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Control and Performance of a Medium-Voltage

Transformerless Cascade PWM STATCOM

with Star-Configuration
Tsurugi Yoshii, Shigenori Inoue, Student Member, IEEE, and Hirofumi Akagi, Fellow, IEEE
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan
E-mail: akagi@ee.titech.ac.jp

Abstract- This paper presents a three-phase transformerless B. Classification of Cascade STATCOMs


cascade PWM STATCOM intended for installation on industrial
and utility power distribution systems. It proposes a control Cascade STATCOMs can be classified into staircase modu-
method that devotes itself mainly to meeting a demand of reactive lation and pulsewidth modulation in terms of voltage control.
power, as well as to voltage-balancing of the multiple isolated and Research has been carried out in both staircase modulation and
split dc capacitors. The control method is characterized by fast pulsewidth modulation, and the resultant papers have appeared
and stable voltage-balancing performance and easy expansion in the technical literature [4]-[8], [18]. The authors of this
into a higher number of levels. Experimental waveforms confirm
that a 200-V, 10-kVA cascade PWM STATCOM with star- paper prefer pulsewidth modulation to staircase modulation
configuration has the capability of inductive to capacitive (or when a transformerless cascade STATCOM is being applied to
capacitive to inductive) operation at the rated reactive power the 6.6-kV utility and industrial distribution systems in Japan.
of 10 kVA within 20 ms, keeping the nine dc mean voltages A main reason is that the 1.7-kV trench-gate IGBTs can be
controlled and balanced, even during the transient state. operated at a switching frequency higher than 1 kHz with a
Index Terms- Cascade connection, multi-level converters, re- low switching loss. Another reason comes from the availability
active power, STATCOM, Voltage balancing of leading-edge DSPs, FPGAs, A/D converters, Hall-effect
voltage/current sensors, and operational and isolation ampli-
I. INTRODUCTION fiers at reasonable cost. As a result, pulsewidth modulation
A. Background (PWM) is superior in dynamic performance, more robust in
line disturbances and faults, and more flexible in applications,
Attention has been paid to a three-phase medium-voltage compared to staircase modulation.
multi-level conversion system cascading multiple single-phase The cascade PWM STATCOM for medium-voltage appli-
H-bridge converters in each phase [1]-[18]. This multi-level cations has attracted the attention of power electronics re-
converter or inverter has been considered as an alternative to searchers/engineers who have been interested in power-factor
a three-level diode-clamped converter or inverter [19] for the correction and/or harmonic compensation [ 1]-[15], [17]-[18].
so-called "STATCOM" (STATic synchronous COMpensator) However, no papers have proposed and experimentally verified
and adjustable-speed motor drives. a viable and effective control method to control and balance all
When the multi-level converter is applied to a STATCOM, the dc mean voltages from a practical point of view. Moreover,
each of cascaded H-bridge converters should be equipped such a control method should have the capability of easy
with an isolated and split dc capacitor without any power expansion into a higher number of levels.
source or circuit. This allows us to eliminate a bulky, heavy
and costly line-frequency transformer from the cascade STAT-
COM. For example, the weight of a three-phase line-frequency C. Control Method for Voltage Balancing of DC Capacitors
transformer rated at 6.6 kV and 1 MVA ranges from 3,000 This paper deals with a 6.6-kV, 1-MVA star-configured
to 4,000 kg, while the weight of the three-phase cascaded STATCOM cascading six single-phase H-bridge PWM con-
converters with the same voltage and current ratings may range verters per phase. It is followed by designing, constructing,
from 1,000 to 2,000 kg [20]. and testing of a 200-V, 10-kVA star-configured STATCOM
However, the cascade STATCOM suffers from voltage im- cascading three single-phase H-bridge PWM converters per
balance between the multiple isolated and split dc capacitors. phase. The pulsewidth modulation used in the STATCOM is
Unequal conducting and switching losses produced by power the so-called "phase-shifted unipolar sinusoidal PWM" with a
switching devices, as well as signal imbalance and resolution carrier frequency of 1 kHz.
issues inherent in the control circuit including voltage/current This paper proposes a control method that devotes itself
sensors, may bring voltage imbalance to the dc capacitors in mainly to meeting a demand of reactive power, and comple-
an actual system. mentarily to controlling and balancing all the dc capacitor

1716
1-4244-0365-0/06/$20.00 (c) 2006 IEEE
6.6 kV, 50 Hz

Fig. 1. Circuit configuration of the 6.6-kV, 1-MVA star-configured cascade


PWM STATCOM using 1.7-kV, 200-A IGBTs. Fig. 2. The 200-V, 10-kVA down-scaled STATCOM.

voltages. The control method is characterized by fast and B. System Configuration


stable voltage-balancing performance, and easy expansion into Fig. 1 shows the circuit configuration of the 6.6-kV, 1-MVA
a higher number of levels. Experimental waveforms verify that star-configured STATCOM cascading six H-bridge PWM con-
the 200-V, 10-kVA STATCOM can adjust the rated reactive verters in phase. All the IGBTs have the same voltage and
power of 10 kVA from inductive to capacitive (or capacitive to current ratings as 1.7 kV and 200 A. The total number of the
inductive) within 20 ms, keeping the nine dc capacitor voltages IGBTs used for the 6.6-kV STATCOM is 72 (= 4 x 6 x 3).
controlled and balanced, even during the transient state. Each H-bridge converter has an isolated dc capacitor with a
maximal dc mean voltage of 1,000 V. The so-called "phase-
shifted unipolar sinusoidal PWM" with a carrier frequency of
II. DESIGN CONCEPT OF THE 6.6-KV, 1-MVA STATCOM 1 kHz is applied to a cluster of the six cascaded H-bridge
A. The Cascade Number converters in each phase. Therefore, the ac voltage of each
cluster becomes a 13-level line-to-neutral PWM waveform
For the sake of simplicity, the number of cascaded voltage- with the lowest harmonic sideband centered at 12 kHz (=
source H-bridge converters in each phase is referred to as a 1 kHz x 2 x 6). An ac inductor in each phase supports
"cascade number" in this paper. When one tries to design a difference between the utility ac voltage at the point of
the 6.6-kV STATCOM, the cascade number is one of the installation of the STATCOM and the 13-level PWM voltage.
most important design parameters, accounting for the blocking This inductor makes a significant contribution to filtering
voltage of the IGBTs being used in the STATCOM. The 1.7- out switching ripples caused by pulsewidth modulation, thus
kV IGBTs are now available from the market at reasonable resulting in an almost sinusoidal current without connecting
cost. When they are used for each H-bridge converter, the dc any switching-ripple filter at the point of installation.
mean voltage should be designed to be around 1,000 V, so
that the ac rms voltage of each H-bridge converter should be III. THE 200-V, 10-KVA DOWN-SCALED STATCOM
around 625 Vl. This gives the cascade number N as follows:
A. Assignment of the Cascade Number
N =-6, 600v- 6.1 A three-phase down-scaled STATCOM rated at 200 V and
Xf-- 625V 10 kVA is designed, constructed, and tested to verify the
viability and effectiveness of the 6.6-kV STATCOM. It is
Therefore, the cascade number can be assigned as N= 6. important to assign an appropriate cascade number to the 200-
V STATCOM. The cascade number of N = 6 is definitely
'This ac voltage is given by 1, OOOV/1.6, where the number "1.6" in
the denominator is a design parameter representing the ratio of the dc mean the best choice in terms of exact down-scale. However, the
voltage to the ac rms voltage in a voltage-source H-bridge PWM converter. 200-V STATCOM with N = 6 is challenging to designing,

1717
TABLE I Voltage sensors
CIRCUIT PARAMETERS IN FIG. 2
-
VCui1

Rated reactive power Q 10 kVA 3X, 200 V, 50


Nominal line-to-line rms voltage Vs 200 V
Background system inductance LS 48 ,uH (0.4%)
AC inductor Lac 1.2 mH (10%)
Starting resistor R 10 Q
DC capacitor voltage reference v* 60 70 V
-

DC capacitor capacitance C 16,400 ,uF


Unit capacitance constant H 36 ms at 70 V
Carrier frequency for PWM 1 kHz
Low-pass-filter time constant T 11 ms
Dead time in each converter 2 ,us
on a three-phase 200-V, 10-kVA, 50-Hz base
q
Fig. 3. Control system for the 200-V STATCOM.
constructing and testing in the authors' laboratory. Therefore,
the authors assigned N = 3 to the 200-V STATCOM, aiming
to confirm the validity and expansion of the control method sampling
calculation voltage reference
proposed in this paper. reference carrier signal
167,us renewal
B. System Configuration
Fig. 2 shows the system configuration of the 200-V, 10-
con. 1 I~
~~~~ \
I

kVA STATCOM. Table I summarizes the circuit parameters. 0

It was scaled down from the 6.6-kV STATCOM in Fig. 1,


except for assigning N = 3 to it. Thus, the 200-V STATCOM
consists of nine H-bridge converters with the same voltage and
con. 2 7\
current ratings. As a result, it produces a seven-level line-to- 0

neutral (13-level line-to-line) voltage waveform. The phase-


shifted unipolar sinusoidal PWM with a carrier frequency of con. 3
1 kHz is applied to the 200-V STATCOM. Each H-bridge

converter is equipped with an isolated dc capacitor with a 0

capacitance value of 16,400 ,uF (the unit capacitance constant:


H = 36 ms at 70 V [21])2. Note that neither external circuit
nor power source except for the dc capacitor and a Hall-effect Fig. 4. Three carrier signals with a phase shift of 2wF/3 between one and

voltage sensor is installed on the dc side. For example, a cluster another, and sampling timing.

of three cascaded converters in the u-phase is referred to as


the u-phase cluster in this paper. Moreover, vu, is the u-phase
reference for con. is renewed at the following top or bottom
cluster voltage with respect to the neutral point of the star-
of the carrier signal for con. with a time delay of 167 bus
configured STATCOM, n, while vuv is the u-phase cluster
(= Im'/6), and then it is held for 500 ,us to avoid multi-
voltage with respect to the v-phase cluster voltage.
switching. This means that the sampling period is 167 ,us, and
the reference renewal period is 500 ,us.
IV. CONTROL SYSTEM AND SAMPLING TIMING
Fig. 3 shows the control block diagram of the 200-V V. CONTROL METHOD
STATCOM. It consists of a fully-digital control circuit based
on a single DSP (digital signal processor) and multiple FPGAs
Fig. 5 shows the block diagram of the control method
(field-programmable gate arrays). As shown in Fig. 4, three proposed in this paper. The whole control is divided into the
carrier signals with the same frequency as 1 kHz are phase- following two controls; reactive-power and dc-voltage control
based on the d-q transformation, and voltage-balancing control
shifted by 27/3 from each other, thus making it possible to
for the nine dc capacitors. Moreover, the voltage-balancing
apply the phase-shift unipolar sinusoidal PWM to the three
control can be classified into "clustered balancing control"
clusters. As a result, the line-to-neutral voltage at the ac side
between the three clusters, and "individual balancing control"
of the u-phase cluster, vu, results in a seven-level PWM
between the three cascaded converters in each cluster.
waveform with the lowest harmonic sideband centered at
The PLL (phase-locked-loop) circuit in Fig. 3 is used to
6 kHz (= I kHz x 2 x 3).
Data sampling for con. 1, for example, is carried out at every synchronize internal control signals with the line phase wt.
As for the d-q and inverse d-q transformations in Fig. 5, the
top or bottom of the carrier signal for con. 3. The voltage
d-axis is aligned with the u-phase voltage
2This value of H = 36 ms is higher than that of the STATCOM based on
a three-phase five-level diode-clamped converter [20]. An appropriate design
of the dc-capacitor capacitance is beyond the scope of this paper. VSto -Vs sin wt. (1)
3

1718
+ K5 VBqum + Vu
DC voltage Vcu 1-sT VBum
reference vc
VCum coswt from Fig. 6
+ K5 VBqvm + Vv
Vcv 1+T VBvm

vCvm Icos(wt- 2w/3) from Fig. 6


+ K5 VBqwm~V+wm VB!
Vcw 1sT

i7it-t
id d Decoupling Vd Inv. V* vCwm cos(wt + 2wF/3) from Fig. 6
i
d-q
rans.
current control
(Eq. 10) Vq
d-q
trans.
} urnV*
V
V*wm
Fig. 7. Individual balancing control between three cascaded converters inside
each cluster, paying attention to the mth-converter.
Fig. 5. Control block diagram for the 200-V STATCOM.

v K For example, the dc mean capacitor voltage in the u-phase


vcu *- .,
cluster, vcu can be calculated by
, K4 .,f.rd
3
3
sin wt Vcu = 2_vcum. : (6)
m=l
1 +
vc -T K3 K4 VBdv The dc mean capacitor voltage of the three clusters, vc is
sin(wt- 2w/3) given by
1 + e1) (7)
1+-sT (v
=
v K
-3 K4 VBdw Vc7 + + v

sin(wt + 2wF/3) The d-axis current reference i, and the q-axis current
reference i* are determined by
Fig. 6. Clustered balancing control between the u-phase, the v-phase and
the w-phase clusters, considering each of the three clusters as a single-phase KidK(v0C-vc) (8)
H-bridge converter using four IGBTs. q*
VSd
(9)

This control method is characterized by easy expansion into The d-axis voltage reference vd, and the q-axis voltage refer-
the STATCOM with a cascade number higher than four. ence v* are given by

FVdl 1 K VSdl -gac idl


A. Reactive-Power and DC-Voltage Control Lvq* 3 VSq LLac
b 0 j Lq
The following set of voltage and current equations can be
obtained, neglecting resistance components from Fig. 2.
tq tq] T2 J [iq iq] dt) (10)
[vsuO1 Vun d The first and second terms of the right hand side in (10) are
tu
VSvo vi Lac introduced to cancel out the supply voltage and the voltage
Itv (2)
VSwo- Vwn_
dt
tw_ appearing across the ac inductor. The third and fourth terms
form a proportional controller for the d-axis current, and a
Invoking the d-q transformation yields proportional plus integral controller for the q-axis current.
The coefficient 1/3 comes from the cascade number of N =
dLac -WLac] [id] [VSd -Vd] 3. Note that the dc-voltage control based on (8) and (10)
Tt Lac
~~~~~~~~~~~(3)
oLwac Lac dt [iqj VSq Vqj considers a set of the three clusters as a three-phase full-bridge
Here, Vd and Vq are the d-axis and q-axis components converter using six IGBTs.
corresponding to the three-phase cluster voltages, vun, Vvn
and Vwn, and VSd and VSq are those corresponding to the B. Clustered Balancing Control
three-phase supply voltages, respectively. When the three- Fig. 6 shows the block diagram of the clustered balancing
phase supply voltages vsuo, vsvo and vswo are sinusoidal and control considering each of the three clusters as a single-phase
balanced, VSq is always zero because vsuo is aligned with the H-bridge converter using four IGBTs. Attention is paid to the
d-axis. u-phase in the following. Each dc capacitor voltage detected
The instantaneous real power p and the instantaneous imag- by a Hall-effect voltage sensor contains a 100-Hz (double
inary power q [22] are given as follows: line frequency) component. A low-pass-filter with a cut-off
frequency of 15 Hz is used to eliminate the 100-Hz component
VSd * d + VSq *q = VSd * id from the detected dc voltage. This balancing control yields the
q = VSd * iq VSq td = VSd * tq. u-phase voltage-balancing signal VBdu from the common dc

1719
capacitor voltage reference v0, the dc mean capacitor voltage 200-
of the u-phase cluster, vcu and the d-axis current id as follows: vsu0 IV] 0
-200E
VBdau =-K4 { K3 (vc- C , id } sin wt. ( 11) 30
Note that vc, vcu and id are not ac but dc signals. This makes i [A] 0
it possible to form a minor current loop of id, as if on the d-q
reference frames. This minor current loop on the dc reference -30 46 V
frame makes a significant contribution to improving stability. 50 , MCI was turned on
Multiplying the dc signal obtained from the minor current loop
by "sin wt" implies to achieve dc-to-ac transformation, as if the vc [V] 100 ms
inverse d-q transformation were applied. The signals "sin(t-
27w/3)" and "sin(wt + 27w/3)" from the PLL circuit take the 00 200 400
place of "sin wt" in the v-phase and w-phase clusters. (a) -20 ms < t <400 ms

C. Individual Balancing Control


200
[V]0
0 Av-nvnv -n -n /'\\ --Zf
Fig. 7 shows the block diagram of the individual balancing -200- .; v \\j v v
control. It plays an important role in balancing three dc mean 60
capacitor voltages in each cluster. The voltage-balancing signal i [A] 0-
for the u-phase mth_converter, VBqum is given by
-60
VBqum =K5 (Vcu -Vcum) Cosbt. (12) 151
r
The STATCOM control came into operation
Note that "cos wt" in (12) leads by 900 to the u-phase voltage q [kVA] 5t ---N-
-.- .- -,v, .,- -,

in (1). Making the sign of "cos wt" coincide with that of r5

( I- -

q* yields an ac signal being in phase with a capacitive


leading current, thus forming an amount of active power. 80F vc
Iy
70- &
Therefore, the individual balancing control does not work A-

vc IV] 60 :46 V
when q* = 0. The following practical limitation is imposed v
c
50 Al, 20 ms
on this experimental system.
40
1.5 1.64
<q* <10 [kVA] (b) 1.47 s < t < 1.64 s

VI. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS Fig. 8. Experimental waveforms when the STATCOM was started.

A. Start-up Procedure
A specially-designed start-up circuit consists of two three- capacitor voltage reference v0 with a slow ramp function3.
phase magnetic contactors MCI and MC2, and a current- This enables to gradually build up all the dc mean voltages
limiting resistor R in each phase, as shown in Fig. 2. from 46 V to its reference voltage of 60 V. Then, the reactive-
Fig. 8 shows experimental waveforms of the three-phase power reference q* was controlled with a ramp function from
ac currents itu, iv and i , and the nine dc capacitor voltages 1 to 10 kVA to prevent overvoltage from appearing across each
from vcul to vC,3 when the 200-V STATCOM was started. dc capacitor.
Unfortunately, it is difficult to distinguish the waveforms of the
nine dc capacitor voltages. The STATCOM takes the following B. Experimental Waveforms
start-up procedure.
At the time of t = 0, MCI was turned on, while MC2 Fig. 9 shows experimental waveforms in a transient state
remained switched off. An amount of ac current, lower than from inductive to capacitive operation with a ramp change
the rated current of 30 A, in each phase started to flow into in q* from -10 kVA to 10 kVA. Although vc represents the
the dc capacitors through a resistor of R = 10 Q. Thus, each nine dc capacitor voltages, it is difficult to distinguish the nine
dc capacitor voltage was charged up with a time constant of waveforms from Fig. 9. The voltage reference was controlled
R x C/3 = 55 ms. At the time of t = 400 ms, no current in a range between 60 V and 70 V, being synchronized with
flowed, and the nine dc capacitors were equally charged up the ramp change in q* [kVA] as follows:
to a constant dc voltage of 46 V. At the time of t = 1.0 s, V0 = 65 + q*/2 [V]. (13)
MC2 was turned on, but no current flowed, so that no voltage
change occurred in the nine dc capacitors. This phenomenon The above equation means that capacitive operation at q* =
was not included in Fig. 8. At the time of t = 1.5 s, the 10 kVA takes the maximal voltage reference of 70 V, and
STATCOM control came into operation, and started to draw a
3Both clustered balancing control and individual balancing control were
small amount of active power and a capacitive reactive power also put into operation at the time of t = 1.5 s, thus keeping all the nine dc
of 1 kVA from the three-phase utility grid, controlling the dc capacitor voltage balanced well, as shown in Fig. 8 (b).

1720
200 300
Vsu,
-200) VW Vw V< V< \V VJ V \j' un [V] 0
60
i [A] 0\A v vVI-/v
i[OV An 4vnA
v v v t
-300
500
-60
q VUV [V] 0
V| V r ~~~~~~5
ms

15
'I ItkVA]'] 0OL
a L- ' ' /U
1 I I -500

-15 Fig. 11. Experimental waveforms when the STATCOM was put into inductive
80 operation at 10 kVA with vC 60 V.
vc [V] 70
-R9-
60 _9 50 ms_ 300
50

Fig. 9. Experimental waveforms in a transient state from inductive to Vun [V] 0


capacitive operation at 10 kVA.
-300
500
300
T11t|~~~i4 ~5 ms l
VUV [V] 0
Vun [V] 0 L

-500
-300
500- Fig. 12. Experimental waveforms when the STATCOM was put into inductive
5 ms
operation at 10 kVA with vC = 70 V.
[V] 00 Izz Iz ,,.I

-500
balancing control was intentionally disabled for two seconds,
Fig. 10. Experimental waveforms when the STATCOM was put into
and then it was enabled again. Both the dc-voltage control
capacitive operation at 10 kVA with v* = 70 V.
based on (8) and (10), and the individual balancing control in
Fig. 14 remained active through this experiment.
inductive operation at q* = -10 kVA takes the minimal While the clustered balancing control was disabled, some
voltage reference of 60 V. Each dc voltage contains a 100-Hz waveforms of the nine dc capacitor voltages overlapped with
component inherent in a single-phase H-bridge converter. The others, thus making vc look like three waveforms in Fig. 13.
100-Hz component is superimposed on the dc mean voltage. This means that three dc capacitor voltages in each cluster
Each dc mean voltage was kept balanced and controlled, even were well balanced because the individual balancing control
in the transient state. The u-phase ac current flowing into the remained active. As a result, the voltage imbalance occurred
STATCOM, itu was slightly distorted with a current THD (total between the three clusters. As soon as the clustered balancing
harmonic distortion) of 3.7%. The reason is discussed in the control was enabled, each dc mean voltage of the nine dc
next section. capacitors started to converge at its reference voltage, and
Fig. 10 shows experimental waveforms in capacitive op- finally reached 70 V in 70 ms.
eration at q* = 10 kVA with v0 = 70 V, while Fig. 11 Fig. 14 shows experimental waveforms confirming the effec-
shows experimental waveforms in inductive operation at q* tiveness of the individual balancing control during capacitive
-10 kVA with v0 = 60 V. The u-phase cluster voltage with operation at 10 kVA with v0 = 70 V. The individual balancing
respect to the neutral point, vu, is a seven-level waveform, control was intentionally disabled for ten seconds, and then it
and the u-phase cluster voltage with respect to v-phase cluster was enabled again. Both the dc-voltage control and the cluster
voltage, vuv is a 13-level voltage waveform in both figures, as balancing control remained active through this experiment.
expected. Whether the individual balancing control was disabled or
Fig. 12 shows experimental waveforms in an inductive enabled produced little effect on the waveform of itu. However,
operation of q* =-10 kVA with v0 70 V. Note that Vun is voltage imbalance occurred in the nine dc capacitors while the
=
a seven-level waveform, but vuv looks like a nine-level voltage individual balancing function was disabled. As soon as it was
waveform. The reason is that Fig. 12 has a smaller modulation enabled, each dc mean voltage of the nine dc capacitors started
factor than Fig. 11. to converge at its reference voltage, and finally reached 70 V
Fig. 13 shows experimental waveforms of the u-phase ac in 150 ms.
current itu and the nine dc capacitor voltages, confirming Figs. 9, 13 and 14 conclude that the control method pro-
the effectiveness of the clustered balancing control. During posed in this paper has the capability, not only to control
capacitive operation at 10 kVA with v0 = 70 V, the clustered reactive power, but also to balance the nine dc mean voltages.

1721
TABLE II
HARMONIC COMPONENTS AND THD OF AC CURRENT WITH CAPACITIVE OPERATION AT 10 KVA, EXPRESSES AS [%].

Harmonic order 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 13th 15th THD
Experiment (Fig. 15) 1.1 1.4 0.5 1.9 0.3 2.3 0.5 0.6 0.4 0.8 0.1 0.5 0.0 3.7
Simulation I (Fig. 16) 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.0 0.0 2.7 0.1 0.0 0.1 1.6 0.0 1.1 0.0 3.9
Simulation II (Fig. 17) 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.7 0.0 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.0 0.3 0.0 1.1
Simulation I takes into account VCE(Sat) = VF = 1.5 V, and Simulation II takes into account VCE(Sat) = VF = 0.17 V(= 0.25% of 70 V).

200/ 200
vsu [V] 0 A A
200t vsuo [V] 0
60
-200 10 ms
iu [A] 0 60
_

60 _____ Clustered balancing control


90 - was enabled
iu [A] 0
80
-60
vc [V] 70
50
60 ~~~~~~~~~50
Ms
Fig. 15. Experimental waveforms when the STATCOM was put into
capacitive operation at 10 kVA with vC = 70 V.
Fig. 13. Experimental waveforms confirming the effectiveness of the
clustered balancing control when the STATCOM was put into capacitive 200
operation at 10 kVA with v* = 70 V. The dc-voltage control and the
individual balancing control remained active in this experiment.
vsuo [V] 0

-2001 10
vsuo [V] 0 Ms

60 i.,
iu [A] 0i-
-60
90 *- Individual balancing control was enabled
Fig. 16. Simulated waveforms when the STATCOM was put into capacitive
operation at 10 kVA with v* = 70 V, taking into account VCE(Sat)
vc [V] 70 VF = 1.5 V.

50
Fig. 16 shows simulated waveforms of vs,, and i,, under the
Fig. 14. Experimental waveforms confirming the effectiveness of the
individual balancing control when the STATCOM was put into capacitive same operating conditions as Fig. 15. This simulation assumed
operation at 10 kVA with vC = 70 V. The dc-voltage control and the cluster a pair of the IGBT and the diode as an ideal switch, except
balancing control remained active in this experiment. for taking into account a constant saturation/forward voltage
of VCE(Sat) = VF = 1.5 V. In addition, it takes into account
the followings:
VII. DISCUSSIONS ON CURRENT DISTORTION * a sampling delay of 167 ,us,
Fig. 15 shows experimental waveforms of vsu, and it' * a dead time of 2 ,us, and
during capacitive operation at 10 kVA. Note that both wave- * a background system inductance of Ls = 48 ,uH.
forms are time-expanded waveforms of vsu, and it from These considerations enable to simulate more precise behavior
Fig. 9 during the steady-state capacitive operation at 10 kVA. in the digital controller and the nine single-phase H-bride
The waveform of itu looks slightly distorted, so that its THD converters. As a result, the waveform of i,, in Fig. 16 is very
reaches 3.7%. similar to that in Fig. 15.
The 36 IGBTs rated at 600 V and 150 A were used in As described in section II, the 6.6-kV STATCOM has the
this experiment, and each IGBT was integrated with a free- cascade number of N = 6, and each H-bridge converter
wheeling diode. However, the saturation voltage of the IGBT, consisting of four 1.7-kV IGBTs and a dc capacitor was
VCE(Sat) and the forward voltage of the diode, VF produce designed to have a dc mean voltage of 1,000 V. When
a bad effect on current-control performance because the dc the saturation/forward voltage of the 1.7-kV IGBT/diode is
mean voltage of each single-phase H-bridge converter is as assumed as 2.5 V, it is only 0.25% of the dc mean voltage of
low as 70 V. 1,000 V. This discussion indicates that the saturation/forward

1722
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[8] Y Liang, and C. 0. Nwankpa, "A new type of STATCOM based on
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operation at 10 kVA with v* = 70 V, taking into account VCE(Sat) IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 834-841, 2000.
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[11] J. Rodrigues, J. S. Lai, and F. Z. Peng, "Multilevel Inverters: A survey
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[22] H. Akagi, Y. Kanazawa, and A. Nabae, "Instantaneous reactive power
IGBTs that are now available from the market at reasonable compensators comprising switching devices without energy storage com-
cost. Experimental waveforms obtained from a 200-V, 10-kVA ponents," IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 625-630, 1984.
down-scaled STATCOM with a cascade number of N = 3
have confirmed the viability and effectiveness of the control
method.

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