortion. Discussing ones options with trusted and supported friends or family as well as

early pregnancy counseling can be helpful in reaching a decision that a woman feels the most

right about. Women may have a choice between two or more types of abortion procedures

depending on how many weeks pregnant they are. The safest time to have an abortion is 5-10

weeks after your last menstrual period. In the past, there was concern that an abortion may

increase a woman's risk of breast cancer. More recent and carefully done studies, however,

indicate that there is no link between having an abortion and having breast cancer later in life.

CONCLUSION:

Therefore, we conclude that abortion is a complicated issue for everyone in the society. Some

wants it to be legal, while others do not. For us, we believe that the legalization of abortion

should not be allowed, especially here in our country. We have used ethics to help us in

concluding, abortion is probably one of the most intensely debated ethical issues in todays

society. For example, Pro-choice believers feel that a woman has the right to choose whether to

have an abortion, while Pro-life followers feel that abortion is never an option. However, in an

attempt to find common ground on this issue, we tend to overlook the basic facts regarding this

issue. To solve this issue one could look at abortion under an objective view instead of only a

subjective view and find that while there is no real answer to this controversy, ethical choices are

plentiful. With all the examination complete it then becomes apparent that since it is always

wrong to cause death to an innocent person, abortion is always wrong. With that said, the Pro-

life view is morally and ethically the correct view. Before we begin to make decisions about
abortion we must first examine the definitions that surround this issue. The first definition that

we must define is personhood. What makes up personhood? The definition of when a fetus

becomes a person is a very gray area, however if we utilize medical definitions of life, we can

see that a fetus is a person when its heart begins to beat on its own. While onviews of Pro

Choice amongst women many clinics provide abortion services for women with unplanned or

uncontrollable pregnancies. Some women find themselves with an unplanned pregnancy rather

than an uncontrollable one. Unplanned in fact that a contraceptive failed, or may not have been

easily accessible: uncontrolled in the sense of factors being greater than limited contraception.

Abortion has been performed in many clinics as a treatment for unfit or unhealthy women, and

for women who may have been molested or raped. Abortion shouldnt be used as a form of

contraception, nor should womens lives be sacrificed to bear an infant before morally ready to

commit. If a woman is raped, and the outcome incurs pregnancy, then abortion is an alternate

form of controlling the unwanted pregnancy. Abortion should stand as only the womans choice,

never as a decision adverse to Pro-Life activists. Pro-Choice advocates seem to vindicate

abortion, accepting that abortion is not considered a form of birth control, but merely a method

of controlling the woman and fetus future. Women are the sole determinate persons in stating if

they are capable of withholding a full term pregnancy. no matter how you defend it to be right it

will still be a wrong decision to abort something that is already given to you. As a solution to

your problem, face the consequence and do not run from it.
BIBLIOGRAPHY:

References:

Naina, Roy. Introduction on abortion. Best information guide. December 20, 2008

Naina, Roy. Types and methods of abortion techniques.November 10, 2008

Tom Head. Why is abortion legal?.www. About.com.

Tom Head. Why do persons perform abortion services?.www. About.com

El. Abortion risks. Afterabortion.org. November 23, 1999