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ETHICS

APPLICATION FORM
(Taught Student)
Aug 2014

The completion of this form should not be seen as an end in itself but as a vehicle to ensure that
you have gone through a process of considering the ethical implications of your research in
detail and that you are able to communicate this clearly.

PLEASE CHECK THE RELEVANT BOX (NB: double click on the box and select checked)
UNDERGRADUATE MA/ MSc OTHER (please specify)

SECTION 1: PERSONAL DETAILS & DECLARATION


Name:

Student Number:

Email:

Programme of Study & Dept:

Supervisor:

APPLICANTS SIGNATURE
I confirm that this submission accords with the University Code of Conduct / BPS/
Other Body/ and that all information supplied on this form is correct
Applicants Signature:

Date:
11/11/2014

SUPERVISORS SIGNATURE
Please tick the box to confirm that you have approved the application as ethically sound,
and the participant-facing documentation as appropriate
Please tick the box to confirm that student has contacted Finance if travelling overseas
Please tick the box to confirm that the appropriate DBS (Disclosure and Barring Service)
check via Roehampton has been applied for (if appropriate please contact the DBS
team in Student Admissions at dbs@roehampton.ac.uk if you are unsure whether this is
required).
Signature:

Print Name:

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Date:

SECTION 2: PROJECT DETAILS


Title of project: The influence of parent- teacher interaction on pupils academic
achievement and social behaviour outcomes in Saudi Arabia.
Proposed start date &
duration:
Purpose of the proposed investigation:
This section should include the material which outlines the rationale for the project, i.e. why this study needs
to be done. This should be done in a way that is both accessible and scholarly, i.e. have proper cited sources.

Families and schools are playing an important role in childrens academic achievement, in the middle
of 20th century there was a strict separation between their roles. Schools were
responsible for academic topics, and families were responsible for moral, cultural, and
religious education. However schools and families have formed partnerships and share the
responsibilities for childrens education(Epstein & Sanders, 2002).This study will investigate how
the interaction between schools and parents in Saudi Arabia affect students achievement and social
behaviour. It will also consider The extent to which this interaction influences student performance.
Furthermore, it might assist schools in decreasing the interactional and communicational gap
between teachers and parents.

The following questions I will examine in this research study are:

To what extent do parent-professional interactions affect pupils academic achievement between


age 11 to 18 in secondary schools in Saudi Arabia?

To what extent do parent-professional interactions affect pupils social behaviour in public


schools in Saudi Arabia (which is support by government)?

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Outline of the project:
This section should include the details of methodology i.e. what will be done, how, where and how long.
Please also confirm:
that if the study requires lab and/or technician support, the allocation of resources has been/will have
to be agreed by the Subject Head via your supervisor
whether any University Ethics Approval is already in place for the whole (or part) of this study (please
discuss with supervisor)

Research design

In my research study I will use quantitative research methods of examination, through a survey
design with questionnaires. Although the opponents of positivism within social science itself
subscribe to a variety of schools of thought each with its own subtly different epistemological
viewpoint, they are united by their common rejection of the belief that human behaviour is governed
by general, universal laws and characterised by underling regularities. Moreover, they would agree
that the social world can only be understood from the standpoint of the individuals who are part of
the ongoing action being investigated and that their model of a person is an autonomous one not the
plastic version favoured by positivist researches (Cohen et al ,2000)

Materials

Questionnaires are measuring instruments that ask individuals to answer a set of questions (Schwab,
2005:39). Questionnaires allow researchers to gather information about a large number of the
population from small group samples (NcNabb, 2008). Questionnaires are measuring instruments
that ask individuals to answer a set of questions (Schwab, 2005:39). Questionnaires, as any tool for
gathering data have advantages and disadvantages (Lovell and Lawson, 1970). However, the
advantages of questionnaires, overcome the disadvantages, as far the specific situation is concerned.
In fact, (1990, p207) supports that If well-constructed, a questionnaire permits the collection of
reliable and reasonably valid data, relatively simply, cheaply and in short space of time.
Furthermore, questionnaires have the obvious advantage of being anonymous, fast and used in large
samples, enabling statistical data which can be analysed quantitatively.

The questionnaires that I will be administering will include a range of different types of questions
which will allow participants to answer in different ways. The questionnaire will include both closed
and open ended questions. The number of participants who are a part of sample in my study will be
40 teachers and 40 parents. In order to measure parent-teacher interaction and pupils social
behaviour two questionnaires will be used: The Parent-Teacher interaction survey (Ginsberg and
Hermann, 2005) and the Strengths and Difficulties questionnaire (Bourdon et al., 2005). The first
questionnaire is designed to gain information from teachers about how they interact with parents.
They will ask to response to each question regarding their experiences in working with parents of
their students. Some questions require them to choose a response using the scale provided. For those
questions they will circle the appropriate response. Other questions will ask them to provide
comments based on their experience. The survey is designed so that all responses will be completely
confidential.

For the Strengths and Difficulties questionnaire, parent report will administer to parents of 4- to 17-
3
year-olds children and adolescence in the 2001 National Health Interview Survey. Scoring bands
were developed to differentiate low, medium, and high levels of emotional or behavioral difficulties.
Student at high risk of serious difficulties were identified by three different scoring methods: (1) high
symptom scores, (2) parental perception of definite or severe difficulties, and (3) high symptoms plus
impairment. These ratings were validated against service contact or use and other well-established
demographic and broader risk factors for child emotional and behavioral problems. Results indicated
good acceptability and internal consistency. Normative scoring bands were similar, though not
identical, to the original British bands. Results of each scoring method had a strong association with
service contact/use. To evaluate the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in a U.S. national
population sample of children and adolescents, develop normative scoring bands, and test the
association of high-scoring groups with service contacts or use for mental health reasons. To describe
the psychometric properties of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), a brief measure
of the prosocial behaviour and psychopathology of 417-year-olds that can be completed by parents,
teachers, or youths. The reliability and validity of the SDQ make it a useful brief measure of the
adjustment and psychopathology of children and adolescents.

To measure students academic achievement we will gather the school data about the pupils
attainment

Participants

I will collect my sample from 4 secondary schools over a month in Saudi Arabia; the participants
will be 40 teachers and 40 parents; 10 parents and 10 teachers will be recruited in each school. The
sample will be randomly selected all parents who wish to participate in the schools that were
invited to collaborate in the study will be included until we reach the numbers needed. The 4 schools
were selected by convenience as the researcher already had previous contact with these schools.

Procedure:

Four secondary schools in Saudi Arabia will be contacted permission will be obtained from them to
participate in the study. Once the schools agree to collaborate, informed consent forms will be sent to
teachers and parents, though the schools. Once parents and teachers have agreed to participate, both
the teachers and the parents questionnaires will be sent to schools by email. Parents questionnaires
will be sent by teachers by email as well. Questionnaires will be completed and returned to the
researcher electronically. To gather data about students attainment, written consent will be obtained
from schools, teachers, parents and the pupils themselves.

Data Analysis

Data will be analysed quantitatively using SPSS though descriptive statistics, correlation and
regression analysis.

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SECTION 3: ETHICS ISSUES

Ethical issues raised by the project and how these will be addressed:
Points that should be considered include:
Participants and consent. Please include consent form (and information sheet if applicable)
Confidentiality and anonymity
Whether any special/ vulnerable populations are involved (including under 18s)
Right to withdrawal
Deception
Permissions from organisations involved
Health & Safety issues, including any risks to participants and/ or researcher, sole working and
working overseas (Please discuss this with your Supervisor, who should contact the Head of Health
& Safety if there are any queries regarding this)
Please note that if your project includes overseas travel (including travel to your home country if that
is overseas) then you should advise Shamna Finnigan in Finance at least eight weeks prior to the
departure date S.Finnigan@roehampton.ac.uk)

As Punch (2000:75) mentions all social research involves consent, access and associated
ethical issues, since it is based on data from people about people. Ethics is a very significant
matter when it comes to research. Ethics refers to norms for conduct that distinguish
between acceptable and unacceptable behaviour (Resnik, 2011:1). According to Counchman and
Dawson (1990:96) informed consent is the right of every individual when
participating in research. Therefore, to make sure that my participants are aware of my aims
and objectives I will provide a section on the questionnaire explaining the purpose of the
research in detail.. This will allow participants to decide whether they still want to take part
voluntary in the research or not. I will follow BERA ethical guidelines (BERA, 1991) and I will take
the permission from parents, teachers and pupils when conducting my study by sending an email to
head teachers who will contact parents and teachers. Therefore, I will provide parents, teachers and
students with an informed consent form stating the aims and objectives of my research and
explaining to them that the risk for participants is minimal. The basic principles of anonymity,
confidentiality and informed consent will be addressed. Regarding anonymity, and taking into
consideration that every human being is entitled to privacy, names will not be used and identification
of responses will be made through attributing a code to each questionnaire. The participants will be
assured that all information will be kept confidential in a personal laptop with secret password and
only accessible to main researcher. Data will be used only for the purpose of this study. Written
informed consent will be obtained before the start of data collection. I will be highlighted that
participants have the right to withdraw at any time.

The health and safety issues of carrying out this research are potential harm or distress caused by the
questions being asked to the parents and teachers are minimal. However, a pilot study will be
conducted with two parents and two teachers before the main data collection in order to ensure that
the questions asked are understandable and acceptable.

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SECTION 4: RESEARCH INVOLVING PARTICIPANTS
You should download the attached Participant Consent Form template and amend as necessary; you
should also attach any other information to be given to participants
You should consider carefully what information you provide to participants, e.g. scope of study,
number of participants, duration of study, risks/benefits of the project. It is recommended that the
participant has two copies of the consent form so they can retain one for information.
If images or anything else which might allow the identification of participants is to be publicly
accessible (e.g. on the web), a separate section regarding this should be included on the participant
consent form
Give details of the method of recruitment, and potential benefits or incentives to participants
if any (include any financial benefits where appropriate).
(NB: Please remember that written permission or in some cases ethics approval will have to be sought
from any organisations where recruitment is carried out or posters placed (e.g. if you recruit in GPs surgeries
you will require NHS approval)

I will email schools to ask for permission from head teachers and then with approval I will recruit
teachers.

Will your research involve participants who are aged under 18?
YES NO

Will you be approaching participants who might be considered to be vulnerable (please give
details if not addressed elsewhere on this form)?
YES NO

If you have answered Yes please refer to the Ethics Guidelines (especially section 3.4.j) if
your research involves participants who are aged under 18) and highlight the particular
issues raised by working with these participants and how these issues have been
addressed.

If you have answered yes to either of the above you will need to obtain DBS clearance
through Roehampton. Please contact the DBS team in Student Admissions at
dbs@roehampton.ac.uk regarding this.

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SECTION 5: STORAGE OF DATA
Data for Undergraduate, MA and MSc projects should be stored according to programme
requirements (e.g.18 months); however, if work is to be published data should be stored for
10 years.
Data should be collected and processed in accordance with the Data Protection Act 1998
and with the Universitys Data Protection Policy.
Describe how and where the following data will be stored and how they will be kept secure:
Raw and processed data
The data collected for this research will be saved and stored on a laptop with a password protected
file. Raw and paper data will be stored in a locked drawer at home.
Documents containing personal details of any participants
The principal researcher will be the only person having access to the data and other sensitive
information will be saved on a laptop with a password protected.

SECTION 6: CHECKLIST
Project Details
Have you completed your personal details? Yes
Have you outlined the project and ethical issues? Yes
Working with Participants
Have you completed details of how you intend to recruit participants and Yes
whether they will receive any reimbursement?
If you are working with under 18s or participants who might be considered to be Yes
vulnerable have you addressed the particular ethical issues involved in working NA
with these participants?
Have you amended the Participant Consent Form (Template) for your project? Yes
Have you attached any other information to your form that may be needed for Yes
participants, e.g. Debriefing Letter, Information Sheet?
Have you attached any other participant-facing materials to your form, e.g. Yes
recruitment posters, questionnaire, interview questions?
Health and Safety
Have you considered the risks associated with the project and discussed these Yes
with your supervisor? (Your Supervisor should contact the Head of Health &
Safety if there are any queries regarding this)
If your project is taking place outside the UK have you noted on the form where Yes
the project will take place, considered risks in relation to this, and also contacted NA
Finance to advise them of the project? (an Overseas Risk Assessment form
may need to be completed). Please provide translations of documents if required
If your project involves interviews in a participants home or lone-working have Yes
you considered the risks and control measures? (E.g. advising a
colleague/supervisor of the timings of visits, ringing before/ after interview and
developing a contingency plan if contact is not made)?
Does your project involve clinical trial/s, abnormal levels of risk, working with Yes
animals, or human tissue samples? If so, please provide details No
If working off site, have you confirmed that local guidelines will be followed? Yes
NA
Publication of Results
Are your findings to be published? Yes
No
Have you described how you will ensure the anonymity of participants, or asked Yes
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them for explicit consent in your consent form to identify them in your research?
Storage of Data
Have you described how and where your data will be stored at the University Yes
and how this will be kept secure?
External Guidelines
Have you noted any relevant subject-specific ethics guidelines (e.g. from a Yes
professional society) and considered how these will inform your research?
Have you considered whether you have to apply for ethical approval through Yes
another organisation (e.g. NHS)? (Section 4) NA
Applicants Confirmation
Have you added an electronic signature or typed your name and date in the Yes
applicants signature box?
Has your supervisor checked your application form and added an electronic Yes
signature or typed their name and date on the form?
Presentation Have you proof-read your application form and documents? Yes

SECTION 7: ETHICS DECISION


Application approved

Application approved subject to conditions

Applicant to make substantial revisions and resubmit the application

Application to be referred to the Ethics Committee

Details of Decision
Making Panel:
Debriefing form is not required.

Needs to highlight that you will follow Health and Safety Procedure for the
school

There is a health and safety form that needs to be completed for conducting
study abroad.

Signature & Position:


Please use an electronic signature or type your name

Print Name:

Date:

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PARTICIPANT CONSENT FORM

Title of Research Project:

The influence of parent- teacher interactions on pupils academic achievement


and social behaviour outcomes in Saudi Arabia.

For questionnaire based studies:

No identifying details will be recorded on your questionnaire response so that your


data will be completely anonymous and it will therefore not be possible to link your
consent form to your questionnaire response or to the data arising from it. You will
be asked to assign a code number to your data which only you will know, so if you
wish to withdraw your data you will be able to do this by providing the research with
your code number.

Investigator Contact Details:

Name: Maram Amro ALmughamisi


Department: Education
University Addres
Postcode:TW80BQ
Email:almugham@roehampton.ac.uk
Telephone: 00447455133316-00966555667690

Consent Statement:

I agree to take part in this research, and am aware that I am free to withdraw at any
point without giving a reason, although if I do so I understand that my data might still
be used in a collated form. I understand that the information I provide will be treated
in confidence by the investigator and that my identity will be protected in the
publication of any findings, and that data will be collected and processed in
accordance with the Data Protection Act 1998 and with the Universitys Data
Protection Policy.

Name:

Signature:

Date:

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Please note: if you have a concern about any aspect of your participation or any
other queries please raise this with the investigator or the Supervisor. However, if you
would like to contact an independent party please contact the Head of Department.

Supervisor Contact Details: Head of Department Contact Details:

Name Name
University Address University Address
Email Email
Telephone Telephone

*** Form to be used if appropriate ***


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Participant Number:

PARTICIPANT DEBRIEF

Title of Research Project: The influence of parent- teacher interaction on pupils


academic achievement and social behaviour outcomes in Saudi Arabia.

Thank you very much for taking part in our study, we greatly appreciate your
contribution.

This study is designed to examine the influence of parent-professional interaction on


pupils academic achievement and social behaviour outcomes in Saudi Arabia.
My questionnaire is composed of two types of questions: first type is assessing how strongly
you are agree to a particular statement. The second type is open ended questions where you
are kindly requested to provide your comment on a statement.

All data gathered during this study will be held securely and anonymously. If you wish
to withdraw from the study, contact us with your participant number (above) and your
information will be deleted from our files.

Should you have any concern about any aspect of your participation in this study,
please raise it with the investigator in the first instance or with the Project Supervisor
or Head of Department.

Investigator Project Supervisor Head of Department

Maram ALmughamisi
Education Department
Brentford Street
almugham@roehampton.ac.uk
Tel:07455133316

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