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The 1st International Conference on Education, Science, Art and Technology (the 1st ICESAT)

Universitas Negeri Makassar. 22 23 July 2017


The 1st International Conference on Education, Science, Art and Technology (the 1st ICESAT)
Universitas Negeri Makassar. 22 23 July 2017

Foreword

ICESAT stands for the International Conference on Education, Science, Art and
Technology. It is organized by Universitas Negeri Makassar (UNM) as part of university
anniversary. UNM is celebrating its 56th anniversary this year when this first ICESAT is conducted.
This conference aims at bringing knowledge and good practices together from different
perspectives. Linking theory, practice and research is a challenge to improve the quality of
education. The speakers and participants are vary from academics, education practitioners, teachers,
school principals, policy makers, and students.

We would like to thank everyone who has helped to organize the Conference. We thank all
the speaker, the presenters and the participants. Special thanks is given to the Rector of Universitas
Negeri Makassar and the university management for their support and fruitful feedback during the
preparation of the Conference.

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The 1st International Conference on Education, Science, Art and Technology (the 1st ICESAT)
Universitas Negeri Makassar. 22 23 July 2017

Advisor:

Prof. Dr. Husain Syam, M.TP

Prof. Dr. rer.nat Muharram, M.Si

Prof. Dr. Gufran Darma Dirawan, M.EMD

Dr. Abdullah Sinring, M.Pd

Dr. Nurlina Syahrir, M.Hum

Editor:

Dr. Ed. Faridah, S.T., M.Sc

Dr. Farida Aryani, M.Pd.

Muh. Ilham Bakhtiar, S.Pd, M.Pd.

Lay Out:

Hasmanto, S.Pd., M.Pd

Suhartono, S.Pd

Ahmad Muzakkir, S.Pd


The 1st International Conference on Education, Science, Art and Technology (the 1st ICESAT)
Universitas Negeri Makassar. 22 23 July 2017

Development of Learning Equipments Orientation by Cooperative Model


Think Pair Share Aided by Power Point to Improve Students Social
Studies Learning Outcome in 4th Grade Elementary School

Ahmad Amran
Elementary Education Study Program
Postgraduate State University of Surabaya, Surabaya, Indonesia

Corresponding e-mail: ahmadamran478@gmail.com

Abstract: The purpose of this research is developed learning equipments orientation by cooperative
model think pair share which suitably to improve student socialsstudies learning
outcomes in 4thGrade Elementary School. This study was conducted in two stages. The
first stage is development of learning equipment by used 3 stages from 4-D model. The
second stage is implementation of learning equipment to 4th Grade SDN Tanggul
Patompo II Makassar City with control group pretest-posttest design. Technique of data
analysis using descriptive analysis of quantitative and qualitative. The results showed: 1)
Learning Equipment was developed in valid categorized with average percentage
87,28%; 2) The developed of Lesson Plan was well executed and the student activity
improved from the previous meeting; And 3) there is a significant difference of the
students' learning outcomes in the experimental class and control class with a significance
value of 0.001.

Keywords: Learning equipment, Cooperative Model Think Pair Share, Power Point, Learning
Outcomes.

1 Introduction process run effectively and hopefully students


Education is an important element in one interest to learn get improvment.
nation. School as an educational institution is Improving the quality of learning can be
expected to be a better place for learners to realized if there are efforts of teachers to try to
develop their potential. Therefore, Teaching and optimally design learning activities that can
learning activities in schools should be designed equip learners in developing knowledge,
as well as possible to create an atmosphere of
learning which can support students to develop attitude, and skills. However, the facts show that
their potential. teachers still lack understanding of the nature
Teacher as curriculum implementers in and basic concepts of learning. This will
schools should be able to understand the certainly affect the learning process in the
characteristics of their students, how students classroom, especially in social studies. Based on
learn, how to manage class to be a good the observations in SDN Tanggul Patompo 2,
classroom which can support learning process
and develop skills of their students. In addition, teachers still felt difficulty while teaching social
teachers have to master the nature and basic studies in the classroom. In addition, there are
concepts of learning to apply it in learning teachers who teach IPS by using conventional
activities, because the main function of learning methods in the process of learning in the
is facilitating students to develop their potential. classroom. Students difficult to understand the
(Susanto, 2014: 196-197). material which taught by teachers, teachers
Teachers should think and make a good sometimes do not explain the lesson so that
planning to improve the learning process and
learning outcomes of their students and in order students do not understand the lesson well. In
to improve the quality of teaching. In addition, addition, students are only writing down the
the model and learning media which will be material in the package book into their
used should be considered for the learning notebooks. The problem above made social

1
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studies be a saturates lesson and unattractive to teaching and learning process. The cooperative
students. model of think pair share is developed in order
Teachers as a designer of learning in the to increase students' activeness in the class
class have to make a learning equipment as a because students will think to solve the problem
guide in learning activities. Without such assigned to him (Think), then the students will
devices, it will be difficult to create a quality of discuss with their partner (Pair), then the
teaching process and interesting for students. students will share to his classmates). Research
Lack of knowledge of teachers to design conducted by Ahmad Muzakki Alfahmi and
interesting learning is one of the factors causing Ganes Gunansyah (2014) on the subject of
student learning outcomes low. Therefore, Social Studies I in class V SDN Kedunggede I
serious effort is needed in learning process in Dlanggu Mojokerto District concluded that the
the classroom with hope it can make the implementation of cooperative learning model
students more active and motivated to learn with type think pair share can increase the activity
the result that the learning outcome increase too. and student learning outcomes.
Teachers should be aware that being Social studies learning process by using
active requires direct involvement of students in cooperative learning model type think pair share
learning activities. To be able to involve will be interesting to student when presented by
students physically, mentally, emotionally and using learning media. Media is a tool or
intellectually in the learning activities, the intermediary used to convey an information
teacher should design and implement the from the teacher to the students.
learning activities by considering the One of the media that can be used is
characteristics of the content of the lesson power point. Students will be easier to
(Riyanto, 2009: 79). understand the subject matter that will be
One of the efforts that can be used by expected to improve their learning outcomes.
teachers to cultivate the potential of their Power point is a media that can display
students is through cooperative learning model. interesting features that include text, images or
graphics, sound and film photos (Triwahyuni
Cooperative learning is a learning model that is and Abdul, 2004: 1-2). With the features
conducted with the division of learning groups contained in the power point is expected to
by giving each learner the opportunity to work attract students' attention and facilitate students
with all students in tasks assigned by the in understanding the learning materials with the
teacher. result that the oucome of learning is expected to
Cooperative learning models are be increased. Based on the description of the
developed to provide students with background, the researcher will develop learning
responsibility for the success of their group and equipment oriented model of cooperative model
also help others to succeed together. In type Think Pair Share with power point to
cooperative learning individual success is still improve students social studies learning
recognized, but the expected students are outcomes in 4th Grade Elementary School.
helping each other. (Susanto, 2014). 2 Methodology
In addition, cooperative learning can This study is research and development
enhance learning activities and positive attitudes (R&D). The development of learning tools was
of learners, provide motivation and confidence conducted to produce learning tools which
and will improve the social skills of learners. consist of lesson plan, learning materials,
Furthermore, Husni, Lasmanan, and Marhaeni learning media, student activity sheet, and
(2013) argue that in cooperative learning learning outcomes test. The subject of this
students are given opportunities to obtain the research is the fourth-grade students of SDN
information they need to complement and enrich Tanggul patompo 2. The fourth grade B students
the knowledge possessed by teachers and other as experimental class and grade IV A students as
study group members. The learning atmosphere a control class. This research was conducted at
and sense of community will grow and develop SDN Tanggul Patompo II of Makassar city in
among fellow group members and enable the even semester of the academic year
students to understand and understand the 2016/2017. Procedure in this research consists
subject matter better. Such a process of of two stages. The first stages is development of
personality development will help less- learning equipment using model cooperative
interested students become more passionate learning type think pair share and the second
about learning. stages is implementation learning equipment in
Think Pair Share is one type of cooperative class IV.
learning that can be used as a reference in
3

The design of learning equipment The purpose of this stage of development is


development in this study refers to Four-D to produce a final draft learning tools that
Models (4-D development model) by have been revised based on input of experts
Thiagarajan and Semmel & Semmel. This (validator) and data from field trials. Steps
development model consists of four stages taken at this stage are:
namely define, design, develop, and a. Validation learning devices
disseminate. but due to limited time Researchers Validation activities are performed by
then the research will only be done until the competent experts to assess the
development stage followed by implementation. learning tool. This activity aims to
The learning equipment development stage is gain assessment and input of
described as follows: instructional devices (draft I).
1. Definition Stage (Define) Validation activities performed with
The purpose of this stage is to define and reference to the assessment instrument
define the necessary conditions in learning. in the form of validation sheet which
This stage begins with the analysis of has been compiled. The validation
objectives within the boundaries of learning results are then analyzed and used as a
materials that will be developed device. At consideration for revising draft I.
this stage, there are five main steps, namely b. Limited trials / small group trials
front-end analysis, learner analysis, task Revised draft I improvements based on
analysis, concept analysis, and specifying suggestions and inputs from the next validator is
instructional objectives. called draft II. After obtaining draft II Learning
2. Stage Design (Design) device, then tested on trial limited. Activities at
This stage aims to produce device design this limited trial stage are conducted for Obtain
learning-oriented model of learning data and input from teachers, and observers
cooperative type think pair share media- against. Learning tools that have been compiled.
aided power point. Steps taken at this stage Test execution process Try this 1 will be
are: observed by 2 observers with a set on the
a. Selection of format instrument sheet of observation.
At this stage the preparation of formats The results of this limited trial are then
to design Content of learning, selection analyzed and used as a matter of consideration
of learning models, learning strategies, to revise draft II. Results of revised draft II
learning methods, and learning referred to as draft III. Draft III is then tested on
resources to be used. trial 2. Test 2 is implemented with the presence
b. Selection of media of 2 people observers to observe the entire
Activities undertaken at this stage are learning process with Based on the observation
decisive appropriate media in the instrument sheet.
implementation of learning. selection The research design on the implementation
process. The media is tailored to the of this trial using Control group pretest-posttest
analysis of materials and student design. Design of trial design starting with a
analysis. Media which used in this pretest to find out the student's initial ability,
research is power point with hyperlink. then given treatment in the run certain time. At
c. Initial design the end of the learning done the final test
Activity at this initial design is (posttest) as the final test.
composing. The design of all activities Methods of data collection include the
to be done before the trial implemented, validity of learning equipments, observation,
starting from the initial design of and tests. Instruments used to collect data in this
learning equipment up to the research study are: Learning equipments validation sheet,
instrument. Observation sheet of learning process, student
The research instruments consist of response questionnaire, and learning outcomes
learning device learning sheet, learning test. All data obtained in this study will then be
implementation observation sheet, and analyzed by using analysis descriptive that
student response questionnaires. The describes result of learning equipment validity,
result of this initial draft is called draft I learning process, and student responses during
3. Development Stage (Develop) learning. In addition, to know differences in
student learning outcomes of experimental
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groups and control groups of researchers using the developed student materials are
the t-test or Independent Sample t-Test. categorized very good and feasible to use
Hypothesis test results in this study processed with a little revision. This is in accordance
with the help of SPSS program for windows with the criteria set by Riduwan (2006: 88)
version 24. that the learning device is considered
3 Result and Discussion qualified if the criteria are feasible or very
One of the requirements of the device feasible to use if it gets a value of 75.
developed eligible to be applied in the learning 3. Learning Media
is valid. Valid is an accurate measure of the Teachers can motivate their students by
instrument and can measure the success of a arousing their learning interests and by
learning device development (Basuki and giving and raising expectations. The
Hariyanto, 2015: 99). The result of learning expectation of achieving a passion or
device validation is described as follows: purpose can be the motivation that teachers
1. Lesson Plan generate into students. One of the provision
Lesson plan which developed in this of hope is to facilitate students in receiving
research is a lesson plan oriented to the and understanding the content of the lesson
model of cooperative learning type think through the use of appropriate learning
pair share. Validation activities are carried media (Munadi, 2012: 122).
out to determine whether the prepared RPP Learning media which used in this
is feasible to apply in the learning process. research is power point. According Arsyad
Aspects assessed in the lesson plan are (2013: 29) learning media can improve and
lesson plan format, content, time, and direct the attention of children, it can lead
language. Based on the validation results it to learning motivation. Clarify the
can be concluded that the average score presentation of messages and information
given by the validator is 3.55. Total score can facilitate and improve the process and
of validator 1 is 70 and validator 2 is 65. learning outcomes. Furthermore, the use of
Total score given by first validator of each power point media in learning is more
component of assessment is 49 and second interesting because there are color games,
validator is 43. Percentage score of first letters, and animated text or images or
validator is 92,11% and second validator photographs (Daryanto, 2010: 163). In
equal to 85,53%. After averaging, the addition, with the use of this power point
percentage score of both validators is media, information submitted by teachers
88.82%. According to (Riduwan, 2006: 88) will be more easily understood by students.
the appraisal criteria of the device with a The results of research conducted by
score of 81-100 including the criteria is Setiawan (2016) proves that the use of
very good and feasible to use with a little power point media can improve student
revision. learning outcomes of grade VI SDN
2. Learning Materials Sindangpalay West Bandung with classical
Learning materials which developed in completeness above 85%. Learning media
this research contain the material is a tool used by teachers to make it easier
development of production, for students to understand the subject
communication, and transportation matter. Assessments include media
technology. This learning material is precision with learning materials, text
assessed by the validator of the content composition (size, color, and type) clear so
feasibility aspects, presentation, language, easy to read, illustration quality (images,
and legibility. After being validated, the audio, and animation) in terms of size and
average score given by two validators is layout, image compatibility with actual
3.54. The number of scores given by first state, narrative language Which is used in
validator of each component of the accordance with the cognitive level of the
assessment of 49 and second validator child, the suitability of the media with the
amounted to 43. Percentage score of first characteristics of students, the media used
validator is 94.23% and second validator is can facilitate students understand the
82.69%. After averaging, the percentage lesson, and the media display used to attract
score of both validators is 88.46%. Based students' attention. The average validation
on the validation results can be stated that feasibility of learning media from first
5

validator is 94.23 and second validator is 1 Lesson Plan 92,11 85,53 88,82
82.69 with very decent category. Thus, the Teaching
2 94,23 82,69 88,46
developed learning media can be used with Materials
little revision. 3
Learning
96,88 81,35 89,115
4. Student Activity Sheet Media
Sudents
Student Activity Sheet is a guide used
4 Activity 91,67 83,33 87,5
by students in conducting activities in
Sheet
learning. Student Activity Sheet developed Learning
in this study is a guide used by students to 5 outcomes 80,00 85,00 82,5
conduct learning activities in accordance Test
with the stages of cooperative learning Average 90,98 83,58
model type think pair share. Assessments
include format, language, questions and Observation of the implementation of
content. After being validated by two learning in lesson plan that has been validated
expert validators, an average score of 3.50 done by two observers using the observation
was obtained. The number of scores given sheet of the implementation of learning. The
by the first validator of each assessment results of observation on the implementation of
component is 55 and the second validator is lesson plan are presented in the following table:
50. Percentage score of first validator is
91.67% and the second validator is 83.33%. 96,67
After averaging, the percentage of scores 80,83 82,5 85
100
from both validators is 87.50% with very 80
good category and deserves to be used with 60
40
little revision. 20
5. Learning Outcomes Test 0
Learning outcomes test is a measuring Control Experiment
tool used to determine student learning Session 1 Session 2
outcomes after the teaching and learning
process. Assessment includes the format, Figure 1. Average value of learning activity
content and language of writing questions.
The learning result test developed in this Student response data is collected by using
research is a multiple-choice test which is questionnaires to be filled by students after the
used before and after the lesson is learning ends. The result is to give a positive
implemented using the developed response to the learning activities undertaken.
equipment. After obtained the results, then Students feel happy and interested in learning
processed using SPSS 24 program to see equipment developed.
the effect of devices developed on student Learning outcomes are a change of
learning outcomes Based on the assessment behavior in a person that can be observed and
of two validators obtained an average value measured in the form of knowledge, attitude,
of 3.30. The number of scores given by first and skills. (Hamalik, 2003: 155). In this
validator of each assessment component is research, the assessment focused on the learning
55 and second validator is 50. Percentage outcomes of the cognitive domain obtained
score of first validator is 91.67% and through the tests given at the end of the lesson.
second validator is 83.33%. After Based on the average of pretest and posttest
averaging, the percentage of scores from analysis results, it is known that the pretest value
both validators is 87.50% with very good of the test of student learning outcomes in the
category and deserves to be used with little experimental class is 45.17 and the pretest value
revision of the control class is 47.32. This shows the
The results of the validation of learning as a average pretest of student learning outcomes in
whole can be seen in the following table: both classes there is no significant difference.
Normality test results revealed that the value of
Tabel 1. Learning Equipment Validity Results significance (sig) of student learning outcomes
in pretest the experimental class 0.110 and class
Kind of 0.365. The result of both classes on pretest
No V1 V2 Average
equipment points to a result greater than 0.05. Homogeneity
6

test results can be seen that the value of social learning outcomes in 4th grade elementary
significance (sig) value of student learning school
outcomes on pretest experimental class and 5 References
control class is 0,536> 0,05. From the Alfahmi, Ahmad Muzakki & Gunansyah Ganes.
prerequisite test results above, it can be (2014). Penerapan Model Pembelajaran
concluded that the data pretest student learning Kooperatif Tipe TPS (Think Pair Share)
outcomes are normally distributed and have the Untuk Meningkatkan Hasil Belajar Siswa
same variant (homogeneous) so that it qualifies Pada Mata Pelajaran IPS Di Sekolah Dasar.
to be tested independent t test. Jurnal PGSD Volume 02 Nomor 02, 1 -11
Furthermore, to determine whether there is Arends, Richard. I. 2008. Learning To Teach.
a significant influence from the application of Belajar untuk mengajar. Yogyakarta:
cooperative model learning type of think pair Pustaka Pelajar
share on student learning outcomes, the Arsyad, Azhar. (2013). Media Pembelajaran.
researchers do posttest. Based on the data Jakarta: Rajawali Pers.
obtained, it is known that the average posttest Daryanto. (2010). Media Pembelajaran.
score of the students' learning outcomes in the Yogakarta: Gava Media
experimental class is 77.67 and the value of the Husni, Muhammad, Lasmawan W., Marhaeni &
control class posttest is 69.11%. Based on the A.A.I.N.. (2013). Pengaruh Model
different data it can be seen that there is Pembelajaran Kooperatif Tipe Think Pair
difference of test result of student learning result Share Terhadap Prestasi Belajar Pkn
between experiment class and control class. But Kelas IV SD Gugus I Selong Ditinjau
to know the difference of test result of student dari Motivasi Belajar. Journal Program
result, statistically inferential in this research use Pascasarjana Universitas Pendidikan
independent t test. Ganesha Program Studi Pendidikan
Independent t test can be done because Dasar, Volume 3
based on prerequisite test (normality and Munadi, yudhi. (2012). Media Pembelajaran;
homogeneity test) test result data of student Sebuah Pendekatan Baru. Jakarta: Gaung
learning on posttest which is normal distribution Persada Press.
and have the same variant (homogeneous). This Riduwan. (2006). Skala Pengukuran Variabel
is indicated by the result of normality test with Variabel Penelitian. Bandung: Alfabeta
significance value (Sig.) Test of student learning Riyanto, Yatim. (2009). Paradigma Baru
outcomes in the experimental class and control Pembelajaran. Jakarta: Kencana Prenada
class that is 0.573 and 0.155. The results of the Media Group
two classes on the posttest point to results Setaiwan, Iwan. (2016). Penerapan model
greater than 0.05. The result of homogeneity test pembelajaran berdasarkan masalah
of student learning result resulted significant berbantuan power point untuk meingkatkan
value (Sig.) In experiment class and control hasilbelajar PKn materi peran Indonesia
class that is 0,751> 0,05. dalam percaturan internasional di kelas VI
The test result of independent t test of SDN Sindangpalay Bandung Barat. (Tesis
student's learning outcomes on posttest is tested yang tidak dipublikasikan). Universitas
in experiment class and control class 4,446 (df Negeri Surabaya, Surabaya.
41) and Sig (2-tailed) value is 0.000. This result Susanto, Ahmad. (2014). Pengembangan
shows t count 4,446 (df 41)> t table 2.020 (df 41) Pembelajaran IPS di Sekolah Dasar.
and Sig. (2-tailed) 0,000 <0,05 meaning Ho is Jakarta: Kencana Prenada Media Group
rejected and Ha accepted. Thus, there is a Thiagarajan, S., Semmel, D.S., M.,I. (1974).
significant difference between student learning Instructional Development for
outcomes in the experimental class on student Training Teachers of Exceptional
learning outcomes in the control class. Children. A Source Book. Blomington
4 Conclusions Indiana: Indiana University
Based on the results of research that has Triwahyuni, Terra C dan Abdul Kadir. (2004).
been implemented, it can be concluded that the Presentasi Efektif dengan Microsoft
development of learning equipment orientation PowerPoint. Yogyakarta: Andi Offset
by cooperative model think pair share aided
power point is feasible and can improve students
The 1st International Conference on Education, Science, Art and Technology (the 1st ICESAT)
Universitas Negeri Makassar. 22 23 July 2017

The Motivation and Learning Style of the Students of


Civil and Planning Engineering Education Department

Anas Arfandia, Akshari Tahir Lopaa, Surianto B. Mappangaraa, Nurhaedaha


a,b,c
Universitas Negeri Makassar, Jl. A.P. Pettarani, Makassar, Indonesia
Corresponding e-mail: anas.arfandi@unm.ac.id

Abstract: The teachers plays an important role in teaching and learning process. In the learning
process, the teacher's must have the ability in teaching to fit the child's developmental
level. The difference in learning style shows the fastest and best way for every individual
to be able to absorb an information from outside himself. The purpose of this study are 1)
describe the learning type of the students of PTSP FT UNM; 2) elaborate the motivation
of the students of PTSP FT UNM; and 3) to explain the effect of the learning type to the
motivation of the students of PTSP FT UNM. This research is survey research. The
subjects of this study are all students in PTSP FT UNM. Amount 80 samples taken using
stratified random sampling. Data were collected by using a structured interview. The data
analysed by descriptive and inferential analysis. The result of the research shows that 1)
The learning type of student amount 36.25% is in type Kinaesthetic, 33.75% type of
Visual learning, and 30.00% who have type of Auditory learning; 2) The learning
motivation of the students is Very High at 78.75% but there are 1.25% who have Low
Motivation; and 3) The influence of visual learning type is not significant to students
'learning motivation, while the type of and Auditory learning type gives a significant
influence on students' learning motivation, while the type of and Auditory learning does
not significantly affect the motivation to study students majoring in PTSP FT UNM.

Keywords: learning type, learning motivation, civil engineering education

1. INTRODUCTION Application of the curriculum accompanied


by a fun teacher teaching style, this indirectly
Teachers play a very important role in teaching can foster the spirit and motivation of students
and learning process. A teacher must have the to learn a subject. The learning motivation that
ability to adapt and adapt learning methods to arises in the student is caused by the aspiration
the child's developmental level. Teaching style or the drive to get the expected result. Students
of a teacher tailored to the characteristics of who are highly motivated in learning have a
learners shows teacher persistence in helping great opportunity in obtaining high learning
learners achieve mastery learning (Allcock & achievement. The higher the motivation, the
Hulme, 2010). Although the teaching style of a intensity of effort and effort to achieve the
teacher differs from one to another, but at the desired learning achievement will also be higher
learning process all teachers have the same goal, (Duncan & McKeachie, 2005).
namely transforming science, forming students' Learners often take different ways to
attitudes, and making students skilled in the understand the same information or lessons. In a
work. Mappalotteng, Hasanah, & Kanan (2015) school setting, some students prefer their
suggests that teachers who often provide teachers to teach by writing everything down on
exercises in the context of material the board so that students can read and try to
understanding will produce better students when understand its meaning. Some other students
compared to teachers who simply explain and do prefer their teachers to teach by speaking it
not follow up continuously. This is because verbally and they listen to be able to understand
teaching and learning activities not only lie with it (Grainger & Barnes, 2006). Another way that
the teacher but the students also interfere in the is also often preferred by many students is the
teaching and learning process (Hawk & Shah, learning model that puts the teacher as a
2007). speaker. Teachers are expected to tell at length
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8

about various theories with a myriad of measure the influence between variables, after
illustrations, while students listen while meeting the requirements analysis test.
describing the contents of the lecture in a form
that they only understand themselves (Busato,
Prins, Elshout, & Hamaker, 2000).
Be aware that not everyone has the same
learning style. A person's ability to understand 3. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
and absorb the lessons is definitely different.
The difference in learning styles shows the 3.1 Learning Type of the Student
fastest and best way for individuals to absorb an
outside information (Li, Medwell, Wray, Wang, The results of the research on 69 respondents of
& Xiaojing, 2016). Therefore, as a teacher can students majoring in PTSP FT UNM showed
understand how learning styles differ in their data as set forth in Table 1.
students, and try to alert their students to the
differences, it may be easier for teachers to Table 1. Description of distribution of student
convey information more effectively and learning type
efficiently (DePorter, Reardon, & Singer- Learning Type Frequency Percentage
Nourie, 1999) .
Based on the above background, several Visual 36 26.09
issues will be examined, namely: 1) How to Auditory 38 27.54
describe the different types of student learning Kinaesthetic 64 46.38
in the department of PTSP FT UNM? 2) How is Total 138 100.00
the description of student's motivation to study
the department of PTSP FT UNM? 3) How big From Table 1 it can be seen that the students of
is the influence of learning type on student's the department of PTSP FT UNM have quite
motivation to study department of PTSP FT varied learning types, however, kinestetik is the
UNM? type of learning that more owned by students.
Furthermore the type of student learning is
2. RESEARCH METHOD described by sex as shown in Table 2.

This research is a survey research, which will Table 2. Description of distribution of student
analyse student learning type as free variables learning type by gender
and learning motivation as dependent variable.
The population of this study is all student active Learning Type Male Female
in the Department of Civil Engineering Visual 42.11 57.89
Education and Planning academic year Auditory 65.63 34.38
2016/2017. The sampling technique using
Kinaesthetic 16.67 83.33
random sampling by determining the number of
samples using proportionated sampling. The
number of samples obtained are as many as 69 From Table 2 it is reflected that male and
respondents consisting of 32 men and 37 female students have similar learning types for
Visual and Auditory learning types, whereas for
women. female learning type Kinaesthetic is more
The research instrument uses a dominant.
questionnaire adopted from the study type In line with the research Ames (2003) which
instrument (DePorter et al., 1999) with 59 states that there is a difference between students
questions divided into 20 questions to measure with dominant learning styles and their
the type of Visual learning, 19 questions for association with their gender on the attitude of
operating the computer. As good as any
Auditory learning type, and 20 questions for instructor in motivating students, if it is not in
kinaesthetic learning type. As for the accordance with the style and desire of students,
motivational instrument adopted from (Pintrich, then the possibility of learning will not be
1999) which consists of 44 items of questions. effective. In addition, Knight, Elfenbein, &
Data analysis techniques are descriptive and Martin (1997) explains that women are more
inferential. Descriptive analysis is performed to different in terms of concrete experience. In
illustrate the mean, maximum, and minimum general, female students are psychologically
scores. Inferential analysis is conducted to
9

better prepared when compared to the readiness Auditory 86.21 6.90 6.90 0.00
of male learners.
Both men (56.1%) and females (56.7%) of Kinaesthetic 84.21 10.53 5.26 0.00
students chose some mode of information
presentation, and the number and type of From Table 4 it can be seen that the students'
combinations of modalities did not differ learning motivation which has type of visual
significantly between the sexes. Although not
significantly different, the female student learning in the category of Very Good reaches
population tended to be more diverse than the 89.47% and the learning motivation is Enough
male population, which included a combination and Less by 5.26%. Students who have type of
of broader sensory moduli in their preference learning Auditory in the category of Very Good
profiles. Instructors need to be aware of these reached 86.21%, and Good and Enough
differences and extend the range of their category of 6.90%. While in type learning
presentation style accordingly (Slater, Lujan, & Kinaesthetic, Excellent category reached
DiCarlo, 2007).
The results of the study (Orhun, 2007) show 84.21%, followed by Good category 5.56%, and
that there is a difference between the preferred category Enough of 5.26%.
mode of learning by female and male students, The three types of learning indicate that
mathematical achievement, and their attitudes student learning motivation is excellent, but
toward mathematics. Mathematical research Busato et al. (2000) suggests that some
achievements and attitudes toward mathematics studies have not been able to prove that type of
do not depend on gender. It is also noticed that learning positively affects individual academic
while female students most like Convergent
learning styles, boys most like the Assimilator success. Nevertheless, Boekaerts (1999)
learning style. However, none of the students explains that the type of learning a person has
chose the Accommodator learning style in both will help him / herself in self-regulated learning
groups. to accomplish something so that he can
understand easily.
3.2 Student motivation Vansteenkiste, Simons, Lens, Sheldon, &
Deci (2004) stated that optimizing the use of
The variable of learning motivation based on students' intrinsic motivation in framing learning
MSLR instrument as disclosed in Table 3.
Table 3. Description of distribution of students' activities and learning climate will have a
learning motivation significant impact on students to be more
dedicated and actively involved in learning
Category Frequency Percentage activities. This will have important implications
in designing optimal learning environments.
Very Good 61 88.41
Good 3 4.35 3.3 The influence of learning type on
Enough 4 5.80 student learning motivation
Less 1 1.45
3.3.1 Test Requirement Analysis
Total 69 100.00
Research data to be analysed by regression
From Table 3 it can be explained that the equation, must first meet the requirements of
motivation to study students majoring in PTSP normality, linearity, and homogeneity test.
FT UNM has been very good. Nevertheless, Normality test was performed by using
there are 5.80% of respondent's motivation meet kolmogorv-smirnov (KS). Test results can be
the category Enough, even there is 1.25% which seen in Table 5.
still Less. If it is related to student learning type,
then the distribution of the category is described Table 5. Test requirements analysis type
in Table 4. learning
Table 4. Description of distribution of learning
type and motivation of student learning. Probability ()
Variable
Normality Linearity Homogeneity
Students motivation
Learning Visual .075 .775 .279
Type Very
Good Enough Less
Good Auditory .021 .821 .599
Visual 89.47 0.00 5.26 5.26 Kinaesthetic .028 .820 .208
10

motivation is determined by other factors


Based on the above table it can be seen that outside the type of visual learning factor.
the probability value () of the Visual learning The correlation coefficient of variables of
Auditory learning type (X2) is 0,056 marked
type is greater than the significance value positive, probability value () 0,050 <0,05,
(0.05), while the probability () type of learning while t counts 1,998 > t table 1,996 so it can be
of Auditory and Kinaesthetic is smaller than the concluded that variable of type learns Auditory
significance value (0.05). Thus, it can be give positive influence to student motivation
concluded that the data for Visual learning type variable. The coefficient of determination or
effective contribution of variables of the type of
variables are normally distributed, whereas the learning to the learning motivation is 4.20%,
variables of learning type of Auditory and which means that 95.80% (100% - 4.20%) of
Kinaesthetic are not normally distributed. student learning motivation is determined by
In linearity test, it can be seen that the other factors outside the type of learning.
variable data of Visual, Auditory, and The correlation coefficient of kinesthetic
Kinaesthetic learning type are all linear to learning variable type (X1) is 0,085 with
positive sign, probability value () 0,015 <0,05,
student learning motivation. It can be seen from while t count 2,497 > t table 1,996 so it can be
the probability value () is greater than the concluded that kinesthetic learning type variable
significance value (0.05). While homogeneity give positive effect to students' motivation
testing shows that the probability value () is variable. The coefficient of determination or
greater than the significance value (0.05). So, effective contribution of kinesthetic learning
type variable to learning motivation is 7,10%
it is concluded that the variables of learning type which means that 92,90% (100% - 7,10%)
Visual, Auditory, and Kinaesthetic are student learning motivation is determined by
homogenous. other factors outside of kinesthetic learning type
factor.
3.3.1 Hypothesis Test Graf & Lin (2008) suggest that learners with
high working memory capacity tend to prefer
Hypothesis testing is done by using inferential reflective, intuitive, and sequential learning
analysis using simple regression. A simple linear styles whereas learners with low working
memory capacity tend to prefer an active,
regression analysis was conducted to determine sensing, visual, and global learning style.
the effect of one independent variable on the Honigsfeld & Dunn (2003) suggest that gender
dependent variable. The criterion used is based gap patterns in learning styles can be observed,
on probability value (). In addition, the and they encourage educators to consider all
decision making can also be done by comparing learners' learning strengths to maximize
the t count value with the t table. The result of instructional outcomes.
Dunn, Beaudry, & Klavas (2002) suggest
simple linear regression analysis of independent that no learning style is better or worse than
variable to dependent variable is presented in others because each style has a similar range of
Table 6. intelligences. A student cannot be stigmatized
Table 6. Summary of Simple Regression by having any type of style. Most children can
Analysis Results master the same competencies, but how they are
mastered is determined by their respective
No. Variable r-value r2 t count Ttable styles.
Cassidy & Eachus (2000) conclude that
1 X1 to Y 0,097 8,30 2,679 0,009 1,996 academic achievement is positively correlated
2 X2 to Y 0,056 4,20 1,998 0,050 1,996 with the strategy approach, and does not
correlate to apathetic approaches, and does not
3 X3 to Y 0,085 7,10 2,497 0,015 1,996 relate to in-depth learning approaches. Type of
learning correlates significantly with academic
Based on the above table it can be concluded performance associated with academic success
that the correlation coefficient of variable visual and academic locus control.
learning type (X1) is 0,097 marked positive,
probability value () 0,009 <0,05, while t count 4 CONCLUSIONS
2,679> t table 1,996 so it can be concluded that
variable type learn visual give positive influence Based on the results and previous discussion,
to variable Student learning motivation. The then some things that can be concluded from
coefficient of determination or effective this research are:
contribution of visual learning type variables to
learning motivation is 8.30% which means that a) Students in the majors of PTSP FT UNM
91.70% (100% - 8.30%) student learning have dominant kinaesthetic learning types.
11

The type of visual learning is dominated by Survey of research on learning styles.


female students, while the type of auditory California Journal of Science Education,
learning is predominantly male students, and 2(2), 7598.
the type of kinaesthetic learning is Graf, S., & Lin, T. (2008). The relationship
dominated by female students. between learning styles and cognitive traits
b) The motivation to study students majoring Getting additional information for improving
in PTSP FT UNM meets the criteria Very student modelling. Computers in Human
Good although there are students whose Behavior, 24(2), 122137.
motivation is Less. Grainger, T., & Barnes, J. (2006). Creativity in
c) Visual learning type has a positive effect on the primary curriculum.
student learning motivation but only Hawk, T. F., & Shah, A. J. (2007). Using
contributes 8.3%, while Auditory learning learning style instruments to enhance student
type gives an effect of 4.2%, while the learning. Decision Sciences Journal of
learning type of Kinaesthetic gives Innovative Education, 5(1), 119.
contribution of 7.1%. Honigsfeld, A., & Dunn, R. (2003). High school
male and female learning-style similarities
5 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS and differences in diverse nations. The
Journal of Educational Research, 96(4),
The author would like to thank you for 195206.
Rector of Universitas Negeri Makassar which Knight, K. H., Elfenbein, M. H., & Martin, M.
funding this research through PNBP fund. B. (1997). Relationship of connected and
separate knowing to the learning styles of
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learning style, personality, achievement mathematics achievement and attitude
motivation and academic success of towards mathematics with respect to learning
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29(6), 10571068. Science and Technology, 38(3), 321333.
Cassidy, S., & Eachus, P. (2000). Learning Pintrich, P. R. (1999). The role of motivation in
style, academic belief systems, self-report promoting and sustaining self-regulated
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DePorter, B., Reardon, M., & Singer-Nourie, S. (2007). Does gender influence learning style
(1999). Quantum teaching: Orchestrating preferences of first-year medical students?
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Duncan, T. G., & McKeachie, W. J. (2005). The 336342.
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intrinsic goal contents and autonomy-


supportive contexts. Journal of Personality
and Social Psychology, 87(2), 246.
The 1st International Conference on Education, Science, Art and Technology (the 1st ICESAT)
Universitas Negeri Makassar. 22 23 July 2017

Learning Text Eksemplung In SMP


Andi Fatimah Yunusa), Irna Fitrianab), dan Abdul Azisa)
a
) Jurusan BSI FBS UNM Makassar
b
) STKIP Muhammadiyah Bone
Email: azissa17@yahoo.co.id

Abstract This study aims to: (1) describe the modeling of exemplum text; (2) describe the
modeling of the exemplum text after the use of the Moody's learning model; (3)
describe the effectiveness level of Moody model implementation in learning
modeling of exemplum text. The design used is a quasi experimental research
design. The population is the students of class IX.2 with a sample of 20 students.
Sampling is done by cluster sampling. The technique used is pretest and postes.
The data obtained were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistical
techniques. The results show that (1) Exemplum text modeling before using Moody
Model is categorized as low, (2) Exemplum text modeling using Moody Model is
categorized as high; (3) Moody Model is effectively applied in learning text
modeling eksemplum with tcount> ttable or 11,88> 2,0414 at significant level 0,05.
According to the results of this study, the suggestion is proposed: (1) The need for
language learning and writing of Indonesia especially learning listening to writing
is further enhanced by always providing training to students in modeling of
exemplum text; (2) Teachers should use innovative and varied learning methods in
learning modeling of exemplum text; (3) Students should be more active practicing
eksemplum text modeling so that their ability can be improved.

Keywords: Moody Model, text exemplars, effective

1. INTRODUCTION use lecture methods that cause students to


just sit down and listen so that there is little
The study of writing at school so far,
opportunity for students to ask questions.
including in MTS / SMP, seems to be very
These facts require teachers to
weak indeed. This can be seen from the low
innovate and creativity in learning so that
interest in reading and the weakness of
they are required to have the right
students' ability to appreciate the writing.
techniques and methods used in teaching
Weak learning in school writing as well as
students. The learning method that gives
complained teachers can be tracked from
hope for problem solving is a process-based
several aspects.
method. Process-based learning will be more
Condition of reality in the field
meaningful for students because students
based on the results of the initial survey of
feel and experience direct learning. This
researchers with teachers of Indonesian
method is better known as the Moody Model
Class IX.2 Class SMP Al Ishlah Maros
According to Moody (1971, 36-37),
Regency that teaches Indonesian, that the
learning of this short story appreciation does there are six stages of presentation of
not improve the creativity of students, teaching writing that can be applied to the
because educators only use the methods and appreciation of folklore, namely:
media Conventionally in a monotonous 1. Preliminary assessment, this
learning activity in the classroom, so the initial tracking stage becomes the
classroom atmosphere seemed rigid and task of the teacher to understand
dominated by the teacher. Furthermore, in
the delivery of materials, teachers typically

13
14

the deeper about the ins and outs the author, when composed,
of writing to be taught. including the author of which
2. Practical decission, the stage of generation, and so on.
determining the practical things to 2. Concepts. The concept here means
determine whether the writing is the basic notions of a thing.
relatively simple or long, the 3. Perspective. For example, how do
language is easy to digest or not, students view a work of writing
ironic or other style, what aspects according to the perspective of his
can be picked. own mind. What is the attitude of
3. Introduction of the work, the the student if he becomes the
introduction stage has begun to author?
present the work of writing. This 4. Appreciation. Understanding the
stage is an initial step to attract the appreciation here, the same as
interest of students. Bloom stated, including affective
4. Presentation of the work, the areas, if given a simple
presentation stage begins with the understanding then this word
reading of the writing by the means: understanding,
teacher (for example). appreciation, enjoyment, and
5. Discussion, this stage is an appreciation to the work of
important step for the writing.
understanding of a folktale. The
2. RESEARCH METHODS
teacher should be able to
encourage the emergence of The variable of this research
questions in a living situation. consists of two, that is learning of Moody
6. Reinforcement (testing), the Model as independent variable (X) and
inaugural stage in question is a modeling of eksemplum text as dependent
step of reinforcement. variable (Y). To obtain accurate data
.Moody (1971: 15-24) mentions that according to this research problem is
writing learning can; Assisting children's designed through experimental research.
language skills, enhancing cultural Thus, the research design used in this study
knowledge, developing inventiveness and is the design of quasi-expression research.
sense, contributing to the formation of Population is the whole object to be
character. It can thus be said that writing is studied. The population of this study is all
the source of various tastes including moral students of Class IX.2 SMP Al Ishlah Maros
and social tastes. Therefore, writing is amounted to 20 people. The nature and
worthy of being a learning resource for characteristics of the study population were
students. Students who study writing are similar (homogeneous) because students
expected to have high moral and social were taught by the same teacher, same
levels. Hi it is the desire of education. method, and the same material during class
The purpose of other writing lessons IX. The sample is the representative chosen
H.L.B. Moody in his The Teaching of from the population and served as the
Literature (1971). Moody's writing writing subject of the study. The sample of this
objectives are the "typical writing" study was determined by Class IX.2 as many
objectives. What Moody proposes here only as 20 people as experimental class.
covers affective and cognitive areas. Instruments used to obtain research
1. Information. What is meant here is data that is observation, test, and RPP.
for students to have adequate Observations were made in order to obtain a
information about what it is to preliminary overview of text learning in the
write (prose, poetry, and or studied class. Technique of test, that is
drama), what elements build, who exemplung text test to know student ability
15

in eksemplung text. Learning value> = 0.05. While for testing


implementation plan is used as reference and homogeneity test of homogeneity of
learning guidance with Moody Model. variance is used to determine whether the
The techniques used to collect data second variance of homogeneous data.
are test and observation techniques. In the Learning result data obtained are said to be
implementation, students are assigned text homogeneous if p-value> = 0.05.
exemplung in accordance with the basic Hypothesis testing to answer the
competence in KTSP class IX, that is research hypothesis that has been proposed.
eksemplung text. Lessons are held twice. Testing is done by using t-test but this test is
The first meeting as a pretest, and the second used with the help of computer that is
meeting held treatment (action) and program of SPSS.
continued postes to students. Each meeting
takes place within 2 x 40 minutes. Time 3. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
spent is adjusted to the Indonesian language 3.1. Descriptive Statistics Analysis
lesson at the school concerned.
The steps of research procedures, 3.1.1. Preview Result of Exemplum Text
namely: Modeling (O1)
1. Initial Activity (Pretes). Preliminary Student learning outcomes in
activities were performed before learning listening to elements prior to the
treatment with the following steps: application of the Moody Model (pretes),
(1) Researchers do learning without illustrated through descriptive statistical
using Moody Model in learning text analysis. Descriptive statistical analysis
eksemplung and (2) Students illustrates the acquisition of student grades
assigned text eksemplung. This from the highest to the lowest. From the data
learning activity is done as much as analysis of eksemplum text modeling data
one meeting. before the application of Moody Model of
2. Treatment (Treatment) as Postes. Class IX.2 students of SMP Al Ishlah Maros
The lessons were conducted during (pretes), with 20 students analyzed, the
two meetings. The steps, namely highest score is 72 and the lowest score is
researchers do the learning by 46.
providing explanations and The highest score obtained by
instructions on learning Moody students is 72 obtained by two students,
Model. Test data obtained from while the lowest score of 46 is obtained by
correction work, generally still in a one student. Obtaining the student scores
state of uncertainty. To facilitate the from the highest score to the lowest grade in
analysis, it is necessary to arrange sequence can be described as follows: the
the frequency distribution which can highest score obtained by students, that is 73
facilitate further calculation. obtained by two students (10.0%); A sample
3. Inferential Statistics Analysis. that received a score of 68 as many as two
Inferential statistical analysis is used students (10.0%); A sample that received a
to test the research hypothesis by score of 66 for one student (5.0%); A sample
using the t-test. However, prior to of 65 students (15.0%); Samples that got a
testing hypothesis, first tested score of 63 as two students (10.0%);
normality and homogeneity. Samples that received a score of 62 for one
The normality test used is student (5.0%); Samples that scored 59 as
kolmogorov-smirnov to find out whether the many as one student (5.0%); A sample that
data following the population is normally received a score of 53 as three students
distributed. The criterion used is the result of (15.0%); Samples that received a score of 50
learning data is said to follow the normal for one student (5.0%); Samples that
distributed population if the value of p-
16

received a score of 46 as one student classification of the students' exemplary text


(10.0%). modeling prior to the application of the
Based on the results of the analysis Moody Model. For more details can be seen
the data can be transformed into the in Table 1 below:
Table 1. Classification of Exemplum Text Modeling
Before Moody Model Implementation

No. Value Internal Level Ability Frequency Percentage (%)


1. 90 100 Very high 0 0,00
2. 80 - 89 High 0 0,00
3. 70 - 79 Medium 2 10,00
4. 40 - 69 Low 18 90,00
5. 0 - 39 Very low 0 0,00
Total 20 100
Source: Processed from Primary Data, 2017
Average (mean) 62,50
Based on Table 1 it can be Sum 1220,00
illustrated that the acquisition values for Standard deviation 7,17
the above classification indicate that the Variance 51,368
very high group has a value of 90-100,
the high group has a value between 80- Source: Processed from Table 1,
89, the intermediate group has a value 2017
between 70-79, the low group has a Based on Table 2 it can be
value between 40- 69, and the very low illustrated that from 20 students who
group has values below 39 down. were sampled for the study of modeling
The classification of learning modeling of exemplum text prior to the
of exemplum text prior to the application of Moody Model, generally
application of the Moody Model shows have low student learning outcomes.
that none of the students who obtained This can be seen from the average score
the classification was very high, high obtained by students is 61.00.
and very low. For this pretest, students
are only on the classification being Criteria mastery of student learning
obtained by two students (10.00%); Low outcomes at SMP Al Ishlah Maros
classification of 18 students (90.00%). Regency, especially the subjects of
The result of descriptive statistic Indonesian language that students must
analysis related to learning value of get the value 70. So, the results of
modeling of eksemplum text before student learning before the application
application of Moody Model (pretes) of Moody Model can be grouped into
above can be seen in Table 2 below: two categories, the category of complete
and not complete. So, obtained the
Table 2. Description of Students' frequency and percentage values as
Learning Value on Learning shown in Table 3. below:
Modeling of Exemplum Text Before
Application of Moody Model (Pretes)
Statistics Value Statistics
Sample 20
Range 26,00
The lowest value 46,00
The highest score 72,00
Ideal value 100,00
17

Table 3. Distribution and Percentage of Learning Result Criteria

No. Value Category Frequency Percentage (%)


1. 70 Tuntas 2 10,00
2. < 70 Tidak Tuntas 18 90,00
Jumlah 20 100
Source: Processed from Table 2, 2017
The result of data analysis of eksemplum
Based on Table 3 above, it can be seen
text modeling after the application of Moody
that the frequency and percentage of the
Model of Class IX.2 students of SMP Al Ishlah
modeling value of text exemplum of Class IX.2
Maros Regency, with 20 students analyzed
students of Junior High School Al Ishlah Maros
obtained picture, that is: no student can get 100
Regency before the application of Moody Model
value as maximum value. The highest score is 91
(pretes), is a student who gets 70 as much as
obtained by one student and the lowest score
two students (10.00 %) Of the total sample while
obtained by two students is also 78.
students who scored <70 as many as 18 people
The achievement of the students' scores
(90.00%) of the sample size.
from the highest to the lowest values in sequence
Based on the above description it can be
can be described as follows: the highest score
concluded that, 2 students have met the
obtained by the students, ie 91 obtained by one
Minimum Exhaustiveness Criteria (KKM) and
student (5.0%); Samples that scored 88 as many
18 students do not reach the Minimum Criteria of
as three students (15.0%); The sample that got
Completeness (KKM). Students who are in the
the value 85 as many as six students (30,0%); A
incomplete category are far more numerous than
sample that received a score of 82 as many as six
the number of students who achieve mastery
students (30.0%); A sample that received a score
learning. The average value of learning outcomes
of 79 as two students (10.0%); A sample that
obtained by students is 61.00. Thus, students
received a score of 78 were two students
who were taught prior to the adoption of the
(10.0%);
Moody Model did not achieve classical mastery.
Based on the results of the analysis the
data can be transformed into classification of
modeling of students' exemplum text after the
3.1.2. Postes Result Exemplum Text Modeling application of Moody Model. For more details
(O2) can be seen in Table 4 below:
Table 4. Classification of Exemplum Text Modeling
After Moody Model Implementation

No. Value Internal Level Ability Frequency Percentage (%)


1. 90 100 Very high 1 5,00
2. 80 - 89 High 15 75,00
3. 70 - 79 Medium 4 20,00
4. 40 - 69 Low 0 0,00
5. 0 - 39 Very low 0 0,00
Total 20 100
Source: Processed from Table 3, 2017
The result of descriptive statistic analysis
Based on Table 4 it can be illustrated
related to learning value of modeling of
that the classification of students' skill level is
eksemplum text after application of Moody
very high by one student (5.00%). The result of
Model (postes) above can be seen in Table 5
student evaluation is on the high score obtained
below:
by 15 students (75.00%); Classification is being
obtained 4 students (20.00%). As for the low and
very low classification, no student gained that
score (0%). Thus, the results of modeling the
students' exemplary text after the application of
the Moody Model were classified as high.
18

Table 5. Description of Students' Learning Value on Learning Modeling


of Exemplum Text After Application of Moody Model (Postes)

Statistics Value Statistics


Sample 20
Range 13,00
The lowest value 78,00
The highest score 91,00
Ideal value 100,00
Average (mean) 83,55
Sum 1671,00
Standard deviation 3,59
Variance 12,892
Source: Processed from Table 4, 2017
As with pretes, in this postes, the
Based on Table 5 it can be illustrated that
completeness criteria of student learning
from 20 students who were sampled for learning
outcomes after the application of the Moody
modeling of exemplum text after the application
Model are grouped into two categories, namely
of Moody Model (postes), generally have a high
the complete and unfinished category. So
level of student learning outcomes.
obtained the frequency and percentage values as
shown in Table 6 below:

Table 6. Distribution and Percentage of Learning Result Criteria

No. Value Category Frequency Percentage (%)


1. 70 Finished 20 100,00
2. < 70 Unfinished 0 0,00
Total 20 100
Source: Processed from Table 5, 2017
assistance with SPSS program version 20. The
Based on Table 6 above, it can be seen
results of inferential statistical analysis is
that the frequency and percentage of the
intended to answer the research hypothesis that
modeling value of the text of the exemplary of
has been formulated previously. Before
Class IX.2 students of SMP Al Ishlah Maros
performing inferential statistical analysis,
Regency after the application of the Moody
normality test and homogeneity test as
Model (postes), is a student who gets 70 as
requirement for t test or hypothesis test are
many as 20 students (100.00 %) Of the sample
conducted. The test is as follows:
number whereas none of the students scored <70
of the total sample. 3.2.1. Normality test
Based on the above description it can be
Normality test in this study, after using
concluded that, 20 students have met the
Kolmogorov-Smirnov, to find out whether the
Minimum Exhaustiveness Criteria (KKM). The
data following the population is normally
average value of learning outcomes obtained by
distributed. Normality test results obtained p =
students is 83.55. Thus, students who are taught
0.482 with the proviso that if the value p> =
after the application of the Moody Model have
0.05, then the data is derived from the data that is
achieved classical mastery.
normally distributed. The result data of SPSS
3.2. Inferential Statistics Analysis analysis shows that p = 0.482> = 0,05. This
shows the data of the students' learning outcomes
To know the difference in effectiveness
on the basic competence of modeling the
of Moody Model implementation in learning
exemplum text from the normally distributed
modeling of exemplum text with prior
population. For more details can be seen in table
application of Moody Model, analyzed after
7 below.
application of inferential statistical analysis.
Inferential statistical analysis using computer
19

Table 7. Normality Test

Text Value Kolmogorov-


Exemplung Smirnov(a) Shapiro-Wilk
Statisti
c Df Sig. Statistic df Sig.
Student Pretest
.140 20 .200 .957 20 .482
Value
postest .167 20 .145 .936 20 .200
Source: Processed from Table 1 and Table 5, 2017

SPSS after application of homogeneity


3.2.2. Homogeneity Test of Variance
calculation of population variance, processed
The second prerequisite that must be met value p = 0,632. The provisions that must be met
before conducting the t test is the homogeneity of as a requirement for the data to come from a
the data variance. The requirement of homogeneous population (same) that is p> , =
homogeneity of variance is if p> = 0.05. The 0.05. Since the value p = 0.632> = 0.05 then, it
homogeneity test of the population variance of can be concluded that the population variance
learning data for modeling of exemplum text for comes from the same population (homogeneous).
this study population, using Text of
Homogeneity of Variances. From data analysis at
Tabel 8. Test of Homogeneity of Variance

Levene
Statistic df1 df2 Sig.
Student Based on Mean
8.251 1 38 .007
Value
Based on Median 6.499 1 38 .015
Based on Median and with
6.499 1 26.007 .017
adjusted df
Based on trimmed mean 7.987 1 38 .007
Source: Processed from Table 7, 2017
Model in learning modeling of text exemplum.
3.2.3. Hypothesis Test (t)
Hypothesis test used is the technique of t test
After the normality and homogeneity analysis of pretest and postes group design after
tests are performed as a prerequisite test before previously done prerequisite analysis test that is,
performing the hypothesis test (t), and the data normality test and homogeneity test, and
obtained are eligible for t test. Then, the next t obtained result that the data is normal and
test will be done to answer the hypothesis that homogeneous.
has been prepared previously. Student acquisition values are then
The hypothesis proposed in this research analyzed after the application of independent t
is Moody model is effectively used in learning test to obtain the following results:
listening element of students of Class IX.2 SMP
Al Ishlah Maros Regency. To determine the
effectiveness of the model, it is necessary to note
the fundamental difference between student
learning outcomes on pretest activities with
student learning outcomes on postes activities. In
this study, it was revealed that students 'scores
after the application of Moody Model in learning
text modeling exemplum increased more than
students' scores before the application of Moody
20

Table 9. Independent Test Results

Paired Differences Sig.


Mean Std. Std. 95% Confidence t df (2-
deviation Error Interval of the tiled)
Mean Difference
Pair Values 22,550 7,647 1,710 26,129 18,188 13,188 19 ,000
Student
Pretest
Student
Value
Posttest
Source: Processed from Table 8, 2017
storytelling technique and perwatakanya, from
Based on Table 9 above, H0 is rejected
the short story that has been played by the
and H1 (research hypothesis) is accepted. Thus,
teacher appropriately. Most of them write the
the application of Moody's Model is effective in
things that become the problem conflicts in
learning modeling text exemplum SMP Al Ishlah
determining the theme of the short story that has
Maros Maros Regency.
been played. Similarly, by determining the plot
3.3. Discussion of Research Results of the story, many students do not know that the
The Moody model is known as one type forward flow and backward plot are different,
of cooperative learning. The implementation is most of them determine the plot in the story by
as follows: the teacher should understand more writing back and forth, this is because the teacher
about the ins and outs of the writing that will be is not very good at mastering the teaching
taught, then teachers and students determine the materials Will be taught to students.
work of writing or short stories that will be Conventional learning model that is done
taught, then the next step is the presentation in pretes is by lecture method, participatory, and
stage of writing and the first presentation begins assignment. In this process the teacher explains
with the reading of writing by the teacher For the material in sequence and sometimes gives
example, and then the teacher-led discussion, and learners time to ask and record. Next, the teacher
the last is the reinforcement that is intended to asks one of the students to read the short story in
make students better understand the writing that front of the class, and the other student notes the
is being taught. important things. Students identify the elements
The results of this study indicate that of the short story and afterwards the teacher and
learning modeling of exemplum text by using students reflect on the lessons that have been
Moody Model is better or more effective than implemented and then assign the task of the
learning with conventional learning model objective objective of the eight numbers. At the
toward junior high school students of Ishlah end of the lesson, the teacher provides students
Maros Regency. The conventional learning with learning motivation and closes the lesson.
model or the pretest activity that is learning the As this happens in the field, so teachers have
modeling of eksemplum text before using Moody difficulty in understanding the understanding of
Model, the students are not able to listen well learners and learners have difficulties in
because we know together that to listen to the understanding or text eksemplung because it is
element of a short story that many of them have not discussed in detail and interesting by the
to be read so the short story read should be read teacher.
back so that it can be listened to as well maybe. The Moody model is more effectively
In addition, this learning model seems used in learning text modeling exemplars than
monotonous because learning is more dominated conventional learning methods. This is because
by teachers. the two methods of learning are very much
The average student has not been able to different in terms of presentation. As mentioned
determine the theme, the mandate, the plot, the above about conventional learning methods,
point of view, the characters, the background, the there are many problems in the delivery of
teaching materials to learners. The most basic
21

thing is the teaching materials that are not so because students get more hands-on experience
well mastered by the teacher, so that teachers just than on pretest activities using conventional
simply explain the lesson in detail. learning model.
Unlike the application of the Moody
4. CONCLUSION
Model, before teaching the work of writing
teachers must first master the ins and outs of Based on the results of data analysis and
writing to be taught, the teacher must also be discussion can be concluded about the
clever or clever in choosing short stories to be effectiveness of the use of Moody Model in
read, meaning short stories that are easy to improving student competence Class IX.2 SMP
understand the meaning and look enthusiastic Al Ishlah Maros Regency in modeling
students when the teacher asks Students to eksemplum text is as follows:
choose a short story writing will be read later 1. Exemplary text modeling prior to
teachers read short stories that have been application of Moody Model of Class
selected by students by using expressions, IX.2 students of SMP Al Ishlah Maros
intonation and articulation in reading the short Maros District (pretes) is categorized as
story, because then the students will be more low with an average value of 62.50.
interested in watching the readings done by the 2. Exemplum text modeling after
teacher and it is a good way So that students application of the Moody Model of
more easily listen to the meaning contained in students of Class IX.2 SMP Al Ishlah
the short story in the discussion stage of teachers Maros Maros Regency (postes) is
here acting as moderators and teachers categorized high with an average score
deliberately bring up the conclusions, responses of 83.50.
that invite more detailed responses, so in addition 3. Moody model is effectively applied in
to students to give responses, the process of learning modeling text exemplum of
listening was underway As well because the Class IX.2 SMP Al Ishlah Maros Maros
discussion is led by the teacher. with tcount> ttable or 13,88> at
Success achieved is also created because significant level 0,975
the relationship between members who support
THANK-YOU NOTE
each other, help each other, and care. Weak
students get input from students who are The greatest respect and gratitude to Dr.
relatively strong, so motivate their learning. This H. Syarifuddin Dollah, M.Pd. (Dean of FBS
motivation has a positive impact on learning UNM Makassar), Prof. Dr. H. Jufri, M.Pd.
outcomes. In general, in Moody Model learning (Chairman of the Research Institute of UNM
is developed critical thinking skills and Makassar) for the widespread permission given
cooperation, positive personal relationships from to the author to conduct research. The same
different backgrounds, applying the guidance award, the authors convey to Irwan, S.Pd.
between friends, and creating an environment (Indonesian Subject Teacher at SMP Al Ishlah
that values the scientific values that can build Maros), for his partnership and being a research
students' learning motivation. Through Moody friend during the research data collection.
model learning, students' activity is higher
Jakarta: Direktorat Jendral Pendidikan
Dasar Kementrian Pendidikan Nasional.
Meier, D. (2005). The Accelerated Learning
REFERENCES Handbooks: Panduan Kreatif dan
Depdiknas. (2006). Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Efektif Merancang Program Pendidikan
Pendidikan Mata Pelajaran Bahasa dan dan Pelatihan. Diterjemahkan oleh
Sastra Indonesia. Jakarta: Depdiknas. Rahmani Astuti. Bandung: Kaifa.
Endaswara. (2005). Metode Pengajaran Sastra. Moody, H.L.B. (1971). The Teaching of
Jakarta: Gramedia. Literature in Developing Countries.
London: Longman.
Kemendiknas. 2011. Pendidikan Karakter
Berbasis Sastra. Kegiatan Naskah Bahan Nurgiyantoro, B. (2008). Penilaian dan
Kerjasama, Informasi dan Publikasi. Pengajaran Bahasa dan Sastra.
Yogyakarta: BPFE.
22

Percy, B., (1981). The Power of Creatif Writing. Sudaryanto. (2008). Metode dan Aneka Teknik
Englewood Cliffs Prentirie-Hall, Inc. Analisis Bahasa. Yogyakarta: Duta
Wacana University Press.
Rahmanto, B. (2008). Metode Pengajaran
Menulis. Yogyakarta: Kanisius. Supriyadi. (2006). Pembelajaran Sastra yang
Apreasiatif dan Integratif di Sekolah
Ramadansyah, (2012). Paham dan Terampil
Dasar. Jakarta: Departemen Pendidikan
Berbahasa dan Bersastra Indonesia.
Nasional.
Bandung: Dian Aksara Press.
Yunus, A.F, Abdul Azis. (2017). Penerapan
Rusyana, Y. (2002). Naskah Nusantara Dalam
Model Moody dalam Pembelajaran Teks
Pendidikan Kesastraan Di Indonesia.
Eksemplum pada Siswa Kelas IX SMP
Makalah Seminar Internasional Bahasa
di Kabupaten Maros Laporan Hasil
dan Sastra Indonesia dengan Dewan
Penelitian. Makassar: Lembaga
Bahasa dan Pustaka, Malaysia. Bogor.
Penelitian UNM Makassar
The 1st International Conference on Education, Science, Art and Technology (the 1st ICESAT)
Universitas Negeri Makassar. 22 23 July 2017

Globalization And Pedagogy: How Should English Teachers Teach


English In The 21st Century?
Effendi Limbong
Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris,
FKIP, Universitas Mulawarman
Corresponding e-mail: effendi22@gmail.com

Abstract : The purpose of this paper is to discuss the issues related to the
globalization and its impact on pedagogy particularly focusing on
teaching the English language in 21st century Indonesia. First, the spread
of English language into the Indonesian curriculum is discussed,
followed by the process and impact of globalization on English teachers
knowledge of teaching English language in the 21st century and last, the
issues and challenges, and strategies and actions to overcome the barriers
to implementing good pedagogy by English teachers in teaching.

Keywords : Globalization, Pedagogy, ICT, TPACK

Introduction communication), and the education


The impact of globalization, along system (curriculum adoption, distance
with its huge power, not only in urban learning, formal and informal education
and rural areas, but also in developed and with the integration of technology).
and developing countries, Western and More specifically, in the education
Eastern have affected, changed and system, the integration of technology to
influenced the lives and cultures of support the teaching and learning
human being everywhere in the world process either in primary or higher
(Wadham, Pudsey & Boyd, 2007; education level is now being adopted
Stiglitz, 2002; Hui, 2001; Phillipson, due to cheaper technological tools. They
2001; Beck, 2000; Schech & Haggis, have become cheaper because of the
2000; Giddens, 1999; Longview competiveness of different brands, which
Foundation, n.d.). Indonesia, with its offer the cheapest prices and full
huge population, diverse cultures and warranty. With faster delivery and
some harmonious religions, slowly but quicker information due to the impact of
surely, has been infected by globalization which provides ready
globalization. These impacts have not access to international airports the
only affected the government system: transportation costs are reduced
centralized and decentralized election (Wadham et al., 2007; Schech & Haggis,
processes, for example, but also the 2000). There is no doubt that the
economy (cooperation with giant technological tools are now available for
companies, e.g., Coca Cola, Sprite and many schools which can lead to change
McDonald), the socialization process or in the teaching and learning processes
Western culture (language and culture especially on teachers pedagogy
interchange: dancing, music and art), knowledge. Therefore, this essay
infrastructure (transportation and generally discusses two main issues

61
62

related to the globalization process in compulsory subject from Junior to


education particularly focusing on university level. Even though there are
teaching the English language in 21st other foreign languages such as Arabic,
century Indonesia. First, the role and French, Japanese and Mandarin, English
spread of English language in the world language is chosen as compulsory with its
and into the Indonesian curriculum is position as a foreign language. The basic
discussed. Second, the process and reason is that our new generation is
impact of globalization on English expected to compete in global markets
teachers knowledge of teaching English (Kelch, 2010; Mulyasa, 2006; Longview
language in the 21st century is explored. Foundation, n.d.).
Finally, the essay discusses the issues One way the impact of
and challenges, and strategies and globalization on the Indonesian
actions to overcome the barriers to curriculum can be actuated is by
implementing good pedagogy by English teaching and educating our new
teachers teaching English language. generation to be ready to learn, use and
speak the English language and both
The Spread of English Language in schools and teachers are the main place
the World and into the Indonesian and actors who have the responsibility to
Curriculum fulfill this task (Mulyasa, 2006).
The spreading of English language Teachers with their immense knowledge
as an international language can be seen and responsibility have to be prepared to
after World War II where the whole the changing of curricula and
world was divided into two groups, curriculum. For example, the grammar
namely the Capitalist Group centered translation method was adopted in
around the USA, and the Socialist Group Indonesian ELT in 1945, the oral
around the USSR (Hui, 2001). In approach in 1968, the direct method and
addition, according to Guo & Beckett audiolingual method in 1975, and the
(2007), about 400 million people in communicative approach in 1984 and
Britain, the United States and the 1994 (Mulyasa, 2006; Saleh & Maarif,
Commonwealth are users of English as 2003). While in the curriculum,
their first language. English has become Indonesia implemented various
the dominant global language of curriculum such as Rencana Pelajaran
communication, business, aviation, 1947, Rencana Pelajaran Terurai 1952,
entertainment, diplomacy and the Kurikulum 1968, Kurikulum 1975,
Internet. It is not surprisingly that over a Kurikulum 1984, Kurikulum 1994,
billion people learn, use and speak Kurikulum 2004 and KTSP 2006 or
English as their ESL or EFL in the world. Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan
Therefore, the English language is the (School Based Curriculum). These
strongest and most powerful curricula and curriculum have always
communication language in the world been changing due to globalization that
(Ciprianova & Vanco, 2010). impacted on the education system in
In the majority of developing Indonesia.
countries as well as developed countries, Starting from the curriculum 2004
English has become the gateway to to 2006, the contents curriculums have
education, employment and economic been impacted with international issues
and social prestige (Guo & Beckett, such as social, technology, environment,
2007). In the National Curriculum of sustainable development that can be seen
Indonesia, English language has been a from the content of many textbooks in
63

Indonesia. For example, in the English evaluation techniques and the nature of
language textbook, many reading topics the target audience.
are focused on Western culture such as, Pedagogy covers a)
dance, music, foods, and entertainment. understanding of the educational
These reading topics are usually foundation; b) understanding of learners;
combined with KFC and MacDonald to c) developing curriculum or syllabus; d)
discuss about food. To some extent, the designing teaching and learning process;
examples were correct in terms of e) implementation of educational and
authenticity. But this can diminish the dialogical learning; f) the use of
Indonesian culture and students can technologies in teaching and learning; g)
become alienated from their own evaluation of learning outcomes; h)
cultures. Furthermore, the materials are development of learners to actualize
also strange to the learners because the their different potentials (Government
materials are not related to their daily Regulation of Indonesia No. 74, 2008,
lives and the real context of their p.5).
activities (Kelch, 2010; Musthafa, 2010; From the above explanation, there
Brown, 2007; Nunan, 2004). is no doubt that being a teacher is not an
easy job because they have to prepare
The Impact of Globalization on and design the content of the subject
English Teachers Pedagogy in matter before presenting it in the
Indonesia classroom, which takes a long time.
The spread of the twin brothers of Based on some experts findings, in the
st
21 century: globalization and 21st century, the way the teaching and
technology has been ubiquitous in all learning process or pedagogy occurs
aspects, and also in the education should change with the impact of
system. The teaching and learning globalization and technology which
process as the core of transferring make the teachers job now being easy,
knowledge to learners has changed effective and efficient (Longview
especially in terms of pedagogy. Foundation, n.d.).
Pedagogy is related to the There are some changes in
teachers activity. Pedagogy is the art or education due to the impact of
science of teaching and sometimes the globalization and technology. Among
profession of teaching. Or pedagogy them is the education system; and school
refers to the skills and approaches used level and classroom level processes are
by teachers to achieve the aims of the changed due to the integration of
lessons that they teach or the methods technology. The roles of technologies
which they employ (Brown & are now the teachers personal assistants
Abeywickrama, 2010; Richards & without any hindrances in terms of time,
Rodgers, 2001 in Brown, 2007; Harmer, place, and cost. The Internet, for
2001). Moreover, teaching is not solely example, which can help teachers
about delivery of the content matter, but anytime, anywhere and anything is now
is also about interaction with the meeting the teachers needs (Lemke,
students and this is important (Connell, 2010; Dede, 2009; Boyle, 2006; Tinio,
2009; Brown, 2007; Nunan, 1999; Bigg, 2003). Indeed, globalization and
1991). Thus, pedagogy is knowledge technologies for facilitating information
about the process and practice of and knowledge sharing helps an
teaching. It includes classroom institution to break down all barriers
management skills, teaching strategies, associated between knowledge resources
64

and those who acquire the knowledge changes in methods of teaching which
and skills (Dede, 2009). can improve their teaching quality and
In terms of the impact of provide access to up-to-date and relevant
globalization on pedagogy, it is materials and access to curriculum
acknowledged that ICTs in education material and other resources (Dede,
have assisted teachers in the teaching 2009; Moyle, 2006; Tinio, 2003).
and learning process or in pedagogical By implementing ICTs in teachers
aspects. ICTs have brought a significant pedagogy in the teaching and learning
change in the students mode of learning environment, ICT is seen to support and
and provide productive teaching and encourage positive learning so that
learning processes in order to increase students are more interactive and
students creative and intellectual creative. In essence, greater information
resources especially in todays access, communication via electronic
information society. For example, facilities, synchronous learning,
through the simultaneous use of audio, cooperation and collaboration, cost
text, multicolor images, graphics, effectiveness and pedagogical
motion, ICTs provide ample and improvement through simulations,
excellent opportunities to the students to virtual experiences and graphic
develop capacities for high quality representations can be gained by
learning and to increase their ability to implementing ICT in education (Dede,
innovate (Lemke, 2010). The 2009). By looking at the major positive
implementation of ICTs in education, impacts of both globalization and ICT on
specifically in learning the English pedagogy, it is argued that educators and
language, makes the teaching and teachers with diverse student populations
learning process effective and and workloads in teaching and learning
interesting, for example the integration activities have to prepare themselves to
of CALL in the English classroom catch up with the advancement of
(Brown, 2007). Both teacher and technology so that they are not beaten by
students use a variety of multimedia, e- students who live in the digital age or the
mail, blog, twitter, face book, YouTube, 21st century. More specifically, the
online dictionary and web design tools, appropriate theories or frameworks that
simulations and course management to be adopted and applied to connect
tools to support deep understanding, content, pedagogy, and technology have
collaboration and project planning that to be emphasized to see the design and
can create classroom innovations process of teaching with technology.
(Fuertes-Olivera & Alba, 2012; Dede,
2009; Park & Son, 2009). In addition, The Issues and Challenges to
while in the English language classroom, Implementing Pedagogy in the 21st
teacher may assign an English-speaking Century
movie, have students listen to an The previous paragraph provides
English-speaking TV or radio programs, an overview of the benefits of ICT as the
do outside reading through online news impact of the globalization on teachers
magazines, books, newspapers, write a pedagogy in the teaching and learning
journal or diary through email or blogs process. It is absolutely true that by
(Brown, 2007). ICTs can provide access integrating technology in teachers
to information sources, enable pedagogy and in the classroom to deliver
communication, create an interacting any subject matter, the content will be
learning environment and promote more easily absorbed by learners and
65

make the teaching and learning process for recording the students marks. In
are more effective, efficient and fun. addition, the access to computers and the
Unfortunately, in fact, not all countries Internet in some schools is available but
are ready with these tools, infrastructures the teachers cannot use them to support
(school building and electricity), learning English language or even to use
funding, and also human resources of their own laptop to search for the newest
teachers. It can be said that there seems materials from the Internet due to lack of
to be a level of combined resistance, knowledge about CALL. Further,
hostility and fear by teachers, teachers have not been provided with
administrators or both in some countries sufficient and meaningful preparation
(Eickelmann, 2011; Borthwick & about technological integration into their
Risberg 2009). specific content area and the government
There are some factors why the has pushed computers and peripheral
implementation of ICT to support equipment into teachers classrooms
pedagogy in developing countries such without engaging them first in sustained
as in Indonesia is not successful. Firstly, conversations about the value of using
the education policy should be strictly technology for their specific subject
compelled to integrate ICT to support matter (Eickelmann, 2011; Borthwick&
pedagogy, so that the teaching and Risberg, 2009; Cuban, 2001; McKenzie,
learning process uses technology in the 2004 in McGrail, 2007).
classroom, is integrated into every day Furthermore, professional
teaching and becomes the culture development is a crucial program for
(Vanderlinde, Van Braak & Dexter, teachers to improve their knowledge and
2012; Schnoor, 1998 in Eickelmann, skills to integrate technologies into their
2011; Fullan, 2001). pedagogy in classroom (Eickelmann,
Secondly, the knowledge and skills 2011; Boyle, 2006). And many educators
of principals are insufficient to integrate and researchers have explored, adapted,
ICT to support pedagogy. As Moyle adopted, and evaluated the
(2006) claimed, the use of technology by Technological, Pedagogical, and Content
itself is insufficient to create innovative Knowledge (TPACK) is valuable
learning environments without the framework for teaching with technology
principals role to prepare good teachers effectively and efficiently (Harris,
with technological pedagogy for digital Mishra, & Koehler, 2009; Koehler &
age learning so that students are ready Mishra, 2005, 2006; Schmidt, Thompson,
for being a 21st century community in Mishra, Koehler, & Shin, 2009), and also
the era of globalization (Moyle, 2006). echoed my current research from
Thirdly, teachers lack the Indonesia context (Limbong, 2015a,
capability to integrate technology to 2015b, 2016, 2017). According to Dede
support their pedagogy in classroom. In (2010, p. 5) teachers and educators can
the Indonesian context, some schools improve their beliefs, values, assumption
have implemented a 1:1 laptop program and cultures through professional
for teachers while this program was development. And specific professional
implemented in developed countries development that technology course
about 10-20 years ago (Bate, Macnish & content should not be free-context with
Males, 2012). Unfortunately, teachers do technology (Limbong, 2016, 2017).
not use this laptop to support their Fourthly, the schools have
teaching and learning process, but only insufficient funding. As commonly
to type the lesson plan and spreadsheet accepted, funding is the classic problem
66

of incorporating ICT into teaching and of teachers who have the responsibility
learning and pedagogy. For example, the to educate and transfer knowledge to the
school needs a lot of funding to learners should prepare their knowledge
reconstruct the basic infrastructure of the and skills to catch up with the spread of
schools, such as building, electricity, advanced information and technology.
professional learning for teachers, staff, Due to above the circumstances,
an ICT replacement schedule, up to date the principal as the school leader needs
software, technical support, the Internet to be capable of overcoming some
and so forth (Eickelmann, 2011; obstacles in terms of lack of funding to
Borthwick & Risberg, 2009; Moyle, improve teachers knowledge and skills
2006). to employ suitable approaches, designs
Lastly, both teachers and school and procedures or pedagogy in teaching
leaders have to consider the and learning process with technology.
organizations context such as the social,
historical and economic context, culture
(shared values, beliefs, expectations, and
behaviors), conditions (time, space,
resources) and competencies both skills
and knowledge (Borthwick & Risberg,
2009; Wadham, et al, 2007; Moyle,
2006).

Strategies to Overcome the Barriers to


Implementing Pedagogy
To overcome some obstacles as
mentioned above the school leader or
principal needs to have leadership
knowledge and skills to lead the school
and the teachers. Therefore, the school
leaders need to have a commitment to
allocating resources funding to support
teaching and learning with technology by
providing ICT tools, maintaining the
schools IT infrastructure such as the
hardware, software, Internet services,
networking and connectivity (Moyle,
2006). In addition, the specific
framework of TPACK to integrate
technology for teaching effectively and
efficiently to integrate technology should
be a good framework to adopt and adapt
into professional development and during
teacher training program.

Conclusion
It is evident that globalization and
technology has affected all aspects in
this world. Pedagogy as the competency
67

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The 1st International Conference on Education, Science, Art and Technology (the 1st ICESAT)
Universitas Negeri Makassar. 22 23 July 2017

Capitalism In The 17th Century World of Trade Makassar


Najamuddin
Lecturer Faculty of Social Sciences,
Universitas Negeri Makassar

Abstract: The strategic geographical position, the shifting of the trade centers of the archipelago, as
well as the role of Gowa kings as agent of change that had reigned during the 17th
century is a determining factor in the emergence of Makassar's emporium in the network
of the 17th century archipelago. The capitalist system in the world of Makassar is made
possible by long shipping lanes for a long time, requiring large capital and credit systems
in every transaction. Likewise, in every commercial there are various economic facilities
such as trader loji, traders' trades from various tribes, loading and unloading facilities,
and security guarantees for traders. This study is a study of economic sociology that aims
to reveal the factors that gave rise to Makassar as a center of trade and emporium in
Southeast Asia in the 17th century. The theory used is the theory of economic sociology
centered on the teri world system.

Keywords: Capitalism, commerce.

INTRODUCTION other systems, thus engaging in maritime


networks Archipelago, even enter the world
Makassar with Somba Opu Commerce since the economic system (AB Lapian, 1992). From the
17th century is one of the trade city that is quite description, it can be understood that the Somba
busy visited by traders from various regions in Opu trading emporium is an integral part of the
the archipelago, as well as from outside the activities of shipping lanes and trade networks in
archipelago. The position of Somba Opu located the archipelago, whose economic system is
in the mouth of Makassar Strait enables it to oriented to the modern market.
develop into a trading center, and occupies the The time span between the sixteenth to
main route of shipping in Eastern part of the the seventeenth centuries in this study is the most
archipelago. The development became more dynamic period, showing the magnitude of
apparent after the shifting of shipping lanes due internal and external influences. Internal
to the fall of Malak's main port to the Portuguese influence is the development of the Kingdom of
in 1511. Gowa after united with the Tallo Kingdom and
Somba Opu as the trading emporium of the existence of internal conflict in the struggle
Makassar, rapidly progressed in the early 16th for hegemony between the Kingdom of Gowa
century during the reign of King Gowa IX Daeng and the Kingdom of Bone. While external
Matanre Karaeng Tumapa'risi Kallona, king of influences are the constellation of conflict and
Gowa who managed to unite the kingdom of the seizure of hegemony between Portuguese
Gowa with Tallo Kingdom (Jhon Villiers, 1989). trading power with Dutch Trade Congress
Trade dealers referred to in this paper is the (VOC), as well as the shifting of shipping lanes
center of social interaction that uses the sea as a and trade network from East Java to Makassar.
means of communication, as well as trade
networks. In this sense, the sea should be seen as MAKASSAR EMPORIUM TRADING IN
a sea-system, where the growth of the marine NUSANTARA TRADING NETWORK
region serves as a result of the cultural, social,
economic, and political interactions among its The growth of the Makassar emporium as a
inhabitants, which widen by interaction with trading city in the archipelago trading network,

126
127

supported by two factors that most decisive historically composed of fertile mainland
namely: 1) Internal factors, namely geographical (Darmawan M.R., 1993).
and political; And 2) external factors, ie the fall Reciprocal support between the
of Malacca into the hands of the Portuguese and emergence of hinterlands, shipping lanes, and
the shifting of shipping lanes in the archipelago commercial networks, enables the emergence of
at the end of the 16th century. The two a trading city equipped with economic means,
determinants that gave birth to the capitalist such as markets as the center of trade activities.In
system in Makassar trading world. the market-everyone is free to build his hut by
paying certain taxes (Anthony Reid, 1993) The
Internal factors (Geographical and wider impact on these developments is the
political) emergence of temporary settlements that make
Makassar's trading city as a vast urban center.
KN Chaudhuri (1989) in his research in the Hony Reid estimates supporters Makassar in the
Indian Ocean Region managed to reveal clearly 17th century reached 20,000 to 640,000 people,
the commercial shipping system in the Indian so that Makassar at that time can be classified as
Ocean, and showed that the sea and the elements a metropolitan city, which has been social for a
of life in it, its height and volume are evolving, long time to change keauc menjuasi (Anthony
and salinity or salinity are equally Enabling the Reid, 1992). Most of the city's proponent are
development of the shipping system. Thus, the local people with various social roles. The king
geographical element causes the shipping lanes and the aristocracy are the elite layers that
not to be volatile, and even if there is a change in always exist in the commercial city of Makassar.
this aspect, they will take hundreds to thousands The shift of the political centers, marked
of years. by the establishment of Somba Opu Trading
From the 10th to the 11th centuries there Airport as the center of government of the
emerged the so-called emporium, the port towns Kingdom of Gowa by King Gowa IX
equipped with various facilities, which not only Tumapa'risi Kallona (1510-1546). This
made it easier for sailors to repair their ships, but stipulation was accompanied by development
also facilitated merchants to diversify. Economic around the Somba Opu Fortress as a defense, as
facilities such as credit, warehouses, and lodging well as the appointment of Daeng Pamatte as a
are available in certain port cities making it an syahbandar which governs the customs of the
emporium. Various emporiums emerging since treasury of the Kingdom of Makassar. To support
then include Aden, Mocha in the Red Sea, the policy, the Kingdom of Makassar has
Muscat, Bandar Abas and Homaz in Banggala, established a major institution in supporting
then Malacca in the Malacca Strait, Khanfu Makassar as a trading city, among others: a)
(Canton) Zaiton, and Nanking in the Chinese Sea. Security of goods; B) Protection of foreign
For the Southeast Asian region, Anthony Reid traders; C) Facility of dock, dock, and warehouse
(1993) in his research revealed the emergence of for ship loading and unloading; D) Arrangement
a number of emporiums as a commercial city in of prices of traded goods; And e) Organizations
the fifteenth to the seventeenth century, between governing trade merchandise considerations
Malacca, Banten, Aceh, Maluku and Makassar. (Wolhoff, et al., Tt).
Makassar's geographical condition with The effort was continued by Gowa XI
the main port of Somba Opu located in the mouth King Mario Gau Daeng Bonto (1546-1565), who
of Makassar Strait is a supporter and the basis of renovated Somba Opu fortress, with the
Makassar's development as one of the trading establishment of brick buildings around it,
cities in the archipelago (Anthony Reid, accompanied by fortresses of protection, such as
1993).Geopolitically existence is supported by Bnetng Panakukkang, ana 'Gowa, and Benteng
the flow of the river flanking the land, the Tallo Ujung Look (Mattulada, 1982).
River in the North and the River Je'neberang in
the south. While other conditions are geo- External Factors
128

Malacca is a very strategic area for the lord often have their own settlements called Kampung
through the sea, connecting between East and Melayu. In another study, Anthony Reid argues
West. This position makes Malacca as the center that at the beginning of the 17th century there
trade in Asia and the archipelago, especially in were a number of foreign traders in Makassar,
the 15th century. such as Portuguese, Dutch, English, Spanish,
When Malacca fell into the hands of Danish and Chinese, accompanied by economic
Portugal in 1511, it brought unexpected facilities such as credit facilities and temporary
consequences to the emergence of various settlements for the traders. (Anthony Reid, 1993).
empires or partial trade shifts north to Aceh, and Thus, the condition allows the creation of
partly to the south of Banten. This shift made capitalism system in the Makassar emporium
Banten evolved as a trading emporium in western which is driven by the existence of long-distance
Indonesia. As well as the Moluccas, which are trading network that requires a very large capital,
the main producers of spices, are increasingly either for supplies or for trade through the credit
visited by pedagogues, both from the archipelago system. This fact proves that in the economic
and European merchants, especially the institutions of the Kingdom of Makassar there is
Portuguese and VOCs who eventually control the a strong desire to create the rules of network
spice trade in the region. trading and the creation of a market system in
Another consequence of the shift of the activating the trading network.
trading center is the exodus of Malay merchants The question that pops up later is why
and other traders to Makassar to serve as a place capitalism in Southeast Asia, including in the
for marketing the results and taking food. This Makassar emporium collapsed in the early
fact led to Somba Opu as Makassar's emporium seventeenth century. Just like K.N. Chaudhuri in
in the trading network and as a spice supplier his study in the Indian Ocean, Anthony Reid also
outside the VOC monopoly, while making the argued that the cause is closely related to the
Makassar emporium at a strategic position, and political system in Asia, where the Asian
benefiting the trade between Malacca and political system at that time did not guarantee for
Maluku (Meilink Roelopz, 1969). Thus, if during safety and private property. The ruler or the king
the sixteenth century the path taken was Maluku, has unlimited power. His entire territory and
Java, and the Malacca Strait, then at the end of wealth in it belong to the king. In such
the century it became Maluku, Makassar, and the circumstances, the capital collected by the
Sunda Strait (Sartono Kartodirjo, 1993). pemuasaba cannot be invested into other sectors,
Makassar as a place to escape as well as such as agricultural sector and industry as in
an entrepot for spice traders from the island of Europe, because at any time can be taken by the
Java, bringing Somba Opu more developed into king on the pretext mentioned above, because it
Makassar emporium in the network of commerce is also capital raised Entrepreneurs are only
in the archipelago in the 17th century. ranged among families only.
Development began in the 16th century based on In addition to the above factors, the
its success as a major port in Sulawesi supported collapse of the capitalist system in Asia
by a surplus of rice from the area, the settlement (Makassar) is also caused by: a) depression of a
of a Malay colony of commerce in Makassar less favorable global union, with declining
since the mid-sixteenth century, making it supply of silver and gold as trade letters to Asia
increasingly growing as a rival to the island of around the year 1600-1659; B) The existence of
Java and exports Rice and other ingredients to climate change, characterized by the occurrence
Maluku (Anthony Reid, 1993). of cooling on the surface of the earth in the 17th
To appeal to outside traders, King Gowa century. Consequently, a crop failure of 1624 and
X provides temporary shelter and protection to the outbreak of a malignant epidemic in 1636 in
traders around Bandar Saga Opu Commerce, the Makassar emporium (Anthony Reid, 1992).
which is accompanied by special privileges Makassar as a trading center that enabled
(Anthony Reid, 1993). Such as the treatment of the growth of capitalism system in the 17th
Master Bonang from Java, Traders from Pahang, century, gradually decline in the reign of Sultan
Patani, Johor, Campa, and Minangkabau who Hasanuddin (1653-1659).The decline was
129

preceded by the uprising in Bone and Mandar in State, 1512-1669 dalam J. Kathiritthimby-
1660, which was further aggravated by VOC Wels & John Villiers, The Southheast
attacks on the help of Bone troops under Aru Asian Port and Policy. Singapore:
Palakka in 1666.The VOC assault with the Bone
Singapore Universty.
forces against the Kingdom of Gowa ended the
hegemony of the Kingdom of Gowa with the K.N. Chaudhuri. 1998. Trade and Civilization in
signing of Bongaya Treaty by Sultan Hasanuddin the Indian (Ocean An Economic History
in 1667. from the Rise of Islam to 1750. Cambdrige
University Press.
CONCLUSION Meilink-Roeslofsz, M.A.P. 1969. Asian Trade
and European Influence in the Indonesian
The system of capitalism in Makassar's trading
Archipelago Between 1500 AN About 1630.
world is made possible by long shipping lanes.
Under such conditions, large capital and credit Nijhoff: The Hague.
systems are needed in every transaction, as well Sartono Kartodirjo. 1993. Pengantar Sejarah
as in every trading airport available various Indonesia Baru: 1500-1900 Dari
economic facilities, such as trade loji, merchant Emporium Sampai Imperium. Jilid I.
traders from various tribes, loading and Jakarta: PT Gramedia.
unloading facilities, and security guarantees for Sutherlan, Heather. 2005. Trade, court and
Traders
company Makassar in the later
The strategic geographic role, and the
shift of the archipelago trade centers to the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries
emergence of Makassar's emporium in the 17th E. Locher-Scholten, P. Rietbergen (editor)
century archipelago's trading network are not the Aziatische vorsten en de VOC 1620-1720,
most important determinants. Leiden Publisher. KITLVPress Pages 85-
112
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Bahari. Pidato Pengukuhan Guru Besar
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Anthony Reid. 1992. Asia Tenggara Dalam
Kurun Niaga 1450-1680. Jilid I
(terjemahan). Jakarta: Yayasan Obor.
__________. 1993. Southheast Asia in The Age
of Commerce 1450-1680: Expansion an
Crisis. Volume Two. Chiangmai:
Silkworm Books.
Darmawan MR. 1993. Pertumbuhan Kota Pantai
Makassar. Ujung Pandang: Suaka
Peninggalan Sejarah-Purbakala Sulselra.
Goldfrank, Walter L. 2000. "Paradigm Regained?
The Rules of Wallerstein's World-Sistem
Method. Journal of World-Sistems
Research. Vol. 6. N. 2 pp. 150-195.
Jhon Villiers. 1989. Makassar The Rise and Faal
of an East Indonesia Maritime Tranding
The 1st International Conference on Education, Science, Art and Technology (the 1st ICESAT)
Universitas Negeri Makassar. 22 23 July 2017

Influence of Concept Map Based Information Communication and technology


(ICT) on Student Learning Outcomes Biology Education STKIP-PI Makassar

Putri Athirah Azisa, Rezeki Amaliaha


a
Program Studi Pendidikan Biologi STKIP Pembangunan Indonesia Makassar

Corresponding Email: putriathirah22@yahoo.co.id

Abstrak: The study aims to determine the effect of the use of ICT concepts on student learning
outcomes of STKIP-PI Makassar Biology. The subject of this study is the students of the
semester of the academic year 2016/2017 which program the courses of Nutrition and
Health. The study was conducted in each class of 8 hours of study. Data completion
technique in this research using instrument. Data analysis using descriptive statistics using
inferential percentages and statistics with t-Test. The result of descriptive research, the
mean of the learning result of experimental class biology student 75.25 while in the control
class 67.05 (b) from the result of inferential analysis using the level of trust t0,05 result of
law. The critical area H0 is rejected if the p value (Sig. (2-tailed)) = 0.027. Because the p-
value test statistic (Sig. (2-tailed)) <0.05 then it can be rejected willingness to conclude that
there are differences in learning outcomes between students taught by using ICT-based
concept maps and without using concept map media.

Keywords: ICT-based concept map, Learning outcomes

The fact that can be seen in the field is, when


lecturers are still using conventional media, there
A. Preliminary
are still many students who look indifferent to
Along with the development of science what brought by lecturers, various attitudes and
learning activities using the conventional system characters that can be seen from them when the
where the activity is dominated by lecturers or process of teaching and learning, some students
teachers, students are passive, silent, listening, have a sense of laziness to fall asleep in the
and occasionally pay attention to make students classroom, often disturbing friends, giving blank
feel lazy to learn, less attention to lessons and stares, until when the lecturer asked, students feel
less interested to learn. Seeing from the above confused.
problem is very closely related to the
It is believed that each lecturer has different
procurement of learning media for lecturers on
experiences, knowledge, abilities, styles and even
campus. Where the media is a means or
views in teaching. Lecturers who think that
information intermediary tool that certainly has a
teaching is only limited to convey the subject
strong influence in motivating learners during the
matter, will be different from the lecturer who
learning process takes place. Learning media
considers teaching is a process of providing
designed in such a way, with various models tend
assistance to students. Increased student learning
to attract the attention of students, so students
outcomes will be influenced by the quality of the
have the will to learn more about the material
learning process in the class. Therefore, to
presented by the lecturer.
improve students' learning achievement, the
learning process in class should be well run,
efficient and effective. The learning process will
143
144

run well if supported by lecturers who have high was the program of nutrition and health courses
competence and performance, and as a in the academic year 2016/2017.
curriculum developer (Widoyoko, 2008).
The implementation of the research is
Quality education is determined by various divided into two stages: the preparation and
factors. Theoretically according to Purwadhi implementation phase. The preparation stage is
(2000), one of the elements that must be first to review the competency standard and basic
considered in designing an effective learning competence, the determination of indicators, and
process, one of which is the teaching medium. In the development of the material so that it can be
addition, the learning process is also part of the known teaching materials to be taught. Both
communication process. Thus, the effectiveness Design SAP and create an RPS or learning
and quality of learning or education is also scenario based on SAP with an 8-hour time
determined by the elements of communication allocation. All three provide Mind Manager
such as sources, participants, media and media (ICT-based concept maps) that will be
feedback. used in class and design and create instruments or
evaluation tools. In Implementation Stage that is
Use of good learning media. Able to improve describing media that is used media of concept
student learning outcomes. Referring from the map based on ICT. The media is presented in a
above then the lecturer should choose an efficient structured and integrated form with animations,
media in line with the development of science images, videos, materials and exercises. ICT-
and technology, namely ICT-based media, on the based concept maps basically have a shape that is
grounds that ICT media has a unique uniqueness not much different from the concept map
that can be made designed in such a way by presented in general. However, this concept map
combining several media so that integrated into is presented in the form of presentation using the
one. One example is an ICT-based concept map. help of LCD so that the material presented is
This media is a systematically organized learning structured and more easily understood by the
media can be integrated with media and media students. This can make the learner focus on the
images, video and animation. The advantage of material being lectured by the lecturer. ICT
this medium is being able to display sub-topics to concept map leads to the concept of students
detail clearly to the smallest sub subject. being able to learn actively. Using design
technologies that can be categorized as modern
Based on the above description, we propose learning media. ICT-based concept maps in the
the research team with the title "The Influence of making are done using Mind manager software.
Using Concept Map Based Information
Communication and technology (ICT) to Student
D. Research Results
Learning Outcomes of Biology Education 1. Learning Results of Student Biology
STKIP-PI Makassar". After doing research until the stage of
B. Problem Formulation student evaluation, it is obtained the
descriptive statistic of student learning result
Based on the background that has been which is taught by using learning media of
described above, then the problems that can be ICT based concept map and concept map
reviewed in this study "Is there any influence of which is not based on ICT can be seen in
the use of concept maps based on Information table 4.1.
Communication and technology (ICT) on the
results of Student Learning Biology Education Table 4.1. Distribution of learning outcomes
STKIP-PI Makassar?" Biology of students who learned by using ICT
concept-based learning media and concept maps
C. Research Methods that are not based on ICT

This research was conducted at STKIP No Value


Pembangunan Indonesia. The subject of the study Category Control Experimental
Class Class
145

1 Number 40 40 (47.00%) with good category are at interval 66-


of 79, 9 students (22.50%) with sufficient category
samples are at intervals of 56-65, 3 students (7.00%) with
2 The 88.89 91.11
highest less categories are in the interval 40-55, 0
score students (0%) with very less categories are at
3 The 37.78 40.00 intervals 39. And the taught using the concept
lowest map without ICT is 6 students (15.00%) with
value very good category that is at interval 80-100, 13
4 Average 65.39 71.51
5 Standard 12.18 12.15
students (32.50%) with good category are at
deviation interval 66-79, 15 students (37.50%) with the
categories are sufficient at intervals of 56-65, 5
Table 4.1. In the post test, it can be seen that students (12.50%) with less categories are at the
the lowest score is 40.00 while the highest score interval of 40-55, 1 student (2.50%) with very
in the class taught by using ICT berbsis concept less categories are at intervals 39.
map is 91.11, in the class which is not taught
2. Inferential Analysis
with concept map without ICT the lowest value is
37.78 is and the highest value is 88.89. Based on normality and homogeneity test of
Differences in learning outcomes can be seen variance, t-test statistic is used to test the research
from the average scores obtained by students. hypothesis. This test analysis process used SPSS
The average of student learning outcomes taught software. Where H0: m1 = m2 there is no
using concept maps without ICT is 67.05 difference between classes taught using ICT-
(2x.11.54). While taught without using ICT- based concept maps and classes taught without
based concept maps is 75.25 (2x11.59) If the using ICT-based concept maps. H1: m1 = m2
students' learning outcomes are categorized there is a difference between classes taught using
qualitatively it will be obtained results such as ICT-based concept maps and classes taught
table 4.2 without using ICT-based concept maps with
significance levels = 0.05. The critical area H0 is
Table 4.2. Distribution of frequency,
rejected if p value (Sig. (2-tailed)) = 0.027.
percentage and categories of student learning
Because the p-value test statistic (Sig. (2-tailed))
outcomes by using ICT-based concept-based
<0.05 then H0 is rejected so it can be concluded
learning media and not using concept maps based
that there is a difference in learning outcomes
on ICT
between students taught by using ICT-based
concept maps and without using ICT-based
Using concept maps Using ICT based
concept maps.
Value
Category without ICT concept maps
interval
Number Number
of (%) of (%) Based on the results of descriptive analysis
Very
students students the highest score obtained by students who were
80 100
good 6 15.00 9 22.50 taught using concept maps without ICT was
66-79 Good 13 32.50 19 47.00 88.89 with the lowest score of 37.78. While the
56-65 Enough 15 37.50 9 22.50
taught by using ICT-based concept map the
40-55 Less
highest value is 91.11 and the lowest value is
5 12.50 3 7.00
Very
40.00. The use of ICT-based concept map media
39
less 1 2.50 0 0 used in the teaching and learning process can
40 100.00
amount 40
100.00 improve learning outcomes. It is proven by the
difference between learning result obtained by
The table above shows the value of the students using ICT based concept maps and
students who get the learning outcomes after concept maps without ICT.
being taught using ICT-based concept maps that
is 9 students (22.50%) with very good category In this research, the concept map is used on
that are in the interval of 80-100, 19 students the concept of nutrition and health and the result
146

can increase the students' learning outcomes. For will be passionate about learning, otherwise if the
the use of ICT-based concept map media students student is in an unfavorable study group then the
are very enthusiastic in working on the subject student will feel stiff in the sense of being
matter, this is due to their interest in media that confused with what to do Fibers feel alien in the
has not been used in teaching and learning group that will impact on the decline in student
process, discuss the results of ICT concept maps learning outcomes. In addition, habit factors can
they have filled. Giving pieces of paper also affect student learning outcomes. Students
containing material then randomized and who are usually taught by the media whiteboard
reassembled allows students to show their and marker or chalk are then suddenly given
creativity with a good group work. It is known learning media that has never been taught to
that students' activeness is more expressed by make students need time to adapt to the learning
using this instructional media. This is in media. From some things, it can be said that the
accordance with the opinion Hamalik (1994), the activity and psychological conditions of students
learning media has a number of functions, among is instrumental in improving learning outcomes.
others, clarify the presentation of messages that
are not verbalities that only in the form of words E. Conclusions and Suggestions
or oral, overcome the limitations of space, time,
sensory power such as objects that are too large A. Conclusion
or too small Can be replaced by using appropriate Based on the results of research that has been
and varied media, such as the use of ICT-based done in STKIP Development Indonesia
concept maps. Makassar, data analysis, and discussion, it can be
concluded that:
For the usage of concept map media which is
not based on ICT student activeness also seen, 1. Learning outcomes of biology students of
but not significant like ICT-based media, in the STKIP-PI Makassar taught using ICT-based
usage of this media there are still some students concept maps obtained an average score of
who are not active learning process. At this 75.25.
meeting, the learning process is not maximal 2. Learning outcomes of biology students
because there are still some students who are STKIP-PI Makassar taught without using
confused and like to interfere with friends. In the concept maps based on ICT obtained an
second, third and fourth, the learning process is average value 67.05
also not too maximized this is because there are 3. There is influence of the use of ICT-based
students who are not able to control himself so concept map media to the learning outcomes
that disturb the state of a group of friends. of biology students STKIP-PI Makassar in
nutrition and health courses.
There are several factors that cause students
B. Suggestions
have not succeeded during the learning process
and have not been able to achieve the standard In connection with the conclusion of the
value of the average in accordance is internal above research results, the suggestions that can
factors and external factors. Internal facts include be put forward by researchers are:
the lack of interest of students to learn while
external factors can be seen from the 1. Expected in the learning process, can choose
circumstances in which teachers are not able to the media that can activate the student one of
control all activities and activities of students them is the concept of ICT-based map media.
outside of school hours. Like student facilities at 2. For other researchers, it is expected to study
home, the balance between playing hours and more deeply in developing and strengthening
hours of student learning. Typical students in the results of this research by conducting
choosing friends also participate in determining further research.
student learning outcomes. When a student is in F. References
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the sense of a friend or a close friend, the student
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Steketee, Carole. 2006. Modelling ICT


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dan Jarak Jauh, Volume 8, Nomor 1,
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Trianto. 2009. Mendesain Model Pembelajaran


Inovatif Progresif.Jakarta: Kencana
Prenada Media Group
The 1st International Conference on Education, Science, Art and Technology (the 1st ICESAT)
Universitas Negeri Makassar. 22 23 July 2017

The Influence of Teachers Reinforcement for Students Motivation

Risma Niswaty, Siti Rusbiati, Jamaluddin, Rudi Salam


Universitas Negeri Makassar, Jl. A.P. Pettarani Kampus UNM Gunungsari, Makassar, Indonesia
Corresponding e-mail: risma.niswaty@gmail.com

Abstract: This study aims to determine the provision of teacher reinforcement, student learning
motivation and the influence of teacher reinforcement to student learning motivation.
This research is an associative quantitative research that is to know the influence
between variable X to variable Y. Location of research conducted at class X competence
of expertise of Office Administration at VOCATIONAL SCHOOL YPLP PGRI 1
Makassar. The population in this research are 66 people, and the sample is 55 people
like the respondent with the sampling technique that is Proportional Stratified Random
Sampling. Data collection techniques used in this study are observation, questionnaires,
and documentation. Data analysis techniques used were descriptive statistical analysis
using percentage, mean and standard deviation and for inferential statistical analysis
using data normality test, product moment correlation analysis, and simple linear
regression analysis. The results of the research indicate that the reinforcement of
teachers in VOCATIONAL SCHOOL YPLP PGRI Makassar is in a good category,
regarding indicators: 1) verbal strengthening, 2) gestural reinforcement, 3)
reinforcement activities, 4 reinforcement approach, 5) reinforcement touch, and 6) Sign
reinforcement. For the motivation of studying class X students, the competence of the
administrative skills of the Office Administration in VOCATIONAL SCHOOL YPLP
PGRI 1 Makassar is categorized as high in terms of 1) the desire and the desire to
succeed, 2) the encouragement and the need to learn, 3) the expectation and aspiration in
The future, and 4) the existence of awards in learning, 5) the existence of interesting
activities in learning, and 6) the existence of a conducive environment. Based on the
analysis of product moment correlation test stated there is a significant influence
between the provision of teacher empowerment to students' learning motivation X class
of administrative skill competence of 23.1 percent with a moderate level of influence.
From the results of simple regression analysis showed that there is a significant and
positive influence between the reinforcement of teachers to the motivation of students in
class X competence of administrative skills in VOCATIONAL SCHOOL YPLP PGRI 1
Makassar.

Keywords: Teacher, reinforcement, Student Motivation.

1 INTRODUCTION move forward, creative and innovative to


compete globally. Creating individuals who
The development of the world more rapidly have these qualities, of course, education is the
with various advances in technology and very big role and influence in the formation of
information available. The progress is due to individual characters.
the influence of globalization and Education is an important aspect of human
transformation in various aspects of life life and will continue throughout human life
(Haedar Akib, n.d., 2005; Karwati & Priansa, through formal, informal and non-formal
2013). Behind these advances, today's education (Amanda, Salam, & Saggaf, 2017;
increasingly fierce competition and undeniable Salam & Rosdiana, 2016; Salam, Zunaira, &
requires individuals who have the desire to Niswaty, 2016). Improving the quality of

148
149

education would be the objectives of National the behavior of students who receive it. Tasks
education. Therefore, various government done or questions answered by students well
efforts to improve the quality of education can be appreciated by teachers and activities
today has been done for the achievement of that can generate student motivation will have
these goals. It takes a good process and the effect of fun, feel appreciated and paid
cooperation between the components of attention to the efforts they have done so that
education to produce the expected graduates. positive student behavior can be improved and
One of the components that play an important repeat that behavior. So, it is important for
role is teachers (Haidar Akib, 2003; Dharma & teachers in every learning process can provide
Akib, 2009; Jumriah, Akib, & Darwis, 2016; reinforcements that can stimulate and improve
Karwati & Priansa, 2013; Saggaf, Salam, students' learning motivation in class.
Kahar, & Akib, 2014). Based on the results of preliminary
Every teacher learning process is required to observations conducted by researchers at
be able to create interesting and fun learning for VOCATIONAL SCHOOL YPLP PGRI 1
learning can be achieved. Of course, the Makassar in November 2015 showed that the
achievement of learning objectives becomes an motivation of student learning is still very low
absolute thing that must be achieved by and less eager to follow the learning process.
teachers in every learning process. One of the This is seen from the learning process that
factors that influence the achievement of the many students are busy with their own activities
learning objectives is student learning such as playing mobile phones and making their
motivation. own conversations with friends beside him, out
Motivation is an impulse that exists within of the classroom and no initiative to learn
each that raises the desire to do something. independently when the teacher can not attend
Motivation can arise either because of the drive to the class. In addition, in the learning process
from within the individual (intrinsic) or from took place some students are still passive in
outside the individual (extrinsic). Learning following the learning activities. Researchers
motivation is related to students' desire to learn suspect that teachers rarely provide
well. Therefore, it is very important for each reinforcement in the learning process so that
student's self-motivated and enthusiastic student learning motivation is very low.
learning spirit. With high learning motivation,
students' attention and activeness in following 2 METHOD
the learning process in the classroom will
increase. This research uses associative research that
According to Karwati & Priansa (2013) seeks to know the relationship/influence
"Successful teachers are teachers who have the between variables that want to be studied. In
ability to foster the spirit and motivation to doing the measurement of the variable then
learn students." Therefore, it is the teacher's selected the research instrument using Likert
duty to motivate his students. Because with the scale (Bowling, 2014; Saldanha & OBrien,
encouragement of the students will increase the 2014). Population and also become sample of
motivation of learning so that the expected research that is class X competence skill
learning objectives can be achieved. One that Administration Office at VOCATIONAL
teachers can do with reinforcement.
SCHOOL YPLP PGRI 1 Makassar counted 66
Based on the above opinion, the provision of
reinforcement can affect student learning person. The techniques used by researchers in
motivation. Therefore, the provision of collecting data, namely: 1) observation
empowerment becomes an absolute thing in techniques, 2) questionnaire techniques, and 3)
every learning process that takes place. documentation techniques. The data analysis
According to Saud (2008) "Reinforcement is a techniques used in this study was descriptive
response to a behavior that may increase the statistical techniques and inferential statistical
likelihood of recurrence of such behavior." techniques (Onwuegbuzie & Leech, 2006).
Positive responses that teachers give to the
behavior of students psychologically will affect
150

appreciation, but the way it has an impact that


affects the psychological students.
The results showed that the reinforcement of
3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION teachers in VOCATIONAL SCHOOL YPLP
PGRI 1 Makassar is in good category. It is
3.1 Giving of Reinforcement based on the following indicators: (1) Verbal
reinforcement (2) Gestural reinforcement, (3)
The teacher must develop his/her professional reinforcement of activities, (4) reinforcement of
attitude in managing learning by improving touch, (5) Reinforcement approaching, and (6)
his/her teaching skills. This is to occur a fun reinforcement of signs.
learning process that will generate interest and Based on the results of observation shows
spirit of students to learn. One of the teaching that the reinforcement to students is good
skills that teachers have to master is enough, which is seen in the learning process
reinforcement. some teachers have applied various types of
According to Hapsari & Widhianningrum reinforcement either when students are in
(2016) "Reinforcement is a response to a discussion, doing the task, or when the teacher
behavior that increases the likelihood of explains a material. Although these
recurrence." In the learning process, provision reinforcements are not fully provided but
of reinforcement is a form of positive response teachers at VOCATIONAL SCHOOL YPLP
of teachers to the behavior of students so that PGRI 1 Makassar have been working to create
student behavior can be repeated again at a later interesting and enjoyable learning for students
time. Therefore, teachers should be able to with a reinforcement.
apply in every learning process.
Positive student behavior should be 3.2 Motivation to learn
appreciated by teachers, such as answering
questions, obtaining academic or non-academic Motivation to learn is an energy that arise in
achievement, getting good grades, and other students that resulted in him want to do learning
positive behavior levels. Giving strengthening activities well. Motivation to learn is a psychic
can be done by both teachers with verbal and driving force from within a person to be able to
nonverbal reinforcement in accordance with the perform learning activities and add skills, also
characteristics of students in the classroom. The experience (Yamin, 2012).
use of appropriate reinforcement by teachers Motivation to learn can arise by a variety of
can improve student learning outcomes. factors either originating factors in itself
According to Liberna (2015) "A student (intrinsic) or factors that come from outside
learns more whenever each step is given a (extrinsic). Students who have a strong learning
reinforcement." Strengthening will encourage motivation will have a passion and a high
students to learn well. Reinforcement will learning passion so that in the end s/he will be
encourage students to repeat their actions on able to have higher learning achievement.
other occasions. The award will encourage Student learning motivation is much needed.
students to be enlarged, students will feel The learning process will run well if students
appreciated and cared for by teachers so that have high learning motivation as proposed by
students feel proud of what they have done. Of Dimyati (2006) that:
course this will affect the students who accept For students the importance of motivation to
the reinforcement so that as expected behavior learn is: a) awaken the position at the beginning
can be repeated at another time. Therefore, with of learning, process, and learning outcomes; B)
the various descriptions above it can be inform about the power of learning effort,
concluded that strengthening will be very useful compared to peers; C) directing learning
activities; D) encouraging learning; E) awaken
for the learning process if the teacher can apply about the existence of study and continuous
it. Although merely giving praise or journey.
151

A strong motivation in students to learn will be SCHOOL YPLP PGRI 1 Makassar" has been
very meaningful in supporting the creation of accepted. This is based on the results of the
student activeness in following every learning analysis that has been done by the researcher
process. Conversely, if the motivation that comes showed that there is a significant influence
from very low will cause the learning process to be
between the giving of the reinforcement to the
not in accordance with the expected. So, it takes a
high learning motivation from within students to be student's learning motivation. This is in
willing to follow the learning process well. accordance with that proposed by Majid (2008)
Based on the results of research that has been that:
done shows that the motivation of students in class The use of reinforcement in the classroom can
X competence of administrative skill of office in achieve or have a positive attitude effect on the
VOCATIONAL SCHOOL YPLP PGRI 1 Makassar learning process of students and stimulate to
is in high category. It is based on the following increase students' attention to the lesson,
indicators: (1) the desire to succeed, (2) the stimulate and improve learning motivation and
encouragement and the need for learning, (3) the improve learning activities as well as foster the
hope and aspirations of the future, (4) the behavior of students who are productive.
appreciation of learning, (5) The existence of
interesting activities in learning, (6) the existence of In addition, some experts argue that one of
a conducive environment. the objectives of the provision of reinforcement
Based on the results of observation shows that is to generate and maintain student learning
the motivation of the class X students of the motivation in class. Based on that, so the
competency of the administrative skills of the Office students' motivation will be high if students are
of VOCATIONAL SCHOOL YPLP PGRI 1 given strengthening, and conversely student
Makassar is quite high. This can be seen from their
motivation will be low if students are not given
enthusiasm in following the learning process, either
when paying attention to the teacher in explaining reinforcement. Therefore, teachers who act as
the subject matter or while doing group work or motivators to improve students' learning
discussion. But when teachers are not in class, their motivation in the classroom should be able to
learning motivation decreases and this is seen from apply various components of reinforcement
the frequent students out of class and playing mobile well for the smooth and achievement of
phones. predetermined learning objectives.

3.1 The Influence of Teachers


Reinforcement Guru for Students 4 CONCLUSIONS
Learning Motivation
Reinforcement teacher in VOCATIONAL
Giving reinforcement has a lot of influence in SCHOOL PGRI 1 Makassar YPLP are in good
learning. One of them can influence student's category. It is based on indicators such as
learning motivation. Based on the results of verbal reinforcement, gestural reinforcement,
data analysis that has been done before that activity reinforcement, approaching
there is a significant influence between the reinforcement, touch reinforcement, and sign
provision of reinforcement (teacher reinforcement.
reinforcement) to the motivation of students in Students motivation to learn of the class X
class X competency skill of Office of the competence of Administration Office
expertise in VOCATIONAL SCHOOL YPLP
Administration at VOCATIONAL SCHOOL
PGRI 1 Makassar is in high category. It is
YPLP PGRI 1 Makassar. The correlation
based on indicator that there is desire to
between the reinforcement and the motivation succeed, existence of impulse and requirement
to learn is obtained by moderate category. learn, existence hope and aspiration in future,
Based on the hypothesis that "there is existence of appreciation in learning, existence
influence of teacher reinforcement to student of interesting activity in study, and existence of
learning motivation of class X competence of conducive environment.
Office Administration skill in VOCATIONAL
152

There is a positive and significant influence Journal of Accounting and Business


of teacher reinforcement on student's Education, 2(1).
motivation in class X of Office Administration Jumriah, J., Akib, H., & Darwis, M. (2016).
skill competence in VOCATIONAL SCHOOL DISIPLIN KERJA GURU DALAM
YPLP PGRI 1 Makassar with medium MELAKSANAKAN TUGAS
influence level, it is in accordance with result of PEMBELAJARAN DI SEKOLAH
data analysis which have been done. MENENGAH KEJURUAN NEGERI 1
BARRU. Jurnal Office, 2(2), 155162.
Karwati, E., & Priansa, D. J. (2013). Kinerja
5 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS dan profesionalisme kepala sekolah
Membangun Sekolah yang bermutu.
Thanks to VOCATIONAL SCHOOL YPLP Bandung: Alfabeta.
PGRI 1 Makassar and 1st International Liberna, H. (2015). Peningkatan Kemampuan
Conference on Education, Science, Art and Berpikir Kritis Matematis Siswa Melalui
Technology (ICESAT) so that this article can Penggunaan Metode Improve pada Materi
be contained and can be utilized by the public. Sistem Persamaan Linear Dua Variabel.
Formatif: Jurnal Ilmiah Pendidikan
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Akib, H. (2005). Kreativitas Dalam Organisasi. Bandung: Alfabeta.
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Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta. (2014). Pelayanan Fungsi Administrasi
Amanda, M. O., Salam, R., & Saggaf, S. Perkantoran Modern. Jurnal
(2017). PENGARUH SUPERVISI Administrare, 1(1), 2027.
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KABUPATEN PANGKEP. In Prosiding DAYA SAING ORGANISASI DALAM
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The 1st International Conference on Education, Science, Art and Technology (the 1st ICESAT)
Universitas Negeri Makassar. 22 23 July 2017

A classroom action research at the second year students of indonesian


maritime academy aipi makassar

NurAeni a, SelviPanggua b, St.Asriati c


a
Indonesian Maritime Academy AIPI (AMI AIPI Makassar), South Sulawesi, Indonesia
b
Toraja, Christian University of Indonesia (UKI,Toraja), South Sulawesi, Indonesia
c
Muhammadiyah University of Makassar (UNISMUH Makassar), South Sulawesi, Indonesia

Corresponding e-mail: ainiminollahi@gmail.com, chelvytrj@yahoo.com, asrie006@yahoo.com

Abstract: This research aimed to find out the improvement of the students literal
comprehension dealing with main ideas and sequence of details and
interpretive comprehension dealing with conclusion. To explain the
improvement, the researcher used a classroom action research (CAR) which
was conducted in two cycles in which every cycle consisted of four meetings.
The location of this research was taken at Nautical class AMI AIPI Makassar
with a number of the subject was 25 students. The research findings indicated
that the application of Cross Group Reporting Strategy was significant in
improving the students reading comprehension in narrative text in terms of
literal comprehension and interpretive comprehension. It was proved by the
mean score of cycle I was 66.4. It was classified as fairly good. Then it was
improved to be 81.1 and it was classified as good in cycle II. They are higher
than theme a score of diagnostic test namely 51.3 which was classified as
poor. The students mean score activeness in teaching and learning process, in
cycle I is 66% and cycle II is 79.5 %. The students improvement from the
cycle I to cycle II is 13%. Based on the explanation, the researcher concluded
that the application of Cross Group Reporting Strategy was improving the
students reading comprehension in narrative text in terms of literal
comprehension and interpretative comprehension.

Keywords: reading narrative, comprehension, improvement, Akademi Maritim


Indonesia AIPI Makassar

1. INTRODUCTION other people who have learned the


Language as a system of communication system of that culture, to communicate
by sound is the crucial thing in our life, or interact. Language is also being a key
which is used to share information and to learn science and technology such as
communicate with the other to express Linguistics, Sociology, Medicines,
our idea, feelings, and willingness (Pei Economics, etc. In it is proportion,
and Gaynor, 1954: 119). Finocchiaro, learning language is very important for
(1974: 3) state that language is a system us, especially learning English language.
of arbitrary, vocal, symbols which It is because English is an international
permit all people in a given a culture or language.

130
131

Finochiaro (1975: 10) says that, started a carriage hire and stables
language learners should be given business in Cork city.
insight into the place and function of According to Freebairn (1977:6)
various language items and skills in Cross group reporting is a strategy in
listening, speaking, reading, and writing teaching and learning process to report
activities; that is, in real communication information to the other member of
situations. There are four skills we must group. Cross group reporting strategy is
comprehend. They are listening, one of strategy that is used by the
speaking, reading, and writing. The four teacher to improve the students reading
skills mentioned are divided into comprehension in learning process
receptive and productive skills. Speaking especially in reading. Not only that,
and writing are productive skills, while cross group reporting strategy also a
listening and reading are receptive skills. strategy where the students can be
Besides the four language skills above, shared knowledge and idea with another.
reading is very important for students From the statement above we
whose mother tongue is not English and have found definition to understand that
they do not have opportunity to hear or cross group reporting strategy is one of
to speak in that language. strategy that can be used by the teacher
Comprehending English is a difficult to improve the student comprehend and
thing for students if they do not have motivation in learning process especially
basic knowledge, especially in in reading. It can be used as a follow-up
comprehending reading text. of a section that has been taught recently
Reading is one of the English skills that in the course. In another hand, cross
needs to be emphasized in teaching group reporting is the way a teacher to
English program in Indonesia and make the students active in learning
language teaching program, in general. process.
According to (Williams: 2000), Reading Furthermore, as the researcher
is a process by which one looks at and observed, it was found that the students
understands what has been written, of AMI AIPI Makassar have problems in
whether it is at a simplest level to reading especially in literal
message such as words and sentences or comprehension and interpretative. Those
at the most complex such as paragraphs problems are barrier for students to
passages and discourses levels, and improve their reading skill. Overcoming
whether it is at a simplest level of the problems, the teacher needs a new
comprehension literal reading strategy of learning reading text activity,
comprehension or at higher levels of so the students become active, enjoying
comprehension interpretative or and comprehension about the main point
inferential and critical or applied reading of reading text. (1) How does cross
comprehension. Cross group is famous group reporting strategy improve the
use in business world. Cross group is a students literal reading comprehension
leading multiplatform media firm that in Nautical class Makassar? (2) How
manages an array of media on a targeted does cross group reporting strategy
and measured basis for initiatives in improve the students interpretive
humanitarian, ministry and organization. reading comprehension in narrative text
The origins of the Cross-Group date at the Nautical class AMI AIPI
back to the mid19th century when two Makassar? The objectives of this
members of the Cross family in Cork research are to find out: (1) The
132

improvement of the students literal


Planning
reading comprehension in narrative text
through cross group reporting strategy.
(2) The improvement of the students Reflection Cycle I Action
interpretive reading comprehension in
narrative text through cross group Observation
reporting strategy.

The aim of this research is to Re- planning


improve the students reading Action
comprehension that focus on the Reflection Cycle II
students improvement in literal reading
comprehension and interpretative Observation
reading comprehension.
?
2. METHOD
In this research, the researcher used the
principal working of Classroom Action
Research (CAR) that consists of four c. Teacher makes the observation check
stages; they were: Planning, Action, list for observing the condition of
Observation, and Reflection to collect learning process. It checks in every
the data. meeting during cycle
This research was held two d. Teacher prepares reading test.
cycles. Those were first and second Reading test is the instrument of this
cycle and each cycle is the series of research.
activities which had a closed relation. 2) Action
Where, the realization of the second The steps of the action were
cycle was continued and repaired from explained as follows:
the first cycle.
The researcher described the a. Dividing the students into five or six
cycles through the scheme of action groups to work on some group
research phases and each of the phased activity.
was explained briefly as follows: b. Each student in each group was given
a letter A, B, C, D, and E by the
researcher.
Cycle I
c. The researcher distributed reading
1) Planning text with different material, topic, or
The researcher prepares all of the ways title for each group.
which needed in learning and teaching d. When the group activity was
process as follows: completed, the researcher re-formed
a. Before beginning the learning, firstly the groups by cross group. All
the teacher analyzes syllabus to know member of letter A went to one
basic competence by using Cross group, all member of letter B to
Group Reporting Strategy. another and so on.
b. Teacher makes lesson planning based e. After re- forming, each student in new
on the curriculum, and prepare cross-group should report the
teaching material conclusion of their reading text to the
other members of the group.
133

e. After re- forming, each student in new


3) Observation cross-group should report the
In this phase, the researcher conclusion of their reading text to the
observing the students response, other members of the group.
participation and everything was found 3) Observation
during the teaching and learning process. In generally, in this section
4) Reflection observation of the second cycle done at
Reflection means as analysis, the cycle II was continuous in action at
understanding and making conclusion of the first section.
the activities. The researcher analyzes 4) Reflection
first action as consideration matter of the The value of the observation steps
cycle based on the test result of the first gathered for data, the researcher
action. The first cycle was less analyzed and evaluated, and then
successful, so the researcher continued reflecting herself about the successful of
to the second cycle. action research. These data used for the
next cycle.
Cycle II The research subject was students
1) Planning in Nautical class of AMI AIPI Makassar
The ways that the researcher did as in 2015/2016 that consisted of 25
follows: students. There were two instruments
a. Continuing the activities that were used as follows: The observation was to
done in first cycle. watch out the situation and process of
b. Repairing the weakness in the first teaching and learning from the beginning
cycle. to the end of each cycle. Essay test was
c. Re-planning the scenario refers to the used to know the concept of
lesson from the result of cycle I. understanding achievement and
d. Repairing the action mastering material of the student after
following learning activities using Cross
2) Action Group Reporting Strategy.
The steps of the action were
explained as follows: 3. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
a. Dividing the students into five or six The results of the data findings found that
groups to work on some group teaching reading comprehension in narrative
activity. text through Cross Group Reporting Strategy
b. Each student in each group was given can improve the students achievement in
a letter A, B, C, D, and E by the reading narrative text in term of literal
researcher. comprehension and it also can improve the
c. The researcher distributed reading students achievement in reading narrative
text with different material, topic, or text in term of interpretive comprehension.
The further interpretation of the data
title for each group.
analysis is given below:
d. When the group activity was
completed, the researcher re-formed 3.1 The Improvement of the Students
the groups by cross group. All Literal Comprehension in Narrative
member of letter A went to one Text
group, all member of letter B to The improvement of the students
another and so on. literal comprehension, which focused on
main ideas and sequence of details as
134

indicators in Nautical class AMI AIPI Diagnostic-test to cycle I namely 60.3 to


Makassar as result of the students 72.8 and in cycle II is 84.6.
assessment of Diagnostic-Test, cycle I and The table above proves that the use of
cycle II can be seen clearly in the following cross group reporting strategy in teaching
table: and learning process is able to improve of
students literal comprehension after taking
action in cycle I and cycle II in which the
students achievement in cycle II is the
highest and the improvement of students
Table 1: The Improvement of the literal comprehension from diagnostic test
Students Literal Comprehension in to cycle II is 51%.
Narrative Text To see clearly the improvement of the
students literal comprehension, the
following chart is presented:

D- Test
71 85.4
56.8
51% test of
cycle I

LITERAL
The table above indicates that there is COMPREHENSION
improvement of the students literal
comprehension from Diagnostic-Test to
cycle I and cycle II, in the Diagnostic-Test Figure 1: The Improvement of the
of the students mean score achievement in Students Literal Comprehension in
literal comprehension is 56.8. After Narrative Text
evaluation in cycle I, the students literal
comprehension was becoming 71 and 85.4 The chart above shows the
in cycle II, so the improvement of the improvement of the students literal
students literal comprehension achievement comprehension in which cycle II is higher
from Diagnostic-Test to cycle I was 25.4%, (85.4) than that in cycle I (71) and
Cycle I to Cycle II was 20.3% and Diagnostic -Test (56.8). It also shows that
Diagnostic-Test to cycle II. the result of Diagnostic-Test is the lowest
There was also a significant mean score achievement. The students
improvement of the students' literal achievement in D- test which categorized as
comprehension from cycle I to cycle II fair. After evaluation in cycle I and cycle II,
where the students literal comprehension in there is significant improvement of the
cycle I is 71 and in cycle II was 85.4. Thus, students literal comprehension where the
the improvement of students literal result of cycle I is categorized as fairly good
comprehension achievement from cycle I to and cycle II categorized as good. The
cycle II was 20.3%. improvement is shown clearly in the chart
In the table above also shows that the above that is 51%.
achievement of students literal
comprehension in significantly, in
Diagnostic-Test, the students the main ideas 3.2 The Improvement of the Students
achievement is 53.3. After evaluation in Interpretive Comprehension in
cycle I, the students achievement in the Narrative Text
main ideas became 69.3 and in cycle II
became 86.2. The students in sequence of The improvement of the students
details achievement also improves from interpretive comprehension, which focused
on the conclusion as the indicator in
135

Nautical class AMI AIPI Makassar as result


of the students assessment of Diagnostic-
Test, cycle I and cycle II can be seen clearly
in the following table: Figure 2: The Improvement of the
Students Interpretive Comprehension in
Table 2: The Improvement of the Narrative Text
Students Interpretive Comprehension in
Narrative Text The chart above shows the
improvement of the students interpretive
reading comprehension in cycle II is higher
(76.8) than that in cycle I (61.7) and D-Test
(45.8). It also shows that the result of D-Test
is the lowest achievement. After evaluation
in cycle I and cycle II, there is significant
improvement of the students interpretive
reading comprehension that shown clearly in
The table above indicates that there is
the chart after taking an action in cycle
improvement of the students interpretive
through cross group reporting strategy that is
comprehension from D-Test to cycle I and
31%.
cycle II. in the D-Test the students score
achievement in interpretive comprehension 3.3 The Improvement of the Students
was 45.8. After evaluation in cycle I the Reading Comprehension in Narrative
students interpretive comprehension Text
became 61.7 and 76.8 in cycle II, so the
improvement of students interpretive The improvement of the students
comprehension achievement from D-Test to reading comprehension in narrative text,
cycle I was 15.9%, cycle I to cycle was II which focused on literal comprehension and
15.1% and D-Test to cycle II was 31 %. interpretive comprehension as variable at
There is also a significant Nautical Class of AMI AIPI Makassar as
improvement of students interpretive result of the students assessment of
comprehension from cycle I to cycle II Diagnostic-Test, cycle I and cycle II can be
where the students interpretive seen clearly in the following table:
comprehension in cycle I is 61.7 and in
cycle II is 76.8. Thus, the improvement of Table3: The Improvement of the
students interpretive comprehension Students Reading Comprehension in
achievement from cycle I to cycle II is Narrative Text
15.1%.
The table above also shows that there
is a significant improvement of students
interpretive comprehension after taking
action in cycle I and cycle II through the
application of cross group reporting strategy.
The improvement of students interpretive
comprehension from diagnostic test to
cycle II is 31%.
To see clearly the percentage score
The table above shows that there is
improvement of the students interpretive
improvement of the students reading
comprehension following chart is presented:
comprehension from D-Test to cycle I and
100.00 cycle II, which in D-Test the students mean
80.00 score achievement in reading
D- Test comprehension is 51.3, it is categorized as
60.00 76.8
61.7 poor achievement. After evaluation in cycle
40.00 45.8
20.00 31%
0.00
INTERPRETIVE
COMPREHENSION
136

I the students reading comprehension cycle I and cycle II, there is significant
becomes 66.4, it is categorized as fairly improvement of the students reading
good. Thus, the improvement of students comprehension where the result of cycle I is
reading comprehension achievement from categorized as fairly good and cycle II
D-Test to cycle I is 20.7%. categorized as good. The improvement is
There is also a significant shown clearly in the chart above that is 41%.
improvement of students reading
comprehension from cycle I to cycle II 3.4 The Observation Result of the
where the students reading comprehension Students Activeness in Teaching and
in cycle I is 66.4, and in cycle II is 81.1. The Learning Process
students achievement in cycle II is The result of observation of the
categorized as good, so the improvement of students activeness in teaching and learning
students reading comprehension process toward the application Cross Group
achievement from cycle I to cycle II is Reporting Strategy in improving the
17.7%. students reading comprehension in
The table above proves that the use of narrative text at the second-year students of
cross group reporting strategy in teaching Nautical class of AMI AIPI Makassar which
and learning process is able to improvement was conducted in 2 cycles during 8 meetings
of students reading comprehension after by the research through observation carried
taking action in cycle I and cycle II where out. It can be seen clearly through the
the students achievement in cycle II is the following table:
highest and the improvement of students
reading comprehension from diagnostic Table 4: The ObservationResult of the
test to cycle II is 41%. Students Activeness in
To see clearly the improvement of the Teaching Learning Process.
students reading comprehension, following Meetings
chart is presented: Improve
Cycle Average
ment
I II III IV Score
I 60% 63% 69% 72% 66%
13%
100.00 D- Test II 78% 79% 80% 81% 79.5%
80.00
81.1 Test of The table above is formulated based
60.00 66.4
40.00 51.3 Cycle I on the technique of data analysis and the
41% Test of students scores that are collected through
20.00
Cycle II observation. From the table above, it the
0.00 Improv students scores it shows that in cycle I the
READING ement students activeness in each meeting
COMPREHENSION improves significantly. It can be seen clearly
in table that the students activeness in the
fourth meeting is higher than the first, the
Figure 3: The Improvement of the second and the third meeting. The first
Students Reading Comprehension in meeting in cycle I, the students activeness
Narrative Text was 60% and it improves to 63% in the
second meeting, and then students
The chart above shows the activeness in the third meeting is 69%
improvement of the students reading improves to 72% in the fourth meeting. So,
comprehension in cycle II is higher (81.1) the average of the students activeness in
than that in cycle I (66.4) and D-Test 51.3. It cycle I is 66%.
also shows that the result of Diagnostic -Test In cycle II the improvement of the
is the lowest achievement. The students students activeness is up. Where in the first
achievement in Diagnostic test is meeting in cycle II the students activeness
categorized as poor. After evaluation in is 78% to 79% in the second meeting, and
137

then students activeness in the third students literal comprehension in terms


meeting is 80% improves to 81% in the of main ideas can be seen the difference
fourth meeting. This improvement of the by considering the result of the students
students activeness is caused by the strategy Diagnostic Test and the students
that used and teaching material is really achievement after taking action in cycle
interesting for the students. So, the average I and II through the application of Cross
of the students activeness in cycle II is Group Reporting Strategy in teaching
79.5%. Later, the result is presented in the and learning process
chart below that shows the average of
student activeness in the first cycle and the Table 5: The Percentage of the Students
second cycle. Main Ideas in Literal Comprehension.

100.00 CYCLE I

66%79.5%
50.00 CYCLE II

13%
0.00 IMPROVE
MENT
STUDENTS' ACTIVENESS

Figure 4: The Improvement of the


Students Activeness To know the percentage of the
The chart above shows that there is students achievement in main ideas clearly,
improvement of students activeness in following chart is presented:
teaching and learning process where in cycle
I is (66%) lower than cycle II, but after 60%
60% 52% Poor
conducting cycle II the students activeness 50%
40% 48%
in learning process becomes 79.5%. The 30% 24% 20% 32% Fair
improvement of students activeness is 13%. 20% 24%
10% 4% 16% 12%
0% Fairly
3.2 DISCUSSION Good
In this part, the discussion dealing Good
with the interpretation of findings derived
Very
from the result of findings about the
Good
observation result of the students reading
comprehension in narrative text in terms of
the result of the students activeness in
teaching and learning process, literal Figure 5: The Percentage of the Students
comprehension dealing with the main ideas Main Ideas in Reading
and sequence of details and interpretive The table and the chart above shows
comprehension dealing with conclusion. the percentage of the students main ideas in
3.2.1 The Improvement of the Students literal comprehension Diagnostic Test
Literal Comprehension in indicates that 13 students (52%) get poor, 6
Narrative Text dealing with the students (24%) get fair, 6 students (24%) get
Main Ideas and Sequence of the fairly good and none of students for the
Details. other classification.
After taking an action in cycle I by
a. Main Ideas Cross Group Reporting Strategy, the
The application of Cross Group percentage of the students main ideas is 4
Reporting Strategy in improving the students (16%) get good, 15 students (60%)
138

get fairly good, 5 students (20%) get fair, 1


student (4%) get poor and none of the
students for the other classification.
In cycle II, the percentage of the
students main ideas in literal
comprehension is 3 students (12%) get fairly
good, 12 students (48%) get good, 8 students
(32%) get very good, 2 students (8%) get
excellent and none of the students for the
other classification. The result above proves
that the use of Cross Group Reporting Figure 6: The Percentage of the Students
Strategy is able to improve the students Sequence of Details in Reading
The table and the chart above shows
literal comprehension in the main ideas
the percentage of the students sequence of
where result of Cycle II is higher than cycle
details achievement in Diagnostic Test
I and Diagnostic test.
indicates that 5 students (20%) get fairly
f. Sequence of Details good, 12 students (48 %) get fair, 8 students
The application of Cross Group (32 %) get poor and none of students for the
Reporting Strategy in improving the other classification. After taking action in
students literal comprehension in terms of cycle I by using Cross Group Reporting
sequence of details can be seen the Strategy, the percentage of the students
difference by considering the result of the sequence of details achievement improves
students Diagnostic- Test and the students where 6 students (24%) get good, 18
achievement after taking action in cycles students (72%) get fairly good, 1students
through the application of Cross Group (4%) get fair, and none of the students for
Reporting Strategy in teaching and learning the other classification. In cycle II, the
process. percentage of the students achievement in
sequence of details is higher than cycle I
Table 6 The Percentage of the Students where 3 students (12%) get excellent, 10
Sequence of Details in Reading. students (40%) get very good, 6 students
(24%) get good, 6 students (24%) get fairly
good, and none of the students for the other
classification.
The result above proves that the use
of Cross Group Reporting Strategy is able to
improve the students sequence of details in
reading where result of Cycle II is higher
than cycle I and Diagnostic test.

3.2.2 The Improvement of the Students


Interpretive Comprehension in
Narrative Text dealing with
Conclusion.
To see the percentage of the
improvement of the students sequence of a. Conclusion
details in literal comprehension clearly, the The application of Cross Group
following chart is presented: Reporting strategy in improving the
students interpretive comprehension in
terms of conclusion can be seen the
difference clearly by considering the result
of the students diagnostic test and result of
139

the students test in cycle I and II after using The result above proves that the use
Cross Group Reporting strategy. of Cross Group Reporting Strategy is able to
improve the students interpretative
Table 7: The Percentage of the Students comprehension in terms of conclusion in
Conclusion in Reading reading.
3.2.3 The Improvement of the Students
Reading Comprehension in
Narrative Text dealing with the
Students Literal Reading
Comprehension and Students
Interpretive Reading
Comprehension.
The result of the data analysis through
the reading test shows the students reading
comprehension in terms of literal and
interpretive improves significantly. It is
To see the percentage of the
indicated by the mean score of result of the
improvement of the students sequence of
students D-Test is 51.3 it is classified as
details in literal comprehension clearly, the
poor achievement. It is also lower than the
following chart is presented:
mean score of the students reading test in
cycle I that is 66.4 that is classified as fairly
good and cycle II is 81.1 it is classified as
good. Those scores are got from the result
test of the students literal reading
comprehension and interpretive reading
comprehension.
a. The students literal reading
comprehension in narrative text at the
Figure 6: The Percentage of the Students second-year students of SMA Negeri 18
Conclusion in Reading Makassar, class XI IPA 4 in 2012/2013
academic year through Cross Group
The table and the chart above shows
Reporting Strategy.
the percentage of the students conclusion in
The indicator of the main ideas of
Diagnostic -Test indicates that 3 students
the students literal reading
(12%) get fair, 21 students (84%) get poor, 1
comprehension in the first cycle has
student (4%) get very poor, and none of
improved from Diagnostic test. The
students for the other classification.
improvement can be seen after testing
After taking action in cycle I by using
and observing the students where the
Cross Group Reporting Strategy, the
improvement of the students main ideas
percentage of the students reading test in
is 30% and the students main ideas mean
conclusion is 8 students (32%) get fairly
score is 69.3. It is classified as fairly
good, 9 students (36%) get fair, 8 students
good. In cycle II, the students main ideas
(32%) get poor and none of the students for
also improve from cycle I to cycle II
the other classification.
where the improvement is 24.4% and the
In cycle II, the percentage of the
students mean score is 86.2 that is
students reading test in conclusion is 1
classified as very good classification. The
students (4%) get excellent, 28 students
classification shows that the
(28%) get very good, 11 students (44%) get
improvement of the students
fairly good, 6 students (24%) get fair, and
understanding main ideas in cycle II is
none of the students get good.
lower than the improvement from
Diagnostic test to cycle I. Although the
140

improvement in cycle II is lower than comprehension in narrative text. It is


cycle I, the research is not continued to proved by the improvement of the
the third cycle because the target score students participation the first meeting
has been achieved in cycle II. of cycle I was 60% and in the last
In the first cycle, the students meeting of cycle II students participation
sequence of details in reading is not bad became 81%. It is indicated that the
than the other indicators, like main ideas. application of Cross Group Reporting
The result of the students sequence of Strategy can stimulate the students
details can be seen after testing and activeness in teaching and learning
observing (reading test of first cycle), process.
where the students sequence of details is
20.7% and the mean score achievement is 4. CONCLUSION
72.8. It is classified as fairly good Based on the explanation above, the
classification. After testing and observing researcher concludes that the application of
in the second cycle, the student sequence Cross Group Reporting Strategy in teaching
of details really has a good improvement reading comprehension could improve the
where the improvement is about 16.2% students ability in literal comprehension
and the students mean score is 84.6 that and interpretative comprehension
is classified as good classification. significantly. So, the target that was stated in
Because of the target score has been the background to improve the students
achieved in cycle II, so the researcher is mean score until 75 could be successfully
not continued to the third cycle. achieved. In the other hand, teaching reading
b. The students interpretive reading comprehension in narrative text through
comprehension in narrative text at the Cross Group Reporting Strategy is able to
second-year students of Nautical at AMI improve the students achievement of
AIPI Makassar, through Cross Group Nautical class at AMI AIPI Makassar.
Reporting Strategy. It is suggested that the English
The indicator of conclusion of the teachers must use Cross Group Reporting
students interpretive reading Strategy in teaching and learning process,
comprehension in the first cycle has because it is effective to improve the
improved from Diagnostic test. The students achievement especially in reading.
improvement can be seen after testing 1. For the teachers, they can attempt to call
and observing the students where the up the entire ability to increase the
improvement of the students conclusion learning process by doing or using
is 15.9% and the students conclusion Classroom Action Research in other
mean score is 61.7. It is classified as fair. classes.
In cycle II, the students conclusion also 2. For next researchers, they must do the
improves from cycle I to cycle II where best research from the researcher before
the improvement is 15.1% and the by using Cross Group Reporting
students mean score is 76.8 that is Strategy in the other variables or
classified as good classification. Because teaching material.
of the target score has been achieved in
cycle II, the research is not continued to 5. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
the third cycle. The researcher addressed thanks to State
The Observation Result of the University of Makassar, AMI AIPI
Students Activeness in Teaching and Makassar and UKI Toraja, and
Learning Process UniversitasMuhammadiyah Makassar
The result of the students (UNISMUH).
observation in teaching and learning
process improved significantly through
Cross Group Reporting Strategy in 6. REFERENCES
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The 1st International Conference on Education, Science, Art and Technology (the 1st ICESAT)
Universitas Negeri Makassar. 22 23 July 2017

Aa Study On Western English Lecturer Styles In Teaching At Uki Toraja.

Saifula, Sumirnab
a
Unismuh Makassar, Jl. Sultan Alauddin No 256, Makassar, Indonesia
b
ABA UMI, Jln Urip Sumoharjo Km 5, Makassar, Indonesia

Corresponding e-mail: Chozsaiful@yahoo.co.id, sumirnaemir@gmail.com

Abstract The aim and cord point of this research was to find out the students perception toward
their western English lecturer styles in teaching the researcher employed qualitative
description method for the study. The data resources for the research were 27 students
at sixth semester students, they were chosen randomly and one Western English
Lecturer from UKI Toraja. The instrument for the research consisted of observation,
questioners and interview. In analyzing the data, the researcher applied a descriptive
method by investigating one of teaching styles namely delegator. The result of the
teaching styles based to the interview conducted were the lecturer delegated students
in independent to explore their opinion, the lecturer did not intimidate students in
giving and express their ideas, the lecturer served students critical questions, the
lecturer gave explanation in core points only for every teaching and the lecturer
encouraged students thinking in learning process also design the material himself in
order to appreciate copyright. The students perception toward teaching style that used
by the western English lecturer in teaching can be explained that delegator was at the
high-level perceptions. The student gave high level perception toward delegator in
teaching style.

Keywords: Teaching styles, Western English Lecturer, Student Perceptions, Delegator.

INTRODUCTION Popularity in teaching style cannot be


The capability of a student can be separated between lecturers performances in
influenced by the teaching style of English their skills and personal behavior because they
lecturers. To encourage students motivation to can influence students willingness to learn
learn English subject, the lecturers have to English subject through their teaching style.
design appropriate materials and use According to Tim OBrien and Dennis Guiney
appropriate teaching style in English. In (2007:8) the personal qualities of lecturer as
teaching style, there will be fluctuation effect follow: empathy with the difficulties and needs
that can be felt by the learners, therefore of the pupils, an enthusiasm for what you are
through this research, the researcher will study teaching, an interest in provisional
the students perception toward their English development, an interest in up-to date research,
Lecturer. a willingness not to take problem behavior
Teaching style of English lecturers can personally, a willingness to adapt a plan to
be influenced by lecturers ability, attitude, meet an individuals needs, a sense of
approaches, and behavior to transfer proportion, a caring nature, an inquisitive
knowledge and use method in the classroom. nature and actually liking to be with children
They can use all the facilities or tools in the and young people.
classroom that can improve their popularity in According to OBrien (2007:52), there
teaching style. are four factors to make students interactive

160
161

and interested, namely: pedagogical, The design of this research is


emotional cognitive and social quantitative descriptive research (Margarete
Based on the opinion above, the writer Sandelowski, 2005:5) quantitative descriptive
explains that to be a popular lecturer, we must studies have as their goal a comprehensive
have good personality, empathy, enthusiasm. summary of events in the everyday terms of
All of them can give contribution toward the those events. Researchers conducting
lecturers performance in teaching style to qualitative descriptive studies stay close to
encourage students motivation and their their data and to the surface of words and
interest to learn English subject. events. quantitative descriptive designs
The researcher conducted a research typically are an eclectic but reasonable
on the teaching style of English lecturer. combination of sampling, and data collection,
Currently practice every lecturer has teaching analysis, and re-presentation techniques.
styles in their teaching, therefore the lecturer Quantitative descriptive study is the method of
should have appropriate teaching styles. choice when straight descriptions of
According to Grasha (2012:47) phenomena are desired.
teaching style such as good in expert, formal Quantitative descriptive research is the
authority, personal model, facilitator, collection, analysis, and interpretation of visual
delegator, controller, organizer, assessor, data. The purposes of quantitative descriptive
participant, in teaching style. The lecturer research are to describe the real events I scope
should try to use appropriate teaching or understanding of particular events, such a
approaches, teaching method and specific process or event belief.
behavior in teaching. Hoy and Lee (2012:1) Quantitative descriptive research involves data
Teaching style is combination the behavior, collection that is collection of extensive data
approach, method and all performance that on many variables over extended period of
belonged by the lecturer in teaching process. time in naturalistic setting the data gathering
Based on the background above, the technique dominate in qualitative descriptive
writer is interested in conducting a research on consist of participants observation,
Lecturers teaching style in teaching English at interviewing, document collection, in this
UKI Toraja at term of delegator only. research, the researcher collects data of
Based on the background above, the students perception toward the teaching style
problem statements are formulated as follow: of English Lecturer at the Fourth semester
1. What are the teaching styles students in UKI Toraja.
used by the western English B. Data Source
Lecturer at UKI Toraja? The Population of this research is the
2. How is the students perception sixth semester students in Academic year
towards teaching styles of their 2014/2015. The number of population is 360
English Lecturer? students who are divided into 9 classes.
Based on the five of lecturers style in teaching Because the population is big in number, the
by Grasha (2012), the researcher is focus on writer will use random sampling technique,
the teaching styles delegator only, of the where the writer chooses 3 students from
English Lecturer and the students perception each class. That means the sample is 27
in teaching styles toward their English students.
Lecturer at UKI Paulus Toraja. C. The Instrument of the research
The instruments of the research in
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY collecting data consisted of observation,
A. Research Design interview and questioners. The source of the
required data was descriptive students
162

perception by the sixth semester students at teaching of English at the sixth-grade students
UKI Toraja, to analyze observation class the at UKI Toraja.
researcher used the instruments that used by The researcher supplementary documents,
Anthony F.Grasha (2012:2-4) the instrument interview transcripts, and photograph (Gay,
check list was provided on appendix. In 2006:55). During observation, the researcher
analyzing students perception toward teaching made note to write what was seen, heard, and
styles, the researcher used Sthepens Research experienced and write when it is happening.
(2010:6) to guide the researcher to interview Not only write what the researcher seen, heard
the students that provide on appendix to get experienced but also interpreted it and the
furthermore information, the researcher used researcher has observation check list. In order
questioners. In observation, the researcher word, the researcher makes descriptive note to
observed teaching style that used by the describe teaching style that used by the English
lecturer. To analyze students perception lecturer, students activities, and classroom
toward the English lecturer styles the condition. The researcher also collected
researcher interviewed the students then the supplementary data such as teaching materials.
result of interview described into descriptive E. Technique of Data Analysis
scripts. To analyze students perception The data was taken from observation,
through questioners the researcher used online interview, in data observation the researcher
system on http://longleaf.net/teachingstyle.htm observed the English lecturer styles by using
to classify significant result of teaching style checklist data that provided on appendix to
only focus to delegator. identify teaching style that used by the English
D. The procedure of Data Collection lecturer then the teaching style that belongs by
The procedures of collecting data in this the lecturer is analyzed through students
research consisted of observation, questioners, interview. The documents were analyzed by
and interview. The researcher used 1 class that using descriptive method the data was
consists of 27 students in teaching. The organized, identified, and labeled theme and
researcher observed the English lecturer by topics. After labeling the data interpreted or
using observation check List to identify the described, explains and connect to review
English lecturer styles. Then the researcher literature and previous research findings. The
used questioners to know students perception data analysis can be drawn as follow
toward the English lecturer style and interview
students in formal and informal conversation, FINDINGS
structures and clause and open ended The findings reported in this chapter are based
interview, and also used English. The on the analysis of data collected and described
interview was done after teaching and learning in the previous chapter. It has been stated that
process, the researcher asked about lecturers the study is to find out the teaching styles
performance, such as style in presenting their focus on delegator used by the western English
materials After teaching process, asked about lecturer in teaching at UKI Toraja and
students feeling, opinion, or idea of teaching students perception toward teaching styles of
style that used by the English lecturers, the western English lecturer.
lecturers personality, the researcher also The finding was organized into delegator
interviewed students in different time, the aspect relate to the teaching styles, and
researcher asked about students perception students perceptions toward teaching styles
toward teaching style that used by the English that used by the Western English lecturer. In
lecturer in the classroom. It consisted of data analysis consisted of check list
students perception, feeling and act of the observation data, questionnaires data and
163

interview data. The data collections are because sometimes misunderstanding


presented as follow: happened. Students show up their self by doing
many practices with friend, and just rise the
hand in the classroom if they want to ask or
A. The First Observation speak. Lecturer uses 3 kinds of different books
At the first observation, directly the and the lecturer really appreciate copyright
researcher tells about what to see, hear, and Students 3
feel, the lecturer guided the students in According to her, the lecturer encouraged
learning process in discussion process. students thinking toward English subject
Therefore, the activities in the class through good responds and positive feedback
encouraged students to develop their own and answer. In learning process, she gives
word ideas about content issues through herself motivation and good support or
students answer well, students gave their suggestion. She also participated in the
opinion through exercises that given by the classroom by rise hand and ask the speak to
lecturer. Then the lecturer gave personality friends and lecturer. The lecturer uses three
questions to design more self-directed books then he really appreciated the copy
learning experiences. The lecturer gave core right.
point of materials then the students made 2. Data questionnaire
questions in personality. It means that the The data of questionnaire was given to the
students really free to answer lecturer students based on data observation. The result
questions because the question that given by of the first data questionnaire showed that in
the lecturer was contextual for the learners. In delegator was 4,512, it can be categorized as
lecturers explanation, the students take care high level. The table is provided on appendix.
toward the lecturers explanation in classroom B. The second Observation
as a responsibility such as students. In guiding students in course project,
1. Data interview the lecturer showed pictures ten students
Students 1 explained them. It means the students explored
She said, the lecturer quite good in their opinions in learning process. To know
encouraged students thinking toward English that the course active encouraged students and
subject. Then the students gave opinion or take initiative and responsibility to think
express their ideas through answered these critically, the lecturer gave contras questions
question that given by the English lecturer and then students gave comments. In teaching,
also did the practicing in the classroom by before delegating to the students to do the
using full English. In learning process, the exercises, the lecturer gave instructions how
students stand in front of the classroom and and what the students did it. Then the students
express what they want to express about their did the exercises in independently without
mind and their idea. About books used in the intimidation from the lecturer. In finishing
classroom, the lecturer use his own book like students typically work on course projects
making book by himself, and the lecturer also alone with little supervision from the lecturer,
really respect copyright because the book the students were given chance to answer
prepared by himself without copy paste other questions.
books . Students worked independently in the
Students 2 classroom was the typically of the class
According to him the lecturer encouraged observation, the activities in the class
students thinking toward English subject by encouraged students to develop their own ideas
using enjoyable situation even sometimes about content issues through students
difficult to answer the students questions explanation about animals that they like. Even
164

though in learning process just one chooses study. He also said that he expressed himself
activity but the students were really by rising hand when lecturer asking, so he can
independent to express their ideas in the try to understand the material given. Then the
classroom. Then the lecturer gave delegation lecturer gave critical questions toward the
toward individual. When the lecturer taught, students to improve students thinking toward
the students cared to the lecturers explanation course topic. To express students thinking
in the classroom. the students gave question toward the English
Finally, the lecturer gave applause to the lecturer to discuss furthermore the course
students after answer or the students gave their topics. At the last he told to the researcher
opinion, and gave appreciation such as very that, she obeyed her lecturer as if she obeyed
well, nice answer, good answer. To make him liked their parents. The lecturer tries to
enjoyable the classroom, the lecturer gave combine the material by the popular author in
games to the students. In the last of the order to enrich the students knowledge. The
teaching and learning process the lecturer lecturer also highly respects the copyright
guided the students, and made sure that, the therefore he designed the material by his own
students have understood the course topic that Students 3
has been presented by the lecturer. The lecturer answered the students question
1. Data interview (II) through clearly explanation, he gave the
Students 1 respect and good answer also good responds.
In teaching and learning process, the Then the students encouraged their thinking
lecturer answered students questions through through giving questions and answering
enjoyable situation. It means, the lecturer questions in learning process. She expressed
served well to them. To encourage students self-confidents through giving answered the
thinking toward English subject, the lecturer exercises that given by the lecturer and
giving imagination of the topic course then the sometimes asking the lecturer if he did not
students express their ideas through making know and understand the material. The lecturer
sentences, good communication and so on. used CLT books in teaching mostly in the
Finally, the students respect to the English classroom. The lecturer also respect copyright
lecturer through giving respect and share to because he made the material for students.
each others. Finally, she told to the researcher. To respect
Students 2 her English lecturer, she cared the lecturers
In learning process, the lecturer explanation.
answered toward students question through 2. Data questionnaire
giving clearly explanations, give responds The data of questionnaire was given to the
positively and very well answer. The students students based on data observation. Therefore,
encouraged their thinking by motivate their the data of delegator was4,425 and it canbe
salve and love English first then continue to classified or categorized as high level
DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS some points: (1) problem discussed, (2) the
The findings have been described. In this answers of the findings, and (3) the comparison
chapter, discussion of the findings is presented. of the findings of the present study to those of
The purpose of the discussion and relate the previous studies.
presentation is to provide the answers to the
problems discussed and relate findings of the
present study to the findings of the previous A. Problem Discussion
studies of teaching style. In has been stated in chapter I that there are two
In an attempt to meet the purpose, the problem statements of western English styles in
discussion includes the brief representation of teaching English in the present study. The first
165

concerns with the teaching style of delegator 1. The lecturer delegated students in
used by the western English lecturer, the second independent to explore their
concerns with the students perceptions toward opinions
teaching style of the western English lecturer. 2. The lecturer did not intimidate
B. Answer to the Problems students in giving and express their
a) Teaching styles of delegator ideas.
In an attempt to answer the first problem, 3. The lecturer served students
teaching styles that used by the western English critical questions
lecturer. The analysis of teaching styles that 4. The lecturer gave explanation in
used by the western English lecturer was core points only every teaching
conducted in references to Grasha (2002). 5. The lecturer encouraged students
Type of teaching styles that used by the western thinking in learning process
English Lecture in the classroom. Based on the
finding on chapter IV, the researcher explains According to the explanation above, it can be
the teaching styles of delegator that used by the categorized good delegator in teaching and
Western English lecturer as follow: learning process.
Grasha (2002:207) the delegator consists of b) Students perceptions toward teaching
students typically work on course projects alone styles of delegator that used by the western
with little supervision from the lecturer, English lecturer in teaching
activities in the class encourage students to Grasha (2002:47) Concerned with developing
develop their own ideas about content issues, students capacity to function in an autonomous
students design or more self-directed learning fashion, students work independently on project
experiences, students think independently, or as part of autonomous fashion, advantage is
students took responsibility for teaching in the help students to perceive themselves as
classroom, students set their own pace for independent learners, disadvantage is may
completing independent and group project, misread students readiness for independent
lecturers approaches toward students in work.
learning process, and lecturer gave roles based Based on the result research, the students give
on students needs. perceptions toward teaching styles that used by
In observation, the researcher found the data the western English lecturer in teaching as
such as: the lecturer delegated the students to do follow:
the exercises in independent activities; Extract 5
therefore, the students give their opinion According to the students that, the delegator
without intimidation of the English lecturer that used by the western English lecturer in her
then the lecturer gave core points of the teaching styles that lecturer answer the
students therefore the students also give students question the students felt the
comments toward the core points that presented lecturer very welcome and give responds very
by the English lecturer. well. based on the explanation above, the
On the other hand, the students gave critical researcher explains that, the English lecturer
thinking, gave contrast comments. Based on the answer the questions of the students into
explanation above the researcher found the various techniques for the students therefore the
teaching style that used by the western English students never be afraid to asked course topic
lecturer as follow: that they did not yet. Then the students
encouraged their own thinking through games
No Delegate teaching styles that and almost students said that the English
Used by the western English lecturer encouraged students thinking and also
lecturer
166

the students gave opinion we first love English English lecturer styles in teaching at he second
then continue to study observation was high level.
based on the opinion above, the researcher, D. The comparison of the findings
explains that lecturer encouraged students self- Based on the observation above, the researcher
confident, he used by using simple questions, found teaching styles that used by the western
made simple statement in English. Therefore, English lecturer in this research focus only to
the students really enjoy it. Then the students delegator based to the result of observation it
encouraged in thinking toward English subject can be accumulated that the first observation
through motivate them self-first and have the questionnaire showed the result 4,512 and the
principle that English is fun and interesting second day observation showed the result 4,425
based on the opinions above the researcher, it can be concluded that both observation gave
explains that the English lecturer gave course the indication of delegator was high. Based on
topics that can influence students critical the average data accumulation from the first
thinking such as gave contras topics toward the until the second data questionnaires, it can be
students therefore, the students encouraged their concluded that, the teaching styles that used by
thinking. therefore, the teaching and learning the western English lecturer was categorized
process was run well. The next is about the into high level category
books using in the classroom, sometimes he
has thick book then then he tries to give from CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS
someone who have popular. based to the A. CONCLUSION
explanation the researcher think that new things From the discussion of findings above, some
will occur when many sources of books used in conclusions can be drawn. The conclusions
learning so that will help students in enriching cover two points. Namely
their basket knowledge. The last is about the 1. The teaching styles that used by the
copy right, the lecturer respect the copyright western English lecturer in teaching that
the researcher think that the lecturer is really focus only to delegator consists of the
respect the copyright because he designed the lecturer delegated students in independent
material himself in order not to copy paste the to explore their opinion, the lecturer did
source of book. not intimidate students in giving and
C. Data questionnaire express their ideas, the lecturer served
First meeting observation the delegator as one students critical questions, the lecturer
of teaching styles by western English lecturer gave explanation in core points only every
used in this research has analyzed and showed teaching and the lecturer encouraged
the result that delegator consist of five of five students thinking in learning process also
components that used by the lecturer with the design the material himself in order to
students perception is 4.512 it is categorized unappreciated copyright.
high level. 2. The students perception toward teaching
Based on the finding above, the students style that used by the western English
perceptions toward the western English lecturer lecturer in teaching can be explained that
styles in delegator that that used by the western delegator was at the high-level perceptions.
English lecturer can be categorized high level. The student gave high level perception
At the second observation the researcher toward delegator in teaching style.
explain that the teaching styles that used by the B. SUGGESTIONS
western English lecturer in delegator is 4.425, it Based on the conclusions above, in teaching
is categorized high level. Based on the findings, styles of delegator that had been found by the
the students perception toward the western researcher used by the western English lecturer.
The researcher suggests that the lecturer should:
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1. Be expert in teaching process, the lecturer Hughes B. Gerunda. 2009. Students


should make good preparation in concepts perspective in Mathematic Learning
that will be presented in classroom. Environment. New York. Edu Jurnal
2. Delegate the students in freedom of actions Grasha. Anthony. F. 2002. Teaching with style.
to design and express their skills in San Bernadino. University of Cincinaty
learning process. J. Cogil. 2008. Primary lecturerss interactive
3. The researcher also suggests to the whiteboard practice across one yea:
lecturers that in teaching styles, the Change in pedagogy 5 and influencing
lecturer should not lose emotional control. factors. London. Kings College
It means that the students can give bad University.
images toward the lecturer in personal Muecia-Celce Marianne.1991. Teaching
model of the lecturer; English as a Foreign
4. The lecturer should not lose control in Language.Bouston.
classroom management, and should University of California, Los Angeles. UK. IJS
evaluate reflection, how deepest the Grazi Raheleh & Alikhani Madani.2012. the
students enjoy the teaching and learning relationship between Teaching Style
process in the classroom. and students satisfaction of Isfehan
5. Finally, in this research, the researcher City.
admires that, this research is still not Nathaniel. L. Gage .2008. Teaching Style.
perfect. Therefore, the researcher suggests (online),
to the readers to research the four-other (http://susanlucas.com/it/dissertation/teac
aspect of teaching styles in the other hingstyle.html, diakses 28 Juni 2014).
aspects in the futures. Pollard Lucy. 2008. Teaching English. Express.
Acknowledgement Shi Ling. 2009. China- Western Contact Zone
The researcher addresses thanks to, Stdents Resistance and Lecturer
KEMRISTEK DIKTI (Ministry of Research, Adaptation to Local Needs. China.
Technology and Higher Education of Indonesia TESL Canada Journal.
for the financial support (Penelitian Dosen Smith Tenth. 2011. The Effect of Teaching
Pemula), and Unismuh Makassar. Style (Taken from the Theory of
Multiple Intelligences) on Retention
BIBLIOGRAPHY Rate and Mastery of Topic. Colombia.
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Boston. Houghton Mifflin Company. A pilot study. Chorlatte. University of
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2/professional-goals/. Diakses 22
Agustus 2013)
The 1st International Conference on Education, Science, Art and Technology (the 1st ICESAT)
Universitas Negeri Makassar. 22 23 July 2017

Model Of Writing Materials Based On Experiental Language Learning


Approach For Second Grade Students Of University Of Borneo Tarakan

Arifina, Yansara, Siti Fathonaha


a
Faculty Teacher Training and Education, Address, University of Bornoe Tarakan, North Borneo

Corresponding e-mail: arifin.ubt@gmail.com, yanlasofy@yahoo.com,


sitifathonahfathan@gmail.com

Abstract: An experiential language lesson can be conducted in multiple ways, and a number of
different activities can be included under the umbrella of ELT. For example, realia,
show-and-tell, games, and videos are examples of teacher-fronted ELT activities. The
main purpose of this research is to produce a set of instructional writing learning
materials based on the experiential language learning approach. There were 2 classes
involve in this research as respondents (N=48) and a writing instructor (N=1). The
students as respondents asked to fill the questionnaires and the writing instructor asked to
answer the questions in interview session. Based on the data finding suggest that 1) there
were 66% students need the writing materials based on the experiential language learning
to generate their writing performance in composing writing, 2) the students need that
writing activities or tasks should be designed based the students experience (47,62%), 3)
44,64 % of the students still faced writing problems in composing paragraph, it indicates
that grammar materials also must be involved in developing writing learning materials,
4) sharing with other and discussion is the writing strategy should be implemented by
instructor to ask the students in writing learning process, 5) 34,15% of the students
expect that source of writing learning materials should be taken from social media, 6) the
writing instructor expects that developing writing materials based on the experiential
language learning approach endorses students ability to write good English sentences or
paragraph; sentence-building in narrative, descriptive, and expository paragraph,
mechanical aspects of writing, identifying paragraph elements, grammar review,
exercises on mechanical aspects and paragraph elements. Based on the data finding, it
can be revealed that developing writing learning materials based on the experiential
language learning will give a beneficial thing to improve their writing performance and
endorse their writing achievements.

Keywords: Experiential Language Learning, Learning writing materials

INTRODUCTION students knowledge and students


Learning is an open-ended achievement on how the students are able to
investigation process that guide the learners producing the potential a good composing
within a social context. It is often mediated an article, etc. Educational psychologists
by conceptual and cultural tools which aid have studied the learning process. They
the exploration process. It happens in a concluded that learning is is equated to a
collaborative, interactive, and supportive change in behavior. So, all the language
environment. Learning all the language teachers must understand well that learning
skills and the language components must be indicators that they wrote in every learning
understood well by the lecturers and materials
students as the process of increasing the

32
33

There are many writing researches result needs some steps to make it is easy to
have been done by the researchers, the main be written and enjoy to be read.
studies aim was to figure out how the The purpose of this article is to
students can be endorsed to more develop model of writing materials based
proficiency in writing skill (Oshima, 2007; on experiential language learning approach
Brown, 1999, Taylor,2009; Tomlinson, for second grade students of University of
1998). Not only writing researches on Borneo Tarakan. Students in the first
genres was done by the researchers, but also semester, in English Department of Faculty
writing strategies on improving the of teacher training and education, will have
students strategies in composing some courses must be programed before
paragraphs, essay etc. (Andrew, 2011; starting the new semester. All the courses
Steven, 2003). One of the writing research must be accomplished well, if they fail in
result that can be implemented by instructor some courses, they will not be allowed to
in the classroom is writing English in the buy the course for the next semester, in
context of the experimental learning the other word, those the courses are
approach. This language learning approach prerequisite course. For example, writing 1.
will generate the students performance on It must be accomplished well with
composing writing tasks since it needs to be minimum grade C if the students want to
understood well then practicing directly. program the writing 2, etc. the course of
Even though this learning and teaching writing 1 was designed.
writing approach focuses on writing skill, Learning is a process to a change in
but it also cannot be separated from other behavior. It does not mean students who
language skill activities, such as reading, have bad behavior then entering the
listening, speaking activities. By classroom and the teacher will change the
implementing this approach, it will promote bad behavior to become a good behavior. A
the students activities in composing good teacher will design some learning
writing. indicators for her/his course. From those
To facilitate the students writing learning indicators, for example, students
performance, the instructor should find the are able to identify, describe, explain and
writing materials that invite them to explore write, the teacher will change the students
what they want to write or how the writing behaviors. All the learning indicators must
materials can invite them to dig the idea to be measured and also sequenced well from
write. Without any good materials. It is so the simple learning indicator to
difficult to generate students writing sophisticated indicator. If the students are
performance because writing materials have able to gain all learning indicators, it
the significant role in generating the idea in indicates that learning process has a
composing the interesting writing. significant role to change the students
Composing writing in English language is a behavior and it can be revealed that the
cognitive and creative process. Marheani teacher is professional teacher.
(2004) states that writing is a process of Experiential learning involves
interaction between the writers scheme observing the phenomenon and doing
consists of linguistic and non-linguistic something meaningful with it through an
information, and the writing consists of active participation. It emphasizes learning
symbols as a form of utterance that has a in which the learner is directly in touch
potential meaning. Composing writing for with the phenomenon being studied, rather
improving the students performance must than just watching it or reading, hearing or
be viewed as the best teaching strategies by thinking about it (Kolb 1984; Kohonen
the instructors. Writing could not be seen 2001). Experiential learning consists of the
from the result only, because a good writing following four components (Woolfe 1992,
1), 1) the student is aware of the processes
which are taking place, and which are whether the elements of the product have
enabling learning to occur, 2) the student is been covered and that the writing materials
involved in a reflective experience which are ready to be used by the English lecturer
enables him/ her to relate current learning for first grade students, but in this
to past, present and future, even if these manuscript, the author just describe the
relationships are felt rather than thought, 3) result from questionnaire and lecturers
the experience and content are personally interview.
significant: what is being learned and how Figure1 The Procedures of developing writing
it is being learned have a special materials
(adapted from Richard, 2001)
importance for the person, 4) there is an
involvement of the whole self: body,
Course Rationale
thoughts, feelings and actions, not just of
the mind; in other words, the student is
Needs Analysis
engaged as a whole person. David Kolb Describing entry and
(1984, 42) advances a general theoretical exit level
model of experiential learning 1) Concrete
Experience, 2) Reflective Observation, 3) Choosing course
Richards Model in content
Abstract Conceptualization and the last one Designing Product
is Active Experimentation. All these
models of experiential language learning Determining
sequence course
will be described in developing writing content
Production of A
materials later. Proto type product Planning the course
structure
RESEARCH METHOD
According to Borg and Gall (1983)
Production of
the purpose of educational research and Pedagogical Product
development is to produce a finished
product that can be used effectively in the
educational programs. The purpose of this
Expert Validation Evaluation&Revision
research is to produce a model of writing
material based on experiential language
learning approach for second grade students of
University of Borneo Tarakan. The
appropriate research design for this research Evaluation aand Try Out
is Research and Development (R&D). The Revision
sequences of the research follow Richards
model in course development. This model
includes developing a course rationale,
describing entry and exit levels, choosing a Final Product
course content, sequencing course content,
planning the course structure, and preparing
the scope and sequence plan. These
processes do not necessarily occur in a Procedures of Development
linear order. Some may take place Concerning the main objective of
simultaneously and many aspects of a this research that is developing model of
course are subject to ongoing revision each writing materials based on the learning
time the course is taught (Richard: experience approach as guideline for the
2001:145) instructional activities of writing course 1.
This educational product will be In this stage of developing writing materials
followed by experts validation to see on needs analysis and Richards model
35

(2001: 145) to proposes a model of


developing writing materials based on the THE FINDING AND DISCUSSION
learning experience approach discussed Concerning the first question of the
below. questionnaires deals with the students
expectation on writing course. The
Needs Analysis following table. 1 Students expectation on
In general terms, needs analysis writing course presents the result.
refers to the activities involved in gathering
information as the basis for developing Table 1. Students expectation on writing course
writing materials that meet the learning No. Description F R Percentage
needs of a particular group of students. So, 1. Improving writing 4 8,33 %
competence about life
the first and most important step in experience
developmental research is the need analysis. 2. Improving writing 7 14,58 %
Need analysis was applied in this research competence on
is in the purpose to find out responds of the composing article
learners in terms of the objectives of 3. Improving genre (text 33 66,00 %
type) writing
studying writing course etc. discussed competence
below. 4. Improving writing 3 6, 00 %
competence on
The procedure of data analysis contextual issues
The data was collected from 5. Improving writing 3 6, 00 %
competence on update
questionnaire are in the form of students
issues
opinion about their needs and expectations Total 50 48 100 %
toward the teaching writing course. Then
they were classified based on each item and The second question of the
changed into percentage. The highest questionnaires deals with the learning
percentage of the item showed the writing activity that the students want to do
respondents preference. Finally, the table in the learning and teaching process. The
of percentage and frequency for each item figures presented in the table.2 Learning
in the questionnaires were utilized as the Writing Activity.
consideration to develop writing course for Table 2. Learning Writing Activitiy
Description F R Percentage Ket
first grade of English education department. No.
Meanwhile, the data from interview
was in the form of information, opinion, 1. Composing by 20 47,62 %
and suggestion. Those were coded based on themselves based
on the task given
each item, then classified, and finally, 2. Composing by 5 11,90 %
changed into percentage. The highest working together
number of percentage of the data that with friend
showed respondents preference was 3. Composing by 7 16,67 %
reported descriptively. class group
discussion
4. Share the writing 10 23,81 %
Richard Model on Course Development result (peer
The Richards Model as the model assessment)
of writing course development in this Total 42 48 100 %
research was not adopted completely. There
were five of the six stages of that model has The second question was intended
been implemented, they are; course to find out what the students want to do in
rationale, describing entry and exit level, learning writing activity. There were 48
choosing course content, sequence course respondents who are asked to fill it. Based
content, and planning the course structure. on the data above the learning writing
activity that students want to do in the
writing class based on the topic given by indicates the respondents choice on the
the lecturer, it indicates that the students teaching strategies in learning writing.
want to write based on the idea they have or
the other word, it can be revealed that free Table 4. Teaching writing strategies
writing activity is a good activity for them No Description F R Percentage Ket
because free writing is a prewriting 1 Case and Problem- 9 14,52 %
based studies
technique in which a person writes 2 Guide Writing 8 12,90 %
continuously for a set period of time 3 Simulation 1 1,61 %
without regard to spelling, grammar, or 4 Based on the 39 62,90 %
topic. It produces raw, often unusable experience
material, but helps writers overcome blocks 5 Project 5 8,06 %
of apathy and self-criticism. It will make Total 62 48 100 %
them understand and know well what the Based on the data above, it can be
unimportant sentences must be eliminated revealed that the writing strategies that can
later after they have done and revised and invite the students interest in doing writing
the writing result from the students can be is composing writing based on the
shared to their classmates or doing peer experience (62.90%). It indicates that the
assessment (23.81%). students are able to generate their idea in
composing writing based on what
Table 3. Problem faced by students in Writing experiences they have. The previous
course knowledge can guide them in exploring the
No. Description F R Percentage Ket idea. Meanwhile, case and problem-based
1. Writing a short 4 7,14 % study is also the important way used by the
sentence
2. Writing a 25 44,64 % lecturer in generating the students interest
paragraph in composing their writing. Guide writing
3. Organizing the 14 25,00 % (12.90 %) is also one strategy must be
ideas considered by lecturer in generating the
4. Writing or 13 23,21 % students performance in composing
arranging the
content of the writing because not all students are able to
paragraph write well without any previous
Total 56 48 100 % explanations from the lecturer in designing
their writing framework, drafting, revising
Concerning the students interest in
and final writing result.
learning writing, the table shows that most
of the respondents are interested in writing Table 5. Method in writing activity
a paragraph (44.64%). The other activity No. Description F R Percentage
that the students are interested is writing a 1 Let students to 23 41.82 %
short sentence (7.14%). While, the write with their
percentage of writing or arranging the own language
content of paragraph is 23.21%. From the 2 Write based on the 6 10.91 %
lecturers
result above, it can be revealed that actually instruction
all writing problems are very prominent for 3 Write based on the 4 7.27 %
lecturer to be understood well then finding textbook
the best way to overcome it in increasing 4 Write based on the 8 14.55 %
students writing ability. It is experience
5 Let students to 14 25.45 %
understandable if they face all the problems write with free
above because these problems help the theme
lecturer how to find the best method to Total 55 48 100 %
reduce the students writing problems. From the date above. It can be
Concerning the next question about described that let students to write with
the teaching writing strategies. Table 4.4 their own language (41.82%), it
37

recommends that the lecturer can provide a reasonable that many students, even lecture
simple material in asking the students to have low priority at this skill due to same
write because It is essential to write more reasons. However, it is found out that most
simply than in their first language. They respondent faced problem in dealing with
can also review by asking their classmate to the grammar (36.92%). The other option is
assess it and give a feedback or right organizing ideas. It can be stated that the
correction. Meanwhile, asking the students percentage (24.61%) of the problem is in
to write based on the textbook (7.27%). organizing those paragraphs into an
Much of the advice in standard textbooks effective and meaningful piece of writing. It
about writing in English is not helpful, is not surprising that only 15.38 % of the
because it tells you what to do, but not how respondents got the problem dealing with
to do it. lack of the content knowledge since they
Table 6. Writing materials based on the students actually have background knowledge about
experiences the management content that have studied
No. description F R Percentage
from the other courses but they have
1 Strongly agree 30 62,50 %
difficulties how to write it into a effective
2 Agree 18 37,50 %
3 Disagree
and a good sentence or paragraph.
4 Strongly Disagree
Table 8. Students strategy in writing course
Total 48 48 100 %
No. Description F R Percentage
A good writing material is not only 1 Students write 11 26,19
what the lecturers judge whether it a good what they have
or not, but the writing materials should observed
consider what the students interest to the 2 Students write 13 30,95
what they have
writing materials. Most of the students are done
strongly agree if the writing materials 3 Students write 16 38,10
should be considered or taken from the based the current
students experience. The writing topics issues on the
must be based on the students need and media
4 Students write 2 4,76
experience, it helps the students are able to what the lecturers
explore and generating their writing command
performance. Total 42 48 100 %
Concerning the students problem Based on the data above, it showed
faced in organizing their ideas and dealing that students like to write what they have
with the grammar in constructing sentences. observed (26.19%), it is spirit of
Table 7. indicates the respondents choice experiential language learning approach. In
on the problems in learning writing. teaching and learning process at the
classroom, a good lecturer should ask all
Table 7. Problems in Writing skills students to observe one thing that is
Problems F R Percentage interesting for them, then they can design a
Limited vocabulary 30 23.07%
framework, composing a writing as their
Dealing with 48 36.92%
grammar
task from the lecturer. Meanwhile, the
Organizing ideas 32 24.61% students also want to compose a writing
Lack of content 20 15.38% based on what they have done and students
knowledge (30.95%), the last one isto write based the
130 48 100% current issues on the media (38.10%). It
The ability to write effectively is also can be revealed that social media can
considered to be the highest level of the be another learning and teaching sources
four skills in English that is the most can help the students and the teacher in
difficult to get it. Therefore, it is quite finding the best learning materials.
The next question of the questionnaires 1 blog 9 10,98 %
deals with teaching and learning model in 2 Facebook 4 4,88 %
writing course. The figures presented in the 3 YouTube 8 9,76 %
table 9 Teaching and learning model in 4 Website 16 19,51%
writing. 5 Social media 28 34,15 %
Table 9. Teaching and learning model in writing 6 Relia media 2 2,44 %
No. description F R Percentage Ket 7 Real object 15 18, 29 %
1 Personal journal, 30 15,08 % Total 82 48 100 %
diaries Concerning writing media in
2 Portfolio 2 1,01 % writing, the students want social media can
3 Reflective 6 3,02 % be employed by the lecturer in teaching
personal essay
and thought
writing process. Most of the students want
questions social media should be designed as the
4 Role plays 7 3,52 % important media in lecturers lecturing
5 Drama activities 25 12,56 % (34.15%) and using website (19.51%).
6 Games and 24 12,06 % While, the other media also can be
simulation considered by the lecturer in teaching
7 Personal stories 22 11,06 %
8 Case studies 3 1,51 %
writing, or at least she/he can prepare it for
9 Visualizations 14 7,04 % teaching writing before entering the class
and imaginative discussion.
activities From the result above, it can be
10 Models, analogies 5 2,51 % stated that social media is most important
and theory
media that must be considered to involve in
construction
11 Empathy-taking 4 2,01 % developing writing materials for teaching
activities writing because it based on the students
12 Story-telling 16 8,04 % interest in the order to gain the instructional
13 Sharing with 21 10,05 % objective well.
others The additional data taken from the
14 Discussions 20 10,05 %
Total 199 48 100 %
lecturers opinion related to study, the
From the data above, it can be writing instructor expects that developing
drawn a conclusion that actually all writing materials based on the experiential
teaching models in teaching writing are language learning approach endorses
important as long as long the teacher is able students ability to write good English
to generate the students to involve in doing sentences or paragraph; sentence-building
writing task, because the main purpose of in narrative, descriptive, and expository
the implementation of experiential language paragraph, mechanical aspects of writing,
is the students learn better if they use identifying paragraph elements, grammar
language as opposed to being passive review, exercises on mechanical aspects
receptors of artificial language. By and paragraph elements
implementing many writing model for
Model of writing materials based on the
students, they will be able to analyze and experiential language learning approach
discover their own information about the Experiential language teaching
topic and language use as they are involved approach is learned best if students are
with tasks or projects. involved in concrete, hands-on ex presences
The next question of the with the writing subject. By developing this
questionnaires deals with writing media in writing material based on the experiential
writing course. The figures presented in the language learning approach, the students
table 4.2 Writing Media in writing will learn better if they use the language as
Table 10. Writing Media in writing
opposed to being passive receptors of
No. Media F R Percentage
artificial language. It is also thought that
39

students will be able to analyze and details


discover their own information about the - Using lists to brainstorm and
Learning to edit list
topic and language use as they are involved - Combining sentence and
with tasks or projects. The lecturers should writing about place
have a strategy to have students be involved UNIT 5
in doing. An experiential language lesson Week : 5
can be conducted in multiple ways, and a Theme : An exceptional Person
Topic : - Using word maps to
number of different activities can be
brainstorm
included under the umbrella of ELT. For - Using adjectives in sentences
example, realia, show-and-tell, games, and - Writing about people
videos. UNIT 6
Based on the data finding and Week : 6
discussion above, the following table is the Theme : Shopping
Topic : - Descriptive vocabulary
theme and topic list that has formulated as - Using freewriting to
the model of writing materials based on brainstorm
experiential language learning approach for - Review of paragraph contents
second grade students of University of - Developing peer feedback
Borneo Tarakan. skills

UNIT 7
Table 11. Model of Writing materials based Week : 7
on the experiential language learning Theme Explanations and Excuses
UNIT 1 - Paragraph explaining
Week 1 cause and effect/ result
Theme : Introduction to the Writing Course - Combining sentences
2 with so and because
Topic : - Course Introduction - Practicing word maps and
- Course Contract freewriting
- Course Description - Writing about explanation
- Course Outline and excuses

UNIT 2 UNIT 8
Week : 2 Week : 8
Theme : Going to Work Theme : Problems
Topic : - Beginning and ending a Topic : - Expressing personal
sentence feeling
- Common paragraph features - Using would like to, want
- Identifying the topic of a to, and have to
paragraph - Writing about problems
- Recognizing and writing and difficulties
complete sentences UNIT 9
Week : 9
UNIT 3 Theme : Strange Stories
Week : 3 Topic : - Using time expression:
Theme Presents for Someone after, before and when
- Identifying topic and main - Identifying the main
ideas parts of a narrative
- Identifying strong and weak - Writing an interesting
topic sentences and unusual experiences
- Writing topic sentences UNIT 10
- Combining sentence using and Week : 10
and but Theme : Differences
Topic : - Using double list to
UNIT 4 brainstorm
Week : 4 - Organizing a comparison
Theme : An exceptional Person paragraph
Topic : - Developing paragraph with
- Comparing different also thought that students will be able to
situations/ events analyze and discover their own information
- Writing about life
changes
about the topic and language use as they are
involved with tasks or projects.
UNIT 11 Model of writing material base on
Week : 11 experiential language learning can be
Theme Difficult Decisions conducted in multiple ways, and a number
- Writing about cause and
of different activities can be included under
effect relationship
- Using pair interviews to the umbrella of ELT. For example, realia,
brainstorm show-and-tell, games, and videos.
- Beginning paragraph Suggestion from the lecturers
with a question opinion related to study, the writing
- Writing about a difficult
instructor expects that developing writing
decision
materials based on the experiential
UNIT 12 language learning approach endorses
Week : 12 students ability to write good English
Theme : Fate or Choice sentences or paragraph; sentence-building
Topic : - Review of transition in narrative, descriptive, and expository
expression
- Writing about hope and
paragraph, mechanical aspects of writing,
plans identifying paragraph elements, grammar
- Writing about future review, exercises on mechanical aspects
UNIT 13 and paragraph elements
Week : 13 The model of writing materials
Theme : Writing Genre Model
based on experiential language learning
Topic : - Review of all previous
themes approach for second grade students of
- Text Type and generic University of Borneo Tarakan is expected
structure of each text to give a significant contribution for
students a achievement on improving
CONCLUSION writing competence

By having writing material through REFERENCES


developing writing instructional based on Andrew. R et al. 2011. Developing Writers;
experiential language learning, students can Teaching and Learning in Digital Age.
learn to read and write by using their own USA: the Mc Graw-Hill Companies
level because experiential learning involves
observing the phenomenon and doing James.D. 2013.
something meaningful with it through an http://www.greateducationdebate.org.uk/art
active participation. It emphasizes learning icles.the-importance-of-sharing-
in which the learner is directly in touch knowledge.html?author=dr-david-james
with the phenomenon being studied, rather accesed in July 2017.
than just watching it or reading, hearing or John Blackwell.J and Martin.J. 2011. A
thinking about it. In addition, experiential Scientific Approach to Scientific Writing
language teaching approach is learned best
if students are involved in concrete, hands- Kolb, D. A. (1993). The Process of
on experiences with the writing subject. By Experiential Learning. In M. Thorpe, R.
developing this writing material based on Edwards, & A. Hanson (Eds.), Culture and
the experiential language learning processes of adult learning. New York:
approach, the students will learn better if Routledge.
they use the language as opposed to being
Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential learning:
passive receptors of artificial language. It is
Experience as the source of learning and
41

development. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice


Hall.
Oshima. A et al. 2007. Introduction to
Academic Writing. USA: Longman
Steven. R.J. 2003 Student Team Reading
and Writing: A cooperative Learning
Approach to Middle School Literacy
Instruction. Educational Research and
Evaluation. Vol., No.2, pp. 137-160
Tomlinson. B. 1998. Materials
Development in Language Teaching. UK:
Cambridge University Press.
Taylor. G. 2009. A students Writing
Guide. UK: Cambridge University Press
The 1st International Conference on Education, Science, Art and Technology (the 1st ICESAT)
Universitas Negeri Makassar. 22 23 July 2017

The development of teaching-based reflective teaching teachers to improve


skills to make the plan of creative learning for teachers basic school

Ramdhan Witarsaa, Anna Permanasaria, Udin S. Saudb


a
Department of Elementary Education, STKIP Siliwangi and Postgraduate School UPI,
Jalan Terusan Jenderal Sudirman No.3, Bandung, Indonesia
b
Postgraduate School UPI, Jalan Dr. Setiabudhi No. 229, Bandung, Indonesia

Corresponding e-mail: ramdhansatu@gmail.com

Abstract The general purpose of this research is to strengthen Elementary School (ES) teachers
who already have the competence to stay professional and can realize the goals of
national education. The specific purpose of this research is to strengthen the ES teachers
to have more skills based on the Creative Thinking Skills (CreTS) shown in terms of
planning the lesson. The research methodology used in this research is experiment with
pretest postest design. The result of this research is the increasing of skill of ES teachers
in preparing planning the lesson (RPP) based on CreTS by 35%. The implications of this
research are as follows: PKGRT needs to be continued; Institutions of Education and
Teaching Personnel (LPTK) can adopt the guidance pattern conducted on PKGRT,
PKGRT can be applied in Teacher Professional Education (PPG) SD.

Keywords: Development, teacher competences, reflective teaching, creative thinking skills.

1 INTRODUCTION practices are less appropriate to the topic and do


The 21st Century National Education Paradigm not have an appropriate focus.
states that the future educational achievement The condition described can be a possibility
strategy one of them is by implementing because there is a relationship between the lack
creative learning in Elementary School (ES). of knowledge and the teacher's Creative
This method adheres to the principle that each Thinking Skills (CreTS). There are also
individual is unique and has their own talents, concerns about subject matter knowledge,
so the learning method must take into account pedagoy competence, and academic ability of
the different learning styles of each learner. ES teachers as the results of the Teachers'
Learning with characteristic and different Ability Test (UKG) ES generally decline from
learning styles is important to develop. 2004 as well as 2012.
Examples of such learning include problem Similarly, teachers' ability is low in science.
based learning. In addition, learning needs to The average score is 46.5 with a passing grade
develop cooperation among learners in of 80.0. The lowest score is 15.56 and the
improving interpersonal skills and social life, highest is 82.22. In addition, the result of CreTS
such as: cooperative and collaborative learning. of teachers obtained the lowest score of 41.34
But unfortunately, the current ES is still far and the highest of 55.82. The average teacher's
from expectations. In learning in the classroom thinking skill is 33.22 out of 100.
for example, often less meaningful learning Other evidence of Indonesian teachers'
process for learners. Learners just sit and be abilities also shows the quality of Indonesian
quiet, listen to the teacher's explanation, many teachers ranked lowest in Asia. The majority of
teachers stand in front of the class explain the teachers in Indonesia are still difficult to
subject matter, and tend to many lectures. There implement 21st Century learning. Four
is also an indication that teacher pedagogy categories need to be owned and implemented
in the 21st Century are the way of thinking,

42
43

working, living skills in the world, and skills to Marx (2004) and Matson (2006) found that
work (UNESCO, 2011; World Bank Report, the low learning outcomes of learners were due
2011). to a lack of teacher skills in organizing science-
The motivation of teachers in developing based learning in CreTS such as sensitivity,
professionalism is still low, because the fluency, flexibility, originality, detailing, and
teachers in the field in conducting the learning evaluation. Teacher training aimed at improving
is only limited to carry out activities as they are. CreTS as well as the ability to conduct creative
Teachers should be able to carry out science learning for teachers is suggested by
professionalism such as: implementing a fun Foolds (1996) and Pine (2006) for his CreTS to
learning, student cantered learning, hands-on improve.
learning activities, and learning-based skills of Observation of trainings conducted in West
creative thinking. Bandung Regency (KBB), both quality
Teachers rarely implement fun learning, improvement training and other training for ES
such as observation, experimentation, or teachers focus more on providing information
simulation. As a result every learning is on concepts and theories only. Rarely is a
considered rote. Learning should be a place resource person providing a real example of
where learners practice becoming researchers, learning. Only theories alone, so that the
building motivation, innovation, and creative teachers in the training activities only
thinking, so learners will be able to face knowledge. Such training does not affect the
challenging future one example through the ability of teachers to implement science-based
mastery of science (Hasbi, 2007). learning CreTS, especially at the stage of
The low skill of the teacher affects the preparation of the implementation plan of
achievement of the learners. PISA 2012 results learning (Witarsa, 2011).
show that Indonesia ranks 64th out of 65 The results of observations of the Lesson
participating countries in the field of science. Plan (LP/RPP) of science made by ES teachers
The value obtained is 382 from the average have not yet reflected the LP/RPP of science-
value of 528. Participants have just reached the based CreTS. This happens due to
level of two science on PISA of 66.6% of the imperfections of teachers at the beginning of
six levels of science achievement. Level six preparing the creative LP/RPP. The form of
PISA is the ability to synthesize a variety of LP/RPP does not reflect the learning of science
knowledge owned and explicitly stated creatively (Witarsa, 2011).
information to solve complex problems or take Based on the results of observation as well,
decisions. In fact, it is still 24.7% of Indonesian it is necessary to improve the training and
students have not reached the lowest level (The mentoring CreTS for ES teachers. Materials
World Bank Report, 2011; OECD Report, should be directed more towards the practice of
2012). The ability of teachers and PISA results developing a science-based LP/RPP with
is another indicator that learning in Indonesia CreTS. Training orientation needs to be taken
has not changed and decreased from 2006 into account: training objectives, materials
(PISA science result 393), 2009 (result of based on need, use of learning resources in the
science PISA 383). environment, excavation of science concepts
Learning outcomes of learners one of them learned through interaction with teachers.
caused by the skills of teachers facilitate Similarly, it needs to be trained in creative-
learning in the classroom. Teachers who have based science learning by focusing on creative
the skills to facilitate good learning, it is aspects such as: sensitivity, fluency, flexibility,
expected also good learning outcomes of originality, detailing, and evaluation (Witarsa,
students. Elementary teachers should be able to 2011).
create fun learning, that is, by hands-on The training and advisory program
learning (Lee, 2006; Pine, 2006; Foolds, 1996). developed should prioritize the creative ability
of teachers and the ability to teach science-

43
44

based CreTS through the optimization of 1. This study is limited to ES science learning.
reflective teaching activities. This activity needs 2. The subjects of the study were ES teachers.
to be implemented because during this time the 3. Learning is done through LP/RPP-based
reflective teaching activities have not shown the creative learning.
expected results as they should. Most teachers 4. The measured learning outcome is the skill
do not reflect deeply when they finish teaching of making LP/RPP based on CreTS through
practice. LP/RPP analysis sheet.
Learning through optimization and Research Purposes
mentoring of reflective teaching activities is The purpose of this research as follows:
expected to shorten the time to improve 1. To obtain an effective and efficient PKGRT
understanding in learning skills that are not program that can improve teachers' skills in
possible to learn alone, so that the involvement making creative LP/RPP.
of CreTS can be improved and accelerated 2. To acquire creative LP/RPP tools for
(Capobianco and Lehman, 2006; Bandura, PKGRT programs developed to guide
1986). teachers for their development to develop
The optimization of reflective teaching optimally.
activities by teachers is ultimately expected to 3. To obtain an appropriate evaluation tool to
have an impact on the CreTS that appear when be able to test teachers' achievement
teachers develop science LP/RPP, and the through a given PKGRT program.
presentation of the components of CreTS, it 4. To obtain information on the feasibility of
also demonstrates the CreTS that teachers have PKGRT program given in its
(Langer, Colton and Goff, 2003, and York- implementation.
Barr, Sommers, Ghere and Monti, 2001). 5. To facilitate teachers in delivering learning
Based on the previous description, it is materials that should be given in the form
necessary to develop a Master Competency of creative LP/RPP.
Program that can Facilitate Creative Thinking 6. To guide elementary teachers in gaining
Skills of Elementary School Teachers through more knowledge and experience through
Reflective Teaching (PKGRT). CreTS-based learning.
Research Questions
Based on the previous explanation on the 2 METHODS
research background, the formulation of this This research used pretest postes experimental
research problem is stated as follows: "How can method of CreTS class and inquiry class as
the provision of reflective teaching-based control class, where pretest was done to both
teacher competence improve the skills of classes, then the two classes were given
making creative LP/RPP for elementary school different treatments and postes were performed
teachers?". The problems in this research are to know the final skill of the teacher after
specifically formulated through the following treatment, especially in the aspects of CreTS.
research questions: Stages of Research
1. How is the improvement of teachers skill The steps of research activities conducted as
to make LP/RPP of science based on CreTS follows:
after following PKGRT program?. 1. Formulate problems, develop an LP/RPP
2. How big is the improvement of teachers assessment, collect ES teachers who will be
skill to make LP/RPP based on CreTS after the subject of research.
following PKGRT program? 2. Determination of experimental class and
Limitations of Research control class.
Based on the formulation of the problems that 3. Provide an overview of the research
have been disclosed, it is necessary to limit the activities to be performed.
research to make this research more focused.
The research limits are given as follows:
45

4. Conduct reflections and discussions on the 3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


various learning activities of CreTS to be This research activity has been conducted at
undertaken. SDN Tagogapu 1 District Padalarang West
5. Collaborate with ES teachers in Bandung Regency in February - May 2017 and
determining the location of the learning produce some findings that match with the title
activities of CreTS. of proposals submitted to UPT P2M STKIP
6. Pretest implementation of both classes. Siliwangi which carried the "Teacher-Based
7. Implementation of CreTS learning Teacher Competency Based on Reflective
activities. Teaching to Improve Making Skills Plan of
8. Evaluation of CreTS learning activities in Implementing Creative Learning for
the form of posttest and interviews with Elementary School Teachers ". As described in
teachers. the previous chapter, this study aims to improve
Research sites the skills of making LP/RPP of ES teachers
The research location used is ESs located in based on CreTS. Results and outcomes
Cluster IX and X District Padalarang West achieved in this study as follows:
Bandung Regency with the number of research The research findings obtained in the form
subjects 70 ES teachers are divided into two of research findings of teachers CreTs covering
classes. six aspects, namely sensitivity, fluency,
Variables Measured flexibility, originality, detailing, evaluation, and
The variables observed or measured in this interview data. The findings are further
study are the CreTS aspects of ES teachers analysed and interpreted.
observed at the time of pretest, implementation, Teacher CreTS Data Result
and when posttest were conducted. The data obtained to find out the teacher's
Models Used CreTS is a preliminary and final test. Initial
The model used in this study is the CreTS for tests were performed to find out the initial
the experimental class, and the inquiry for the CreTS of teachers before the learning of the
control class. CreTS with the PKGRT program was awarded
Data Collection and Analysis Techniques and the results of the CreTS obtained in the
Techniques of collecting and analyzing the data final test were used as a comparison to
carried out following the stages as follows: determine teacher success in following the
A. Provide score to the teacher's pretest and CreTS-based learning the preliminary test
posttest answers. results are presented in the following table:
B. Change the score data of pretest and
posttest answers into percentages. Table 1. Research Data of Comparative Class (Inquiry)
C. Determining the average scores obtained by No Value Percentage Gai Teacher
teachers for each category (group of high, Pre Post Pre Post n Group
medium, low) teachers to get the depth of test test test test (%)
the research results. (%) (%)
1 0,50 2,50 5 25 20 Low
D. Determine the percentage of teachers in
2 0,75 2,50 7,5 25 17,5 Low
each group (high, medium, low).
3 1,00 2,50 10 25 15 Low
E. Compare the pretest and posttest results of 4 1,00 5,50 10 55 45 Low
each group. 5 1,50 7,00 15 70 55 Low
F. Analyze interview transcripts from each 6 1,50 4,25 15 42,5 27,5 Low
teacher category (high, medium, low), to 7 1,75 3,25 17,5 32,5 15 Low
explain other research findings. 8 1,75 5,50 17,5 55 37,5 Low
G. Conclusion. 9 1,75 6,25 17,5 62,5 45 Low
10 2,00 5,50 20 55 35 Medium
11 2,00 5,50 20 55 35 Medium
12 2,25 6,00 22,5 60 37,5 Medium

45
46

No Value Percentage Gai Teacher N Value Percentage Gain Teacher


Pre Post Pre Post n Group o Pre Post Pre Post (%) Group
test test test test (%) test test test test
(%) (%) (%) (%)
13 2,25 8,25 22,5 82,5 60 Medium 17 3,70 9,75 37 97,5 60,5 Medium
14 2,50 4,00 25 40 15 Medium 18 4,00 9,50 40 95 55 Medium
15 2,50 2,75 25 27,5 2,5 Medium 19 4,00 9,00 40 90 50 Medium
16 2,75 3,75 27,5 37,5 10 Medium 20 4,25 8,50 42,5 85 42,5 Medium
17 2,75 6,50 27,5 65 37,5 Medium 21 4,25 8,00 42,5 80 37,5 Medium
18 3,00 4,75 30 47,5 17,5 Medium 22 4,50 9,00 45 90 45 Medium
19 4,50 1,75 45 17,5 - Medium 23 4,75 8,00 47,5 80 32,5 Medium
27,5 24 4,75 8,00 47,5 80 32,5 Medium
20 4,75 8,25 47,5 82,5 35 Medium 25 4,75 7,50 47,5 75 27,5 Medium
21 5,25 6,25 52,5 62,5 10 Medium 26 4,75 9,25 47,5 92,5 45 Medium
22 5,25 8,50 52,5 85 32,5 Medium 27 5,00 8,25 50 82,5 32,5 Medium
23 5,50 5,25 55 52,5 -2,5 Medium 28 5,00 9,00 50 90 40 Medium
24 5,75 6,00 57,5 60 2,5 Medium 29 5,00 8,75 50 87,5 37,5 Medium
25 5,75 6,00 57,5 60 2,5 Medium 30 5,50 9,00 55 90 35 Medium
26 5,75 7,25 57,5 72,5 15 Medium 31 5,50 9,25 55 92,5 37,5 High
27 6,00 9,50 60 95 35 Medium 32 6,00 9,00 60 90 30 High
28 6,00 9,50 60 95 35 Medium 33 6,25 9,50 62,5 95 32,5 High
29 6,25 5,75 62,5 57,5 -5 Medium 34 6,25 9,25 62,5 92,5 30 High
30 6,25 8,50 62,5 85 22,5 High 35 6,50 9,75 65 97,5 32,5 High
31 6,25 7,00 62,5 70 7,5 High A 41 85 44
32 6,25 7,75 62,5 77,5 15 High ve
33 6,25 6,75 62,5 67,5 5 High ra
34 6,50 7,25 65 72,5 7,5 High ge
35 7,00 8,00 70 80 10 High Based on the above table, the average
Ave 38 59 21 score of the initial tests obtained by the
rage comparator class teachers (inquiry) was 38 with
the highest score of 70 and the lowest 5, while
Table 2. Research Data of CreTS Class the CreTS class scores the average test initially
N Value Percentage Gain Teacher 41 with the highest score of 65 and the lowest
o Pre Post Pre Post (%) Group
of 15. After being tested statistically, the
test test test test
(%) (%)
average score of the initial test of inquiry with
1 1,50 5,50 15 55 40 Low the CreTS class, the comparison is not much
2 2,20 6,25 22 62,5 40,5 Low different and the second homogeneous test
3 2,70 9,50 27 95 68 Low score, it indicates that the initial ability of the
4 3,00 7,00 30 70 40 Low two classes before the treatment is given is the
5 3,00 7,75 30 77,5 47,5 Low same.
6 3,00 8,25 30 82,5 52,5 Low Based on the above table, the average
7 3,00 8,50 30 85 55 Low score of the final tests obtained by the inquiry
8 3,00 8,00 30 80 50 Low teacher class is 59 with the highest score of 80
9 3,20 9,00 32 90 58 Low and the lowest 25, while the grade of the
10 3,20 6,75 32 67,5 35,5 Low average score of the test score is 85 with the
11 3,20 8,50 32 85 53 Medium highest score of 97.5 and the lowest 55. If
12 3,20 9,75 32 97,5 65,5 Medium compared between the average score of the
13 3,50 9,00 35 90 55 Medium final tests of both classes, the final score of the
14 3,50 8,00 35 80 45 Medium CreTS class is greater than the inquiry class.
15 3,50 8,75 35 87,5 52,5 Medium The gain class score of inquiry and the
16 3,70 9,75 37 97,5 60,5 Medium CreTS class is obtained from the difference
47

between the initial test result and the final test. No. %Gain
Based on the above table, the average gain Inquiry Class CreTS Class
score of the inquiry class is 21 with the highest 5 2,5 52,5
value 60 and the lowest -27.5, while the average 6 10 60,5
7 37,5 60,5
gain of the CreTS class is 44 with the highest
8 17,5 55
score of 68 and the lowest is 27.5. When 9 -27,5 50
compared between the average gain scores of 10 35 42,5
the two classes, the average score of the CreTS 11 10 37,5
class gain is greater than the inquiry class. This 12 32,5 45
indicates that there is an improvement of skills 13 -2,5 32,5
in the CreTS class that uses CreTS-based 14 2,5 32,5
learning with the PKGRT program as a learning 15 2,5 27,5
medium. 16 15 45
Statistical Test Results 17 35 32,5
18 35 40
This statistical test was conducted to determine
19 -5 37,5
the difference of learning outcomes between 20 22,5 35
classes that were given learning using CreTS Average 18,5 45,23
with classes that were given inquiry learning as There was a significant difference in
a comparison class. Test results for final score learning outcomes between the medium group
as follows: teachers in the inquiry classes and the CreTS
classes. The learning of CreTS can increase the
Table 3. Analysis of Learning Outcomes of Inquiry Class
and CreTS Class of Low Teacher Group
percentage of medium group teacher learning
No. %Gain outcomes from 18.5% to 45.23%.
Inquiry Class CreTS Class
1 20 40 Table 5. Analysis of Inquiry Class Learning Outcomes and
High Teacher CreTs Class
2 17,5 40,5
No. %Gain
3 15 68
Inquiry Class CreTS Class
4 45 40
1 7,5 37,5
5 55 47,5
2 15 30
6 27,5 52,5
3 5 32,5
7 15 55
4 7,5 30
8 37,5 50
5 10 32,5
9 45 58
Average 9 32,5
10 35 35,5
Average 31,25 48,7
There is a significant difference in learning
There is a significant difference in learning outcomes between high group teachers in
outcomes between low group teachers in inquiry classes and the CreTS classes. The
inquiry classes and the CreTS classes. The learning of CreTS can increase the percentage
learning of CreTS can increase the percentage of high group teacher learning outcomes from
of low group teacher learning outcomes from 9% to 32.5%.
31.25% to 48.7%. Table 6. Analysis of Learning Outcomes of Inquiry Class
and CreTS Class
Table 4. Analysis of Learning Outcomes of Inquiry Class No. %Gain
and CreTS Class of Medium Group Teachers
Inquiry Class CreTS Class
No. %Gain
1 20 40
Inquiry Class CreTS Class
1 35 53 2 17,5 40,5
2 37,5 65,5 3 15 68
3 60 55 4 45 40
4 15 45 5 55 47,5

47
48

No. %Gain 2 Improved understanding Implemented


Inquiry Class CreTS Class and skills of the
6 27,5 52,5 community
7 15 55 3 Services, models, social Implemented
8 37,5 50 engineering, systems,
9 45 58 products / goods
10 35 35,5 Outcomes that have been implemented as
11 35 53 described above are activities to improve
12 37,5 65,5 understanding and skills of society and services,
13 60 55 models, social engineering, systems, products /
14 15 45 goods through mentoring activities addressed to
15 2,5 52,5 ES teachers in SDN Tagogapu 1 District
16 10 60,5 Padalarang West Bandung Regency. The next
17 37,5 60,5 release is publication scientific in the
18 17,5 55 international proceedings which will be
19 -27,5 50 published in July 2017 to the international
20 35 42,5
proceedings of Makassar State University and
21 10 37,5
Thompson Reuter indexed.
22 32,5 45
23 -2,5 32,5
In addition to the outcomes that have been
24 2,5 32,5 delivered, there are several outpourings among
25 2,5 27,5 them as follows:
26 15 45 1. The data of other research results can be
27 35 32,5 used as material as data and facts for the
28 35 40 study materials for completion of research
29 -5 37,5 articles and can be published.
30 22,5 35 2. There is a follow-up program for the next
31 7,5 37,5 year of program development based on
32 15 30 program evaluation, whether conducted by
33 5 32,5 the research team, or ES.
34 7,5 30 3. Increased ES teachers who do the learning
35 10 32,5 of CreTS.
Average 21 56 4. Socialization of dissertation research results
There is a significant difference in learning that can introduce this program more
outcomes between inquiry classes and the widely as a result of the implementation of
CreTS classes. CreTS learning can increase the the program.
percentage of learning outcomes from 21% to 5. Increased knowledge and learning skills of
56%. CreTS at elementary level for both teachers
Outcome Achieved and students.
From the results of research activities that have
been implemented in SDN Tagogapu 1 District 4 CONCLUCIONS
Padalarang West Bandung Regency obtained Based on the results of research conducted in
some outcomes according to the plan that has SDN Tagogapu 1 District Padalarang West
been described in the previous chapter. The Bandung regency, it can be concluded things as
results are as follows: follows:
1. Learning CreTS can improve the skills of
Table 7. Output of Research
making LP/RPP creative ES teachers in
Output
No. Output Type of West Bandung regency.
Indicator
1 Scientific publications in Accepted 2. Improved learning outcomes of teachers of
international proceedings the CreTS class is greater than inquiry class
(35%) and there are significant differences
49

in learning outcomes among each teacher of Research in Science Teaching, 10


group. (4), 607-636.

5 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Marx, R. W. 2004. Inquiry-Based Science


Chairman of the researcher and members would in The Middle Grades: Assessment
like to thank the UPT P2M STKIP Siliwangi of Learning in Urban Systemic
Bandung for the Competitive Grants and
Reform. Journal of Research in
Postgraduate School UPI Bandung. Trusted
institutions will continue to be maintained and Science Teaching, 41 (10), 1063-
we will continue to develop in future studies. 1080.

Matson, J. O. 2006. Misconceptions About


6 REFERENCES The Nature of Science, Inquiry
Based Instruction, and
Bandura, A. 1986. Social Foundations of Constructivism: Creating Confusion
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Cognitive Theory. Englewood Electronic Journal of Literacy
Cliffs, NJ: Prentic Hall. Through Science, 5 (6), 1-10.

Capobianco, Brenda & Lehman, James. Organization for Economic Co-operation


2006. Integrating Technology to and Development. 2012. PISA 2012
Foster Inquiry in an Elementary Results in Focus: What 15-years-
Science Methods Course: An Action olds Know and What They Can Do
Research Study of One Teacher with What They Know, PISA, OECD
Educators Initiatives in a PT3 Publishing.
Project (Preparing Tomorrows
Teachers use Technology). Journal Organization for Economic Co-operation
of Computers in Mathematics and and Development. 2013. PISA 2012
Science Teaching, 42 (3), 170-186. Results: Ready to Learn Students
Engagement, Drive, and Self-Beliefs
Foulds, W. 1996. The Enhancement of (Volume III), PISA, OECD
Science Process Skill in Primary Publishing.
Teacher Education Students. Edith
Cowan University. Australian Pine, J. 2006. Fifth Graders Science Inquiry
Journal of Teacher Education, 1 Abilities: A Comparative Study of
(12), 16-23. Students in Hands-On and Textbook
Curricula. Journal of Research in
Hasbi. 2007. Tanggapan Guru terhadap Science Teaching, 43 (5). 467-484.
Profesi. Banda Aceh: Ar-Raniry
Press. Witarsa, R. 2011. Analisis Kemapuan
Inkuiri Guru yang Sudah
Lee, O. 2006. Science Inquiry and Student Tersertifikasi dan Belum
Diversity: Enhanced Abilities and Tersertifikasi dalam Pembelajaran
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Instructional Intervention. Journal Pascasarjana, Universitas
Pendidikan Indonesia, Bandung.

49
50

World Bank, Kementerian Pendidikan


Nasional, Kingdom of the
Netherlands. 2011. Mentransformasi
Tenaga Pendidikan Indonesia,
Volume I: Ringkasan Eksekutif.
Kantor Bank Dunia: Jakarta.

World Bank, Kementerian Pendidikan


Nasional, Kingdom of the
Netherlands.2011. Mentransformasi
Tenaga Pendidikan Indonesia,
Volume II: Dari Pendidikan
Prajabatan hingga ke Masa
Purnabakti: Membangun dan
Mempertahankan Angkatan Kerja
yang Berkualitas Tinggi, Efisien,
dan Termotivasi. Kantor Bank
Dunia: Jakart
The 1st International Conference on Education, Science, Art and Technology (the 1st ICESAT)
Universitas Negeri Makassar. 22 23 July 2017

Learning about ICT and implementing it in English language


classroom: an autoethnography study

Dyah Setyowati Ciptaningrum


Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Corresponding e-mail: dyah_ciptaningrum@uny.ac.id


Abstract: This paper discusses an autoethnography study on an English language teacher
(Linda) experiences in trying to implement what she learned on the use of ICT in her
professional context during 2005 - 2009. This personal narrative is a therapeutic way
to explore her past experiences on practicing what she has learnt regarding the use of
ICT in the classroom. What material base that constitutes these practices is explored
in this paper. The paper begins by outlining the purpose of writing this
autoethnography, followed by the teachers personal accounts related to the
formation of her belief in the potential of ICT, her professional learning journey and
her efforts in integrating ICT-based pedagogy in her professional context are
highlighted. This paper concludes with a discussion of the meaning behind these
experiences by drawing from Pierre Bourdieus field theory as the framework of
analysis.

Keywords: autoethnography, ICT-related professional learning, ICT integration, field, habitus,


capital

. . . writing a personal narrative is perhaps (Grbich, 2007) because the self is socially
worth a try because the prize is very great: that of constructed. Personal stories necessarily
some degree of transcendence of difference, of
reaffirmation of common humanity (Pat Caplan, involve and depend upon others. It is thus
1997: 17). possible to learn about the general from the
particular (Walford, 2004, p. 412). The
1 INTRODUCTION purpose of making this connection is to
create valuable knowledge that reveals
Reality for Linda is social since the way taken-for-granted assumptions that have
she act is influenced by a web of social occupied ones self and her or his
relations with the other actors in my social practices.
group. She is a member of a social group
that has its own culture that she often does The significance of looking at Lindas
not question it because she sees it as personal experience from a critical
simply how the world is, something that perspective will aid in reflecting upon her
she takes for granted. Autoethnography pedagogical practices concerning the use of
allows researchers to draw on personal ICT. ICT integration efforts in educational
experiences as research data. It provides a context involve theory of change. In
tool to connect the personal to the cultural practice, change is in fact a complex

51
52

endeavour. This study is her personal are still common practices in Lindas
attempt to better understand this complex department.
process of ICT integration within her
professional context. In general, Linda and her colleagues are
not quite happy with their students
English language communicative ability.
2 HOW IT ALL STARTED Only a handful of students are willing to
have a go in expressing themselves during
The problems with English language
classes. Many students fail in some topics
learning and teaching in Indonesian context
and have to retake those topics. Linda
(Dardjowidjojo, 2000; Exley, 2004;
observes their performance during peer-
Lengkanawati, 2004; Lie, 2007;
teaching topic and teaching practicum, as
Marcellino, 2008) do happen in Lindas
well as there are concerns from classroom
professional context. She has been teaching
teachers who made comments about her
in a university in Yogyakarta since 2005.
students speaking skill during teaching
This university was originated from a
practicum. Many of her students also take
teacher training institution. It aims to
longer than four years to graduate because
produce qualified teachers who can
they are struggling with writing their
respond to the challenges of the future.
undergraduate thesis both in terms of
language and content.
The English language and education
department (ELED) in this university has
Linda remembers having lots of fun
around 250 new students intake every
listening to actors conversations in
year. Students need to take topics on
television series and movies, repeating
Linguistics, language skills, teaching
expressions that were cool while
methodologies, general education, teaching
matching them with the subtitles. She sang
practicum, and write undergraduate thesis
the lyrics of her favorite songs in the radio
in order to earn Bachelor of Education
or cassette player years ago before online
degree which entitles them to teach English
technologies were highly developed. Back
language in primary and secondary/middle
to the time when ICQ was a hit (around
schools. ELED has a heavily packed
1996), She chatted with people from some
curriculum which requires students to take
parts of the world about family, food,
ten topics each semester. There are fifty
education, about culture. Through these
academic staff in ELED and each of them
activities, she learnt a lot about English
has to teach twelve to fifteen classes per
pronunciation and expressions and
week.
managed to have good marks for her
English tests in her secondary school years
In the last few years, the dean has
and obtained her B.Ed degree in English
required all of the departments within the
language and education without much
Faculty to have only twenty-five students
difficulty regarding the use of English
in each class. However, some classes can
language. She even managed to earn some
have more than forty students due to the
pocket money by working part-time at a
addition of those students who do not pass
boutique hotel where 90% of its guests
certain topics in the previous semester.
were foreigners as a guest relation officer
Text-book and teacher-centered activities
because she could speak English well.
53

time (2005) since it took too long to upload


When Linda was assigned to teach the file. So, she had to face the risk of her
Pronunciation classes and Phonetics and laptop being infected with virus. She did
Phonology classes, online dictionaries were install an anti-virus program, but it was a
still not as advanced as today where people free version which had limited capabilities
can hear how the word is pronounced in in virus protection. She also uploaded some
addition to its definition. At that time, she of her topic materials in the university e-
often visited the International Phonetics learning platform.
Association website to collect teaching
materials and her own personal learning
In 2006 to 2007, she had an opportunity to
purposes. She realized that she is not a
pursue further knowledge in the use of ICT
native speaker of English, with this website
in education in an Australian university. In
she could hear how each phonetic symbol
addition to written essays, many of the
was pronounced by clicking it and
assignments required the students to create
watching short clips of the movement of
an artefact (ie. design-brief and Logo) that
the articulation places in the mouth. She
could be used in students professional
does believe that ICT has the potentials to
context. When she was preparing for the
enhance English language learning.
design-brief, she thought about the
problems that her students often experience
3 THE LEARNING JOURNEY in her Pronunciation classes. She searched
for academic articles about learning and
University wide, academic staffs are teaching speaking and pronunciation in the
encouraged to use ICT. The rector, in some Internet. She also had to consider the ICT
of his speeches, has raised attention on the resources that were available in ELED. The
universitys plan to become a research- next step was to design lesson plans that
based and paperless university and urged showed an integration of the Internet and
the use of ICT throughout university life. Powerpoint in enhancing my students
Professional developments are provided by learning experiences in Pronunciation
the university to help faculty members use class. She planned for activities that put her
ICT for teaching purposes. Linda took two students to work in groups of three. She
courses, one was about using video for provided them with a list of websites on
teaching and the other was about using the English as a foreign language. Two
universitys e-learning platform. She meetings were designed to show them how
knows how to make video and how to to use the Internet and access the websites
upload files and use other features in the as well as how to create Powerpoint slides.
universitys e-learning platform then. Then, they needed to choose six sounds
However, she was not sure she knows how that were the most problematic for them
to use them well in her classroom. In her which they could consult these with the
speaking class, she asked her students to websites. Creating Powerpoint slides
work in groups of four, write a story board, would follow. In the slides, they should
and video-tape them performing the include the reasons why they selected those
scenario. She gave her assessment based on sounds, find English words that contain
the video clips that they submitted to her each of the sound and three short
on disc, and on flash drives. Sending those paragraphs with sentences that contained
clips via email was not a good idea at that the use of some or all of the six sounds in
54

the words. They also needed to insert the Linda went to see the administrative
recording of themselves pronouncing the staff who was responsible for scheduling
words and reading each paragraph out loud the computer laboratory to ask whether he
in the Powerpoint slides. Two meetings could find slots for all of her language
were set aside for each group to present skills classes (not only listening) to use the
their slides in front of the class. After each lab. When this was not possible at all, she
groups presentation, the whole class went to see another person in charge at the
would be divided in groups of four or five university level to ask for permission to use
to practice the pronunciation of the six the universitys computer room.
sounds with each of the presenter became
the leader of the practice (as they had Linda tried to implement the design-
become the expert of the pronunciation of brief that she wrote as one of the
the sounds). assignments during her study. She asked
her students to collaboratively process the
information they get from the Internet and
4 THE IMPLEMENTATION create an artefact (ie. Powerpoint slides) as
JOURNEY a product of their learning processes. In
Listening class, she asked students to check
After completing her Master degree a list of podcasts for English language
study, Linda returned to her teaching learning. In the beginning of the semester,
position at ELED in August 2007. She they had practiced together on activities
soon found herself in hectic schedules of that need to be done before, while, and
teaching many classes, supervising after the listening. As the class progress
teaching practicum, writing publications, through the semester, students worked in
and some community engagement work. pairs and chose their listening text from the
All these did not prevent her from trying to podcasts collection. After they finished
use ICT in her classrooms. with the before, while and after listening,
they shared with the class the main
Lindas faculty has two language message of the text, their opinion regarding
laboratories and one internet connected the topic, and words or expressions, and
computer laboratory with twenty-five cultural aspects that were new to them.
desktops that have to be shared by six
departments including ELED. The Things did not always run smoothly
computer laboratory has been used only for though. Power failure, slow internet
listening classes because of that reason. connection, and desktops not working
Our classes are not equipped with a properly were their common obstacles.
computer but there is an LCD projector in Linda was also overwhelmed with the
each class, an internet outlet, and Wi-Fi amount of additional work and time that
connection. All academic staff has their she had to devote for preparing the lessons,
own personal laptop and it is becoming as well as the chaotic atmosphere that
more common to see students working happened during classes with students
with their laptops in the halls outside class asking loads of questions. When there was
hours. no power or desperate internet connection,
she asked her students to work with pen
and paper to brain storm and mind map
55

ideas, and to write a section that need to be


presented on the blog or the Powerpoint In September 2009, Linda received a
slides. However, these alternatives could two-week short course scholarship to learn
not be done in the Listening class. She about the competency-based learning in
allowed her students to bring their own Ede, The Netherlands. One of the activities
devices in order to address the problem of was a trip to a teacher training institution in
lack of equipment in ELED. a town nearby Ede. She learned about the
ePortfolio that the student teachers there
Teaching language skills classes is a had to compile during the process of their
must for each faculty member. In addition, teaching practicum. Back home in a staff
they have their own specialized subjects. meeting, she shared this idea of
Lindas are English Instructional implementing ePortfolio for her students
Technology (EIT) and Teaching English as assessment during teaching practicum
a Foreign Language (TEFL) Methodology. since it could capture more complete
EIT is the only topic where educational process of the students learning. In addition
technology is introduced to her students. to merely reporting and documenting
As a junior faculty member, she needs to everything that they had done, ePortfolio
conform to the syllabus designed by a allowed students to reflect on their
senior lecturer, a professor. Students are experiences (Arap, 2007; Finger &
required to write a lesson plan and develop Jamieson-Proctor, 2009). Once again, she
instructional media for evaluation of the finds herself sidelined and silenced when
learning outcomes. There is hardly any another senior colleague snapped at her by
room to introduce students to the use of pointing to Linda, her tendency to be
ICT in English language classrooms. With westernized and technology-
so many materials she needs to cover as deterministic. There was no chance to
dictated by the syllabus, she gave in to the explore the conditions of possibility for
lecture mode of delivering the topic. implementing this idea on ePortfolio. Her
other colleagues were silent as well. She
Trying to save time finding slots in her knew that the majority of the faculty
computer laboratory, in a staff meeting she members was not against ICT integration
came up with a suggestion for ELED to since they had used ICT every day to
equip each classroom with a set of support their personal work, but they are
desktops that was connected to the internet not active for more effective ICT
rather than spending the department budget integration to enhance their students
for hosting another local or national learning either.
seminar this year. One of the senior
colleagues who happened to be an Her new assignments as an assessor and
associate professor responded with instructor at the national teacher
sarcasm, Well yea, what about the certification program as well as an
security issue? Our building is not safe appointment to join the Directorate of
from thieves. And everyone in the room Junior High School Quality Assurances
was just laughing. That was it. End of national team of teacher instructors in
question. No room for discussing addition to her responsibilities in ELED
alternative ways to address this security did not dishearten her motivation in using
problem. ICT in her classes. She could see that her
56

students were more engaged in their emphasized the technological aspect of


learning and she enjoyed listening to their ICT integration. This type of trainings fails
comments on the fun they had during her to address the facts that the participants of
English language skills classes. It was her the programs teach different levels and
colleagues resentment and indifferences different subjects (Harris, Mishra, Koehler,
that had placed doubts in her. It takes a 2009). These programs also do not take
village to raise a child. Could she raise this into account the variation among different
child just by herself? disciplines (Koehler & Mishra, 2008) and
each participants unique classroom
situation (Harris, Mishra, Koehler, 2009).
5 A PATH TO THE Linda learned how to use the technology
UNDERSTANDING hardware and software, but it was not
adequate to change her classroom
Research (Warschauer, Turbee, &
practices. she still did the old ways with the
Roberts, 1996; Felix, 2003; Kern, Ware,
new technology (Cuban, Kirkpatrick, &
Warschauer, 2008) shows that ICT
Peck, 2001).
facilitates authentic cultural context and
collaborative and meaningful human
Successful ICT integration in the
interactions. It promotes student autonomy,
classroom needs to be connected with
creates equal classroom participation, and
curriculum and classroom context,
provides opportunities for reflection. ICT
facilitates deep learning, and uses
can also increase motivation for language
constructivist teaching approach (Conole,
practice and encourage greater
2008). Teachers ICT-related professional
involvement of students who rarely
learning experiences need to be based on a
participated in oral discussions. In short,
framework that is developed to enhance
ICT can enhance the development of
teachers technological pedagogical
students language skills, writing ability
content knowledge (TPACK). TPACK
and speaking ability.
involves an understanding of how to
represent concepts with technologies,
For ICT to positively influence student
pedagogical techniques that use
learning, there should be changes in
technologies in constructive ways to teach
classroom practices. Teachers ability to
content; knowledge of what makes
design learning environments with
concepts difficult or easy to learn and how
authentic learning tasks that utilize ICT as
technology can help students learn;
a tool where students are engaged in
knowledge of students prior knowledge
collaborative activities to solve real-world
and theories of epistemology; and
problems that address individual students
knowledge of how technologies can be
learning needs and interest are essential to
used to build on existing knowledge and to
successful ICT integration (Felix, 2003).
develop new epistemologies or strengthen
Extensive teacher training in ICT-based
old ones (Mishra & Koehler, 2008, p. 10).
pedagogy is essential to assist teachers to
bring about changes in their use of ICT in
Teachers professional learning
the classroom (Jung & Latchem, 2011).
experiences that use learning-by-design
approach is believed to enhance teachers
Lindas in-house training on video-
TPACK (Koehler & Mishra, 2005). The
making and eLearning platform simply
57

principles of social constructivism or Through a longer professional


constructionism, problem-based learning, development in the form of postgraduate
and community of practice are also study where Linda was immersed in rich
reflected in this approach. The participants learning resource, learning-by-design
actively construct their knowledge on a classroom activities, academic
particular topic with the help of their peers conversation with fellow students, lecturers
by creating artefacts (such as online and professional mailing-lists, Linda
courses, digital video, podcasts) to be used discovered that her early application of
in their own classroom and meet their ICT adopted a technocentric view toward
teaching goals. It focuses teachers technology (Oliver, 2011) and she learnt to
attention on a problem they might develop a more holistic perspective of ICT
encounter in their practice; then they work integration in her English language
collaboratively with other participants to classroom (Van Olphen, 2008). She did
investigate the ways in which technology change her practices regarding the use of
can be used to address the problem. Design ICT in the classroom.
projects lead to sustained inquiry and
revision of ideas (Koehler and Mishra, The sustainability of such change,
2005). Learning in this kind of however, is being questioned in Lindas
environment happens informally and case. To fully understand this, Pierre
within the immediate context of the Bourdieus field theory will assist in
participants which results in deeper unpacking the power relation within her
understanding of the topic. The length of professional context and explain how the
the program is extended than the traditional process of integration and disintegration
one-shot type of training, the activities to can take place. As a theoretical construct,
solve the real-world problems are learner field theory consists of the elements of
centered, interdisciplinary, and ill- field, capital, and habitus (Bourdieu, 1983).
structured where there can be more than
one solution to the problem (Koehler & According to Bourdieu,
Mishra, 2005). This kind of learning
environment required a pedagogical shift A field is a structured social space, a
on the role of the learners and the field of forces, a force field. It contains
teacher/instructor. The learners have to be people who dominate and people who are
like an apprentice who investigate the dominated. Constant, permanent
problem and find solutions with the help of relationships of inequality operate inside
their peers (who might have more or less this space, which at the same time becomes
knowledge on the topic under a space in which the various actors struggle
investigation) in the actual context of for the transformation or preservation of
practice. The teachers/instructors assist the field. All the individuals in this
learners to understand the content, provide universe bring to the competition all the
them with feedback, mentoring and (relative) power at their disposal. It is this
coaching, and manage the learning context power that defines their position in the
and setting. They no longer become the field and, as a result, their strategies
main source of information who transmit (Bourdieu, 1998, pp. 40-41).
their knowledge to their students.
58

The struggle within this field to own a technological and pedagogical content
legitimate mode of cultural production knowledge which influence the change in
goes hand in hand with the struggle within her ICT-based pedagogical practices.
the dominant class to defend their own
position. Each agent in the field develops a
disposition, a habitus. Habitus is a
concept that expresses, on the one hand,
the way in which individuals become
themselves develop attitudes and
dispositions and, on the other hand, the
ways in which those individuals engage in
practices (Webb et al 2002, p. xii). The
notion of habitus is perhaps best
understood as Bourdieus theory of capital
(Bourdieu, 1986) in which he extends the
notion of capital from accumulation of
wealth to cultural and social capitals.
Cultural capital includes, for examples, Figure 1. The field of my ICT-based pedagogical
long lasting dispositions of the mind and practice.
body, forms of cultural goods, and
educational qualifications. Social capital
ELED operates on a particular structure
consists of resources that give access to a which often presents her with barriers with
network of institutional relationships of implementing ICT in her classroom. Even
mutual acquaintance and recognition. though she could find alternative ways
Group memberships and credentials are within the structure of ELED in order to
some of the examples. integrate ICT, the other players within
ELED appear to preserve the structure of
relation of forces by using their power to
Lindas classroom ICT-based pedagogy impose their views. Because of their age,
practices are a result of her social experience, and academic qualifications,
interaction with the actors or players within the senior lecturers form a group which
her context as illustrated in Figure 1. How represented the voice of authority in staff
she reacts within this field is down to meetings and played a critical role in
habitus which is a result of her personal setting the boundaries of any discussion.
history, preferences and disposition. She is Henry and Tator (2005: 1056) call this
group the dominant elite. These people
lucky because her parents could support did not consider Linda as the staff who had
her with different types of technologies to the authority, legitimation and
help her learned English during her time as trustworthiness to speak on any issue. They
a student, which had led her to believe that defined the approved discourse on any
ICT is potential in enhancing English topic and delegitimized those who have
language learning. The ICT-related different view or argument to resist change
trainings offered by her university increase and justify preserving the institutionalized
practice in the ELED system.
her technological knowledge on ICT
integration, while her ICT-learning Linda was weakened by the
experiences during her postgraduate study conversations she had in the staff meetings.
contribute to development of her It is like she was prisoned by their logic
59

and authoritative voice. The silence of her Bourdieu, P. (1986). The forms of capital.
other colleagues showed that her belief in In H. Lauder, P. Brown, J. Dillabough
& A. H. Halsey (Eds.), Education,
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make to whole-department ICT York: The New Press.
Caplan, P. (1997). African voices, African
integration. She has not changed her beliefs lives. London: Routledge.
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take a rest. Her decision to pursue further e/
study to get her Doctorate degree came at Cuban, L., Kirkpatrick, H., & Peck, C.
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5 CONCLUSION Explaining an apparent paradox.
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Linda has experienced both traditional and Dardjowidjojo, S. (2000). English
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Pressed.
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The 1st International Conference on Education, Science, Art and Technology (the 1st ICESAT)
Universitas Negeri Makassar. 22 23 July 2017

Education Efficiency Analysis on Sulawesi Provinces

Estro Dariatno Sihalohoa, Ahmad Kafrawi Mahmudb, Jacobus Rijolyc


a
Department of Economics, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia
b
Department of Economics, UIN Alauddin, Makassar, Indonesia
c
Department of Economics, Universitas Pattimura, Ambon, Indonesia

Corresponding e-mail, estro.sihaloho@unpad.ac.id

Abstract Sulawesi Island is one of the big islands and located in middle of Indonesia. Education is
an important pillar of development and can be demonstrated by the Human Development
Index. In 2015, Sulawesi Island has average Human Development Index about 67.31 that
still below the national average of 69.55. The average Human Development Index of
Sulawesi Island is also below the average of the Java Human Development Index of 72.3.
All the provinces in Sulawesi had make the education become priorities and allocated
more budget for education. With more budgets, the government can increase the
education quality in Sulawesi. This paper has two objectives. The first objective is to
estimate efficiency score of education spending in all provinces in Sulawesi. The second
is to analyze the environmental factors that have an impact to increase the efficiency
score of education in all provinces in Sulawesi. This study calculates score of education
efficiency using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method and using the Tobit for
environmental factors analyzing. This study calculates and compares the efficiency score
of education spending in 6 provinces in Sulawesi from 2013 to 2015. The DEA method
uses the education spending of provinces as Input and uses Net Enrollment Ratio of
Junior High School, Net Enrollment Ratio of Senior High School, and Human
Development Index (HDI) as Output. While the Tobit uses Number of Junior High
School, Number of Senior High School, Number of Junior High School Teacher, and
Number of Senior High School Teacher. DEA shows that West Sulawesi with the lowest
budget has the highest average of efficiency score. West Sulawesi reaches about 1
efficiency score. With the highest average of education spending, the South Sulawesi has
the lowest average of efficiency score with 0.396897. The low efficiency score show that
the government didnt optimal to use the education budget to create the education output.
The Tobit shows that number of junior high school has negative marginal effect with -
0.0012914 while number of senior high school has positive marginal effect with
0.0009504. The Tobit also shows that both numbers of teachers in junior/high school will
give positive marginal effect to increase the education efficiency with 0.0000651 and
0.0000858.

Key words: Efficiency, Education Spending, Data Envelopment Analysis, Tobit

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71

1. INTRODUCTION
Education is an important foundation for The figure shows North Sulawesi has the highest
creating the best quality of human resources. The HDI about 70.39 followed by South Sulawesi at
Increasing of human resources quality will 69.15. The province with the lowest HDI by
encourage the creation of creativity and 2015 is Gorontalo province with 62.96. Data
innovation. This will ultimately have a good show that actually all provinces have increasing
impact on the economy with increasing of GDP. HDI values from 2013 to 2015. But there are
The previous research found that high levels of provinces that have not significantly increased.
GDP per capita were associated with high levels The figure also shows about the net
of primary school enrolment (Stevens & Weale, enrollment ratio of junior high school and net
2003). With higher education will increase the enrollment ratio of senior high school. In 2015,
Human Development Index in the region because almost all provinces have lower net enrollment
education is one of important pillar in Human ratio of junior high school than in senior high
Development Index (UNDP, 2015). There are school. South Sulawesi was the only province
still many education problems in Indonesia, with the different condition. If the government
including all the provinces in Sulawesi. The had optimal for the education sector, there will
various problems faced in education sector, from be no big different between the net enrollment
whom manage education, how education is ratio in junior high school and senior high
managed, and how regulations have been school. The condition shows that the education
effectively implemented in schools and many output in senior high school was lower than
districts (Hidayat, 2011). junior high school. For the net enrollment ratio in
In 2015, Sulawesi Island has average junior high school and senior high school, South
Human Development Index about 67.31 that still Sulawesi has the highest ratio among other
below the national average of 69.55. The average Sulawesi provinces. Gorontalo has the lowest net
Human Development Index of Sulawesi Island is enrollment ratio both in junior high school and
also below the average of the Java Human senior high school.
Development Index of 72.31 (Indonesian Bureau The governments of Sulawesi provinces
of Statistics, 2015). Many factors cause less HDI have realized that education is an important
in Sulawesi. One of the factors is the educational foundation for the economy. So the provinces
problems in Sulawesi. government also makes education a priority
Figure 1.The Education Output of Sulawesi program. One of the ways that the provincial
Province in 2015 government is doing is by increasing the
education budget.
Gorontalo
HDI Figure 2.The Education Expenditure of Sulawesi
South Province 2013-2015 (In Million IDR)
South 350,000 North
Net Enrollment
Sulawesi
Ratio (Senior 300,000
Central
High School) West Sulawesi
West Net Enrollment 250,000
Ratio (Junior
200,000 Central
North High School)
Sulawesi
0 50 100 150,000
South
100,000 Sulawesi
Source: Indonesian Bureau of Statistics, 2015
South East
50,000 Sulawesi
The different characteristics in each
province in Sulawesi create the different 0 Gorontalo
education output. Figure 1 shows the output 2013 2014 2015
characteristic of education in Sulawesi provinces.
72

Source: Ministry of Finance 2015 must try to allocate the entire education budget
and create the optimal output. A high education
This education budget will be used to budget may not necessarily produce maximum
improve the output quality of education. From all output. The government must implement various
provinces in Sulawesi, South Sulawesi Province strategies to use the budget efficiently and
has the higher budget compared to other appropriately. The Differences in how to use the
provinces. South Sulawesi province also has a education budget, creates the different output like
significant budget increase from year to year. level of human development index and net
While the province of West Sulawesi province enrollment ratio both in junior high school and
which has the lowest budget compared to other senior high school.
provinces. West Sulawesi is the youngest
province in Sulawesi and is still trying to
increase the provincial budget. The government
2. DATA AND METHODS
2.1. Data Description The optimal and the most efficient
This research used secondary data from DMU will used become the benchmark for the
Indonesia Statistics Bureau 2013-2015 and inefficient DMU. To use the DEA Analysis, the
Statistics Bureau of Sulawesi Provinces 2013- input and the output can be have many variety of
2015 and Directorate General of Fiscal Balance form but still have the same characteristics. This
of Indonesia Finance Ministry 2013-2015. This study also used the multiple input and output
research focuses on measuring the efficiency of with similar characteristics. The impact of the
education budget and analyzes the input to create the various level of output which
environmental factors that can increase the seen as the success indicator of education
technical efficiency score in 6 provinces in development. This research used STATA 12 for
Sulawesi Islands. This study uses the period of DEA process.
2013-2015. This research uses local government
budget of education, human development index, 2.3. Tobit Analysis
net enrollment ratio of junior high school, net
enrollment ratio of senior high school to analyze Tobit analysis, a model devised by
the education efficiency score. This research Tobin (1958) in which it is assumed that the
uses number of junior high school, number of dependent variable has a number of its values
senior high school, number of junior high school clustered at a limiting value (McDonald &
teacher, and number of high school teacher that Moffitt, 1980). The use of censored regression
can affect the efficiency scores. techniques is appropriate for this two-step
analysis since the efficiency scores, the
2.2. Data Envelopment Analysis dependent variable, are observed in only a
Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is certain range: in our case assuming a maximum
one form of measurement analysis that creates value of 1 (Ruggiero, 2004). Tobit regression
and evaluates the relative efficiency of a set of can use data with zero value (discrete) and
decision making unit (DMU). The DEA can help continuous data. Afonso and Fernandes evaluate
us how to understand how the resources (inputs) the importance of environmental or non-
can create the maximum result (output). The discretionary inputs by Tobit estimations by
DEA will compare the input and output from regressing the output efficiency scores on a set
one DMU relative to other DMU in the same of possible explanatory variables (Afonso &
year. For data processing, the selected regencies- Fernandes, 2008)
cities are classified into DMU (Decision Making
Unit). DMU would reflect both its own priorities 3. RESULT
over its outputs and the environment in which it 3.1. Dea Result
operates (Thanassoulis, 1996). DMU will be DEA results show that the score of the
compared by comparing the input and output for efficiency of education spending almost in all
each period. provinces in Sulawesi have positive trend from
73

2013 until 2015. In 2013, West Sulawesi budget to produce optimum education output.
province had the highest educational score about The DEA compared the input and output of all
1.000000, while Central Sulawesi province had provinces in Sulawesi per year and generated the
the lowest efficiency score about 0.429413. In different level of efficiency every year.
2014, West Sulawesi province is also the DEA shows that the average efficiency
province with the highest efficiency score about score in Sulawesi provinces is increasing.
1.000000 while South Sulawesi province has the Sulawesi provinces have an average education
lowest efficiency score about 0.323687. efficiency score of 0.587867 in 2013. The
By 2013, almost all provinces in average efficiency score increased to 0.637842
Sulawesi have improved efficiency scores in 2014 and increased again to 0.657462 in
compared to the previous year except South 2015. This indicates that there is an increase of
Sulawesi province. This can be achieved education budget quality in Sulawesi provinces.
because with the increase of education budget is In 3 years, West Sulawesi province has the
not accompanied by an increase in education highest average efficiency with 1.0000000
output. West Sulawesi province has the highest followed by Southeast Sulawesi province with
efficiency score again about 1.000000 in 2015 0.697788. Gorontalo Province is in third
while South Sulawesi province has the lowest position with an average efficiency about
efficiency score with 0.314247. In 2015, only 0.611844, followed by North Sulawesi province
South Sulawesi province experienced a decrease with 0.589899. Central Sulawesi province is
in efficiency score while other provinces ranked fifth about 0.469912 followed by South
experienced an increase in efficiency scores. Sulawesi province as the lowest with 0.469912.

Figure 3.The Education Efficiency Score of 3.2. Tobit Result


Sulawesi Province 2013-2015 Tobit result shows the impact of
1.00 environmental factors with marginal effect on
0.90 efficiency score of education spending in
0.80
Efficiency Score

Sulawesi provinces. There are many factors that


0.70 2013
0.60 can affect the improvement of education quality.
0.50 2014 One of the weaknesses of education in Indonesia
0.40 is the lack of infrastructure. Improving the
0.30 2015
educational infrastructure like school building is
0.20
0.10 important so everyone can have easy access to
0.00 education. Nowadays there are still many society
cant go to school because there is no school in
their place.
The government must build many new
schools building spread in all districts. The other
weakness is about the lack of the teacher in the
Source: Indonesian Bureau of Statistics 2015 and school. This weakness makes the ratio the
Ministry of Finance 2015, STATA 12 teacher to student in many schools become low.
The DEA result show that West Based on the Regulation of the Minister of
Sulawesi Province has a constant value of Education and Culture of the Republic of
efficiency score from 2013 until 2015. The Indonesia No 19 in 2016 about Indonesia Smart
efficiency score of West Sulawesi Province that support the implementation of compulsory
show that with lower expenditure, West education of 12 years, the local government also
Sulawesi Province was more efficient than other needs to pay attention to school facilities to
provinces in optimization of education spending senior high school.
and can create more optimal output. While the
Table 1. Tobit Result of Environmental Impact to
South Sulawesi Province has the highest budget
Education Efficiency
for education, but the government cant use the Environmental dy/dx t P>|t|
74

Factors of Local Government. The Journal of


Num_Sch_Jun -0.0012914 -2.53 0.024 Socio-Economics 37 (2008) 19461979.
Num_Teach_Jun 0.0000651 2.22 0.044 Hidayat, M. (2011). Masalah Mutu Pendidikan
Num_Sch_Sen 0.0009504 1.02 0.325 di Era Otonomi Daerah. Makassar:
Num_Teach_Sen 0.0000858 -1.90 0.078 LPMP Sulawesi Selatan.
Source: Indonesian Bureau of Statistics 2015 and Indonesian Bureau of Statistics. (2015).
Ministry of Finance 2015, STATA 12
Statistical Yearbook of Indonesia 2015.
Jakarta: BPS Indonesia.
The table shows that number of junior
McDonald, J., & Moffitt, R. (1980). The Uses of
high school has negative marginal impact to
Tobit Analysis. The MIT Press - JSTOR.
education efficiency about -0.0012914. This is
Ruggiero. (2004). Performance Evaluation when
due to enough number of junior high school in
Non-Discretionary Factors Correlate
Sulawesi provinces. But the provinces in
with Technical Efficiency. European
Sulawesi still need the additional teacher in
Journal of Operational Research 159 (1),
junior high school; the number of junior high
250257.
school has positive marginal effect about
Statistics Bureau of Central Sulawesi. (2016).
0.0000651. The provinces in Sulawesi also still
Sulawesi Tengah Dalam Angka 2016.
need to build new senior high school. One
Palu: BPS Provinsi Sulawesi Tengah.
additional of senior high school will have
Statistics Bureau of North Sulawesi . (2013).
positive marginal effect to education efficiency
Sulawesi Utara dalam Angka 2013.
about 0.0009504. Same as with needs of teacher
Manado: BPS Sulawesi Utara.
in junior high school, the senior high school also
Statistics Bureau of South Sulawesi. (2016).
still need teacher. One additional of senior high
Sulawesi Selatan dalam Angka 2016.
school will have positive marginal effect about
Makassar: BPS Provinsi Sulawesi
0.0000858.
Selatan.
Statistics Bureau of Southeast Sulawesi. (2016).
4. CONCLUSION Sulawesi Tenggara Dalam Angka 2016.
Kendari: BPS Provinsi Sulawesi
DEA result shows that most of the Tenggara.
provinces in Sulawesi not optimal to use the Statistics Bureau of West Sulawesi. (2016).
education budget to create the optimal education Sulawesi Barat Dalam Angka 2016.
output. These proved by low human Mamuju: BPS Provinsi Sulawesi Barat.
development index, low net enrollment ratio of Statitstics Bureau of Gorontalo. (2016).
junior high school and low net enrollment ratio Gorontalo Dalam Angka 2016.
of senior high school. With the higher budget, Gorontalo: BPS Provinsi Gorontalo.
the local governments cant have significant Stevens, P., & Weale, M. (2003). Education and
increasing on HDI and net enrollment ratio. The Economic Growth. London : National
Tobit also shows that the government must make Institute of Economic and Social
the additional of teacher both in junior high Research.
school and senior high school become priorities. Thanassoulis, E. (1996). A Data Envelopment
Tobit also shows that additional of new senior Analysis Approach to Clustering
high school building are more important than Operating Units for Resource Allocation
new junior high school building. Purposes. Omega, Int. J. Mgmt Sci. Vol.
24.
5. REFERENCES UNDP. (2015). Human Development Report
2015. New York: United Nations
Afonso, A., & Fernandes, S. (2008). Assessing Development Programme.
and Explaining the Relative Efficiency
The 1st International Conference on Education, Science, Art and Technology (the 1st ICESAT)
Universitas Negeri Makassar. 22 23 July 2017

The Influence Of Edufair Psychoeducation To Improve Student Career


Maturity At Y Senior High School Of Makassar

Eva Meizara Puspita Dewi a, Novita Maulidya Djalala, Dian Novita Siswanti a
a
Faculty of Psychology, Makassar State University, St. Mappala No.1, Gunung Sari, Rappocini,
Makassar City, South Celebes, Indonesia

Abstract: A student who is able to choose a course by considering his or her ability, personality, and
interests is likely to choose the right course for their self. The purpose of this study is to
determine whether there is influence of giving "edufair" psychoeducation to career maturity
of senior high school students. It is known by examining the differences in career maturity of
students before and after being given psychoeducation about careers established in the
"Edufair psychoeducation program. The populations in the study are the students of XII
grade in Y Senior High School of Makassar where they are willing to follow the activity until
the end. The numbers of determined samples use random sampling technique, where the
numbers of research subjects are 30 students. The used research design is One Group Pretest
and Posttest Design. Career maturity is measured to use career maturity scale with instrument
validity test result at career maturity scale generating validity index moving from 0,268 -
0,648, and reliability test made with alpha Cronbach formula yield reliability 0,884 at career
maturity scale. Furthermore, the statistical test uses a difference test or t test. The results
show the value of significance of 0.001, so the value of p = 0.001 <0.05. It shows that there is
a significant difference in career maturity before and after the subject gets "Edufair"
psychoeducation, so that psychoeducation proved to have an effect on career maturity.

Keywords: psychoeducation, career maturity, senior high school students.

1. BACKGROUND reality, education is often routine, so less


Good education is one that can provide a directing interest and talent is not felt at the
picture of life and lead students to develop level of high school, students become
their potential. Each level of educations has confused to choose the majors in accordance
its own stages and goals contained in the with the potential what he has for further
curriculum in accordance with the task of the study in college.
development of his age. Thus, the longer or The condition is so much experienced by the
higher level of education of a person, he will students so choose majors in college no
be able to understand life with the challenges longer because of according to interest talent
of the future even understand yourself and all but based on parental orders or the number of
the potential he has. friends who choose the department. You can
The education undertaken by each imagine how this prospective student is
student will be continued from elementary perplexed because the confused course just is
school to senior high school level. But in not directed to let alone learn it. It seems that

75
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there needs to be intervention to be done so a clear career option tend to have emotional
that this condition is resolved immediately and personality disorders such as pessimistic,
and not protracted. One of them is to do anxiety disorders, and negative self-concept
psychoeducation and counseling. However, and low self-esteem. Furthermore, Creed and
this needs to be proven whether this method Patton (2003) presented from 166 high
can be effective in solving the problems of school students in Australia, it showed that
prospective students in choosing a career. career maturity was related to the maturity of
Based on the results of preliminary self-concept in general. Thus, career maturity
research conducted by researchers in in adolescents shows the ability of
February 2017 at the Faculty of Psychology adolescents to meet social expectations and
UNM, it is known that some consider society.
themselves who are exactly not the right Problem about career is often a problem
direction because it is not appropriate and among learners. Questions are often related
based on the results of 65 questionnaires, it is to how to prepare for the future, what type of
known that 63% of senior high school education should be taken to achieve the
students in Makassar do not yet know the desired job or career, and how to achieve
details of the department at the university career or work. These problems tend to
level, and 47% are still confused to choose worry the learners, and make learners have
the major in the next level of education. The difficulty in making career planning.
results of this preliminary study are in line One of the things that affect a person's
with the results of a survey conducted by career maturity is the experience and
Subrata (Juwitaningrum, 2013) who shows knowledge about the career options or majors
that career preparation of high school available. Basically, career related problems
students in Surabaya shows 85% of students can be caused by the students who are still
of hesitant about their future careers, 80% very minimal information.
have not set their future careers steadily, 75% Services or programs careers in
Difficulty in deciding and planning careers Indonesia should understand and meet the
well. needs of students in career development so
Supriatna (2009) states that career that have career skills at the time of leaving
problems are often experienced by students school. Hoyt (Juwitaningrum, 2013) suggests
include: a. Learners do not understand how that there are four main needs: the need for:
to choose courses that match the ability and a. Planning a career-oriented post-secondary
interests, b. Learners do not have information education.
about the world of work enough, c. Learners b. Gaining general skills in work skills,
are still confused to choose workers, d. adaptation, and enhancement so as to
Learners are still less able to choose the work adapt to the changing world of work as
in accordance with the abilities and interests, adults.
e. Learners feel anxious to get a job after c. Emphasizing on the importance of work
graduation, f. Learners do not have a choice values,
of college or a certain advanced education, if d. Planning ways to occupy yourself in work
after graduation does not enter the world of as part of the overall career development.
work, g. Learners have no idea of the Hallen (2002) states that career
characteristics, requirements, abilities, and counseling is a process of continuous relief
skills needed in the job and job prospects for from a mentor who has been prepared in
the future of his career. order to develop all the potential he has
In their research, Saka, Gati, and Kelly optimally by using various media and
(2008) stated that teenagers who do not have guidance techniques in a normative care
77

environment in order To achieve adolescence and adulthood. Furthermore,


independence In a person so that it can be Brown and Brooks (1996) added that career
beneficial both for himself and his maturity is also defined as a person's
environment. Therefore, the existence of readiness cognitively and affectively to fulfill
career guidance services is expected to help his career development tasks. Affective
learners in addressing the problem of readiness consists of career planning and
deciding career to the next stage of career exploration while cognitive readiness
education. One form of approach that is consists of decision-making and insight into
educative and pragmatic which is the act of the world of work.
modality conveyed by professionals referred Dillard (1985) defines career maturity as
to as psychoeducation. Psychoeducation of a person's attitude in career decision making
career in high school students allegedly can that is shown by the level of consistency of
give effect to career maturity of high school career choice in a given period. Meanwhile,
students. career maturity according to Luzzo
Taking into account the background of (Levinson, 1998) is an important aspect for a
the problems that have been described, person in meeting the need for knowledge
researchers focused on the study of career and skills to make smart and realistic career
guidance in an effort to improve student decisions.
career maturity XII in Y senior high school
of Makassar. This research tries to provide 2) Factors Affecting Career Maturity
solution through career guidance activity Patton and Creed (Susantoputri, Kristina,
entitled "Edufair" covering career guidance and Gunawan, 2014) stated that there are
seminar program and career information several factors affecting one's career
service to student in Y senior high school maturity: career commitment, work value,
which is appointed with research title that is self-esteem, self-efficacy, gender, and career
Influence Psychoeducation Edufair" to choice. In line with that opinion, Seligman
career maturity of SMA Y students in (Pinasti, 2011) also stated that factors
Makassar. affecting one's career maturity are family
2. THEORY STUDY factors, individual internal factors, and
socioeconomic factors. Seligman, then,
A. Career Maturity explains that the individual's internal factors
include self-esteem, self-efficacy, self-
1) Definition of Career Maturity expectation, locus of control, skills, interests,
talents, personality, and age. Meanwhile,
Super (2001) develops the concept of
Partino (Widjaja, 2010) mapped out the
vocational maturity or career maturity that
factors affecting one's career maturity:
leads to the readiness and success of a person
counseling service, perception of study
to fulfill tasks of typical vocational
choice, life values, self-efficacy, and
development for certain stages of
academic ability.
development, such as the ability to make
Naidoo (1998) said there are several
plans, the willingness to assume
factors affecting individual career maturity,
responsibility, And awareness of all internal
namely:
and external factors that must be considered
a. Educational level One's level of education
in making the choice of position or establish
can have an effect on one's career
themselves in a position. Such indications
maturity. McCaffrey, Miller, and
can be further elaborated in each stage of
Winstoa (Naidoo, 1998) in his research
vocational development, especially during
stated that junior, senior, and alumni
78

students have differences in career Super (Watkins and Campbell, 2000)


maturity. The higher a person's describes dimensions of career maturity
education level, the higher the career consisting of:
maturity he has. a. Career planning
b. Race ethnicity person from a minority This dimension measures the level of
group is often considered to have low planning through attitudes toward the
career maturity. However, parents who future when individuals have the
provide support to their children even if confidence, the ability to learn from
they are from minority groups, then the experience, realize that they have to
child will still have good maturity. make educational and work choices, and
c. Locus of control Dhillon and Kaur (2005) prepare to make that choice. Low scores
in his research stated that someone with on career planning dimensions indicate
good career maturity tends to have an that individuals do not plan for the future
internal locus of control orientation. This in the world of work and feel no need to
is in line with Taganing's (2007) opinion introduce themselves or relate to work.
of someone with an internal locus of High scores on career planning
control, when faced with a career dimensions indicate that individuals
selection, it will make an effort to get to participate in career planning activities
know yourself, find out about the work i.e: learning about career information,
and educational steps, and try to talking to adults about career plans,
overcome the problems. This will make taking courses and training that will help
the career maturity of individuals to be in deciding careers, participating in
high. extracurricular activities and working
d. Gender Women have a lower career part time.
maturity score than males because b. Career exploration
women are more vulnerable in viewing This dimension leads to the desire of
role conflict as an obstacle in the career individuals to seek career information
development process, and less able to from various career sources, such as on
make the right career decisions friends, teachers, parents, books, movies,
compared to men. counselors, and others. The dimension of
e. A social economic status person who career exploration relates to how much
comes from a lower middle-class social career information a person has acquired
and economic background shows a low from these sources. This dimension is
value in career maturity. This is different from the dimensions of career
characterized by a lack of access to planning i.e.: related career planning
information about jobs, exemplary about one's planning regarding its future.
figures and the assumption of low Meanwhile, career exploration related to
employment. resource usage. A low score on the
f. Work salience The importance of work career exploration dimension indicates
affects individuals in making choices, that a person does not care about
job satisfaction referring to work information about the field and level of
commitment, as well as career maturity work.
in high school students and students. c. Career decision making
This dimension measures a person's
3) Career Maturity Dimension ability to use his or her knowledge and
thoughts in decision making. High
scores for this dimension indicate a
79

person has independence, makes a


choice of work appropriate to his or her 1) Definition of Psychoeducation
interests and abilities, ability to use One of the interventions that can be used
decision-making methods and principles in various settings and applied individually
to solve problems including choosing or in groups is Psychoeducation.
education and employment. The low Psychoeducation is a form of intervention,
score on the career decision making both for the family and for someone who is
dimension shows that one does not know part of psychosocial therapy. Griffith (Walsh,
what to consider in making a choice. 2010) states that psycho-education is an
d. World of word information intervention that can be done on individuals,
This dimension consists of two families, and groups that focus on educating
components according to Super (Sharf, participants about significant challenges in
1992), which is related to developmental life, helping participants develop resources of
tasks, that the individual must know the social support and support in addressing
interests and abilities, know how others these challenges, and developing Coping
learn things related to the job and know skills to face the challenge.
the reasons people change jobs. The Lukens and McFarlane (2004) define
second component is knowing the job psychoeducation as a professionally
tasks in a position and the behaviors in administered treatment integrating
work. This dimension measures psychotherapeutic and educational
knowledge of the world of work interventions. This is in line with the opinion
including the types of jobs, ways to gain of Wijayanti, Wahyuningsih and Widiyanti
and success in work, and roles in the (2010) who state that psychoeducation or
world of work. Low scores on the often referred to as personal and social
dimensions of the world of work education or personal and social education is
information show that one needs to learn a relatively new but important movement in
about the types of jobs and career the counseling psychology. Psychoeducation
development tasks. Someone is less is also a therapy aiming to provide
aware of the work that suits her. High information, provide education to them to
scores indicate that a person with broad improve skills, cognitive and psychomotor
insights can use self-employment skills, and understand and improve the
information and begin to establish the coping of the problem.
field and level of work.
2) Purpose of Psychoeducation
4) The Impact of Career Maturity The purpose of the psychoeducation
Career maturity will have an impact on a program is to increase knowledge, so it is
person's readiness to make career choices, expected to reduce the impact of problems
including options for advanced study and improve one's function. This goal will be
(Widjaja, 2010). In fact, some teenagers are achieved through a series of educational
unable to make career choices appropriately activities about a problem or disorder, how to
and according to the stage of their career overcome it, and the ability of a person
development. Erikson (Widjaja, 2010) says (Stuart and Laraia, 2001). Psycho-education
that career immaturity is the most important is based on strength and focus on the present.
problem facing teenagers. Psychoeducation, whether individuals or
groups, not only provides important
B. PSYCHOEDUCATION information related to the problems of
participants but teaches skills that are
80

considered important for participants to deal community will benefit families and
with the situation of the problem. Group clients.
psycho-education can be applied to different Griffiths (Walsh, 2010) states that the
age groups and educational levels (Dixon, focuses of psychoeducation are:
1999; Marsh, 1992, quoted from Lukens & a. Educating participants about challenges
McFarlane, 2004). b. Helping participants develop resources of
Group psycho-emphasizing emphasis on support and social support in the face of
learning and education rather than self- life's challenges.
awareness and self-understanding in which c. Developing coping skills to face life
the cognitive component has a greater challenges.
proportion than the affective component d. Developing emotional support.
(Brown, 2011), but this does not mean that e. Reducing the sense of stigma of
Psychoeducation does not touch the aspect of participants.
self-reliance and self-understanding. It is f. Changing the attitude and belief of
returned to the goals of the psychoeducation participants to a disorder (disorder)
itself of children, adolescents, and adults in g. Identifying and exploring feelings on an
various settings. Psycho-education of this issue.
group can also consist of 1 session or more. h. Developing problem solving skills.
Psychoeducation is usually associated i. Developing crisis-intervention skills.
with certain topics, such as bullying, the
dangers of drugs, reproductive health, or 4) Scope Psychoeducation "Edufair"
violence in courtship. Psychoeducation at Psychoeducation "Edufair" provides
school is usually a part of Counseling important information related to the problems
Guidance according to the needs of students, of high school XII students about careers,
one of which is psychoeducation of the also teaches skills that are considered
student's career. important for high school students XII to face
the problems of determining his career.
3) Psychoeducation components Psychoeducation "Edufair" consists of two
Stuart and Laraia (2001) explain that in activities:
general, the comprehensive programs of a. The "Edufair" seminar includes the
psychoeducation are: following materials:
a. The didactic component, in the form of 1) Characteristics of adolescents
health education, provides information 2) Interest and talent
on diseases and mental health systems. 3) Factors Affecting Career Option
b. The skills component which provides 4) Competence of each Department
training on communication, conflict 5) Information of each Department in
resolution, problem solving, institute
assertiveness, behavior management and 6) Tips on Achieving institute
stress management. 7) Preparing for SBMPTN
c. Emotional components giving ventilation b. Information service activities majors at
and sharing feelings with emotional universities in Makassar.
support. Mobilization of needed 3. RESEARCH METHODS
resources, especially in crisis situations. A. Sample Research
d. Social components increased use of The populations in the study are the
formal and non-formal networks. students of class XII of SMA Y in Makassar
Increasing contact with existing resource where they are willing to follow the activity
networks and support systems in the until the end. The number of samples is
81

determined to use a random technique that all Group Pretest-Posttest Design (Shadish,
students get the same opportunity to be the Cook, & Campbell, 2002), where in this
subject of research. The number of students model there is one group that is experiment
who are willing to follow the research of 30 group (KE). In the experimental group two
research subjects. measurements were taken (1) pretest before
treatment was given to obtain the baseline of
B. Research Procedures subject maturity, and (2) posttest after
This research is carried out through treatment was given. The research design
several stages: diagram to use as follows:
1) Preparation stage
Researchers conducted a preliminary Table 1. Research Design of One Group
survey conducted during February-April Pretest-Postest Design
2017. At this stage, the researchers Pretest Treatment Postest
conducted field study on the background O1 X O2
research, looking for data and information
about first-degree career maturity in UNM, Information: O1: Pretest O2: Posttest X:
as well as looking for data to some Y high Treatment
school students in Makassar. The data were
obtained through interview technique on 3) Data Analysis Stage
several respondents and distributed The third stage in this research is data
questionnaires to some high school students analysis. The researcher is in this stage after
and students willing to be respondents. a series of experimental processes and then
Furthermore, researchers conducted a study begins performing quantitative data analysis
of book literature and other supporting until the interpretation of previously obtained
references. In addition, researchers also data. In addition, the researchers took the
drafted the research design to use, completed review process of the instruments that have
the administration such as licensing to the been distributed. The review was conducted
authorities concerned with the needs of the after the researchers obtained SPSS data
study. analysis results. This phase was carried out in
June 2017 and carried out in conjunction
2) Stage of Field Work or Experiment with the process of consultation and research
At this stage, researchers carry out counseling.
research. The implementation of the research This study used a career maturity scale
includes the provision of intervention or used to reveal how high or large career
treatment as well as data collection. The maturity owned by the subject of research.
treatments include career guidance that The data were obtained by analyzing the
includes (1) career seminars covering the scores of career maturity scales from Umam
characteristics of youth, interests and talents, (2015), which consist of four dimensions:
factors affecting the career, and the steps that Plan fulness (career planning), Decision
can be taken to make decisions in career Making, Exploration, and Career information
selection. Then (2) participants are also given gathering.
information about the majors at the lecture Items that support the statement or
level along with work orientation in the field. direction with the statement (favorable) have
This stage was held in May 2017. The the following scoring system: very suitable
experimental activities were carried out in (SS) score 4; According to (S) score 3; Not
group settings for one day of meetings. This fit (TS) score 2; Very unsuitable (STS) score
research use research design that is One 1. As for items that do not support a
82

statement or not unidirectional with the presence or absence of the effect of


statement (unfavorable), the scoring system treatments on student career maturity. The
answers as follows: very appropriate (SS) effect is known by comparing the pre-post
score 1; According to (S) score 2; Not fit test of the subject. Interpretation of data is
(TS) score 3; Very unsuitable (STS) score 4. done by describing the meaning contained in
Testing the validity of career maturity the numbers. Career maturity is translated
instruments is done through trial (tryout). from data by calculating mean, mode, and
Validity test in this research use product median values. Then the effect of treatment
moment correlation. Data processing is done was tested by using the mean difference test
by using SPSS (Statistical Packages for (t-test) between pretest and posttest data,
Social Science) 17.00. The results of the which is called dependent sample t-test
experiment were analyzed by using SPSS technique, where the first measurement
version 17, obtained the result that the (pretest) was done before treatments, then the
validity for the career maturity scale with 54 second measurement afterwards
items, from 15 items invalid got the lowest r (Trihendradi, 2010).
-0,023 while from 39 valid items got the
highest r 0.648. Therefore, the validity ranges 4) Evaluation and reporting stage At this
from -0.023 to 0.648. stage
The reliability of the measuring The researcher tried to compile the research
instrument determines the extent to which report that has been implemented and has
measurements with such devices can be been analyzed.
trusted. Techniques to use in the reliability 4. RESULTS
test of this research are using Cronbach A. Descriptive Statistics
Alpha formula. It is used because of the score Based on the research, results obtained
imposed in instruments that range from 1 to descriptive statistical data presented in Table
4. Alpha Cronbach formula is used to search 1 which shows the results of the analysis of
for instrument reliability whose score is not 1 career maturity variables in the experimental
and 0 (Arikunto, 2006: 196). Data processing group from pretest to posttest. In table 1, the
is done by using SPSS (Statistical Packages total number of pretest and posttest (raw
for Social Science) v.17.00. Based on the value) is calculated to see the change of
results of testing through SPSS version 17 by value occurring so that there is an increase or
removing the invalid items obtained results decrease. The table 2 to find descriptive
for reliability of career maturity scale description of subject conditions.
obtained reliability coefficient of 0.884. Table 2. Difference in the total value of (raw)
Data analysis includes all activities pretest-posttest.
classifying, analyzing, interpreting and Subject SUM
drawing conclusions from all data collected pre Post Information
in action. Data analysis used in this research 1 115 111 decrease
is quantitative data analysis with parametric 2 102 100 decrease
analysis technique. 3 115 123 Increase
The use of parametric statistics is 4 114 125 Increase
caused by the data being used in the form of 5 129 130 Increase
intervals. The parametric statistics work with 6 101 103 Increase
the assumption that the data to be tested is 7 124 127 Increase
8 106 123 Decrease
normally distributed. Researchers will
9 90 117 Increase
perform data analysis about the maturity of
10 101 107 Increase
the subject's career by looking at the
83

11 126 123 Decrease


12 106 116 Increase B. Assumption Test
13 95 93 Decrease Test Assumptions conducted normality
14 123 110 Decrease test conducted before testing hypotheses. The
15 109 116 Increase normality test was performed to use the one
16 104 112 Increase sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov technique with
17 112 117 Increase p> 0.05. The assumption that the distribution
18 121 139 Increase of normal data means the sample research
19 111 115 Increase can represent the existing population.
20 125 125 Stabil
Based on table 4 of normality test
21 104 115 Increase
results, Kolmogorov-Smirnov value for
22 115 113 Decrease
23 126 129 Increase
career maturity in the experimental group is
24 116 147 Increase 0.876 at the time of pretest and 0.940 at the
25 123 127 Increase time of postes. This means that the data
26 116 119 Increase distribution is normal in both conditions.
27 106 105 Decrease
28 116 140 Increase Table 4. Normality Assumption Test Results
29 114 137 Increase
30 98 106 increase One-Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test
Based on the above data, it can be seen that PRE POST
career counseling can affect the maturity of TEST TEST
the subject's career, where there are 21 N 30 30
subjects who experienced an increase in 119,0
value. Mean 112,10
Normal 0
a,b
Parameters Std. 12,46
Table 3. Results of descriptive analysis of 10,097
Deviation 8
subject matter maturity Absolute ,108 ,097
Most Extreme
Positive ,094 ,097
Paired Samples Statistics Differences
Negative -,108 -,059
Mean N Std. Std. Kolmogorov-Smirnov Z ,591 ,532
Deviation Error Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed) ,876 ,940
Mean
PRET a. Test distribution is Normal.
112,1 30 10,097 1,844 b. Calculated from data.
Pair EST
1 POST
119,0 30 12,468 2,276
TEST C. Hypothesis Testing

Based on table 3 it is known that the average The researcher analyzed the difference
score of experiment group career maturity at of value in pretest and posttest, t test
the time of pretest is 112.10, then, it calculation was done to see the significance
experienced an increase in the average score of the difference. Data is displayed in table.5
of career maturity to 119. It shows a change below.
in the average score of career maturity Table 5. Hypothesis Test Results
subject after following career guidance
activities of 6.9. Paired Samples Correlations
N Correlatio Sig.
n
84

PRETEST & expected to reduce the impact of problems


Pair 1 30 ,626 ,000
POSTTEST and improve one's function. This goal will be
achieved through a series of educational
Based on the above data it can be seen activities about a problem or disorder, how to
that the level of relationship variables before overcome it, and the ability of a person
and after training shows a correlation value (Stuart and Laraia, 2001). Psycho-education
of 0.626 which indicates a close relationship. is based on strength and focused on the
Then, 95% confidence level obtained value present. This is in line with the activities of
of significance of 0.001, where the Psychoeducation "Edufair" where the subject
significance value of 0.001 <0.05 is meant of research is given knowledge about
significantly. It shows that there is a information about career. In addition,
significant difference in the career maturity Edufair's psychoeducation "also teaches
of the subject before and after receiving skills that are considered important for the
career guidance. subject to make decisions about his future
career (Dixon, 1999; Marsh, 1992, quoted
from Lukens and McFarlane, 2004).
5. DISCUSSION Hallen (2002) states that the process of
Results of research conducted on student continuous relief from a mentor who has
career maturity to found that all indicators of been prepared to someone who needs it in
maturity significantly increased. Students order to develop all the potential what he has
who received treatment in the form of optimally by using various media and
Psychoeducation "Edufair" received guidance techniques in a normative
materials covering the provision of upbringing environment in order to achieve
information about the characteristics of independence in a person. It can be beneficial
adolescents, interests and talents, factors for both himself and his environment.
affecting the career, the competence of each Assistance includes career planning, decision
department, information in various majors in making, problem-solving skills development,
college, tips on grabbing dream institution, career information and self-understanding,
and preparation for SBMPTN. Furthermore, understanding positive attitudes toward all
students also obtain information service types of work, and developing positive living
majors at universities in Makassar. The habits (Abubakar, 2011).
results of this study are in line with the Results of Psychoeducation Activities
results of research conducted by Milgram "Edufair" consisting of career seminars and
(1991) who career development is a lifelong information service majors in Y senior high
crystallization process of a job identity, school of Makassar proved to affect student
career education being a process of learning career maturity. This is evident from the
with emphasis on information world work, increase in career maturity students before
requirements and activities of special work, and after joining Edufair Career Guidance.
talents, interests, and job values. Career This is in line with the opinion of Super
guidance focuses on the use of the necessary (1983: Melien Wu and Chen-Chieh Chang:
information in the career education process 2009) states that efforts to improve career
on personal planning and career making maturity should be accompanied by the
career. Therefore, both career education and provision of t which includes two
career guidance, they must be an integral part dimensions, namely affective dimensions,
of the educational curriculum. and cognitive dimensions Information
The purpose of the psychoeducation sharing to use media classical guidance
program is to increase knowledge and it is services what is in accordance with these
85

demands. The affective dimension includes Azwar, S.2013. Reliability and


attitudes toward careers and decision-making Validity.Yogyakarta: Student Literature.
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Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Journal of Nursing Soedirman (The
Widjaja, A. M. 2010. The relationship Soedirman Journal Of Nursing),
between self efficacy with career Volume 5, No.2. Nursing program
maturity in adolescents. Purwokerto, Poltekkes, Semarang
Thesis.UNIKA Repository. Retrieved
The 1st International Conference on Education, Science, Art and Technology (the 1st ICESAT)
Universitas Negeri Makassar. 22 23 July 2017

The Effect of Classroom Management on Student Learning Outcomes

M. Said Saggaf1, Rudi Salam2, Rifka2


1
STIA PRIMA Sengkang, Kabupaten Wajo, Sulawesi Selatan, Makassar, Indonesia
2
Universitas Negeri Makassar
Corresponding e-mail: rudisalam@unm.ac.id

Abstract: This study aims to determine the description of classroom management and description
of learning outcomes and the influence of classroom management on student learning
outcomes. This research is a quantitative research. Sampling was done using
proportional random sampling technique from a population of 155 people. Respondents
in this study are the students of class X Skill Competence Administration Office SMK
Negeri Makassar as many as 47 respondents. To achieve these objectives, the
researchers used data collection techniques through observation, questionnaires,
documentation, and interviews. The results showed that classroom management was
categorized both regarding physical conditions, Socio-emotional conditions and
organizational conditions. For learning outcomes fall into the category of both the value
of student report cards. From the result of analysis and hypothesis test show that there is
the influence of class management to result in student learning of class X Office Skill
Competence Administration at SMK Negeri 1 Makassar. This is seen from the results of
data analysis performed, with r arithmetic is 0.451 and r table is 0.288 at a significant
level of 5 percent which means that the level of influence is categorized in the category
of being.

Keywords: Classroom Management, Learning Outcomes

1 INTRODUCTION improvement of education management,


and the construction of educational
Education is an effort to prepare students facilities and infrastructures. With this
through guidance, instruction, and training renewal is expected to produce a creative
for their role in the future (Clark & Mayer, human being by the demands of the times,
2016; Darling-Hammond, 2015, 2015; which in the end the quality of education in
Feisel & Rosa, 2005; Sherry, 1995; Indonesia increases (Kristiansen, 2006;
Zeichner, 1987). Therefore, the school as a Medlock III & Soligo, 2001; Mourougane,
formal educational institution should 2012).
systematically plan a variety of Improving the quality of education can
environments, namely the educational be seen from the achievement of optimal
environment that provides various learning outcomes. Learning outcomes are a
opportunities for students to undertake change in student behavior due to learning.
various learning activities. With a variety of The change is sought in the process of
learning opportunities, growth and teaching and learning to achieve
development of students directed and educational goals. According to Stachowski
driven to the achievement of the aspired & Mahan, (1998) "learning outcomes are
goal (DuFour & Eaker, 2009; Paris & Paris, patterns of deeds, values, insights, attitudes,
2001; Wohlstetter, Datnow, & Park, 2008). appreciations, and skills."
To achieve the objectives of National Learning outcomes are influenced by the
Education, the Government through the subject's learning experience with the
Ministry of National Education seeks to physical world and its environment. Student
improve and reform the education system in learning outcomes depend on what is
Indonesia, namely in the form of already known, the subject of learning, the
curriculum renewal, structuring teachers, goals, the motivations that influence the

98
99

process of interaction with the material


being studied. A person's learning outcomes
can achieve maximum results if the teacher 3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
can manage the class well. Clark's research
says students '70% student learning 3.1 Class management
outcomes are influenced by students' ability
and 30% are influenced by the The results showed that the implementation
environment.
Based on observations made in of classroom management in SMK Negeri 1
November 2015 by researchers at SMK Makassar was in a good category, seen
Negeri 1 Makssar, showing the atmosphere from 3 indicators, such as 1) physical
of the less conducive class, the arrangement condition, 2) socio-emotional, 3)
of goods that are less groomed, students are organizational condition.
noisy so disturbing the concentration of
other students and disrupt the learning 3.1.1 Physical Condition
process. From the above problems, we can
conclude that a teacher must be able to The physical condition of the place where
manage the class well so that the creation of the learning process has an important
an atmosphere conducive to teaching and influence on student learning outcomes.
learning process. Teachers are required to
improve their roles and competencies; Physical conditions in question are the
competent teachers will be better able to room where the process of teaching and
create an effective learning environment learning, seating arrangements, ventilation
and will be better able to manage their and lighting arrangements and the
classes. arrangement of storage of goods.
Based on the results of research related
2 METHODS physical condition indicator showed good
category. In this case, teachers who teach in
Researchers use a quantitative research class X competence office administration
approach with the type of associative expertise at SMK Negeri 1 Makassar has
research. This research consists of two done the classroom management with good
variables, namely class management as visible from the flexibility of students while
independent variable given X symbol and in the classroom so as not to disturb other
student learning result as dependent students when going out or doing activities
variable given Y symbol. To measure the
variable of this research, then used the in space class. Also, seating arrangements
instrument in the form of a questionnaire are usually made by teachers to make
which is submitted to the respondent by students feel more comfortable in following
using a likert scale. The population in this the learning process because seating
study were students of Class X Competency arrangements made allow students to see
of Administration Skill of Perkantroan teachers who are explaining and can see the
SMK Negeri 1 Makassar 155 people. existing writing on the board.
Researchers use the technique of sampling Good physical condition is also
in proportional (proportional random supported from good air circulation where
sampling) so that the research sample can there is considerable ventilation so students
be obtained as many as 47 people at once can breathe fresh air. A large window also
used as respondents research.
Data collection techniques use several allows the sunlight to enter so students can
techniques, namely: 1) Observation, 2) see the writings on the board or any
Questionnaire, 3) Documentation, 4) textbook they use in the teaching and
Interview. Data analysis techniques used learning process.
are descriptive statistical analysis and The process of teaching and learning can
inferential statistical analysis which aims to also take place well with the arrangement of
examine research variables and will be goods such as hygiene kits, pictures of
calculated using SPSS 23 (Statically Predict presidents and vice presidents, pictures of
and Service Solutions) national heroes, vases of flowers, erasers,
100

and markers in good class and terartur. Regular organizational activities done both
Goods that is well organized it makes at the classroom level and at the school
students feel comfortable and to follow the level will prevent classroom management
teaching and learning process properly and problems. With routine activities
help students take the goods when required. undertaken and communicated clearly and
openly to all students, will be embedded in
3.1.2 Socio-Emotional Conditions every student and become a good habit and
regularity of behavior. The organizational
conditions that are meant are the
The socio-emotional codes in the classroom replacement of the lesson, the absent
will have a considerable effect on the teachers and the problem of students.
learning process and will ultimately also Based on the results of organizational
affect the outcomes achieved by the research conditions that occurred in class X
students. The sociological-emotional competency of administration expertise in
characteristic is the type of teacher SMK Negeri 1 Makassar is in a good
leadership in the learning process, the category. This can be seen from some of the
teacher's attitude and the voice of the students who will remain in the classroom
teacher in the teaching and learning waiting for the teacher to be teaching
process. during the turn of the lesson, and if the
The results showed that socio-emotional hours are long enough, then they will spend
condition in class X The competency of their free time by visiting the library or
administration skill in SMK Negeri 1 staying in the classroom and reading the
Makassar is in a good category, it can be textbook.
seen from the type of leadership of the The good organizational condition is
democratic teacher so as to provide great also evident from the condition of class X
opportunities for friendship attitudes Competence of office administration
between teachers and students. The expertise at SMK Negeri 1 Makassar which
democratic attitude of the teacher is seen looks to be coordinated with when their
from the openness of the teacher to accept teachers are unable to attend. All students
the opinions of his students and the will directly perform the tasks assigned by
students' openness about the problems faced substitute teachers when teachers who are
by his teacher thus creating a good supposed to teach cant attend. Also, the
classroom climate and creating optimal class situation will be conducive back in the
conditions for teaching and learning event of problems, the class leader causes
process. this, or other students have the initiative to
The attitude of teachers who remain report to the homeroom teacher or other
patient and friendly in dealing with students teachers to be able to solve problems that
who violate the rules provide a positive occur so as not to cause distance among the
value to the socio-emotional conditions felt other students.
by students during the learning process. In
addition to that, the voices of teachers who 3.2 Learning outcomes
teach in the class X competency of
administration expertise in SMK Negeri 1 Student learning outcomes are abilities that
Makassar also provide stimulus for students include the cognitive, affective and
to dare to question because the voice of psychomotor domains that change as a
teachers is relatively low but with clear result of students' experiences and learning
articulation and full volume so that All process. Student learning outcomes were
students can hear it. obtained from students' report score. The
result of class X students' learning
3.1.3 Organizational Condition competency of office administration skill in
SMK Negeri 1 Makassar is in the good
101

category in a review of the average score of physical conditions, socio-emotional


student report cards. conditions, and organizational conditions.
The result of student learning of class X
The result of this research shows that there competency of administration skill of office
is the influence of class management to at SMK Negeri 1 Makassar in the good
student learning result of class X category. This can be seen from the average
competence of administration skill in SMK value of student report cards that are mostly
Negeri 1 Makassar with medium within the range of values of 75-89. The
relationship level. The results of hypothesis effect of classroom management on student
testing of this study indicate that the learning outcomes of class X competence of
classroom management of student learning administrative skill in SMK Negeri 1
outcomes class X competence of Makassar with moderate influence level, so
administrative skills in SMK Negeri 1 that hypothesis that allegedly there is the
Makassar has a significant influence. influence of class management to student
The result of hypothesis from research learning result of class X competence of
using SPSS 23 (Statistical Product Standart administration skill of office at SMK
Solusion), that there is the influence of Negeri 1 Makassar acceptable.
class management to result in student
learning of class X competence of 5 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
administration skill of office at SMK
Negeri 1 Makassar. This means that the Thanks to the SMKN 1 Makassar who has
hypothesis that allegedly there is a contributed in assisting researchers in
significant influence of classroom preparing the research to complete. Thus,
management on student learning outcomes the 1st International Conference on
class X competence of administrative skills Education, Science, Art and Technology
in SMK Negeri 1 Makassar in this study is (the 1st ICESAT) in improving scholarship
acceptable. in the world.
The results above are also in line with
the opinion of Metzler (2017) which states 6 REFERENCES
a person can obtain maximum learning
outcomes if true teachers can manage the Clark, R. C., & Mayer, R. E. (2016). E-
class well. Also, Clark in his research stated learning and the science of
the students' learning outcomes at school instruction: Proven guidelines for
70% influenced by the ability of students
and 30% influenced by the environment. consumers and designers of
The classroom is the smallest environment multimedia learning. John Wiley &
of the school where students carry out the Sons.
learning process activities. Conducive Darling-Hammond, L. (2015). The flat
classroom conditions will have a positive world and education: How Americas
impact on the achievement of student commitment to equity will determine
learning outcomes. Therefore, teachers our future. Teachers College Press.
should be able to create conducive class
conditions through good class managers, so DuFour, R., & Eaker, R. (2009).
that students can achieve maximum Professional Learning Communities at
learning outcomes. Work : Best Practices for
Enhancing Students Achievement.
4 CONCLUSIONS Solution Tree Press.
Feisel, L. D., & Rosa, A. J. (2005). The role
Management of class X competence of of the laboratory in undergraduate
administrative skill of office at SMK
Negeri 1 Makassar in the good category. engineering education. Journal of
This can be seen based on indicators of Engineering Education, 94(1), 121
102

130.
Kristiansen, S. (2006). Decentralising
education in Indonesia. International
Journal of Educational Development,
26(5), 513531.
Medlock III, K. B., & Soligo, R. (2001).
Economic development and end-use
energy demand. The Energy Journal,
77105.
Metzler, M. (2017). Instructional models in
physical education. Routledge.
Mourougane, A. (2012). Promoting SME
development in Indonesia. OECD
Economic Department Working
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Paris, S. G., & Paris, A. H. (2001).
Classroom applications of research on
self-regulated learning. Educational
Psychologist, 36(2), 89101.
Sherry, L. (1995). Issues in distance
learning. International Journal of
Educational Telecommunications,
1(4), 337365.
Stachowski, L. L., & Mahan, J. M. (1998).
Cross cultural field placements:
Student teachers learning from schools
and communities. Theory into
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Wohlstetter, P., Datnow, A., & Park, V.
(2008). Creating a system for data-
driven decision-making: Applying the
principal-agent framework. School
Effectiveness and School
Improvement, 19(3), 239259.
Zeichner, K. M. (1987). Preparing
reflective teachers: An overview of
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Educational Research, 11(5), 565
575.
The 1st International Conference on Education, Science, Art and Technology (the 1st ICESAT)
Universitas Negeri Makassar. 22 23 July 2017

The Effect of Service Marketing Mix on Consumer Decision Making

Muh. Aras, Husain Syam, Jasruddin, Haedar Akib, Hasnawi Haris


Universitas Negeri Makassar, Jl. A.P. Pettarani Kampus UNM Gunungsari, Makassar, Indonesia
Corresponding e-mail: h.muh_aras@yahoo.com

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of service marketing mix to
consumer decision making. The location of the research was conducted in Hero Tailor
Makassar. Meanwhile, the research population were all consumers who chose men's
suits on Hero Tailor Makassar while the samples were 100 respondents. Data collection
techniques used were: 1) questionnaires, 2) documentation techniques, 3) interviews.
Data analysis used was path analysis with multivariate analysis development using
SPSS. The results showed that the most influential product variables on consumer
decisions. Next followed by variable price, promotion, people, location and physical
evidence. However, process variables are indicators that have no relationship or
influence between consumer decisions.

Keywords: Marketing Mix, Consumer, Decision Making.

1 INTRODUCTION through employee skill support, capital and


knowledge and produce goods in the form
Progress and development in various of clothing.
sectors, especially industries in Indonesia In order to develop and market a
has increased significantly. The increase in business, not the exception of convection
this sector is in line with the increasing business, so that needs to know is about
level of the State's economy (Cohen & marketing management. Today, marketing
Levinthal, 1989; Evans & Rauch, 1999; studies are increasingly complex, originally
Haskel, Pereira, & Slaughter, 2007;
Oconnor, 1979; Storey, 2016). targeting only four points, namely; Product,
One of the industrial sectors that price, promotion, and place are now
experienced rapid development is the targeting to packaging, positioning, and
convection industry, as well as expressed people (Asyari, 2010).
by experts such as: Ananda & Setiawan, Thus, talking about the target market in
(2011); Aribawa, (2009); Arifah, (2011); marketing studies means at least we must
Fadliilah & Atmanti, (2012); Setiyadi know the seven things, especially in the
(2008); Mekhilef, Saidur, & Safari (2011); field of production of a good (Dharma &
Mujumdar (1995). The changing pattern of Akib, 2009; Ismail, Sulur, Akib, & Salam,
public consumption in accordance with the 2016; Salam, Rosdiana, Suarlin, & Akib,
development of fashion makes the 2014). Hero Tailor is a company engaged in
convection industries also adjust to the good sewing which consists of several
needs of consumers in order to continue to types of men's and women's clothing in the
grow. As is known, convection is a type of city of Makassar. In supporting the
business in the manufacture of clothing or operational activities, the company
clothing needs en masse especially in experienced a growth in clothing sales from
fashion tailoring business. Fashion dressing year to year develop. But in the last year
business is an activity that produces Hero Tailor company experienced various
clothing products starting with the selection obstacles and challenges both from internal
of raw materials / materials with color company and from outside company. The
criteria motif, price, model, then processed problems obtained in the field are: 1)

108
109

changes in consumer tastes, 2) limited Table 1. Domination Test


business capital, 3) increased employee
salaries. To overcome these problems, it Standardized
takes a marketing strategy in making Coefficients
decisions. Companies must take concrete Variabel t Information
Beta
steps to address the problem. Product-
0,496 8,119 Domination
X1
2 METHOD
Price-X2 0,203 4,112 Influential
This research is a kind of quantitative Place- Influential
0,116 1,962
research. The location of the research was X3
conducted in Hero Tailor Makassar. The Promoti
0,180 2,826
Influential
population of the study were all consumers on=X4
who chose men's suits on Hero Tailor People Influential
Makassar, while the samples taken as many 0,117 2,248
=X5
as 100 respondents. Data collection Process= - No
techniques used are: 1) questionnaires, 2) -,083
X6 1,056 Influential
documentation techniques, 3) interviews. a Dependent Variable: Keputusan Konsumen-y
The variables in this research are: 1)
Independent variable (X) = Marketing mix
Service consisting of: X1 = Product, X2 = 3.1 Product Variable (X1)
Price, X3 = Place, X4 = Promotion, X5 =
People, X6 = Process, X7 = Physical Product variable (X1) has direct path
evidence, 2) the dependent variable (Y) is coefficient value to consumer decision (Y)
the consumer's decision. Data analysis used equal to 0,496, with coefficient value of
was path analysis with multivariate analysis Pearson zero order equal to 0,8 so result
development using SPSS. Path analysis is a direct influence from product is equal to
technique used to analyze causal linkages in 39,9 percent toward consumer decision.
multiple regression, if the independent This means that the quality of a good suit
variables affect the variables directly or will be able to influence the consumer's
indirectly" (Retherford & Choe, 1993). decision to choose a suit on Hero Tailor.
The results of this study are supported by
3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION research conducted by Dodds & Monroe
(1985); Milgrom & Roberts (1986); Stark
Path analysis is used for direct or indirect (2015); Teng & Thompson (1996) revealed
correlation between independent variables: that with a quality product it will increase
X1 = Product, X2 = price, X3 = place, X4 = the product sales results. This shows that
promotion, X5 =people, X6 = process, X7 = the efforts made by Hero Tailor Makassar
physical evidence, with dependent variable have been very good by making
or decision consumer. In testing hypothesis improvements in product quality in
done with significance level t <0,05. For accordance with the needs of consumers.
more details, can be seen in table 1.
3.2 Price Variable (X2)

The value of coefficient of direct line


price variable (X2) to consumer decision
(Y) is 0,203. With the value of coefficient
pearson zero order of 0.487 then obtained a
direct influence of 9.8 percent. This means
that the price standard will affect the
consumer's decision to choose a suit on
Hero Tailor. Based on these results, Hero
Tailor has made an effort to adjust market
110

prices in accordance with consumer needs. relationship is 11.09 percent for direct
Price is one factor that greatly influences influence and 19.06 percent for indirect
the consumer's decision to own the product influence on consumer decisions to choose
(Laurent & Kapferer, 1985; Lu Wang & suit on Hero Tailor. Based on the results of
Xiong Chen, 2004; Padel & Foster, 2005). research indicate that in performing
If Hero Tailor does not do that, then the function as an people.
consumer will choose another place
because it has a lot of growing sewing 3.6 Process Variable (X6)
business in the city of Makassar.
Process variables only have indirect
3.3 Place Variable (X3) influence through promotion variable (X4)
to consumer decision (Y) equal to -, 083.
The value of direct path coefficient of This means that the process cannot
Place Variable (X3) to consumer decision influence the consumer's decision to choose
(Y) is 0,116. While the indirect effect a suit, so the result of the tailoring process
through product variables (X1) of 0.217. will affect the consumer's decision after
These results indicate that the strategic through promotional variables. Pearson
location, then the consumer will get the zero order coefficient value of 0.613 so that
convenience to come directly and choose the effective contribution resulting from the
the types of products desired. This is in indirect relationship is 29.8 percent of
accordance with the results of research consumer decisions to choose a suit on
(Ailawadi & Keller, 2004) who said that Hero Tailor.
with a strategic location will make
consumers to come because it is able to be 3.7 Physical Evidence Variable (X6)
reached easily.
Physical evidence (X7) has direct path
3.3 Promotion Variable (X4) coefficient value to consumer decision (Y)
equal to 0,123 and coefficient value of
Promotion variable (X4) has direct path indirect effect line through people variable
variable coefficient of Place (X3) to (X5) equal to 0,426. This means that with
consumer decision (Y) equal to 0,180 and complete physical e will certainly greatly
indirect influence through product variable help improve employee performance.
(X1) equal to 0,254 and location variable
(X3) equal to 0,567. So, the effective 4 CONCLUSIONS
contribution resulting from the two patterns
of relationship is 12 per cent which is The results showed that the product
obtained through direct influence and 17.04 variable is the most dominant variable that
and 38.04 per cent are indirect influences. affects the consumer's decision with the
This means that promotion is done, then the value of direct path coefficient of 0.217.
consumer will be easier about the products Then followed by price variable with direct
offered so indirectly also will be easier to coefficient value equal to 0,203, promotion
know the location of Hero Tailor. of direct coefficient value equal to 0,180,
people direct coefficient value equal to
3.5 People Variable (X4) 0,177, place of direct coefficient value
equal to and physical evidence value of
The value of direct line coefficient of direct coefficient equal to 0,123. However,
people variable (X5) to consumer decision the process variable is an indicator that has
(Y) is 0,177 and indirect effect value no relationship or influence between the
through product variable (X1) is 0,304. The consumer decision of the value of the direct
value of zero order pearson coefficient of coefficient of -, 083.
0.627, so the effective contribution
resulting from the two patterns of
111

5 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS evaluations. ACR North American


Advances.
Thanks to the relevant parties in this Evans, P., & Rauch, J. E. (1999).
research. We highly appreciate for the Bureaucracy and growth: A cross-
business Hero Tailor and the executor of national analysis of the effects of
the 1st International Conference on Weberian state structures on
Education, Science, Art and Technology economic growth. American
(the 1st ICESAT) in improving scholarship Sociological Review, 748765.
in the world. Fadliilah, D. N., & Atmanti, H. D. (2012).
Analisis Penyerapan Tenaga Kerja
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state. Transaction Publishers.


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The 1st International Conference on Education, Science, Art and Technology (the 1st ICESAT)
Universitas Negeri Makassar. 22 23 July 2017

Implementation of Think Talk Write Learning Strategy (TTW) In Impro


Write Skills German Language

(Class Action Research Studies on German Students FBS UNM

Misnah Mannahali
German Language Education Study Program, Jl.Dg. Tata Raya, Makassar, Indonesia.
Makassar State University

e-mail: misnah_mannahali@yahoo.co.id

Abstract: This study aims to determine the process and results of improving students' writi
through Think Talk Write learning strategy. This research is a class action researc
cycles conducted on the students of German Language Study Program of Makas
University from January to May 2017. The data are collected through observati
interview, questionnaire and diary. The collected data were analyzed statistically des
The result of data analysis shows that the implementation of Think Talk Write stra
improve students ability in writing German language. The data indicated by the
score of pre-test obtained by students is 54.6 test results in cycle 1 increased to 64.50
the second cycle the average student's writing skill achievement increased to 76.5
test results on the third cycle increased to 88.50. This means that the learning str
Think Talk Write is very effective in improving students' skills in writing German.

Keywords: German writing skills, learning strategy of Think Talk Write.

1. PRELIMINARY expression in the form of written


between one individual with another in
Higher Education is the level of education that Related to that Dendy Sugono (2009:15)
accommodates students to explore various that the language as a means of
disciplines as their stock before plunging into the expression and means of communication i
community. It is also an attempt to create human life. Through written language one can
resources ready to work in this globalization era. ideas, ideas and thoughts to achieve the
Therefore, the students as the next generation goals. Writing is the basis for learning sci
must have various skills, one of them is German improving communication. Through th
language skill. students can improve their insigh
German language skills include four intellectuals on various disciplines,
aspects: listening ability (Hoerverstehen), communication and interaction globally,
speaking (Sprechfertigkeit), reading develop language skills. To facilitate the
(Leseverstehen) and writing skills skills and facilitate the process of thin
(Schreibfertigkeit). The four aspects of language producing a meaningful writing in ac
are related to each other. Reading and listening with the learning objectives to be achiev
skills are included in receptive skills, while there are various things that must be em
speaking and writing are included in productive in the process of learning this writing inc
abilities. Listening and speaking is a direct mastery of vocabulary and grammar,
communication while reading and writing ideas, thoughts or ideas Which correspon
activities is not direct communication. Reading type of writing that will be produced, the
and writing activities are two complementary writing and the accuracy in using the sente
activities. Writing skills demand the development Writing is a type of skill that is r
of thought patterns or ideas. Writing is a more difficult to be mastered by learn
productive and expressive activity. Without the other language skills. Writing is not a
habit of reading someone will be difficult in matter, pouring a language into a sy
writing. Good writing will excite readers and good writing is a process of thinking in truth th
readers always yearn for quality writing (Tarigan, It therefore requires a sufficient ability
2008:8). Writing skills have a very important role. and interest in what is to be written.
These skills cannot be directly controlled by German writing skills based on
learners but must go through the exercise of German curriculum are present
the previous pre-requisite courses have been delivered (listening, stretching). Reading
graduated, and presented starting from the first are communicated through presentations
semester to semester VI. The purpose of teaching discussions, and then make a report
German writing skills is to assist or equip students presentation or discussion.
with the ability to write different types of writing Suryaman (2010:26) states t
such as narrative, argumentative, exposition, letter strategy is a tactic that someone from an
writing, resume, personal data, reviews, reports or designed to achieve the goal. Coo
papers. learning strategy is a learning strate
From the result of value observation and provides opportunities for learners t
interview with some lecturers of Lesen und together and discuss to achieve a goal. Th
Schreiben lecturer, obtained information that the Write Strategy is a cooperative learning
average student in the course is not bad but has two skills training namely speaking and
not Reached the maximum results in accordance skills to achieve the purpose of language
with the expected demands of mastery learning. Think Talk Write Strategy is one of coo
The lack of maximum learning outcomes is seen learning that can stimulate learners to
in the still many students who are less able to pour active to construct or build under
ideas and ideas into the form of writing is correct. independently. This strategy is known
In addition, the mastery of vocabulary and their learning in groups. Huinker and Laughin i
ability in preparing the sentence is also not and Anshari (2008) state that in the
sufficient. process using TTW, awakening will be d
In general, the results obtained by students through thinking, speaking and wri
are influenced by various factors, among others, engaging learners in thinking and dialog
the students themselves, facilities and learning themselves after going through the pr
infrastructure and faculty. Similarly, in the reading, then talking and sharing ideas (
learning of German writing skills, that is still not with friends before writing.
maximal learning outcomes achieved by students Slavin (2009:19) suggests that th
most likely cannot be separated from these factors. kinds of coopeartive theory is the th
One of them is the technique factor or learning motivation which assumes that there
strategy used by lecturers in presenting less varied objectives of learners in group learning th
learning materials so that less effective teaching cooperative ie students try to contribut
and learning process that causes students' achievement of other member goals, (2)
understanding of the material presented less than of other members, (3) individualistic t
the maximum. learner does not have any consequenc
Writing skills is a process of thinking that achievement of other member. Therefore,
consists of a series of activities associated with to achieve personal goals, group memb
learning influenced by many factors. One of them work together so that the group can succe
is the lecturer in this case the lecturer plays an fullest. The second theory is cognit
important role in directing the learning process to emphasizes the influence of cooperation
achieve the goal. Learning strategy used by success that will be achieved group. In
lecturers is very influential in achievement of the steps are as follows:
student achievement. One of the strategies or a. Think (thinking), at this stage the
models of writing skill learning is Think-Talk- process is done to understand th
Write (TTW). This strategy can be used to material individually which then the
develop the learning system effectively and the thinking process was used as a di
efficiently. According to Huda (2013:218) that in the group.
TTW strategy is a cooperative learning strategy b. Talk (talking / discussing), the di
that encourages students to think, talk and then process is intended so that learn
write a certain topic. Through this Think-Talk- exchange thoughts and reflect the r
Write strategy learners can work on ideas that understanding at the stage of
have been discussed before putting them into Interaction between learners is exp
writing. In addition, this TTW strategy invites produce a solution to the understandin
students to think first about the material related to given material. In this stage, the a
daily problems, then they are invited to exchange communicate learners will be seen
ideas in group discussion, and then poured the discussion.
ideas obtained in the previous stage into writing. c. Write (write), this writing stage is the
The writings produced by learners are the result of goal of learning. At this stage learne
reflection and the process of brainstorming during down the ideas they get at the think
group discussions. discussion stage.
1. Classes are divided into groups of 4 to 5 people Writing skills include a var
(adjusted to classroom conditions). abilities: 1) the ability to use language
2. Students are assigned a topic as a task and they appropriately, 2) the ability to organize d
individually search for as much information in the form of essays, and 3) the abilit
related to the topic. language style and choice of the righ
3. In groups, the students formed interact. (Saddhono, 2012: 103).
Collaborate and discuss to discuss topics that In general, the stage or the writing
have been previously studied individually. In is 1) prewriting stage the author thinks
the process of the discussion, the student and ideas that emerged. 2) Drafting is the
should record new knowledge that may help a plan mapping or drafting, 3) revising.
him and the writing process later. In line with this, Boerner (199
4. Reconstruct the knowledge acquired at the time forward four steps in the writing pro
of discussion, then pour in the form of writing. Planen, Ideen erzugen, Zielen setzen, Inha
In general, ability can be equated with und Perspektive waehlen (planning, idea
skills that refer to the relatively stable skills a goal setting, content arrangement and pe
person possesses in performing certain activities selection); 2) Formulieren: Ausdrueck
(Colquitt, 2009:337). In relation to language Aufschreiben (formulation: declare an
learning and learning, ability or skill is a real down); 3) bertreiben: Lesen und ve
production (speaking and writing) or (Correction of reading and repair); 4)
understanding (listening and reading) of linguistic produzierter Text (ready to produce writin
events (Brown, 2007:35). Furthermore, Harmer (2004:4)
Furthermore, the definition of writing four play elements in the writing proces
according to Schneider is "talking" is to speak by namely: 1) Planning items, namely auth
using the symbol of sound. He thinks that writing writing they will generate, 2) Drafting
is the same as speaking because it is a drafting, 3) Editing is editing phase co
representation of language in a textual medium existing post to check Whether writing s
through the use of a series of signs or symbols continued or revised., 4) the final vers
called the writing system (Schneider, 2011:1). stage where the working end of the article
Similar opinion expressed by Nurgiyantoro In connection with these opinion
(2012:422) that in principle writing activities are Alex e.l. state that the writing process co
not different from the activities of speaking three stages: 1) Preparation (preparation
because of activities that produce language and includes the manufacture of writing
communicate thoughts in writing. (outline), found the idea attractive (eye c
The same notion by Dalman (2012:1) that and find keywords (key word finding), 2)
writing as a form of delivery of messages ie the writing stage, 3) Editing ie the edi
(communication) by using written language as the that includes pay attention to the word
medium. In written communication, there are four punctuation, pay attention to the rela
elements involved, namely 1) the author as a between sentence and paragraph, fan
messenger, 2) message or content writing, 3) essay as a whole.
channel or media in the form of writing, and 4) the From some of Reviews These
reader as the recipient of the message. Writing can be concluded that an outline of the
activities require the involvement of authors think process consists of Several stages namely
deeply to find the problems conveyed in the form predation, drafts, writing, revision and w
of ideas to the reader with the arrangement and the results of the revision.
compilation of writing that coherent for reader's An article is said to be good if it c
thoughts the same as the author. the components that have been Discus
Another definition proposed by O'Malley clear and intact. Component of the asses
& Pierce that writing is an activity to express writing skills by Bolton (2008:132)
thoughts and ideas in specific topics with using Beherschung der Grammatik und Wo
background knowledge and complex mental (mastery of grammar and vocabula
processes in developing ideas and insights Beherschung der Ortographie
(O'Malley & Pierce, 2008:136). punctuation), 3) Kommunikative Angeme
From some opinions, it can be concluded (use of language communicative),
that writing is a skill in the language that train Sprachliche Richtigkeit (The accuracy
someone to think critically in the development of language).
ideas or ideas into the form of writing. If it is Alderson (2002:116) sugges
related to the understanding of the skill or ability, components assessment in writing skill
it can be concluded that writing skill is the ability namely: 1) content (content), 2) orga
components of the assessment in writing skills
items, namely: 1) the content of the idea. 2) the
organization of content, 3) grammar, 4) style, Lattice Instruments
choice of words and grammatical structures, and Components Description
5) the spelling and punctuation. Writing Skills
From some opinions mentioned above can The idea is clear,
be concluded that the components that need to be to the topic, specifi
considered in the assessment of writing skills is The contents
parts of an integr
the contents of essay, organization writing, (Content)
Appropriate.
vocabulary and grammar and spelling and developed the idea.
punctuation. Writing is well or
the idea is clear, log
Organization
2. METHOD effective order and
cohesion and coher
This study uses action research (Action Research) The use of th
by referring to the theory advanced by Elliot with efficient and div
two methods: qualitative and quantitative Writing a compl
Said Options
methods. Qualitative methods are used to describe proper word,
the activities and events conducted during the varies. Skilled cho
study, whereas quantitative methods used to right words and eff
analyze the study results or to compare values Using an efficie
obtained learning outcomes of students in the effective sentence,
skills of writing skills. Grammar
with the proper
structure.
On the findings and facts analysis Mechanical (Rule Using spelling and
obtained from the observation, interview and test Writing) punctuation.
scores on the pre-research obtained the fact that
one of the factors causing the low quality of The instruments used in this resea
learning outcomes obtained by students in writing 1. The test used to measure students' wri
skills is the lack of variety of methods or learning that becomes a sample consisting of
strategies used by lecturers in presenting the and post-test.
material. 2. Observations used to collect data be
Implementation of the action with the use during the process of action execution
of Think Talk Write model or cooperative learning out.
strategy built through the process of thinking, 3. Field notes intended to paint or re
speaking and writing will address the above events during the study in which inf
issues. Observations were made to observe the on the implementation of actions,
interest of researchers and students at each lecturer and student activities and con
meeting in the learning process. on the implementation of the action.
In the evaluation phase of the The collected data is analyzed by using de
implementation of the action there are two things statistic percentage
that will be implemented by researchers and
collaborators is the evaluation carried out through 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
the assignment either individually or in groups.
At the end of each cycle researchers and From the pre-test result given before the
collaborators reflect on the learning process and given the average value obtained by the s
learning outcomes that are collected through tests 54,60. The average value obtained is still
according to the stages that have been designed. the expected standard of learning comp
The population of this research is the Therefore, a class action is done by d
students of German study program. While the learning process with Think-Talk-Write
sample will be a sixth semester student with three cycles, and each cycle is h
programming Schriflicher Ausdruck course which meetings. At each cycle there are stages: p
is a continuation course of Schreibfertigkeit 1 and execution, observation, and reflection.
2 courses (writing skills 1 and 2). In cycle 1 which is held for 2
The research data was obtained by using ends with giving test at end of cycle. The
the writing skill test instrument which was given score that students get is 64.5. The avera
in accordance with the theme contained in the text of their learning outcomes has increased
book which became the main hand in Schriflicher
cycle, obtained information that the learning steps courses related to writing both the ba
are done is good, but the implementation of this (Schreibfertigkeit), and advanced (Ar
TTW strategy is not maximized, the proportion of Text).
time used for learning activities in TTW (Think,
Talk and Write) has not been balanced. Students 5. REFERENCES
are still given plenty of time to think (think), and
the proportion of time for discussion (Talk) is less Alderson Charles J & Bahman. Lely,
so that the ideas to be written (Write) very little Assesing Writing. Camridge: C
obtained from the results of their discussion. The University Press.
average value obtained from their learning Bolton, Sibylle, (2008). Problem
outcomes was 76.5. The average acquisition value Leistungsmessung, lernfortschritt
has already reached the established standard of der Gru
learning completeness, however efforts to further Muenschen:Langndscheidt
improve the learning outcomes continue to be Boerner, Wolfgang Klaus Vogel, (1996).
done. Therefore, the learning process is continued Fremdsprachenerwerb Verstehe
by giving treatment in cycle 3. Produzieren. Germany: Gunth
Implementation of actions that have been Verlag Tuebingen.
done in the previous cycle has provided an idea Brown, H. Douglas, (2007). The Prin
that the application of cooperative learning with Language Teaching and L
Think-Talk-Write strategy has a good effect on Boston: Pearson Education.
improving students' ability in writing German. But Colquitt, Jason A. Lepine, Jeffery A dan
still in the standard mastery learning. In the Michael J, (2009). Organ
implementation of the second cycle there is an Behaviour Improving Performa
increase in learning outcomes both individually Commitment in the Workplac
and in groups from the first cycle. From the results York: McGraw-Hill
of the tests given at the end of cycle 3 obtained the Dalman. (2012). Menulis Karya Ilmiah.
average value of student learning outcomes Rajagrafindo Persada.
increased to 88.5. The acquisition of the average Harmer, Jeremy, (2004). How to Teach
score indicates a very significant improvement England: Pearson Educational Lim
that is already beyond the expected standard of Kumaradivelu, B. (2006). Under
learning completeness. This has proven that the Language Teaching: From Me
implementation of the Think-Talk-Write learning Postmethod. London: Lawerence
strategy is very effective in improving the skills or Associates.
ability of students in writing German. Most likely Nurgiyantoro, Burhan, (2009). Statistik
if the learning is continued with the next cycle untuk Penelitian Ilmu-ilmu
with various improvements from both the learning Yogyakarta: Gajah Mada U
execution steps and in addition to the allocation of Press.
time, will lead to the achievement of higher Samway, Katherine Davies., (2009)
learning outcomes than the achievements obtained English Language Learners
because to produce a good writing and quality of Potsmouth, NH: A Division o
course requires enough time and training for Elsevier.
students. Schnider, Pat, (2011). Writing Alone a
Others. Oxford: Oxford University
4. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS Slavin E. Robert, (2009). Cooperative L
Teori, Riset, dan Praktik. Bandun
Based on the findings obtained from the results of Media.
research and discussion can be concluded that the Sugono, Dendy, (2009). Mahir Berbahasa
skills of students in writing German language can Benar. Jakarta: PT. Gramedia
be improved through cooperative learning Think- Utama.
Talk-Write strategy. Student response during the Tarigan, Henry Guntur, (2008). Menulis
learning process is very good. This is seen in their Suatu Keterampilan Berbahasa. B
anthusianms both in discussions and in the work Angkasa.
of individual tasks. Referring to the above Yamin, M & Ansari, Bansu, (2008)
conclusions and based on findings related to the Mengembangkan Kemampuan In
implementation of Think-Talk-Write strategy in Jakarta: Gaung Persada Pers.
German writing lesson (Schriflicher Ausdruck), it
is recommended that this Think-Talk-Write
strategy learning be one alternative that can be
The 1st International Conference on Education, Science, Art and Technology (the 1st ICESAT)
Universitas Negeri Makassar. 22 23 July 2017

Implementation Of Good Governance Principles In Public Services


In The Faculty Of Social Science Makassar State University

Muhammad Guntur a, Aslindaa, Third Authorb


a
Lecturer in State Administration Science Program, Faculty of Social Sciences,
Makassar State University

Corresponding e-mail: hmguntur13unm@yahoo.com, aslinda110@yahoo.com,

Abstract Indonesia is among the countries in the world that has been building trust of good
governance. However, the current situation shows that it is still far from the
expectation of good governance. Based on these problems, the research identified
various phenomena related to public service in Faculty of Social Sciences by
lecturers and students for the dissatisfaction of the services performed by
administrative staffs in the Faculty of Social Sciences, ranging from simplicity,
clarity, certainty of time, accuracy, security, responsibility, completeness of
facilities and infrastructure, ease of access, discipline, courtesy and friendliness,
and comfort. The purpose of this study is to find out how is the implementation of
Good Governance principles in public service at the Faculty of Social Sciences
Makassar State University. Type of research used is descriptive qualitative, by
taking seven informants consisting of students, lecturers, staff and faculty leaders.
Data collection technique is done by observation, interview by using data analysis
starting from data collection, data reduction, data presentation and conclusion.
The results showed that the application of the principles of good governance in
public services in the Faculty of Social Sciences can be categorized as still not
well based from the aspect of accountability, and aspects of the rule of law.

Keywords: Principles of Good Governance, Public Service

A. Introduction of public services not only held by the


government alone but also by private
Public service delivery undertaken
organizers. At this time, the problems faced
by the government is still faced with the
are so urgent as the public began to
government system that has not been
impatient or began to worry about the
effective and efficient and the quality of
quality of service government apparatus that
human resources apparatus that has not been
generally decline or deteriorate. Public
adequate. This can be seen from the
service by the government is worse than the
abundant complaints from the community
services provided by the private sectors; the
either directly or through the mass media.
public begins to question whether the
Public service needs to be seen as an effort
government is capable of organizing
to meet the needs and basic rights of the
government and/or providing quality
community. In this case, the implementation
services to its public.

113
114

In order to realize Good Governance, stage of policy making between the


it is necessary to establish a dialogue establishment of a policy ... and the
between key actors in the State, so that all consequences of the policy for the people
parties feel that they are part of the whom it affects". And, Grindle (1980: 6)
arrangement. Without an agreement born of concludes that; "Implementation a general
dialogue, prosperity will not be achieved as process of administrative action that can be
the political aspirations and the people's investigated at specifics program level".
economy will likely be clogged. There are In practice, policy implementation is
several things that the government should a process that is so complex and often
pay attention to; among them is the fact that politically inflexible because of the
people can assess and choose, even intervention of various interests. In light of
requesting better services. Faculty of Social the complexity of policy implementation,
Sciences is one of the institutions that serve Bardach's (in Agustino, 2006: 153) notes
to assist the implementation of educational that "it is enough to make a program and
activities in the Makassar State University. general policy that looks good on paper. It is
even more difficult to formulate in words
B. Problems and slogans that sound to the ears of leaders
The General Guidelines for the and voters who listen to them. And it's even
Implementation of Public Service in harder to do it in a way that satisfies
KEPMEMPAN No.63/KEP/M.PAN/7/2003 everyone."
on Public Services describes the public 2. Understanding Good Governance
service principles, which include: Lother (2003) states that governance
"simplicity, clarity, timeliness, accuracy, is not a new term. Lother argues that
security, responsibility, completeness of governance was first used in France in the
facilities and infrastructure, ease of access, 14th century with the meaning of seat of
discipline, courtesy and friendliness, and governance. According to Setiawan (2004:
comfort. With this government regulation, 223), Governance is a terminology used to
every public organization should have been replace the term government, which uses
able to improve their public service system. political, economic, and administrative
Yet, the reality of public services delivered authority in managing state affairs.
by the Faculty of Social Sciences, Makassar Theoretically, Good Governance is viewed
State University, was still far from by Sinambela (2006: 47) as a government
expectations. Thus, the study formulates the oriented process of equitable distribution of
problem on How is the application of Good power and authority to all elements of
Governance principles in Public Services society to influence decisions and policies
provided by the Faculty of Social Sciences, related to public life and all political,
Makassar State University? economic, social and culture development in
the governance system.
C. Literature Review 3. Good Governance Principles
1. Policy Implementation According to the United Nations
Anderson in Dye (1987: 25) suggests Development Program (UNDP) in
that; "Policy implementation is the Sedarmayanti (2004: 9), the characteristics
application of the policy by the or principles developed in good governance
government's administrative machinery to are as follows: 1) participation, 2) Rule of
the problem". Later, Edward III (1980: 1) Law ), 3) Transparency, 4) Responsiveness,
notes that; "Policy implementation, ... is the 5) Consensus Orientation, 6) Fairness
115

(equity), 7) Effectiveness and Efficiency, 8) principles: a) simplicity, b) clarity, c)


Accountability, 9) Strategic Servicing, and certainty of time, d) accuracy, e) security, f)
10) Mutual Interconnection. Furthermore, responsibility, g) completeness of facilities
Sedarmayanti (2004: 7) considers that there and infrastructure, h) accessibility, i)
are four main elements or principles that discipline, courtesy and hospitality, and j)
provide a description of public convenience.
administration that characterizes good 6. Implementation of Good
governance as follows: Accountability, Governance Principles in Public
Transparency, Openness, Rule of Law. Service
4. Concept of Public Service One of the functions of government
According to Sianipar (2001: 6), administration conducted by the government
service is a way of serving, helping to apparatus is the public service. Indonesian
prepare, manage, satisfying the needs, needs legislation has provided the basis for the
of someone or a group of people. This delivery of public services is based on the
means that the object served is a society Good Governance Principles (AAUPB).
consisting of individuals, groups and Article 3 of Law No.28 year 1999
organizations (a group of organization concerning the Nation Implementation that
members). Lukman (2000: 8) explains that Free from Corruption, Collusion and
service is an activity or sequence of Nepotism states these principles, namely
activities that occur in direct interaction Legal Certainty, Transparent, Responsive,
between someone with another person or Fair, Effective and Efficient, Responsibility,
machine physically. Accountability and Non-Abuse of Authority.
While Lewis and Gilman (2005: 22) defined
public service as follows: Public service is D. Research methods
public trust. Citizens expect that public
services can serve with honesty and proper 1. Research Lokus
management of income sources, and be The research was conducted at the
accountable to the public. Faculty of Social Sciences of Makassar State
5. Principles and Principles of Public University which was chosen purposively
Service by deliberate. This location determination is
According to Law No.25 year 2009, also considering the condition of the area
Article 4, the public service delivery is which shows various problems with
based on: a) public interest, b) legal administrative governance at the Faculty of
certainty, c) equality of rights, d) balance of Social Sciences. The Study uses a
rights and obligations, e) professionalism, f) descriptive type with a qualitative approach
participative, g) non-discriminatory, h) that emphasizes more on the disclosure of
openness, i) accountability, j) facilities and meanings and processes relating to the
special treatment for the group, k) behavior and social actions of the local
vulnerable, l) timeliness; and m) speed, ease, academic community. A qualitative
and affordability. approach is a process of research and
The provision of public services understanding based on a methodology that
must also fulfill some of the principles of investigates social phenomenon and human
service as mentioned in KEPMENPAN problem. As for the details of
No.63 year 2003 in Ratminto and Winarsih informants/respondents in this study are:
(2006: 22) stating that the implementation of students and lecturers.
public services must meet the following 2. Focus Description
116

The description focuses on the data analysis will be completed by: a) Data
principles of Good Governance, among reduction (selecting the main points relevant
others: a) Accountability, namely the sense to the study); b) Display data (allows the
of responsibility of all management presentation of data through matrix and
activities undertaken by the Faculty of graphs according to research needs); c)
Social Sciences and also clarity in making a Verification of data and conclusions (look
work program that can have benefits for the for the basic equations that have appeared in
academic community at UNM; b) the interview results) and collection is based
Transparency, which is an open policy for on the data final analysis; and d) Data
the Faculty of Social Sciences and has a analysis will gain credibility, simplicity and
clear standardization of rules in the confirmability from all informants.
provision of services to students and
lecturers; and c) Rule of Law, namely the E. Results and Discussion
clarity of standardization rules set by the 1. Research Results
Faculty of Social Sciences in the Limitations and weaknesses of the
implementation of activities undertaken. existing system at the Faculty of Social
3. Data collection technique Sciences of the Makassar State University
Data collection in this research includes; and the development of the environment has
a) Library Research, the technique of led to the distrust of the academic
collecting data from various literature in community, especially for students to the
order to obtain basic equipment of theories faculty leadership, as well as forms of
such as books, magazines, bulletins and indication of leadership failure of the Dean
other readings relevant to the problem under of FIS in processing and advancing faculty
study; b) Field Research is a direct of Social Sciences as the leading faculty.
observation of the object studied; c) The leadership of FIS UNM Dean is
Documentation study, the technique used to expected to bring a bigger change than ever
obtain data through literature review, before, especially in providing services to all
documents, regulations, laws and decisions academic community that exist in Social
and literature; and d) Online data search, Science Faculty. Therefore, to create a good
data is collected using the same technique service in the Faculty of Social Sciences, the
employed in the Library Research. Yet, following focus in this research are to be
there are differences of media as the source considered:
of data or information. In short, this a. Accountability
technique utilizes online data, i.e. using Accountability refers to the faculty
internet facility. leader accountability to all employees,
4. Data analysis technique lecturers, and students related activities
Analytical technique used is undertaken by the faculty. When asked
qualitative. It is based on the development about the liability of any program of
that this research is a social research so that activities to be carried by the Faculty, the
it is faced with complex social phenomenon, Head of Student Affairs, Mr. Sutrisno
in addition to the fact that qualitative Agussalim (interview dated 16 September
method requires the researcher to use deep, 2016) stated that any activities carried out
accurate, valid and honest/reliable by the Faculty is always accountable to the
informants to make it easier for the faculty leaders, as well as to the Lectures in
researcher to analyze data which will be the Faculty." In addition, based on the result
presented manually (language). Qualitative of interview conducted by the researchers
117

with Pak Bahtiar, staff of the development our Faculty is that the reality is not in
of faculty quality assurance, implied that accordance with what has been promised"
"form of accountability of the Faculty when (Interview, 19 September 2016).
making a program is to involve the Lectures c. Rule of law
and staffs in all Faculty programs. This Implementation of Good Governance
shows that the Social Science Faculty in services must also be based on the rule of
leaders demonstrate their sense of law. Operationally, the academic community
responsibility from each of the activities as the services receivers may obtain legal
they have implemented (Interview on certainty and fair sense in the process of
September 8, 2016). obtaining the services. In relation to the
Judging from the opinions obtained sense of fairness, some student from the
from the informants, the researchers also Office Administrative Education program,
observed that the process of accountability who is one of the selected informants in this
of faculty on every execution of activities study, Ferdiansyah (interviewed on 21
that have been done at this time was not September 2016) stated that "In my opinion,
quite good; it was due to the fact that not all the services given to students are sometimes
of the activities carried out were re- unfair. This is concluded based on fact that
discussed regarding the results of the some students may receive fast service while
implementation of the activities. he/she does not follow the existing
b. Transparency procedures while there are students who
Transparency is a form of openness have followed the procedure but still faced
from the institution to what has been by complicated handling in doing their
planned and implemented. Section Head of administration activities in the Faculty ".
Student Affairs, Mr. Sutrisno Agussalim Based on the above information, it
(interview dated September 16, 2016) can be understood that although all forms of
described the forms of transparency in service or occupation have legal rules in it, it
service to all academic community in does not indicate that all execution services
faculty, by stating that "the forms of provided by Faculty leaders to students and
transparency that we provide in academic lecturers are always implemented with the
service, especially to students and lecturers, appropriate rules. Thus, the rule of law
is to provide information to them about the contained in the Faculty of Social Science
types of services we provide in the form of can be concluded as not been run in well
Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) that implementation.
have been prepared in the Faculty which
includes requirements, costs, completion 2. Discussion
time and handling system, so there is In relation to this, the leadership of
nothing to hide in providing services to the the faculty of social science is less applying
students. If the issue relates to the clarity of the Good Governance Principles. Based on
terms, rights and fees, such as the closing the results that researchers found in the field
exam handling and the graduation and based on related theories, the leaders of
registrations, are mostly well enough. This is the Faculty of Social Sciences have also
not the case we are talking about the made some improvements, especially on the
arrangement of the study fee which was not applied principles. The principles of good
transparent, as stated by Mr. Ruslan, the governance in this research are namely:
Head of Sub-section of Equipment, as he a. Accountability
stated that "the problem of the study fee in
118

Based on the research conducted, it The Rule of Law principle is a


can be concluded that the principle of condition that aims to create the condition
accountability is still not implemented well that the law binds to anyone, even the head
as there are lack of sense of responsibility of a state, law enforcement must be without
possessed by the leaders of the Faculty of discrimination, just and definite. In relation
Social Sciences, both in carrying out their to this principle, researchers found that the
work and in providing services to the principle implementation in the Faculty of
students. Accountability refers to the Social Sciences was still poorly enforced by
development of a sense of responsibility for faculty leaders.
academicians for policy makers/decision Implementation of the rule of law
makers in the Social Sciences Faculty. should be obeyed by everyone within the
Particularly within the Faculty of Social organization. The rule of law is the limit for
Sciences, accountability is an effort to create a person to take action. Reality in the
systems for monitoring and controlling the Faculty of Social Sciences, where the rules
performance of Faculty employees in that have been set by the leaders of the
relation to quality, efficiency, and Faculty, especially the rules in the issue of
destruction of resources, as well as service, showed that implementation of the
transparency in financial management, rule of law principle was still very poor. It is
procurement, accounting and resource. very clear as the provision of services by the
b. Transparency or Openness faculty leaders to the students has not been
Transparency can be observed in consistent. Thus, the students, as the
three aspects: (1) the existence of policies receiver of the service, experience injustice
that are open to monitoring; (2) access to feelings towards the leaders of the Faculty in
information so that people can reach every implementing their duty, which is to provide
aspect of government policy; (3) enactment good service.
of principle of check and balance between
management with subordinates. Referring to F. Conclusions and recommendations
the results of research conducted at the 1. Conclusions
Faculty of Social Sciences on the aspect of Based on the data and previous
transparency conducted by the leadership discussion, some conclusions can be drawn
indicates that it is still less open or as follows: Implementation of Good
transparent to the staff, lecturers and the Governance Principles in Public Service in
students of Social Sciences Faculty. the Faculty of Social Sciences of Makassar
Therefore, transparency must be State University can be described as follows:
built within the framework of freedom and a. Public service vertical accountability by
information flow. Processes, institutions and the Leaders of Social Science Faculty
information should be freely accessible to has been run in good manner as for the
those who need them, and the information existence of the government agency
should be provided adequately and easily accountability report (LAKIP), while
understood so that it can be used as a horizontal accountability (to the
monitoring and evaluation tool. Thus, the students, lectures, and faculty
students and lecturers can personally gain employees) has not been well
clear understanding without any cover-ups implemented as seen from the accuracy
in the process of policy formulation and of completion in its service to students
action implementation. and lecturers.
c. Rule of law
119

b. Transparency of service at Social receivers who should be given


Sciences Faculty of Makassar State evenly service, whether he/she is an
University has not been well acquaintance or not.
implemented; this is seen from the lack
of transparency regarding budget REFERENCE
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implementation of activities that are
Carol While Lewis and Stuart C. Gilman.
rarely reported to the people involved in
the committee. 2005. The Ethics Challenge in Public
c. The legal rules of service in the Faculty Service: A Problem-Solving Guide.
of Social Sciences have not been well Market Street, San Fransisco:
implemented; it is felt for some students Jossey-Bass.
and lecturers in terms of injustice from
the leaders in serving the students. In Dye, Thomas R, 2005. Understanding
addition, the legal rules that have been Public Policy, Eleventh Edition. New
prepared to be the procedures in every Jersey: PearsonPrentice Hall.
implementation of service activities in
the Social Sciences Faculty were Ratminto, Winarsih. 2006. Manajemen
sometimes violated by the service pelayanan.Yogyakarta: Pustaka
providers and the local leaders.
Pelajar.
2. Suggestions Lukman, Sampara. 2000. Manajemen
Based on the above conclusions,
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several suggestions that can be submitted as
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to both the costs of administrative Sinambela, LijanPoltak. 2006. Reformasi
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to all lecturers and faculty staff about Sedarmayanti. 2004. Sumber Daya Manusia
the policies made by the leaders dan Produktivitas Kerja. Bandung:
which related to budget. CV Mandar Maju.
c. The rule of law of service concerning Sianipar, J.PG dan A M Entang. 2001.
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Negara Republik Indonesia.
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Bersih dan Bebas dari Korupsi,
Kolusi, dan Nepotisme.

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25 Tahun 2009 Tentang Pelayanan
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Aparatur Nomor 63 Tahun 2003
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Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 101 Tahun


2000 Tentang Pemerintahan yang
Baik.
The 1st International Conference on Education, Science, Art and Technology (the 1st ICESAT)
Universitas Negeri Makassar. 22 23 July 2017

The Enforcement Of Legal Culture In Public Service


State University Of Makassar

Muhammad Akbala, Firman Umara, Third Authorb


a
Lecturer in Civic Education Program, Faculty of Social Sciences, State University of Makassar
b
Lecturer in Civic Education Program, Faculty of Social Sciences,
State University of Makassar

Corresponding e-mail: akbalmuh@gmail.com, Firmanumar1208@yahoo.com

Abstract, Awareness of government officials in understanding and implementing the


values and norms of the applicable law is part of the legal culture and become
one decisive factor in improving the quality of public services. This is the
background that there should be efforts to strengthen the legal culture in the
public service, especially in Sub Rappocini Makassar. But the problem is how
to build legal culture that is relevant among government officials, so it can
support the creation of good public services and quality in accordance with the
demands and expectations of society. This study is normative and empirical
research in the field of constitutional law, the study includes the provision or
legislation and its application in the field of concrete. This study examines
how the cultural role of law and its implementation in order to improve the
quality of public services by the District government officials Rappocini
Makassar. The data obtained in the field will be analyzed qualitatively, to
interpret, describe, describe, and systematically arranged according to the
research objectives. The results showed that conceptually public service is a
manifestation of the state apparatus functions as civil servants or public
servants and not as masters of the country or public authorities. The values
embraced by the public as part of the legal culture plays a role as a moral
guide in the public service. Implementation of public services in the district
Rappocini realized by providing various types of services, especially related to
of licenses such as IMB, SITU, family card, or identity card. Disclosure of
information in providing services is very important because it can affect the
smooth service and time efficiency as well as useful to avoid
miscommunication.

Key words: Legal Culture, Public Servant, Rappocini, Makassar

A. Introduction implementing the values and norms valid


law in the community. This becomes
In this globalization era, the government absolute requirement to keep the image of
is expected to prepare all his subordinates his agency.
to improve the quality of services,
including manners in serving the public. Awareness of government officials in
The ability of official in appreciate this understanding and implement values and
politeness is a form of consciousness norms law is part of legal culture and was
government officials in understanding and one of the determining factors in

121
122

improvement of public service. This matter The word of progressive comes from
becomes background thus there must be Britain that is progressive which means
cultural strengthening efforts of law in the forward (an adjective)2. Based on that,
public service especially in Rappocini Satjipto Rahardjo3offers progressive legal
District City of Makassar. theories. The core of progressive low is
located on thinking and acting progressive
B. Research Problem which escape her from legal document,
because ultimately the law it is not for the
The problem of this research is How to
text of a law, but it is to happiness and
build legal culture that is relevant among
welfare of humans. Public service is a form
government officials, so it can support the
of law enforcement in order to meet the
creation of good public services and quality
people needs as well as implementing the
in accordance with the demands and
regulations of constitution. According to
expectations of society?
Moenir (1998: 26), public service is
C. Research Purpose activities by someone or a group of people
with the factors material through a system,
The research purpose is to find the role procedures and a particular method in order
of legal culture to improve the quality of to meet the interests of others
public service by government officials, and corresponding their rights4
how the implementations of the public
service form by the government in Based on the provisions of article 1 law
Rappocini District. Number 29, year 2009 about public
services, it was stated that the public
service is the activity or a series of
D. Theoretical Background activities in the context of fulfilling service
needs in accordance with the constitution
Law enforcement (law enforcement) is a for each citizen and for goods, services, and
series of process to outline value, ideas, administrative/or services provided by the
ideals, and legal purposes. Ideals or legal public services. The organizers public
purposes contain moral values, namely service is any institution organizers of the
justice (Rechtsvaardigheid), certainty state, corporate, an independent agency that
(Rechtszekerheid), and significance formed based on the constitution for public
(Doelmatigheid)1. The existence of law services, and legal entities formed solely
recognized when moral values are for the activities of public services.
contained in the law is able to be
implemented. Failure law in implementing
moral values will cause distance and
isolation from community. 2
Reality Team. 2007. Advanced Dictionary
English-Indonesian, Indonesia-English.
Policing responsive could be described
Penerbit: Reality Publisher, tanpa tempat
as current needs, if law still be regarded as penerbitan. Hlm. 352
the forefront in social life, national and 3
Satjipto Rahardjo. Konsep dan Karakteristik
state. In this case law must be able to Hukum Progresif. Makalah Dalam Seminar
respond to the citizens desire to materialize Nasional Hukum Progresif I, Diselenggarakan
peace in intercourse social life. To become oleh Fakultas Hukum Universitas Diponegoro
evident policing responsive, it needs Bekerjasama dengan Program Doktor Ilmu
progressive law. Hukum Universitas Diponegoro dan Fakultas
Hukum Universitas Trisakti, Jakarta di
Semarang, 15 Desember 2007. Hlm. 11.
1 4
Soedjono Dirdjosisworo, Pengantar Ilmu Moenir, H.A.S. 1990, Pendekatan Manusiawi
Hukum, Jakarta: CV. Rajawali, 1984, hlm. Dan Organisasi Terhadap Pembinaan
127. Kepegawaian, GunungAgung, Jakarta.
123

As an effort to clarify rights and values and in accordance as basis in


responsibilities of citizens and population embodying public services to the
and the formation of the responsibility of community as follows: getteng, lempu and
the state and corporation in public service, adatongeng. Abu Hamid outlines that
it needs norm law that gives setting in a getteng is obedient principle or consistent.
clear manner. Hence based on the provision This attitude must be enforced both
of Article 3 Constitution Number 25 years utterance and attitude. The opponent of this
2009 about Public Service (UUPP), attitude is utterance or inconsistent.
specifically formulated purpose UUPP as
follows: (1) the formation of scope and Next principle is lempu that is being
clear relation between responsibility, honest and talk well both ourselves nor
obligation, and authority all parties that anybody else. The last principle is
related with the public service; (2) the adatongeng that is the attitude to speak the
formation of public service system in truth. However, a matter is difficult or hard,
accordance to common principles of we have to speak the truth. Lying is the
government and good corporate; (3) the beginning of immoral attitude. Once we
fulfil of public service in accordance lying to another and someone heard us, we
constitution , and (4) the formation of cannot be trusted again. The factors that
protection and legal certainty for the had a role in supporting the qualified public
community in the public service are described in this following chart.

E. Research Method
Rules/Law
Law as Law as
This research is normative and empirical
social social
research in the field of law state imitation imitation
administration, that discuss about provision instrument instrument
or the rules of constitution and its
Government official
application in the field in concrete way. Legal Culture Competence
This research is discuss about how the role Society
of legal culture and its implementation to
improve the quality of public service by
government officials in Rappocini District Hard and
Moral
Public Services Quality soft skill
City of Makassar. The data that obtained in Guide
the field will be analyzed qualitatively, by
interpreting, outlining, detailing, and
arrange them systematically in accordance
with research purpose.
Chart 1
F. Research Result and Discussion
The factors that had a role in supporting
The research result showed that the realization of public service quality
conceptually public service is embodiment
from government official as state servant or The government as a state servant are
public servant, and not as a sovereign state required to integrate between the rules of
or ruler of community. The values that law with moral values which adopted by
adopted by community is a part from legal the local community and to implement it in
culture that had a role as a moral guide in the public service. It is aimed to avoid
the public service. conflict between patterns of behavior
government officials with cultural values
Some principles are adopted by the which is embraced by the community. The
people in South Sulawesi as part of culture efforts of integration between values that
124

become guide in the public service, The values that are embraced by the
knowledge about rule officials that become community as part of legal culture (getteng,
legal basis and increase capacity and lempu, adatongeng, temmapasilaingeng,
insight government officials about a and sipakatau) had a role as a moral guide
ministry, good service and good quality can in the public service. Conceptually public
be pursued through education and training, service is the embodiment of the function
so that government officials competence from the government official as the state
can increase. This education and training servant or public servant. This is the
can contain a topic about: opposite of understanding that develops so
far which the government was the lord state
The values that become guidelines or ruler of community, so that all of his
in providing service to the public. interest must be served and he not serves
The rules that become legal the society. The implementation of public
umbrella for public service services in Rappocini District is embodied
Good service and quality service by providing various types of services
criteria especially in relation licensing like IMB,
Increasing perspectives and SITU, family card, and identity card. The
knowledge about good service and transparency information in providing
quality service services is very important that could affect
the service and efficiency time and it useful
The implementation of public services to prevent miscommunication.
in Rappocini District is embodied by
providing various types of services H. Suggestions
especially in relation licensing like IMB, The transparency information about
SITU, family card, and identity card. The various types of the services that provided
transparency information in providing by the Rappocini district office still need to
services is very important that could affect be increased, especially about the
the service and efficiency time and useful procedures and requirements are needed to
to prevent miscommunication. From the take care various licensing issued by the
information above, it can be understood district government. This transparency
that public service by government information can be fulfilled by making
bureaucracy is a form of embodiment of website specifically contain about
function state officials as the public servant information from a range of services public
beside as the state servant. The concept of given by government Rappocini District.
government as the public servant or the Thus, the people who need information can
state servant is the opposite of practices be easy to access it via internet.
that develops so far that the government is
the state or ruler community, so that all of I. References
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serves the society. However, the service Agung Hendarto dan Nizar
principles that developed by government Suhendra,2002. Good Governance dan
institutions is not exactly the same with Penguatan Institusi Daerah, Jakarta:
non-government institutions. Masyarakat Transparansi Indonesia (MTI).
Agus Dwiyanto (et.al.), 2007. Kinerja
In the end, the most basic process in
Tata Pemerintahan Daerah di Indonesia,
good public services is changing think
PSKK UGM bekerja sama dengan
orientation of government officials
Kemitraan. Yogyakarta.
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Politik dan KKN. Srikandi. Surabaya.
G. Conclusion
125

Irawan, F. 2002, Sepuluh Prinsip English. Penerbit: Reality Publisher,


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1993, Keputusan Menpan Nomor 81 Tahun Universitas Diponegoro Bekerjasama
1993, Tentang Pedoman Tatalaksana dengan Program Doktor Ilmu Hukum
Pelayanan Umum, Menpan, Jakarta. Universitas Diponegoro dan Fakultas
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Moenir, H.A.S. 1990, Pendekatan Semarang, 15 Desember 2007.
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Pembinaan Kepegawaian, Gunung Agung, Progresif (Penjelajahan Suatu Gagasan).
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Semarang, 15 Desember 2007.
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Dictionary English-Indonesian, Indonesia-
The 1st International Conference on Education, Science, Art and Technology (the 1st ICESAT)
Universitas Negeri Makassar. 22 23 July 2017

Models design of spiritual therapy


For development of quality of soul and character of students

Ahmad1), Husain Anandtama Lutfi2)


Faculty of Psychology, State University of Makassar Indonesia
e-mail: Ahmadrazak71@yahoo.co.id

Abstract: This study aims to 1) design module spiritual therapy as a model of life
quality and character development of students. 2) determine the validity
of spiritual therapy module that has been designed. 3) Knowing the
response of student assessment on the implementation of spiritual
therapy. Spiritual therapy module validated by three experts, namely:
psychologist; Islamic religious scholars; and expert guidance and
counseling. The module is tested on 30 students of SMAN 11 Makassar
who have been purposive random sampling. The results of this research
are: 1) Model therapies spiritual has been designed, arranged in the form
of modules consisting of: background, theoretical basis, models and
dimensions of therapy, the stages of therapy, and assessment of therapy
2) The three experts have given judgments, namely: psychologist give
3:40 (fit for use), an expert in Islam gives the value 3.70 (very decent
used), and the expert guidance of Counseling give 3:55 (very decent
used). 3) The results of spiritual therapy trials on 30 students showed
that 11 people judging Good and 19 assessing Very Good.

Keywords: Spiritual Therapy Model, Quality of soul, Character

INTRODUCTION considered incompatible with age, so


that the child is considered behavior,
Crucial question facing the world today delinquency by a ban imposed by law
is the issue of education that is increasingly status of criminal behavior of
prevalent delinquency done by the students. government.
Kartono (1998), found more delinquency b. The Role Definition. In the role of a
refers to a form of deviant behavior, which more focused meaning delinquency
is the result of mental and emotional behavior as antisocial offenders. This
upheaval that is very unstable and notion refers to an individual who
defective. Bynum and Thompson (1996), maintains form delinquency behavior in
defines the behavior of delinquency in three a fairly long period of time, so that the
categories, namely: the legal definition, the lives and identities of his personality is
role definition, and the definition of societal formed of deviant behavior (deviant).
response. Here the meaning is intended: c. The Societal Response. In societal
a. The Legal Definition. Legally behavior response, emphasizing the consequences
delinquency is defined as any behavior as a result of an action and/or an
that could be a crime if committed by an offender who is considered a deviant
adult or behavior by the juvenile court behavior or delinquency, where the

266
267

audience to observe and appraise the Both the poor moral character of every
behavior. Audience is a social group or teenager is highly dependent on high or low
community where the offender is a quality of soul as the internal elements of
member. human psychologist. Berkowitz (2002) says
The survey ever conducted at 20 from that moral character is "the hallmark of an
high schools in the city of Makassar individual's psychological affecting the
showed that among students have been ability and propensity of the person to
doing disrespectful behavior towards function morally. According to the
teachers and parents, promiscuity, watching Infallible (2003) that the deviation of
pornographic films, LGBT, abuse of morals can occur because of a spiritual
narcotics, and fights (Ahmad 2017).These crisis and poor quality of soul.
survey results confirm the results of According to Azmi (2009) Quality the
research Aroma and Suminar (2012); human soul is the capital of beings who can
Unayah and Sabarisman (2015) which lift and lower the dignity of the human
explains that behavior delinquency being. According Karzon (2010) Quality of
committed by teenagers is getting increased soul is a state of internal potential of the
very alarming, such as substance abuse, human person can improve and can destroy
promiscuity, skipping school, fighting, themselves. According to Mubarok (2009)
leave without permission, reading / that the soul is the core of the human causes
watching things a porn, speeding (robber), different qualities with other creatures,
alcoholism, premarital sex, stealing, namely that causes humans are able to
abortion, gambling, and crime of murder. develop ideas, to think and reflect, then
This kind of behavior is an indication of with ideas and thoughts that humans take a
the weakness of character among students. decision. an important factor in this regard
According Hidayatullah (2010) character is is how humans are able to control their
a quality or mental or moral strength, individual character as well as
character individual who is a special responsiveness to their surroundings before
personality that drives or drive, and that making a action. The quality of one's soul
differentiates it from other individuals. can be increased and may also decrease,
Musfiroh (Walid, 2011) character refers to and was strongly associated with a system
the set of attitudes, behavioral, motivation, that involves a series of nature and human
and skills. People whose character is the nature. Psychology and religious
personality, behavior, character, temper, perspective asserts that the construction
and character. According Lickona quality of soul is very important, because
(Megawangi, 2004) a person of good the quality of soul which will result in
character certainly have a good mind personal mature, intellectually, emotionally
(thinking the good),had a good feeling and spiritually. As has been stated
(feeling the good), and well-behaved previously that the soul is a potential that
(acting the good). In other words, a good can cause human behavior to be good or
character is harmony between knowing the bad.
good, desiring the good, and doing the Along with the complexity of the
good. Because the character is defined as behavior of delinquency vulnerable
the integrity of the knowledge of the good, happened to the students, necessary
want to do good, and proven in the real interventions which are able to develop the
action well behaved. quality of soul and character they are to be
the generation that moral and virtuous
268

noble. Based on this, it designed a model of a. Introduction which includes: the


spiritual therapy that can be used as an background, the goal of therapy,
alternative handling of the problem of therapeutic methods of implementation,
juvenile delinquency. basic implementation of the therapy, the
therapist team, location and duration of
METHODOLOGY therapy.
b. Models and dimensions of therapy, at
This research is an R & D (Research & this portion described on the approach
Development) is the research methods used used in the therapy and the therapy
to produce a specific product and test the process. The targets include the
effectiveness of these products (Sugiyono dimensions spiritual aqal therapy, qolb,
2015). The resulting product of this and nafs. The following models and
research is the Spiritual Treatment Module dimensions of spiritual therapy:
to develop the quality of soul and character
of students.
This study has recently come to the two
stages, namely: 1) the design model that has
been validated by three experts
(psychologists, an expert on Islamic
religion, and expert guidance counseling),
2) group trial is limited to 30 high school
students in the city of Makassar.
The formula used to add ratings and Figure 1. Model and dimension of spiritual
therapy
validity of expert mengategorisasikan
results are as follows (Zaenuddin, et al, c. spiritual therapy stages
2011): include:recitations of al-Quran,
FS = W x S = __ = __ tausiyah, dzikr, prayer, muhasabah, and
100 100 counseling.
Explanation: d. Rate spiritual therapy,intended to
FS = Final Score W = weighting S= Score elicit a response from the participants of
the spiritual therapy that run.
Scores given are the numbers 1 through
4. The results of the assessment categories 1.2.Assessment of three experts to
modules spiritual therapy
are:
Very Good (VG) = 3:51 - 4:00 Design spiritual therapy has been refined
Good (G) = 2.76 - 3:50 and evaluated by three experts, namely
Enough (E) = 2:00 - 2.75 psychologist, an expert on Islamic religion,
Less (L) = 1.99 and expert guidance counseling. Following
the assessment of the three experts:
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Table 1. Assessment of Psychological Expert
1.1.Module Spiritual Therapy for the No. Aspect W S WxS Info.
1. Introduction 20 3 60 340=3,40
development of quality of soul and 100
2. Model therapy 40 3 120
character of students. 3. Steps 30 4 120
4. Evaluation 10 4 40 Good
Spiritual therapy module consists of five Total 100 14 340
compositions, namely:
269

Table 2. Assessment of Islamic Religious Scholars of the expert assessment theoretically


No. Aspect W S WxS Info. eligible to apply. No matter how the team,
1. Introduction 20 3 60 355=3,55
2. Model 40 4 160 100 according to one expert mentioned that
therapy although theoretically modules have been
3. Steps 30 3.5 105 Very eligible to apply, but success in its
4. Evaluation 10 3 30 Good application is determined by the team that
Total 100 13.5 355 runs the therapy as well as the results of the
Table 3. Assessment of expert guidance and counseling
application in the field. So the treatment
No. Aspect W S WxS Info. team must be trained and competent
1. Introduction 20 3 60 370=3,70 professionals.
2. Model therapy 40 4 160 100 Based on qualitative expert judgement
3. Steps 30 4 120 mentions that spiritual therapy that has been
4. Evaluation 10 3 30 Very
Good
developed for the development of the soul
Total 100 14 370 and character of students can be applied to a
number of considerations, namely:
Based on assessment of the three-three a. The module has been built therapy can
experts, spiritual therapy module unfit for be precisely targeted.
use as a model for the development of life b. The module content can be done with
quality and character of students. either therapy.
c. Fill the therapy module according to the
1.3. The response of students to the set time.
implementation of spiritual therapy. d. Fill the therapy module can change to
improve the quality of soul and
Here are the responses 30 students who character.
participated in the spiritual therapy. e. Fill the therapy module can increase
awareness of students participate in
Table 4. Response of students to the implementation of therapy.
spiritual therapy f. Fill the therapy module includes
Scoring
No. Therapy Activity spiritual and psychological basis. It is
L E G VG
1. Right on Target - - 25 5 excellent in combining religion and
Duration of psychology in the therapeutic process.
2. 2 28 - -
Implementation Guided to view Borg and Gall
3. Steps - - 7 23 (1983) that the results of expert assessment
4. Punctuality - 2 20 8
5. Impression - - 19 11 can be used as a basis for determining the
validity of a module. Such a procedure has
Based on the above table shows that the been done other researchers to build and
average student and very good judge of the develop a model, such as the study of
whole series of spiritual therapy. Truth, (2015) the design of the model
The results of spiritual therapy model development tools stroke therapy non
development research shows that this model pharmacological
is feasible to proceed on the effectiveness Assessment is very consistent with the
of the test phase. view Rusell (Ahmad 2007) which states
Results of statistical analysis is based that anything module is considered to have
on three categorization as eligibility validity if meet five criteria, namely: should
determination module testing that module is the right target population, the situation is
a legitimate spiritual therapy. Total scores satisfactory execution module, adequate
obtained from three experts, two experts time in the run, managed to improve
give very good categories (VG) and an
expert give a good category (G). The results
270

performance, and managed to change the UNM 21-22 January 2017. ISBN:
attitude towards the more brilliant. 978-603-602-60736. pp 279 283.
Ahmad, J. (2007). Modules and caunseling
CONCLUSIONS abusers bye. Serdang: Universiti Putra
Malaysia.
The conclusion that can be drawn based on Aroma, I. R, Suminar, D. R. (2012).
the results of this study are: Relationship Between Level of Self-
1. Built up a spiritual therapy model for Control Behavior With Juvenile
the development of the soul and Delinquency trend. Journal of
character of students. Educational Psychology and
2. Islamic religious scholar and expert Development, 1 (02): 1-6.
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development and organizational
psychologists have assessed Worth (L) performance: a focus on Islamic
design model of spiritual therapy for the perspective. SyariahJournal,Vol. 17,
development of the soul and character Num. 2: 353-372.
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The 1st International Conference on Education, Science, Art and Technology (the 1st ICESAT)
Universitas Negeri Makassar. 22 23 July 2017
habitual patterns or ways of using ability,
Learning Style inlearning and processing of information
Teaching:
An Effort Understanding the Characteristics of Learners in Early Learning

Muhammad Raisa and Farida Aryanib


a,b,
Universitas Negeri Makassar, Jalan Andi Pangeran Pettarani, Makassar, Indonesia

Corresponding e-mail: m.rais@unm.ac.id

Abstract: Learning styles become one of the interesting variables to study, because it deals with one's
cognitive style in optimizing its cognitive strategy. Learning styles are an individual way of
gaining knowledge and skills in academic achievement. This paper examines the different
types of learning styles that can be used as a reference in getting to know the early
characteristics of learners based on their learning styles. The learning styles are: 1) Claxton
and Murrel's learning styles, 2) Perry's learning style, 3) Honey and Mumford Learning
styles, and 4) David Kolb's learning style. Theoretically this learning style is believed to
facilitate the individual way in processing and transforming knowledge information,
attitudes and skills in learning.

Keywords: Learning Style, Characteristics Learners

.
1. INTRODUCTION
Kata Kunci: Pembelajaran Inkuiri, Gaya Belajar, Kemampuan Menggambar Teknik
The learning conditions as factors
influencing the effect of methods in (Winkel, 1989; Kolb, 1984; Sternberg &
improving learning outcomes are classified Zhang, 2000; Santrock, 2007; Lee, 2005).
into three, namely: 1) the purpose and Learning styles contain several
characteristics of the field of study, 2) components, including cognitive style and
constraints and characteristics of the field learning type (Riding and Pearson (1994),
of study, and 3) the characteristics of Winkel, (1989). According to Riding and
learners Reigeluth and Merrill (1979). Pearson (1994), learning styles are an
Characteristics of learners is a quality of individuals repertoire of learning
individuals related to talent, interest, strategies (the ways in which learning
motivation, goal orientation, intelligence, tasks are habitually responded to)
learning styles and learning outcomes that combined with coghnitive style (the way
have been owned. information is organized and represented).
Learning style is an interesting Learning styles describe individual
variable to be studied, as it relates to one's differences that show the preferred way of
cognitive style in optimizing cognitive learning and in processing information
strategy. According to Pritchard (2008), (Salkind, 2006).
learning styles are an individual way of Learning styles are a way that learners
gaining knowledge and skills that use to understand something in the
contribute to academic achievement. learning process to achieve academic
Learning styles as one of the factors achievement (Keefe, 1990, Raiff, 1992,
that influence learning outcomes are Yuson, (2005). The learning style relates
characteristics that show a person's to the way students manage in the face of

259
260

problems. according to Yuson (2005) Claxton and Murrel in Zaini (2002)


helps many learners in solving problems. found at least sixteen styles of learning
This paper is inspired by the problems styles and grouped them into four general
faced by learners, namely: 1) many categories. First, the personality model
learners who do not know how to learn relating to basic personality characteristics.
meaningful and 2) can not focus good Second, the information processing model
attention. It recommends the importance of describes how people acquire and process
knowing the different types of learning information. Third, the social interaction
styles of learners. Understanding the model emphasizes how students interact
learning style of learners well will be able and behave in the classroom. Fourth, the
to help educators understand the instructional preferences model that
shortcomings that occur in learners Raiff focuses on learning media occurs such as
(1992). Knowing the learning styles of listening, reading, experiencing directly.
learners, will help educators in providing According to Zaini (2002), students
appropriate learning strategies to apply for are in continuum, on the one hand,
learners in a lesson. students view the situation in its totality,
see the whole pattern, or gestalt. They see
2. METHODS the forest rather than the trees inside. Such
students are called sensitive fields that
This article uses an in-depth literature have characteristics, among them, tend to
study of the various sources of learning be friends, prefer to study social materials,
style theory. The literature study is done such as social studies, social sciences, and
by comparing and analyzing the theoretical literature. Instead, they have difficulty in
literature sources about learning styles. observing the details and studying the
Sources of literature in the form of books, structured material. For example, students
articles of national and international with field sensitive learning styles may
journals both in print and electronic have difficulty understanding the
versions relating to research problems. mathematical problems because they can
Theories obtained are used as the basis for not identify and distinguish between
reference in the development of related relevant and irrelevant information.
learning styles in teaching. Finally, they are more responsive to praise
and encouragement and more easily
3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION influenced by criticism. Characteristics of
this learning style is characterized by a
Learning styles are known as factors high curiosity, independent, but less
that contribute to the individual's academic disciplined. They are also more task-
achievement. There are several types of oriented. They learn better with
learning styles already known in the unstructured tasks, such as problem
literature review. Some of them are solving. On the other hand, they have
Salmes's learning style in Yuson (2005) difficulty in learning social materials and
which states there are five elements of working with others. They do not require
learning style, namely deep learning style, praise and encouragement and are not
surface learning style, motivational affected by criticism.
learning style, organized learning style, Some studies show that boys are
and hardworking learning style. generally more field independent, which
Some learning styles are often then gave birth to different parenting
encountered in learning practices as patterns. Some scholars argue that it
follows: relates to one's cultural heritage. For
example, among American youths of
1. Learning Styles Claxton and Murrel Mexican descent and of African descent,
261

they are more field sensitive than the evidence, and use logic to criticize
majority of American society (Zaini, ideas and opinions. They learn more
2002). Although all the time a person can through discussions to get an
be more or less field sensitive or field opportunity to practice their skills and
independent, every human tend to remain understanding.
and not the same with each other.
4. Learning Style Honey and
2. Perry Learning Style Mumford
Another somewhat different model
was put forward by Perry in Zaini (2002). The next learning style model is the
He argues that students develop through learning style of Honey and Mumford. The
nine different stages of development, learning style expressed by Honey and
which are then summarized into three Mumford in Pritchard (2008) are activist,
stages. Through this stage a student reflective, theoretical and pragmatic
changes his ability to understand the learning learning style. Pritchard (2008)
difference in information and knowledge, describes the learning styles of Honey and
to understand the roles of lecturers and Mumford models in the form of images as
students, and to make decisions in social follows:
complexity and personal life.
1. The first stage is called dualism which
is marked by a black or white world
view that is completely wrong.
Knowledge is seen as a collection of
facts to be memorized and educators
are figures who are authorized to
provide all the answers.
2. The second stage is called multiplicity
that learners consider the uncertainty
of the knowledge they receive, all
opinions are considered equal. Figure 1. Dimensional learning styles of Honey and
Learners can recognize the diversity of Mumford
opinions and views about an issue.
Learners in this position will always a) Activist Learning Style
raise their hands in class discussions or According to Honey and Mumford in
in debates because they see such Nor bin Ihkasan (2005), someone who has
activity solely as an equally acceptable an activist learning style likes to actively
expression of difference of opinion. and actively engage in learning activities.
The opinions of educators and learners These students usually have an attitude of
of both are equally appreciated. impatience and haste. This right is caused
3. The third stage is called relativism ie by high curiosity about new problems.
learners can understand that facts often They are also fond of looking for new
related to context and decision-making experiences, always excited, open minded,
should be based on logical or have strong self motivation and always
consistency criteria. Learners at this take initiative to solve their own problems.
stage solely as people who have more According to Nor bin Ihkasanan
experience in a particular discipline. (2007), activist learning style is suitable to
Compared to the previous two stages, choose engineering majors. Activist
at this stage they are better equipped to learning styles will learn more memorable
develop rational discourse skills, if in learning, given the opportunity to use
support the establishment with equipment and work in groups. In
262

addition, students also need to be active by habit are applying theory as the underlying
involving themselves in learning activities concept of the problem being studied.
undertaken. According to Julie in Nor bin Ihkasanan
(2007), learners who apply this learning
b) Reflective Learning Style style have power when in a research
Honey and Mumford in Nor Bin situation, designing with models, concepts,
Ihkasanan (2007) explain learners who theories and systems when asked to
have reflective learning styles prefer to understand and take part in complex
pay attention, think and make self- situations.
reflection to what is around it. They have In conducting the study, students of
their own ideas, pay attention, find this group are happy to create and test
solutions, interpret, assess and make self- hypotheses to draw conclusions based on
reflection with the thinking skills it has. the evidence obtained. This fact is
Learners in this group have critical supported by Honey and Mumford in Nor
thinking skills and creative, like to bin Ihkasanan (2007), which suggests that
interpret and assess a problem from students who apply theoretical learning
various perspectives, principles, decisions style use more rational and logical
or projects, make self-reflection, thinking.
cautiously, think carefully about the In addition, learning in the technical
options before making a conclusion, learn field not only requires an activist learning
and make work systematically. style, and reflective, but learners also need
In doing a job or solving various to be theoretical. Theoretical learners will
problems, these learners need sufficient be disciplined in learning activities.
time to make preparation work, have a Rosewell in Nor Bin Ihkasanan (2007),
careful attitude, be alert and carefully states that a student who has a theoretical
think through the options especially in style of learning will learn easily if they
practicing workshops at Honey and understand the theory and concept of a
Mumford in Nor bin Ihkasanan ( 2007). topic in comparison to their active
involvement in learning activities.
c) Theoretical Learning Style
Learners who have a theoretical d) Pragmatic Learning Style
learning style are fond of using principles Honey and Mumford in Nor bin
and theories to make conclusions about a Ihkasanan (2007) say pragmatic learners
problem. Students of this group integrate are more practical and concerned about the
the results of knowledge in a logical order truth than existing theories, laws or
and think of a problem following certain principles. They prioritize the application
steps and are logical. They are more of theories, laws or principles that exist in
disciplined, have objective judgment, real situations, and try as much as possible
rational and logical thinking, are less to realize ideas, theories or some ideas that
creative because they emphasize the use of are technical. In addition, they are also
the left hemisphere, are fond of exploring more expressive than creative and likes to
the causes and consequences of an make comparisons. Learners in pragmatic
applicable problem and are interested in learning styles like using concrete
studying the phenomena prevailing in the materials to run learning activities.
wild around Honey and Mumford in Nor Pragmatic learning style is more
bin Ihkasanan (2007 ). emphasis on learning through experience
Learners who apply this learning style (experiental learning), because according
more emphasize the theoretical aspects in to Honey and Mumford Nor bin Ihkasanan
their learning. In understanding an in- (2007), students who are pragmatic can
depth concept, learners of this type of master a subject that is learned easily after
263

through practical sessions and theory. Based on figure 2, Kolb (1999) explains
Pritchard (2008) says that this learning from each pole as follows:
style will lead learners to be more
practical, like trying ideas, theories, and a. Pole Feelings/Feeling (Concrete
techniques in learning. Experience)
Individuals learn through feelings, by
4. Learning Style of David A. Kolb emphasizing the aspects of concrete
Kolb's learning style model (1984) experience, more concerned with
emphasizes more on the activiy-centered relationships with others and sensitivity to
styles by identifying the four phases of the feelings of others. In the learning
learning. At each learning phase there is a process, individuals tend to be more open
different process and ability to acquire new and able to adapt to the changes it faces.
information or skills. Kolb (1999) suggests
the existence of four poles (a-d) that b. Polar Thinking (Abstract
illustrate a person's tendency in the Conceptualization)
learning process. The tendency of a person Individuals learn through thought and are
to run the habit of learning according to more focused on the logical analysis of
Kolb is usually not dominant at one ideas, systematic planning, and intellectual
particular pole, therefore the result of this understanding of the situation or subject
learning style measurement will be matter encountered. In the learning
represented by four types of learning style: process, individuals will rely on systematic
1) poles of concrete experience (CE) and planning and develop theories and ideas to
reflective observation (RO) represented by solve the problems it faces.
learning style Diverging, 2) reflective
observation (RO) poles and abstract c. Pole Observation / Watching (Reflective
conceptualization (AC) are represented by Observation)
assimilating learning styles, 3) Abstract Individuals learn through observation,
conceptualization (AC) and active emphasis on observing before judging,
experimentation (AE) poles represented by listening to a case from various
converging learning styles, and 4) active perspectives, and always listening to the
polarization experiments (AE ) and the meaning of the things observed. In the
conrcete experience (CE) is represented by learning process, the Individual will use
the accommodating learning style. The his thoughts and feelings to form opinions.
four poles of the learning style are
described as follows: d. Pole Action / Doing (Active
Experimentation)
(a) Individuals learn by action, tend to be
strong in terms of ability to carry out the
task, dare to take risks, and influence
others through his actions. In the process
of learning, the child will appreciate his
(c) success in completing the work, his
(d) influence on others, and his
accomplishments.
Further Kolb (1984) developed four
phases of the learning cycle and identified
the following four learning styles:
1. Converging: these types are those who
rely on abstract conceptualization and
(b)
active experimentation; they are happy to
Figure 2 Dimensions of learning style Kolb (1999)
264

find concrete answers and move quickly to thinking, and individuals with
find problem solving; they are very good accommodating learning styles tend to
at defining problems and making learn through feelings.
decisions; they are not emotional; they
prefer to work with ideas rather than 4. CONCLUSION
working with others.
2. Diverging: these types are those who Based on the result of the writing which
use concrete experiences and reflective has been described above, it is concluded
observations to generate ideas; they are that learning style is a characteristic
good at brainstorming and making variable of learners which theoretically has
alternatives; they are most happy to an important role in determining the way
interact with others. one manages knowledge information,
3. Assimilating: these types are those who attitude and skill. The way individuals
rely on abstract conceptualization and learn to acquire knowledge, attitudes and
reflective observation; they are happy to skills and transform them into academic
assimilate information and rearrange it practice becomes urgent in the formation
with proper logic; they are good at of learners' personality..
planning, developing theories and creating
models, but are less interested in applying 5. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
theory in real life, they learn well by
reading, listening, observing, and Thank you to the committee of the seminar
contemplating the information obtained. The 1st International Conference on
4. Accommodating: these types are those Education, Science, Art and Technology
who learn well by using concrete (the 1st ICESAT) for the sake of loading
experience and active experimentation; this article in the proceedings of the
they often use trial-and-error strategies seminar.
rather than read their instructions first, or
intuition to solve problems, they tend to 6. REFERENCES
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265

Nor bin Ihkasan, Moh. (2005). Gaya


Pembelajaran di Kalangan Pelajar-
Pelajar Sarjana Muda Pendidikan
Teknik dan Vokasional di Universiti
Tun Hussein Onn. Seminar
Penyelidikan Pendidikan Institut
Perguruan Batu Lintang. Fakulti
Pendidikan Teknikal Universiti Tun
Hussein Onn, Malaysia, (online)
(http://www.ipbl.edu.my), diakses 16-
11-2008.
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The 1st International Conference on Education, Science, Art and Technology (the 1st ICESAT)
Universitas Negeri Makassar. 22 23 July 2017

Building Creativity Of Packaging Products Using Vacuum Suction


Method

Dian Cahyadia
a
Universitas Negeri Makassar, BTP Blok F No. 286, Makassar, Indonesia

Corresponding e-mail: dian.cahyadi@unm.ac.id

Abstract: Efforts to improve the competitiveness of small industrial products in South Sulawesi in
general and the City of Makassar in particular in general have constraints on the variety
of packaging offered. Where they are still highly dependent on the variety of packaging
products offered. So efforts to build a product image or add value to the product becomes
very limited. Therefore, this research is intended to solve the problem. By using the
method of design research and experiments conducted experiments are based on the need
for problem solving, so then get a form of formula or working mechanism accordingly.
The end result of this research activity is obtained a basic design of a compatible and
practical tool that can be used for small industries.

Keywords: Creativity, packaging products, suction method

1 INTRODUCTION
The high competition level of small
industry in seizing the market both local
and national is still a major obstacle.
Several factors are the constraints of
product quality, packaging quality, and
market strategy. When referring to these
Figure 2. Pisang Ijo culinary product with simple
three factors, they are related to the different packaging design.
packaging design. As it is known that Source: Kios Amanda, 2017
packaging design plays an important role
in an effort to increase market interest in STUDY METHOD
the product. Therefore a design approach Methodology
is needed to solve the problem. This project proceeded as follows:
1. Literature search; 2. Subject and
research topics; 3. Research method and
instrument; 4. Survey sample; 5. Survey
interviewing; 6. Drafting and Assembly of
survey sample; 7. Data collection; 8. Data
analysis; 9. Evaluating; Rendering draft.
Figure 1. Marning Maize snack product with
simple packaging design. Literature Search
Source: http://cdn.bisnisukm.com, diakses 17 Juli A literature search was conducted in order
2017 to determine relevant topics warranting
further investigation. Studies have been
conducted in Makassar and elsewhere on
the following subjects: portfolio and hiring
expectations; and theoretical and creative

249
250

preparation of experimental mechanism of The ability to protect its contents from a


moulding technology and the procces variety of external risks, such as protection
system. The aims indepth literature of from hot / cold air, sunlight, odor,
subject needed for the experimental mechanical stress, microorganism
preparation. contamination.
Packaging is a creative design that links Ability as an appeal to consumers. In this
form, structure, material, color, image, case identification, information and
typography and elements with product appearance such as shape, color and
information to make the product beauty of packaging materials should get
marketable. Packaging is used to wrap, attention.
protect, send, remove, store, store and Economic requirements, which means
distinguish a product on the market. (3) ability to meet market desires, target
Functionally, the packaging has two communities and destination places.
functions: (1) Protective function, related It has size, shape and weight that conform
to product protection, climate difference, to existing norms or standards, is easy to
transportation infrastructure, and all that dispose of, and is easy to mold or mold.(2)
impact on the packaging. With protective
packaging, consumers do not have to. (2) Subject and Research Topics
Promotional function, packaging is also The subject of research is focus on design
used as a promotional tool. With regard to design of Pisang Ijo packaging as product
promotion, the company preference goods sample project. Where the design of the
color, size, and appearance. (4) packaging to be designed later can be
Based on the content structure, packaging produced using packaging tools with the
is divided into three types, namely; (1) method of suction.
primary packaging, ie packaged material
Research Method and Instrument
directly accommodate foodstuff (milk can,
The method used is a research design
drink bottle, etc). (2) secondary packaging, method that prioritizes the collection of
ie packaging of important functions, food initial data as a review material before
box packaging, food box packaging, food proceeding to the design method that
box packaging, food box packaging, contains the required design data. After
packaging of goods (3) tertiary and quartz that the results of the design will be
packaging, ie packaging required for evaluated according to the rules of good
packaging conditions.
storage, delivery or identification. Tertiary
packaging is generally used as a protector Survey Sample
during transport. Considered aspects of Survey sample will doing by collecting a
product quality to be protected. The number of documentation and interviews
quality of products when reaching on producers and consumers related to the
consumers depends on the conditions of feasibility variables of a packaging design
raw materials, processing methods and that suits their needs on both sides. So that
will be obtained the basic data is accurate
storage conditions. Thus the packaging
to be used as a reference in the design
function must meet the following process. Of course, by putting the
requirements: necessary needs to be realized in the form
of the design of the prototype of the
Good wrapping capability to facilitate prototype.
handling, transport, distribution, storage
and compilation / buildup.
Survey Interviewing
251

The fundamental questions related to the Drafting and Assembly of survey


model and type of packaging they have sample
been using, the reasons for using, the The process of presenting the form is done
choice of using the packaging, the price of by conducting a study of the sketches
the packaging used, find out the details of made to find an alternative form that will
their expectations with their ideal idealized
be evaluated further. Once an alternate
prototype.
Hine in Underwood (2003)(4) explains the form is selected then an in-depth
role of packaging in attracting the attention evaluation of the form which will be used
of consumers, so that consumers have a as a basic reference form in the next
picture related to the product. To development process, before entering the
summarize all of these suggestions, it stage of of making the drawing work or
could be concluded that packaging detail engineering design.
communicates various marketing messages
via its communicative dimensions which Data Collection
consist of the following elements are: To reassure the direction of the design
shape, process. the initial set of reference data is
packaging size, presented for use as an evaluation material,
packaging colour, the goal being to reconcile the next stage
packaging material, to stay focused and stay focused.
carried information,
graphic applications (e.g. brand Data Analysis
logo, fonts, pictorials, etc.). Due to complexity of perception and
All of these elements together different approaches to the comprehension
communicate various marketing messages of it, there are a number of theories that
to the consumer in both the purchase and attempt to explain the essence of
consumption phases. The message that the perception. However, there are two major
consumer receives is a combination of approaches resulting in two main
particular messages carried by the theoretical directions constructive
communicative dimensions of perception and direct perception. These
packaging,as showing in picture below. theories are usually presented in
opposition to each other, although
sometimes they simply deal with different
aspects of the same phenomenon
Size (Sternberg, 1995)(5).
Based on the intended theoretical
Color Material objectives, the image that will be used as a
Communic reference is how to keep showing the
ative performance of the authenticity of the
dimensions
of form of Pisang Ijo. So line out the
packaging Carried rendering process will consistently refer to
Shape Informat the product form. So the product image
ion
becomes the main focus of packaging
Graphic
applicati
ons Result and Conclusion
Literature search
Consumer packaging could be defined as
Figure 3. Communicative dimensions of a medium between producer and
packaging consumer whose aim is to guarantee a
product with fixed qualitative standard
252

from the producer and at the same time


offers to the consumer a product which
corresponds to the illustrated standards
(Meroni, 2000, p. 243) (6). It is a container
containing goods where the goods are
placed for sale and it includes any
container or wrapping in which any
consumer commodity is enclosed for
delivery or display of that commodity to
consumers. (WELMEC, 1997) (7)
Fill (2009) suggest that packaging
communicates through various
(8)
dimensions. Based on it indicates that
each packing basically communicates its
shape, size, color to be easily perceived by
the consumer. In addition, related to the
form must be related to the consideration
of dimensions, the ability to protect the
product on the delivery process.
Based on the results of data collection
obtained information that, generally the Figure 4. embossing bend surface or structural
grooves on trimmed corner.
producers are worried about Pisang Ijo
products they will be damaged if they send
their products far away or outside the city.
The most common occurrence of
occurrence is Pisang Ijo received by the
consumer in a state of dent due to other
goods override when sent. From this
information leads to underline this
problem to find a solution during the
design process by thinking of its
construction structure system.
The recommended design recommendation
for this problem as a solution is to give
consideration to placing embossing bend
surface or structural grooves on the
packaging vertically.

Figure 5. Vertically embossing bend surface or


structural grooves on rear side of packaging.

Product Data
Based on the visual data of the packaging
collected based on the most widely used
253

by the manufacturer, the following


description is obtained below.

Figure 6. Good and strong packaging, the weakness


of this product does not feature Banana Ijo in its
entirety, has been mixed with its sauce and syrup
and is not prepared for products that can be
delivered to distant places.
Documentation: Es Pisang Ijo LiNi, 2017.

Figure 8. The package used by


'Kulinerpakhendra' is included both with the
method of packaging system utilizing the use
of 2 sub-containers in a container that serves
as a place to store the sauce and syrup as well
as serves as a pressure barrier if it gets the load
from the top so as to protect the product. The
main strength factor in this package is the
Figure 7. Packaging is not good and weak, very proper material selection and design.
commonly used by manufacturers. Structural
reinforcement systems are minimally used on Documentation: kulinerpakhendra, 2017.
the packaging so that the weakness of this
product are on packs that are particularly Vacuum Suction Method Data
vulnerable to cause crumbling products on the
delivery process or when stacked in shipment Some printing molding techniques and
to distant places. Many manufacturers choose methods use the following plastic
this packaging product because of the cheap
materials;
price, in addition to their reasons that there are
no other design alternatives.
Documentation: sedapur.com, 2017. Extrusion is a processing technique for
converting a powder or grain thermoplastic
material into a continuous uniform melt
and promoting the melting through a
shaping die located at the end of the
machine. The final product formed
depends on the shape of die orifice through
254

which the polymer melts. This extrusion is


a process that combines several processes
including mixing, cooking, kneading,
destruction, molding, and formation. The
purpose of extrusion is to increase the
diversity of food products in various
shapes, textures, colors, and flavors. But
the price of this tool is very expensive and
not affordable by the small home industry.
In addition, the cost of making a master Figure 10. Major parts of a typical injection-
mold is also expensive, which is only able molding machine.
to be held by a large industrial
manufacturer of plastic products. Blow molding, is a method of printing
hollow workpieces by blowing or blowing
air into materials using molds consisting of
two parts of the mold that do not use the
core as the cavity shaper (Yuswinanto,
2011) (9).

Thermoforming, is one method and


widely used in processing plastic
materials. Thermoforming is the formation
of plastic sheets into parts through the
Figure 9. The extruder machine for making application of heat and pressure. Tooling
variant of plastic product. for this process is the least expensive
compared to other plastic processes. Can
also accommodate a very large piece of
Injection Molding, One technique that is sheet and small parts.
quite effective and widely used for
thermoplastic material processing is Vacuum Forming: The working principle
injection molding. This technique was first of the vacuum forming process is to heat
introduced by John Wesley Hyatt in 1868, the plastic sheet form (sheet) to soften/soft
by injection of hot celluloid into mold, to and put it abovemold. Then the vacuum
make ball billiards. Together with his starts sucking the material into mold. Then
sister Isaiah, he patented an injection mold the material was removed from the mold.
machine for a vacuum header in 1872. In In this short formation, the vacuum
1946 James Hendri for the first time made forming process utilizes pneumatic,
screw machine injection mold, resulting in hydraulic and heat controls that allow
major changes to the plastics industry. And shorter production time. The product of the
95% of current molding machines follow vacuum forming process is very much and
this technique, to produce efficient heat, plays an important role in everyday life.
mix efficiency and plastic injection into
molding (Anonymous, 2008). But the price
of this tool is very expensive and not
affordable by the small home industry. In
addition, the cost of making a master mold
is also expensive, which is only able to be
held by a large industrial manufacturer of
plastic products.
255

Figure 13. Steps in the vacuum forming process:


Acrilic vinil prepared above.
Documentation: formech.com, 2017.
Figure 10. Steps in the vacuum forming process.

The technique to be developed is one of


thermoforming technique, namely vacuum
forming method.
The current vacuum forming molding
equipment can only be produced by large
manufacturing companies because the
equipment is expensive and the amount of Figure 14. Steps in the vacuum forming process:
production is high. Acrilic vinil heating below.
This method has been widely used since Documentation: formech.com, 2017.
the 1980s to produce products such as
plastic doors, plastic sinks, bath-tubs, car
dashboards, etc. The equipment is known
as Vacuum Membrane Press as shown
below.

Figure 15. Steps in the vacuum forming process:


Acrilic vinil suction with 80 Psi/5 bar.
Documentation: formech.com, 2017.

Figure 11. The vacuum former machine.


Documentation: formech.com, 2017.

Figure 16. Steps in the vacuum forming process:


Acrilic vinil already molding has been in shape.
Documentation: formech.com, 2017.

Thus a brief overview of the molding


process using the vacuum suction method
Figure 12. Master object molding prepared. that became the basis in the tool creation
Documentation: formech.com, 2017. experiment. The difference that is the basis
of the tool is the use of air blowing in the
256

process, where alattersebut use two


methods in the process, namely the process
of suction and blowing mechanism. So on
the process of creating tools that are in
experimental stage we only rely on the
method of suction mechanism.

Experiment
The materials prepared are as follows;
Triplex board, lackban, pvc pipe 3/4. Figure 20. Frame holder of acrylic vinyl sheet and
While the equipment used is as follows; the base of the holder.
saw, drill, glue gun or silicon gel. Documentation: Roboforcerx2000, 2017
Here are some photos that illustrate the Basically, the working process of forming
experimental process as below: the vinyl plastic sheet is very simple which
consists of several stages, are:
Stages of placing the plastic in the
holder frame,
Stages of heating the plastic sheet,
Stages of sucking,
Stages releasing plastic sheets that
have been formed.
The process are showing below.
Figure 17. Bottom box that has been pipe fitted as a
lane to suck air using a vacuum cleaner tool
commonly used in many homes.
Documentation: Roboforcerx2000, 2017 (10)

Figure 21. The master object to be duplicated is


placed on the evaporator board, the unwanted hole
is covered with the lackban so that the suction area
Figure 18. The top board as a perforated cover is focused on the master object.
Documentation: Roboforcerx2000, 2017 Documentation: Roboforcerx2000, 2017

Figure 19. Perforated cover with a diameter of 1 Figure 21. The heated plastic sheet is placed over
mm is 1 cm away which serves to suck air during the master object then sucked.
the forming process. Documentation: Roboforcerx2000, 2017
Documentation: Roboforcerx2000, 2017
257

Figure 22. Releasing the molding result.


Documentation: Roboforcerx2000, 2017 Figure 24. Some creative products resulting from
the vacuum forming process, such as the remote
control car body, the mask, the plastic wrapping
package and more according to other creative
desires.
Documentation: Roboforcerx2000, 2017

Conclusions
Produce a variety of unique packaging and
according to the desire or according to the
form of packaged products or other
creative uniques can be realized, without
relying on products offered by other
Figure 23. The molding result with PET vinil. manufacturers that only provide a variety
Documentation: Roboforcerx2000, 2017 of forms common in the market. So the
goal to raise the image of the product
packaged according to taste is no longer
In the first experiment the results obtained the reason for small industries or home
were not satisfactory. This is caused industries. The designed equipment is not
around the object of molding there are as expensive as it is widely used by
unwanted folds. After done many times the industries worth tens to hundreds of
experiment found the cause of errors in the millions of rupiah. The packaging tool that
process of closing the suction area should will be made is estimated only for less
not be covered with a lackban. than a million rupiah and according to the
Closing the suction hole makes the pull ability of small industries in Indonesia.
caused by the suction to be uneven. This product design development plan is
Although treatment efforts have been aimed at designing comprehensive
made using heat blowers it is considered products, ease of operation in the tool,
unhelpful to leave the suction holes concise, lightweight and portable form.
unbound in the desired area.
Acknowledgements
The author would like to thank the
following people for their assistance with
this project: the participants, who gave
valuable time to helping and who
generously and enthusiastically of
feedback; All my colleague from the VCD
FSD Universitas Negeri Makassar, Dean
of Fakultas Seni dan Desain UNM, The
258

Rector and The Vices Rector, Dies UNM 12. Jaswin M. Packaging Materials and
56 International Conference Team. its Applications. . Jakarta: :
Indonesian Packaging Federation.,
2008.
Works Cited
1. Klimchuk, Marianne dan Krasovec,
Sandra A. Desain Kemasan.
Jakarta : Erlangga, 2006.
2. Simamora, Bilson. Panduan Riset dan
Perilaku Konsumen. Jakarta :
Gramedia, 2007.
3.
https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peng
emasan, Wikipedia. [Online] 25
Maret 2017. [Dikutip: 5 7 2017.].
Wikipedia. [Online] Wikipedia.
[Cited: 7 5 , 2017.]
4. The communicative power of product
packaging: Creating brand.
Underwood, R.L. 01 pp. 6-76, s.l. :
Journal of Marketing Theory and
Practice, 2003, Vol. Volume 11.
5. Sternberg, R.J. In Search of the Human
Mind. Orlando : s.n., 1995.
6. Meroni, A., Active Packaging as an
Opportunity to Create Package
Design that. s.l. : Packaging
Technology and Science, 2000, Vol.
Vol. 11(7).
7. WELMEC. Application of Directives
75/106/EEC and 76/211/EEC
concerning the marking and quantity
control of e-marked prepackages:
Definitions of terms. s.l. : Middlesex,
1997.
8. Fill, C. Marketing Communications:
Interactivity, Communities and
Content. s.l. : Harlow, 2009.
9. Yuswinanto, Aris. [Online] [Cited: 05
15, 2017.]
http://www.indopolimer.com/artikel/
basic-blow-molding-definisi-
tahapan-jenis/.
10. Roboforcerx2000. DIY vacuum
molding box. 2017.
11. Wikipedia. [Online] Maret 25, 2017.
[Cited: 7 5, 2017.]
https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pengem
asan.
The 1st International Conference on Education, Science, Art and Technology (the 1st ICESAT)
Universitas Negeri Makassar. 22 23 July 2017

Development Of Guided-Inquiry Based Biology Learning Device In A


Setting Of Cooperative Learning Model Type Stad

Yusminah Halaa, Sitti Saenaba and Yusrawita Baharb


a
Biology Department, Mathematic and Science Faculty, Universitas Negeri Makassar
Daeng Tata Raya Street, Parangtambung, Makassar 90224

Email: yushala12@gmail.com

Abstract: The research aims to produce a guided inquiry based biology learning instrument in a setting of
cooperative learning model type STAD on human nervous system materials for junior high school. The
development process of the learning device utilized a modified 4-D model which includes four stages, namely:
(a) the defining phase, includes: (1) analysis of a preliminary and final, (2) analysis of students, (3) analysis of
material and (4) analysis of the task; (b) the design phase, includes: (1) test preparation, (2) media selection, (3)
format selection, and (4) prototype development; (c) the development phase, includes: (1) content validation
performed by experts and practitioners in the field of education, (2) Field testing of learning device prototype
that has been prepared; and (d) the dissemination phase. The quality of the developed learning device are as
follows: 1) Lesson Plan, Student Activity Sheet, and the test document are in valid category; 2) Practical,
because the result of learning implementation observation by the observers showed that the learning device had
been implemented properly; 3) effective, because the learning device satisfied the four criteria of learning
device effectiveness which include: student's activity is in accordance with the tolerated time interval, teachers
ability to manage the learning are in the very good category, students responded positively to the learning
device and enforceability of learning activities, and students learning achievement has reached high category.

Keywords: Learning device, Guided Inquiry, STAD, Human Nervous System.

1 INTRODUCTION forming the student's own cognitive


structure (Setiawan, 2016).
The concept of human nervous Inquiry learning can be implemented
system is one of the science curriculum in the STAD type of cooperative learning
content in grade IX. According to the model setting by combining the guided
standard competence and basic competence, inquiry learning syntax with STAD type of
the material content of human nervous cooperative learning syntax. Consideration
system is directed to the interrelationship of this integration was because both models
between the structure, function, and of learning use the principles of
processes that occur in the human nervous constructivism that is the principle of active
system so that not only the product aspect is learning and collaborative learning.
needed to master the knowledge of the Implementation of guided inquiry based
concept or principle, but also the process learning process in STAD type of
aspect. Based on the material cooperative learning setting should be
characteristics, it is appropriate to use supported by appropriate learning tools.
inquiry learning because students can find Reality that occurred in some schools
the concept or principle by using their own based on field observations showed that: 1)
mental process. Inquiry-based learning the schools has not developed learning
provides an opportunity for students to devices using certain learning methods and
internalize new information by building or models, including the guided-inquiry based

239
240

learning devices in STAD type of namely lesson plan, student work sheet and
cooperative learning setting; 2) there is an learning outcomes test.
asynchrony between the students manual
and the worksheet used because it was
2. RESEARCH METHOD
written and published by different This research is a research and
publishers; 3) there is an asynchrony development that is directed to develop a
between instructional devices with the Guided Inquiry Based Learning Device
methods and learning model applied; 4) the with STAD Type of Cooperative Learning
presentation of the material by the teacher Setting on Human Nervous System
during the learning process is still Materials for Junior High School Students
dependent on the structure of the textbook which follows a process of development as
content, the learning is monotonous and shown in figure 1. The subjects of the
dominated by teachers, and the students are
research are students in class IXA of MTs.
passive; and 5) The learning process Negeri Bontotanga, Bulukumba Regency
experienced by the students is less registered in academic year 2015/2016. The
meaningful. Based on the situation that has device development trials were conducted
been proposed, it is deemed necessary to in September 2016. The research
develop a guided inquiry based biology instruments used to collect data were non-
learning device in STAD type of test techniques and test techniques. The
cooperative learning model on the material data analysis techniques used were
of the human nervous system. descriptive statistical analysis, including
According to Usman (2001), data analysis of validity, practicality,
Learning device is a collection of learning effectiveness, and achievement test.
resources that enable students and teachers Based on the result of analysis on
to do learning activities. Learning devices guided inquiry learning syntax and STAD
affect the success of the learning process in
type of cooperative learning syntax, a
the classroom. Thus, it is necessarily syntax that combines the two instructional
needed by a teacher in managing learning. models was developed as shown in Table 1.
In this research, there are three tools that
will be developed to produce prototype,

Table 1. Syntax of Inquiry Learning Guided Setting of STAD Type Cooperative Learning Model
Phase Teacher Activity Student Activity
Phase 1 Present the learning objectives to be Listen to the learning objectives to
achieved and emphasize the importance be achieved
Convey the of the topics to be studied and motivated Recall materials that has been
purpose and students. achieved
motivation to Provide ideas on a phenomenon to
learn cultivate curiosity.

Phase 2 Present information or materials to Writing and understanding


Presenting students by demonstration or through information from teachers about
information reading material content for work procedures,
demonstrations or practicum
Phase 3 Explain to students how to form learning Form groups of 5-6 people
Organize students groups and guide each group to do Make group agreements for future
into cooperative transition efficiently. activities.
groups
241

Phase 4 Guide groups in terms of; Reading the problem in


Guiding group Formulating problem general.
work and study Determine the problem and present the
(Inquiry Phase) problem through power point.
Identify the problem
Encourage and guide students to Identify the problem
conduct assessment and analysis of Conduct assessment and
problems. analysis of problems.

Preparing hypothesis
Help students identify and verify Identify and verify the problem.
problems
Encourage students to develop Develop a hypothesis
hypotheses
Guide students in determining Determine the hypothesis
hypotheses relevant to the problem. relevant to the problem
Encourage students to develop Develope temporary
temporary conclusions conclusions.
Collecting data Conduct an experiment or
Guide students to get data through library review to collect data.
experiment or literature review
Organize and group data to be
Guide students in analyzing data.
easily read and analyzed to
Observe delivery and analysis in group
prove hypotheses or answer
discussions and class discussions
worksheet.
Conduct class discussions to
discuss the outcomes of the
group's exploits or discussions
Phase 5 Evaluate learning outcomes about the Answer test questions that given
Evaluation material that have been learned or each individually,
group presents their work. Together with the teacher
determines the score of the test.
Phase 6 Reward the effort or the learning Receive an award from the
Reinforcement achievement of students, either as teacher based on the score
individual or as member of a group. obtained either individually /
Make a conclusion group.
Make inferences based on the
data obtained.
including the guided-inquiry based learning
3. RESULT AND DISCUSSION devices in STAD type of cooperative
Learning instrument in this research learning setting; 2) there was an asynchrony
was arranged and developed based on 4-D between the students manual and the
Thiagarajan model consisting of four stages worksheet used because it was written and
namely define, design, develop and published by different publishers; 3) there
disseminate. wais an asynchrony between instructional
3.1. The results of the defining stage devices with the methods and learning
(define) model applied; 4) the presentation of the
The results of observation on biology material by the teacher during the learning
learning condition showed that: (1) the process was still dependent on the structure
schools had not developed learning devices of the textbook content, the learning was
using certain learning methods and models, monotonous and dominated by teachers,
242

and the students were passive; and 5) The receptors, impulse conductor, central nerve,
learning process experienced by the effectors, (2) identify the structure and
students was less meaningful. Based on the function of dendrites, cell body, axons,
situation that has been proposed, it is myelin sheath and node of ranvier, (3)
deemed necessary to develop a guided differentiate the unipolar, bipolar and
inquiry based biology learning device in multipolar nerve cells, and (4) distinguish
STAD type of cooperative learning model the sensory, relay, and motor neuron, (5)
on the material of the human nervous describes how the neuron work, (6)
system. determine the location and function of large
Based on the results of analysis on brain, cerebellum, marrow, and spinal cord,
students condition, it is known that (7) distinguishes the cranial and spinal
students have not learned the material of the nervous system, (8) identify the function of
nervous system in humans. Students come sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous
from the tribe of Makassar mountainous system, (9) understand the mechanisms of
area, while the people around the school reflexes, (10) understand the mechanism of
live in Makassar cultural environment. motion normal, (11) know the difference
Students communicate using Indonesian between reflexes and ordinary movement.
language in school. Thus, the learning tools
developed is in Indonesian language. 3.2. The results of design stage
Material outlines are based on the (design)
results of the material analysis: (1) the The developed achievement test
components of the nervous system, (2) the consists of 25 multiple choice question
nerve cell structure, (3) the types of nerve items. The learning media chosen for the
cells based on their function, (4) the types learning activity including (1) worksheets,
of nerve cells based on their structure, (5) (2) student books, (3) laptops, (4) ice cubes,
the parts of the brain and their functions, (6) and (5) the books of the brain, (6) rubber,
the central nervous system, (7) the and (7) hammer. Lesson plan format
peripheral nervous system, (8) usual motion includes: standard of competence, basic
and reflex motion. competence, achievement indicators,
The results of the task or indicator learning objectives, teaching materials,
analysis material including: (1) mentioned learning resources / media, learning
components of the nervous systems, (2) activities, type of evaluation.
explain the structure, types, functions and While the format of worksheet design
mechanisms of nerve cells, (3) determine consists of several components, including:
the structure and function of the brain, and time allocation, achievement indicators,
(4) distinguish the central nervous system, instructions, problem formulation,
(5) identify the function of the peripheral hypotheses, problems and blank space as a
nerve, (6) to understand the mechanism of place of student answers. For the initial
reflex motion, (7) understand the design result, lesson plan is made for 3
mechanism of regular motion, (8) know the meeting with the time allocation of 2 x 40
difference between refrelx and normal minutes for each meeting. A worksheet
motion. developed is in 3 units, designed with
The results of the analysis of the pictures and illustration, and contains
learning objectives specification, including: empty space for studnets to write their
(1) Mention the component of impulse, answers. Each worksheet contains
243

instruction for students to always discuss A summary of the results of expert


one another in solving the problem. The validation on the instructional devices and
achievement test was developed by the research instruments can be seen in
designing the test content outline, the test table 2 and table 3 respectively. The results
items, the alternative answers, and the of validation by 2 experts in the field of
scoring guideline. education, shows that the overall
The test is arranged in the form of components of instructional devices and
multiple choice with time allocation of 2 x research instruments declared valid and
40 minutes amounted to 25 items. reliable. Based on the validity criteria of
Nurdin (2007), the valid category value is
3.3. The results of development stage 2.5 M <3.5, and the reliability criteria that
(develop) an instruments is recognized as reliable if
a. Validation the reliability value (R) 0.75.
Table 2. Summary of expert validation results on instructional devices
Instrument Indicator Assesment Category
Lesson Plan 1. Format 3,9 Very Valid
2. Content 3,4 Valid
3,3 Valid
3. Language 3,5 Very Valid
4. Benefits / Usage 3,0 Valid
5. Time
Average of total valuation 3,4 Valid
Percentage of Agreement 0,84 Reliable
Worksheet 1. Format 3,5 Very Valid
2. Content 3,6 Very Valid
3,5 Very Valid
3. Language 3,7 Very Valid
4. Illustration and layout 3,0 Valid
5. Benefits / Usage 3,7 Very Valid
6. Time
Average total valuation 3,5 Very Valid
Percentage of Agreement 0,78 Reliable
Learning 1. Matter items 4,0 Very Valid
Outcomes 2. Construction / format 3,7 Very Valid
Test 3,8 Very Valid
3. Language 3,0 Valid
4. Time
Average total valuation 3,6 Very Valid
Percentage of Agreement 0,92 Reliable
Table 3. Summary of Validation Results of Research Instruments
Instrument Index of
Indicator Assesment Category
Sheet Understanding
Student 1. Aspects of Instructions 4,0 Very Valid
Response 2. Aspects of Language 4,0 Very Valid 1,00
Questionnaire 3. Aspects of Content 3,4 Valid
Average 3,8 Very Valid Reliable
244

Observation 1. Aspects of Instructions 3,5 Very Valid


of Student 2. Aspects of Language 4,0 Very Valid 0,88
Activity in 3. Aspects of Content 3,6 Very Valid
Learning
Average 3,7 Very Valid Reliable
Observation of 1. Aspects of Instructions 3,8 Very valid
Teacher 2. Aspects of Language 3,6 Very Valid 0,90
Activity in 3. Aspects of Content 3,3 Valid
Learning
Management
Average 3,5 Very Valid Reliable
Observation of 1. Aspects of Instructions 4 Very Valid
Learning 2. Aspects of Language 4 Very Valid 0,88
Devices 3. Aspects of Content 3,4 Valid
Implementation
Average 3,7 Very Valid Reliable

b. Field trials c. Analysis of the practicality


Field trials consists of simulation (effectiveness) of instructional
class trial and special class trial. The former devices
was conducted in two classes for 3 This analysis includes the
meetings in 2 weeks, and the latter was components of learning syntax, social
interaction in learning, and the principle of
conducted by the researchers themselves reaction in learning as shown in Table 4.
and two observers in one class for 4
meetings.
Table 4. Summary of practicality analysis on instructional tools
Learning syntax component
Observation Result
NO Observation Aspect 1st 2nd 3rd
Meeting Meeting Meeting
P1 P2 P1 P2 P1 P2
1 Introduction Activities 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 Main Activities 1 1 1 2 2 2
3 Closing Activities 1 2 2 2 2 2
Average Observation aspect in each
1,45 1,8 2
meeting
Average overall aspect 1,75
Percentage of Agreement 0,77
Social interaction in learning
Observation Result
1st 2nd 3rd
NO Observation Aspect
Meeting Meeting Meeting
P1 P2 P1 P2 P1 P2
Multi-way interaction of teachers
1 and students and between students and 2 2 2 2 2 2
students
2 Activity of students in cooperative 1 1 2 1 2 2
245

group to be involved in carrying out


worksheet activities
Average overall aspect 1,3 1,8 2
Percentage of Agreement 1,7
Percentage of Agreement 0,89
Principle of reaction in learning
Observation Result
1st 1st 1st
N
Observation aspect Meeting Meeting Meeting
o
P P P P P P
1 2 1 2 1 2
1 Teachers motivates students in
creating a comfortable atmosphere for 2 2 2 2 2 2
learning
2 Teachers provide and manage
relevant learning resources that can
2 1 2 2 2 2
support the fluency of the learning
process
3 Teachers provide assignments in the
form of worksheet to students and 2 2 2 2 2 2
explain things related to worksheet
4 The teacher guides the students in
1 1 2 2 2 2
groups
5 The teacher gives positive
2 2 2 2 2 2
reinforcement
6 The teacher takes into account the
1 1 2 2 2 2
time allocation
Average overall aspect 1,55 2 2
Percentage of Agreement 1,85
Percentage of Agreement 0,94

In general, the developed learning discussing the main indicator for learning,
tools have met the criteria of practicality thus the available time allocation could not
that is entirely in the performed category. be used efficiently.
However, further review in each component Teachers need to provide strength
showed that there are some aspects that still and motivation to students in cooperative
need to be improved in its implementation. learning. It is in line with the explanation of
There were several factors which causes the Isjoni (2012), that teachers in cooperative
learning tools could not be implemented learning encourage students to cooperate in
maximally, including: (1) teachers still had certain activities. Insufficient time
difficulty in directing or guiding students allocation for finishing the task on
who are not yet accustomed to do worksheets with guided inquiry learning by
independent learning in order to find their cooperative learning model setting is in
own concepts of the material being studied, accordance with Sutawidjaja and Afgani
(2) Some students were unconfident to be (2011) that besides there are some
active during class discussions, only certain advantages, the inquiry model also contains
students were active, (3) Students some weaknesses, including: (a) require
sometimes provided questions that are far enough time , (B) not all subjects contain a
from the main problem during group problem, (c) require regular and mature
discussions. The students were not focus on
246

planning, (d) ineffective if there is a passive investigate mathematically, critically,


student. logically and analytically in order that they
d. Instructional device effectiveness test can formulate their own invention
Learning tools are effective, if confidently. Similarly, Hairida (2016)
they meet the four conditions, namely: (1) found that the application of inquiry-based
ideal student activity, if five out of the learning in science learning integrated with
seven of ideal time tolerance criteria is met, authentic assessment proved to improve
(2) the ability of teachers to manage the students' critical thinking ability.
learning is at least reach the good category The result of data analysis of teacher
in learning management aspect, (3) ability in managing learning showed that
Students respond positively to the learning the value of learning management is 3.77
device that is at least 50% of students give which is categorized in very good category
positive responses to at least 70% of the with reliability coefficient of 0,88. Based
total aspects assessed, and (4) students on the terms of learning tools effectiveness,
succeed in learning if at least 85% of the ability of teachers to manage learning is
students reach the high category. declared as effective. As stated by Nurdin
The observation of student (2007), the learning is said to be effective in
activity in three meetings showed that at the terms of teachers ability to manage
first meeting, 75% of aspects were within learning, when every aspect of teachers
the limit of time tolerance, including the management skill is in well category (2.5
1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 7th aspects. leraning management <3.5). Efforts that can
Meanwhile, 25% of the aspects did not be done to improve the management of
satisfy the time limit of time tolerance that learning are: (1) the need for habituation for
is: (1) the 6th aspect (Active in paying teachers to create an active student
attention, responding and questioning the atmosphere in learning and habituation for
class discussion) is less than the time students to construct their own knowledge,
tolerance limit, (2) the 8th aspect (Activities (2) revise the technique of group
outside the task, For example, not paying presentation by choosing one group as
attention to teacher explanation, doing other presenters and 4 other groups as opposing
subject assignments Other activities not groups to provide feedback.
related to learning activity). Student activity Students responses to student books,
in learning has been fulfilled. worksheets, learning process, and
Students perform activities that are achievement test are in the positive
dominated by group work in finding a category in which there are more than 80%
concept through observation, literature of students who respond positively. The
review and working on worksheets. result of this student's response has fulfilled
Students are not monotonous in learning the criteria of effectiveness, as stated by
activities as the learning are student- Nurdin (2007) that the students have
centered. The involvement of students in responded positively to the learning device
guided inquiry-based learning through the developed if at least 50% of students gave
setting of cooperative learning model in positive responses to the minimum of 70%
line with the statement of Trianto (2007) of the number of aspects asked.
that the inquiry learning strategy is a series Accordingly, based on the students
of learning activities which maximally response, the developed learning device is
involves all students' ability to search and effective to be used. The implemented
247

lessons have made students interested in The results of descriptive analysis on


reading students' books, passionate and the result of achievement test after the
challenged in completing the worksheet and implementation of guided-inquiry based
the test of learning outcomes, and happy to learning device in the setting of cooperative
follow the lesson as it combines the guided learning model type STAD is shown in
inquiri learning with group discussion Table 5.
lesson so that the students are more eager to
complete group tasks.
Table 5. Statistical Results of Student Achievement in MTsN Bontotanga Bulukumba District after a
special class test
Variables Statistic Value
Research subject 24
Ideal value 100
Average 80,33
Maximum value 96
Minimum value 52
Value Range 44
Number of Completed Students 20
Number of Uncompleted Students 4

Based on the data in Table 5, the model had a higher mean score of science
percentage of completed students with process skills when compared with the
grades 65-100 is 83.33%. This has satisfied students who learned with conventional
the criteria of effectiveness based on the model.
standards set by MoNE (2003), in which
the learning is said to be effective if: (1) at 3.3. Description of the results of the
least 85% of students get the score of dissemination
achievement test which is categorized in at Various responses and suggestions
least as high category after learning with obtained from the socialization activities,
the guided inquiry based instructional including: (1) worksheet 01 contains too
device in the setting of cooperative learning many questions that must be answered by
model type STAD, (2) If at least 85% of students. Thus, the time allocated was not
students reach the minimum completeness sufficient, (2) worksheet 02 activities 2.3
criteria, then the classical requirement has should provided better picture with a
been achieved. Biology learning based on distinct difference between sympathetic and
guided inquiry in the setting of cooperative parasympathetic nerve.
learning type STAD can facilitate the
learning process that can enhance the
science process skills through group 4. CONCLUSION
discussion. In line with the opinion of Based on the results and findings
Rokhmatika et al., (2012), guided inquiry obtained in this study, several conclusions
model combined with cooperative has an are proposed:
effect on biological science process skills, 1) The development of the
in which students who learned with guided instructional instrument was based on the
inquiry combined with cooperative learning modification of 4-D model which includes
248

4 stages, namely: (a) the defining phase, And Inquiry Skills Of Junior High
includes: (1) analysis of a preliminary and School Students. Jurnal Pendidikan
final, (2) analysis of students, (3) analysis IPA Indonesia. JPII 5 (2) (2016) 209-
of material and (4) analysis of the task; (b) 215. Semarang: Universitas negeri
the design phase, includes: (1) test Semarang
preparation, (2) media selection, (3) format Isjoni. (2012). Cooverative Learning.
selection, and (4) prototype development; Bandung. Alfabeth.
(c) the development phase, includes: (1) Nurdin.( 2007). Model Pembelajaran
content validation performed by experts and Matematika yang Menumbuhkan
practitioners in the field of education, (2) Kemampuan Metakognitif Untuk
Field testing of learning device prototype Menguasai Perangkat
that has been prepared; and (d) the Pembelajaran. Disertasi. Not
dissemination phase. published. Surabaya: PPs
2) The quality of the developed Universitas Negeri Surabaya. .
instructional device are as follows: 1) Puskur-Balitbang Diknas. (2006).
Lesson Plan, Student Activity Sheet, and Kurikulum Standar Kompetensi
the test document are in valid category; 2) dan Kompetensi Dasar. Jakarta:
Practical, because the result of learning Diknas.
implementation observation by the Rokhmatika, S., Harita, dan Prayitno, B.A.
observers showed that the learning device (2012). Pengaruh Model Inquiri
had been implemented properly; 3) Terbimbing Dipadu Kooperatif
effective, because the learning device Jigsaw terhadap keterampilan
satisfied the four criteria of learning device Proses Sains Ditinjau dari
effectiveness which include: student's Kemampuan Akademik. Jurnal
activity is in accordance with the tolerated Pendidikan Biologi, Volume 4. No
time interval, teachers ability to manage 2.
the learning are in the very good category, Rusman. (2010). Model-Model
students responded positively to the Pembelajaran Mengembangkan
learning device and enforceability of Profesionalisme Guru. Jakarta : PT
learning activities, and students learning Raja Grafindo Persada.
achievement has reached high category. Setiawan. B, Sunarti. B, Astriani D.
(2016). The Application Of Inquiry
Learning Model To Improve Satu
5. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Atap Students Learning Results At
Smpn 4 Singosari Malang. Jurnal
This work was supported by the Program Pendidikan IPA Indonesia JPII 5 (1)
Pascasarjana Universitas Negeri Makassar, (2016) 45-50. Semarang: Universitas
lembaga Penelitian UNM and MTs. Negeri Negeri Semarang
Bontotanga, Bulukumba. Sutawidjaja, A. & Afgani, J.D,
6. REFERENCES Pembelajaran Matematika. (2011).
Jakarta, Universitas Terbuka.
Hairida. (2016). The Effectiveness Using Trianto. (2009). Mendesain Model
Pembelajaran Inovatif progressif.
Inquiry Based Natural Science Jakarta. Prestasi Pustaka
Module With Authentic Assessment
To Improve The Critical Thinking
The 1st International Conference on Education, Science, Art and Technology (the 1st ICESAT)
Universitas Negeri Makassar. 22 23 July 2017

Application of Whichever Chain Game Method on Listening Ability


German Language Students SMA Negeri 1 Makassar
Wahyu Kurniati Asria
a
German Language Education Study Program, Jl.Dg. Tata Raya, Makassar, Indonesia.
Makassar State University

e-mail: wahyuku_ayu@yahoo.com

Abstract: The listening ability in German is is a difficult language skill, especialy for beginner,
because there are several alphabets in German which are little bit difficult to
pronounce by the student, especially when they are listening to a dialogue or a
conversation from CD and Video. To solve that student problem, a fun learning
process should be done. To optimizing the student learning ability, a chain whisper
game is possible to do. This game is played by divide the student into some groups, by
whispering a message in a chain. The purpose of this research is to discover how game
can increase students listening ability in German. The subjects of this research are 30
Senior high school 1st grade students, in SMA Negeri 1 Makassar. The method of
collecting data is a listening ability test while the data analysis method is statistic
descriptive. The result of this research shows the students listening ability using chain
whisper game method is 74.37% or including in the good chategory.
Keywords: Listening ability, Game, Whisper Chain, German.

1. PRELIMINARY each of these skills is also closely related to


the processes that underlie the language.
One of the functions of language is to acquire One of the language skills that became
science, technology, art and culture. For that the object of this research is the ability to
coaching and development, especially in listen. Basically, listening ability precedes the
educational institutions need to be improved. ability to speak and the ability to speak ahead
Especially in this era of globalization, people of reading ability, the latter obtained is the
are increasingly required to be able to master ability to write. In general, listening ability
and use a variety of foreign languages. and speaking ability are obtained after
German is one of the many foreign entering the educational institution. The four
languages studied in Indonesia aimed at the abilities are a unified whole and can not be
absorption and development of science, separated. In various fields of their lives.
technology, art, culture and fostering Listening is a process ranging from
relationships with other nations. Indonesia as a the process of identifying sounds, composing
developing country does a lot of cooperation interpretations, utilizing interpretive results,
with Germany. This is the underlying so that and storage processes, as well as the process
learning German language became one of the of connecting the interpretive results with the
existing language and learned in high school overall knowledge and experience. This
level in Indonesia. means listening is a process to appreciate what
Language skills include four basic he or she is listening to, such as news reading,
skills: listening skills (Hrverstehen), poetry, music and songs, dialogue, panel
speaking (Sprechfertigkeit), reading discussions, and debates.
(Leseverstehen), and writing In connection with the German
(Schreibfertigkeit). These four skills are language lessons, listening skills is a major
interrelated linguistic potentials. Furthermore, factor in achieving the goals and fundamental

232
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teaching of the German language. Students message to his friends and then friends of the
will be well received materials German last recite back a message properly and
lessons, if it has an adequate listening skill. appropriately. The game is very appropriate
However, it is undeniable that the student's given the serial whispered at beginner learners
ability to listen sometimes not adequate for of German. German language began to be
listening activity students are very influenced taught at the high school level.
by certain factors, including the facilities Listening by Tarigan (2008:19) is a
available, the school environment, and the process of listening to verbal symbols with
lack of German language vocabulary of the caring, understanding, appreciation, and
students. interpretation of information, capturing the
In addition to these factors, the ability content or the message and understand the
to listen to German sentences is also meaning of communication that have been
influenced by several factors, such as writing submitted by the speaker through speech or
in German. In German, there are several spoken language.
sounds of letters that are rather difficult to The listening comprehension
pronounce by students like the sound of sch, according to Akhadiah in Sutari, et al,
sp, st, ei, ie. , , and. The sounds are (1998:19) is a process that involves listening
somewhat difficult to pronounce and listen to to the sound of the language, identifying,
by the students, especially when a dialogue is interpreting, and reacting to the meaning
played in German through audio and contained there in it.
audiovisual media. In terms of listening ability at its core
Based on observations at school, when according to Chamdiah (2010:3) students must
learning is still a lot of students busy be able to remember simple facts, be able to
themselves without regard to the teacher to relate a set of facts to which they listen, and to
explain the subject matter in front of the class, estimate the meaning contained in the oral
there are students who liked to talk with a message being heard.
partner, the atmosphere less conducive school In listening not only listening
so that students can not concentrate fully, and (hearing), but requires other activities that
so forth. understand (understanding) the content of the
In addition to the above, the lack of talk delivered by the speaker. Furthermore, it
creativity of a teacher greatly affect student is expected to interpret (interpreting) the
learning outcomes. For that a teacher must be points of opinion which are either expressed
able to choose appropriate learning medium or implied. The next activity in the listening
for students to play an active role in learning, process is evaluating activities (evaluating)
and indirectly the student learning outcomes that the listener assesses the idea both in terms
will be better. of superiority and weakness, absorbing and
To obtain this, it is necessary to listen accepting the idea put forward by the speaker.
instructional strategies that encourage In relation to that the success of students in
students active in learning the German learning depends on the ability possessed by
language. One of the strategies that can help students and existing factors dilingkungannya,
students in listening skills that play a serial as well as on the process of learning teachers
whispered. By using this game an effective that provide interesting things in the learning
learning process and will motivate the to make students become more interested in
students to listen because students learn while learning and can affect student learning
playing with a train in listening to the outcomes better.
material. Based on the opinion of experts above
Methods chain whispered language can be concluded that listening is a process of
game as a learning strategy for listening skills listening to the oral symbols with full attention
where students play and learn with whisper a
234

and understanding to obtain information and receives information from the teacher, then the
ideas contained in the material. students deliver to the second player as well
Each activity is certainly having a the last player then sends the teacher back or
purpose and in the ability to listen also has a writes the information on the board.
purpose. The purpose of listening is to obtain As for the steps of the serial
information, capture content or messages, and whispered game according to Subana and
understand communication. According to Sunarti (2013: 8) as follows: 1) the teacher
Tarigan (2008:20) the purpose of listening can gives a brief introduction about the
be viewed from various aspects of the implementation of the steps whispered chain,
objectives are: a) listening aims to learn, b) 2) the students in the group arranged in lined
listening aims to enjoy, c) listening aims to or marching sideways or backwards, 3 ) The
evaluate, d) listening aims to appreciate, e) teacher plays the tape recorder on the child's
listening aims to Communicating ideas, f) story or other material; 4) each group rewrites
listening for the purpose of solving the the message heard in a paragraph or phrase; 5)
problem. Thus, it can be said that the purpose after the student's position is as expected, the
of someone listening is to obtain information, teacher calls the student group representative
capture the content, and understand the to whisper a paragraph that has been made. )
meaning of communication that the speaker The student receives the info and whispers the
will convey through speech. In listening there information to his/her friends, 7) the student
are stages. The stages are according to whispers the information whispered, 8) the
Kusmayadi (2008:10) is: a) Stage of listening, student whispers the result of his or her
at this stage we just hear everything that the friend's whisper and so on, 9) the teacher can
speaker said in speech or conversation. B) the repeat some different information into one
stage of understanding, after hearing the desire group gradually. 10) the assessment can be
to understand well the content of the done by calculating some level of error made
conversation, c) the stage of interpretation, ie by the group, 11) and doing the above as the
trying to interpret or interpret the content of next group, 12) the group with the best score
the conversation, d) evaluating stage, listening is awarded. The same thing is said by Subana
to opinion assessment and speaker's ideas, e) and Sunarti (2011:209) as follows 1) for class
responding stage, Ie the final stage after in teams and then circle shape, 2) whisper a
receiving, understanding, interpreting, and short sentence to a student on each team, 3) he
evaluating, we can express responses should whisper it again to a friend in Next to
according to our own opinion. it, 4) the last student had to say aloud to the
The game of serial whispers according teacher, 5) the team that managed to say the
to Budinuryanta, Kasuriyanta and Koerman right sentence was the winner.
(2009: 929-930) is a game that starts from the
teacher whispering a message or information 2. METHOD
to a student and the student whispers the
information to the second student. The second This research is a study of the ability to listen
student whispers the message or information to the German language with a game of chain
to the third student, and so on in a chain. The whispers. The ability to listen to a chain
last student mentions clearly and precisely in whisper in this case is the students say a short
front of the class. The teacher checks if the sentence to a student on each team, then he
message actually reaches the last student or should whisper it again to the friend next to
not. The same thing is also stated by Kartono him, and the last student should tell the
and Halidjah ((2013:8) the game of serial teacher in class.
whispers is a game of conveying information Measurement of research variables
by whispering from one student to another conducted to obtain data from the results of
quickly and accurately. The first player students' listening ability used tests in which
235

includes a listening ability test. Each item is correctly convey the message or information
scored according to the weight and criteria that has been given.
assessed. Furthermore, all scores obtained
from each criterion are summed and the result Presentation of Data Analysis Results
is the final score that each student has. To
evaluate the content of sentences seen from The results of the analysis of listening skills
the aspects of ability to be evaluated. The using games whispered chain in the German
aspects of the assessment of the ability to language class students of SMA Negeri
listen to the sentence from Nurgiyantoro Makassar X1 can be seen in the table below.
(2001) are: receiving messages, repeating Data were analyzed using frequency
words, repeating the word order, and smoothly tables and percentages. The data were
expressing the sentence. If the student can analyzed according to the serial whispered
correctly declare the sentence on every aspect skills assessment as follows:
then it is given a score of 4 and who can not
deliver correctly get a score of 1. Thus, the 3.1. Category Received Messages
total score for the listening ability in German
is 16. Table 1. Frequency Distribution and
The population of this study is all Percentage Score Category Received
students of Class X SMA Negeri 1 Makassar. Messages
While the sample used in this study is the
students of class X SMA Negeri 1 Makassar No. Score Frequency Percentage
and performed on 1 class representing class X 1. 4 10 33.33%
is class X1 by using random sampling. The 2. 3 12 40%
sample is 30 students divided into 5 groups. 3. 2 8 26.67%
So each group contains 6 students. 4. 1 0 0%
The instrument used in this research Amount 30 100%
data collection is the ability to listen to
sentence test. While to analyze the data used
The table above shows that listening
percentage technique, in other words, data
ability by using game whisper method in
from the research results collected in
German for the category of receiving message
percentage.
there are 10 (33.33%) students who got score
4. Next there are 12 (40%) students who got
3. RESEARCH RESULT AND score 3 dan86 (26.67%) Students who scored
DISCUSSION 2 and nobody (0%) of the students scored 1.
The result of listening ability test by
In this research method, it is proposed that the using game whisper method in German
instrument used to collect data is test. The test language to receive message category is
consisted of 1 (one) type, namely the listening analyzed with the following percentage
ability test in German students of Class X 1 formula:
SMAN 1 Makassar. The form of listening score
ability test by using the method of whisper X =
game in the German language is the students samples
are given information provided by the teacher.
X =
The message or information must be relayed
back to a friend in one group and the last = 3.06 (maximum score of 4)
group of friends who get the message must % =
relay the message or information to the
teacher. From these results, the teacher will
=
assess which groups can correctly and
= 76.67%
236

These findings indicate that the


These findings indicate that the listening ability by using the method of bisik
listening ability by using the method of berdantai game in German students of Class X
whispered chain in German students of grade 1 SMA Negeri 1 Makassar in the category of
X 1 SMA Negeri 1 Makassar in the category repeating the word is 88.25%, or including the
of receiving messages is 76.67%, or including Good category. Thus, it can be said that the
the Good category. Thus, it can be concluded repetition of words by students almost no
that the students in listening to the German errors.
language using the method of whisper game
chain. Based on this it can be said that 3.3. Category Repeats Word Order
students can receive messages conveyed by
the teacher. Table 3. Frequency Distribution and
Percentage of Category Repeats Word
3.2. Category Repeating words Order

Table 2. Distribution of Frequency and No. Score Frequency Percentage


Percentage Score Category Repeating the 1. 4 7 23:33%
Words 2. 3 9 30%
3. 2 14 46.67%
No. Score Frequency Percentage 4. 1 0 0%
1. 4 19 63.33% Amount 41 100%
2. 3 8 26.67%
3. 2 3 10% The table above shows that the
4. 1 0 0% listening ability of using the game whisper
Amount 30 100% chain method in German language for the
category of repeating the word order is seen
The table above shows that the that 7 (23.33%) students get the score 4. Next
listening ability by using the game whisper there are 9 (30%) students who score 3 and 14
method in German for the category of repeat (46.67 %) Students who scored 2 and 0 (0%)
word there are 19 (63.33%) of students who students who scored 1.
got score 4. Next there are 8 (26.67%) Based on the results of German
students who got score 3 and 3 (10%) speaking skills test for aspects of Intonation is
Students who scored 2 and 0 (0%) of the analyzed by the following percentage formula:
students who scored 1. score
Based on the result of German X =
speaking skill test for vocabulary aspect is samples
analyzed with the following percentage X =
formula:
= 2.76 (maximum score of 4)
score
X = % =
samples
X = =
= 3:53 (maximum score of 4) = 69%
% =
These findings indicate that the
listening ability by using the method of
= whispered biscuits in German students of
= 88.25% grade X 1 SMA Negeri 1 Makassar in the
category of repeating the word order is 69%,
237

or including the Enough category. Thus, it concluded that it is not smooth in revealing
can be concluded that not all students can the sentence that he heard. This is because
repeat the order of words it receives. They they still have not mastered the vocabulary of
find it difficult to repeat the words spoken by the German language and also still have
the teacher to be forwarded to their group difficulty to pronounce some vocabulary
mates. correctly.

3.4. Current Category Express


Sentences Table 5. Frequency and Percentage of
Table 4. Frequency Distribution and Student Score of Class X 1 SMA Negeri 1
Percentage of Current Category Scores Makassar On the Listening Skill Test Using
Reveals Sentences Method of Random Whispered Chain
Game In German
No. Score Frequency Percentage
1. 4 3 10% No. Score Frequency Percentage
2. 3 12 40% 1. 16 2 6.67%
3. 2 13 34.33% 2. 15 6 20%
4. 1 2 6.67% 3. 14 0 0%
Amount 30 100% 4. 13 4 13:33%
5. 12 4 13:33%
The table above shows that students' 6. 11 5 16.67%
listening ability by using the game whisper 7. 10 4 13:33%
chain method in German language for the 8. 9 2 6.67%
current category reveals 3 visible sentences 9. 8 1 3:33%
(10%) of students who got score 4. Next there 10. 7 2 6.67%
are 12 (40%) students who got score 3 and 13 11. 6 0 0%
(34.33 %) Students who scored 2 and 20 12. 5 0 0%
(6.67%) of students who scored 1. 13. 4 0 0%
Based on the results of the students' 14. 3 0 0%
listening ability test by using the whisper 15. 2 0 0%
method in German for the current category 16. 1 0 0%
express the sentence is analyzed with the Amount 30 100%
following percentage formula:
score The table above shows that the
X = students' listening ability by using game
samples whispering method in German language
X = analyzed from 4 Nurgiyantoro Evaluation
= 2.53 (maximum score of 4) Criteria seen 2 people (6.67%) of students
who got score 16, Next there are 6 (20%)
% =
students who got score 15, And 0 (0%)
= students who scored 14, 4 people (13.33%)
= 63.25% students who scored 13, and 12, 5 people
(16.67%) students who scored 11, 4 people
These findings indicate that the (13.33%) students who scored 10 , 2 people
listening ability by using the method of (6.67%) students who scored 9, 1 person
whispered chain in German language students (3.33%) students who scored 8, 2 people
X 1 SMA Negeri 1 Makassar in the category (6.67%) students who scored 7, nobody (0%)
of fluent express the sentence is 63.25%, or students who got a score of 6.5 , 4,3,2 and 1.
including the Enough category. Thus, it can be Based on the test of listening ability using
238

game whisper method in German for the four parties, among others: 1) this game method
categories, analyzed with the following can be used in the classroom especially in
percentage formula: listening ability, 2) the game is conducted in
groups and no more than 10 students, 3) add
Other media so that it will be more interesting
for students, and 4) should the words
whispered to the students are pronounced with
correct pronunciation and intonation.

score 5. REFERENCES
X =
samples Abdulah. (2013). Inovasi Pembelajaran.
X = Jakarta. Bumi Aksara.
Arikunto, S. (2006). Prosedur Penelitian,
= 11, 90(maximum score 16)
Suatu Pendekatan Praktek. Jakarta:
% = PT. Bina Angkasa.
= Budinuryanta, Y, Kasuriyanta dan Koerman,
= 74.37% Imam. (2009). Pengajaran
Keterampilan Berbahasa. Jakarta:
These findings indicate that the Universitas Terbuka.
listening ability by using the method of Kartono, Farida dan Halidjah, Siti. (2013).
whisper game in the German language class X Peningkatan Kemampuan Menyimak
1 SMA Negeri 1 Makassar is 74.37% or Menggunakan Teknik Permainan
including the Good category. This indicates Berbisik Berantai di Kelas V Sekolah
that listening ability by using the method of Dasar Negeri 9 Sungai Pinuyuh.
Artikel Penelitian Pada Universitas
whisper game chain is very useful for them.
Because by using the game method of Tanjung Pura Pontianak.
whispered chain students can convey Kusmayadi, Ismail. (2008). Think Smart
messages or information provided by the Bahasa Indonesia. Bandung: Grafindo
teacher well. Media Utama.
Mukhtar. (2013). Metode Praktis Penelitian
Deskriptif Kualitatif. Jakarta Selatan:
4. CONCLUSION AND
Referensi.
SUGGESTION Nurgiyanto, Burhan. (2001). Penilaian dalam
Pengajaran Bahasa dan Sastra.
Based on the previous discussion, the results Yogyakarta: BPFE Universitas Gajah
obtained that the listening ability by using the Madah.
game whispered method of class X students 1 Subana, M dan Sunarti. (2011). Strategi
SMA Negeri 1 Makassar is 74.37% or Belajar Mengajar bahasa Indonesia
included in the category of Good. This means Cet. III. Bandung: Pustaka Setia.
that in the German language learning process Sutari, Ice. (1998). Menyimak. Jakarta:
teachers can use various methods so that their Depdikbud.
students can better express themselves in the Tarigan, Henry G. (2008). Menyimak Sebagai
target language. Suatu Keterampilan Berbahasa.
Based on the research, some Bandung: PT. Bina Angkasa.
suggestions are expected to be useful for all
The 1st International Conference on Education, Science, Art and Technology (the 1st ICESAT)
Universitas Negeri Makassar. 22 23 July 2017

The Application of Eclectic Method in Teaching Young Learners in X1


English Course in Makassar.

Vivit Rosmayantia, Bellona Mardatillah Sabillaha


a
STKIP Mega Rezky Makassar, Jl. Antang Raya No.45, Makassar, Indonesia

Corresponding e-mail: vivitrosmayanti_hasbullah@yahoo.com

Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the Eclectic methods applied by teachers in X1 English
course in Makassar in teaching Young Learners (YL). The subject of the study was that
the teachers in X1 English course who taught Young Learners program. The focus of the
research was the activities during the class in relation to the teachers methods and before
or after the class in relation to the students responses on the teachers performance. This
research employed a descriptive case study with qualitative research design. The main
instrument of the study was the researcher herself. In completing the data, guide
interview, and field-notes were used. The data and sources of the data were what the
teachers did in classrooms concerning the research questions. The additional data were
also taken from the students, staffs, and the teacher themselves in interview and
observation. The data analysis was carried out by following the grounded theory
procedures and technique comprised three steps: open coding, axial coding and selective
coding. The finding of the study revealed some critical incidents pertaining to the eclectic
methods applied by the teachers. The teachers applied eclectic methods by adapting five
teaching methods in ELT in teaching Young Learners students such as Grammar
Translation Method (GTM), Direct Method, Audio Lingual Method, Total Physical
Response (TPR), and Communicative Language Teaching (CLT). Based on the students
Progress Report of the students, the teaching methods applied in the class impacted on
good achievement of students as the consequence.

Key Words: Eclectic Method, Young Learners.

1. INTRODUCTION well. Based on this reality the parents try to find


solution for their children by giving additional
lesson in order to make their childrens English
English subject is one of the subjects which is improved considering that it is International
studied by students from elementary school to language which they surely need in the future. It
tertiary level. For many years, lecture method seems that parents dont really rely on school
was the most widely used in many schools. then finding course place for their children is one
McIntosh (1996) observed that lecturing is of the solutions.
frequently a one-way process unaccompanied by X1 English courses are spread out in some
discussion, questioning or immediate practice strategic points in Makassar. The location is near
which makes it a poor teaching method. Most from schools and university and also easily to be
schools in Indonesia employ some forms of accessed by using public transportations. The X1
lecture teaching method to teach students. English courses are available in some points in
However, the usefulness of other teaching Makassar. The strategic location is one of the
methods is being widely examined today. factors to attract the students because it enables
Students have learnt English for years, but the the students to access the places directly from
fact can be seen now is that we rarely find their school without being accompanied by their
students of high school who can speak English parents. Another possible factor of why many

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people come to study in X1 English course is teacher to be used in the class and also for those
that the teaching methods they apply in the class. who are going to find English course or who are
This can be seen from the number of skip running the English course right now.
students X1 English course has, it is more than
80% of the students skip from one level to the 1.4 Focus of the Research
higher one in every month. Based on the pre-
observation that the researcher has done, usually This research is limited to elaboration of the
the students register for one level or one month Effective teaching methods in ELT Applied by
only, and during their study, when they like the teachers in English course in Makassar. The
teacher, the method, the atmosphere in the class, subject of this research focused on one of the
and the progress of their English, then they will centers of X1 English course which is located in
skip or register to the next level. From this Jl. A.P Pettarani Makassar.
phenomenon, it is obviously seen that the
teaching method also has important role in
attracting people to study in certain institutions.
From many factors of why X1 English course 2. REVIEW OF RELATED
become the most favorite English course, the LITERATURE
researcher is interested to examine deeply on the
last factor which is the teaching method applied This chapter covers previous related studies,
by teachers in X1 English course. some pertinent ideas which include the definition
of eclectic method and teaching method.
1.1 Problem Statement Teaching methods in this case includes grammar
translation method, the direct method, the audio-
Based on the background above, the lingual method, the silent way, suggestopedia,
researcher formulated the following problem community language learning, the total physical
statements. response method, and communicative approach
1. What kinds of eclectic method applied in
teaching Young Learners in X1 English 2.1 The Definition of Eclectic Method
course?
2. How does the eclectic method impact Eclectic method becomes popular right now
students achievement in English? since this method considered as the method that
can fulfill the students need. According to
1.2 Research Objective Kumar (2013:1) Eclectic method is the
combination of different method in teaching and
The following points are considered as the learning approaches. Every method has their
objectives of the research. own strengths and weaknesses and by applying
1. To examine the kinds of eclectic method eclectic method the teachers can cover the
applied in teaching Young Learners in X1 weaknesses of certain method and adopt and
English course combine the teaching method based on the need
2. To investigate how the eclectic method of their students. Gao (2011) stated that
impact students achievement in English. principled eclecticism challenges the teacher to
ensure that every decision about classroom
1.3 Significance of the Research instruction and activities is based on a through
and holistic understanding of all theories and
Since relatively little attention has been paid related pedagogies, in terms of the purpose and
to the students English improvement, so the context of language teaching and learning, the
result of this research is expected to help needs of the learners, material available, how
teachers to improve their teaching skill and find language is learned and what teaching is all. In
a good method to teach students in order to get addition, Gao (2011:1) described eclectic
better improvement. Besides, the result of this approach as not a concrete, single method, but
research hopefully can be reference for the a method, which combines listening, speaking,
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reading, and writing, and includes some practice which to teach. The teacher may write lesson
in the classroom. plans of their own, borrow plans from other
The eclectic method is actually very helpful teachers, or search online or within books for
for teachers in teaching because not every lesson plans. When deciding what teaching
teacher can adopt the whole one method in method to use, a teacher needs to consider
teaching considering their class needs. Kumar students' background knowledge, environment,
(2013:2) actually stated that the purpose of and learning goals. Teachers are aware that
advocating eclectic methods is to connect life students learn in different ways, but almost all
experiences to the ideas presented in learning of children will respond well to praise. Students
language. The types of learning activities the have different ways of absorbing information
teachers selected usually related to experience in and of demonstrating their knowledge. A variety
the real world based on their students need. of strategies and methods are used to ensure that
What is important for teachers is to get the all students have equal opportunities to learn. A
students to be able to achieve the goal of lesson plan may be carried out in several ways:
teaching. Questioning, explaining, modeling,
Ali (1981:7) lists the following principles of collaborating, and demonstrating.
eclecticism: a) teachers are given a chance to A teaching method that includes questioning
choose different kinds of teaching techniques in is similar to testing. A teacher may ask a series
each class period to reach the aims of the lesson, of questions to collect information of what
b) there is flexibility in choosing any aspect or students have learned and what needs to be
method that teachers think suitable for teaching taught. Testing is another application of
inside the classroom, c) learners can see different questioning. A teacher tests the student on what
kinds of teaching techniques, using different was previously taught in order to identify if a
kinds of teaching aids, that help to make lesson student has learned the material. Learning can be
much more stimulating and ensures better done in three ways- Auditory, Visual, and
understanding of the materials, d) solving Kinesthetic. It is important to try and include all
difficulties that may emerge from the three as much as possible into the lessons. There
presentation of the textbook materials, e) finally, are many kinds of methods that the teacher can
it saves both time and effort in the presentation use in teaching language, Larsen (1986) divided
of language activities. the methods into some, such as Grammar
translation method, direct method, audio-lingual
2.2 Teaching Methods method, the silent way, suggestopedia,
community language learning, the total physical
Method means a particular way of doing response method, and the communicative
something (Cambridge Advanced Learners approach.
Dictionary 3: 2008). Teaching methods can best
be defined as the types of principles and methods
used for instruction. There are many types of
3. RESEARCH METHOD
teaching methods, depending on what
information or skill the teacher is trying to 3.1 Research Design
convey. Class participation, demonstration,
recitation, and memorization are some of the Atmowardoyo (2010) defined case study as
teaching methods being used. When a teacher is the study refers to an in-depth examination about
deciding on their method, they need to be individual, a unit of organization, or a particular
flexible and willing to adjust their style event with probably special characteristic. The
according to their students. Student success in main purpose of the study is to examine the
the classroom is largely based on effective effective teaching methods applied by teachers
teaching methods. in X1 English course in each program such as
For effective teaching to take place, a good Young Learners (YL) and how those methods
method must be adopted by a teacher. A teacher impact on students achievements.
has many options when choosing a style by
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3.2 Site and Respondent 2.5.1 Examining the fields note containing all
the data collected
The subject of this research is one teacher as 2.5.2 Open coding which is done through the
the representatives of X1 English courses following steps:
teachers who teach Young Learners Class. 2.5.2.1 Naming the phenomenon
(choosing the observation result
3.3 Research Instrument with the name which represent the
phenomenon)
In collecting the data, the researcher herself 2.5.2.2 Categorizing the conceptual label
was the key instrument. The researcher was the and naming the category.
observer and the interviewer of this research in 2.5.2.3 Developing the category from
order to collect valid data. And then the data property and dimension side.
obtained was analyzed by using systematic 2.5.3 Axial coding (combining and associating
technique which has been determined. the category after doing open coding)
2.5.4 Selective coding (the process of
3.4 Data Collection Procedure choosing core category, relate it with
other categories systematically, validate
3.4.1 Nonparticipant observation those categories, revise and develop the
Nonparticipant observation is observation in category if necessary (Atmowardoyo,
which the observer is not directly involved in the 2008))
situation being observed (Gay et.al 2006). In this
research, the researcher collected the data by
using non-participant observation. The data was 4. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
collected by doing observation for the teachers
and students in the classroom. 4.1 Description of Findings
3.4.2 Semi-structured interview
Semi-structured interview is little more than a 4.1.1 Concept/ phenomena in X1 English
casual conversation that allows the qualitative course and the learning process.
researcher to inquire into something that has After doing the open coding of identified
presented itself as an opportunity to learn about phenomena from some field notes, the researcher
what is going on at the research setting (Gay found out some concept or phenomena which are
et.al:2006). In this research, the researcher related to X1 English course and the learning
conducted the semi-structured interview and the process in the class and out of the class. Those
data from the interview was collected by taking phenomena are categorized in core category as
notes and audio recording. the teaching procedure of Young Learners.
Which is presented in the following open coding.
3.4.3 Document examination Table 3.1 The Result of Open Coding
Document examination is also one of data
sources which can be in the form of written or
visual that can contribute to our understanding of
what is happening in the classroom. The
researcher collected the teaching materials given.
The students worksheet and the textbook were
the source of data and were examined by the
researcher as well.

2.5 Technique of Data Analysis

To analyze the data collected, the researcher


applied the following steps:
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Category: Teaching Procedure of Young


Learners (YL)
4.1.2 Paradigmatic relationship among Concept/ Subc Propert Dimension Descri
phenomena phenomena atego y ption
ry of Data
The T stands in Pass Purpos Vocabulary building FN
The second step of analyzing the data as front of the word e/ aims Discipline 01,02,0
mentioned in chapter III is axial coding. Axial class and starts s Every meeting 5,06,08
coding is aimed to recombine and correlate the checking the chec Freque 3 to 5 words every
passwords to king ncy meetings
data identified through open coding. This one by one Numbe 3 to 5 minutes
combination is done to correlate one category to student r of
words
other categories and categories with Every time Stati Duratio Discipline
subcategories. The focus of this step is that to before the onar n Every meeting FN
specify the phenomena from it causal condition teachers starts y Purpos Students book, 01,02,0
the lesson, she chec e workbook,notebook, 5,06,08
to occur, another causal context, action strategy checks the king Freque students journal,
decided, and the consequence resulted. Therefore stationary, and ncy color pencil,
the following paradigmatic form applied: Causal the parents Items scissors, glue
signature in the 3 to 5 minutes
Condition Phenomena Context students Duratio
Intervening Condition Action Strategy journal. n
Purpos To teach students
Consequence (Atmowardoyo: 2010). The result The teacher e how to work in team
of this step is presented in table 4.9 on page 110. puts students in Grou Groups Small group, pairs FN
The table shows some critical incidents in group for ping Freque Sometimes/ before 01,08
certain activity ncy doing certain
learning process which lead the teacher to apply and the group activities
certain tactics as part of the teaching method will change as Duratio 2 to 5 minutes
itself. the activity n
change
Before Revi Purpos To review the FN
Table 3.2 The Result of Axial Coding presenting the ew/ e/ aim previous lesson, to 01,02,0
Paradigmatic Relationship among lesson, the war cheer the students 5,06,08
teacher always ming up, to bring the
Phenomena ask the students up/ students in with the
about their lead Freque lesson
Interveni previous lesson in ncy every meeting
Causal Duratio
Pheno ng Action Conseq
Conditio Context n 5 to 10 minutes
mena Conditio Strategy uence
n The teacher Prese Purpos FN
n
Students T gives Students Happen T use Student presents the ntati e To introduce the 01,02,0
are reward memoriz in the ticket and smemo lesson in on students with the 5,06,08
required for the e the class point as rize the simple way. Freque new lesson in simple
to student password after reward passwo ncy way to avoid
memoriz s s mentioni for rds boredom and
e some ng the students perfectl difficulties
password password y Duratio every meeting
s before s. n 10 to 15 minutes
enter to The teacher
the class asks the Lang Purpos To ensure that the FN
Students students to do uage e students catch the 01,02,0
Students speak Happen T use Student the exercise Pract Freque point of the lesson 5,06,08
may not T gives bahasa, in the ticket and s stop available on the ice ncy presented
speak punish mock class point as speakin students book Duratio Every meeting
Bahasa in ment friends, during punishme g in or workbook n 10 to 15 minutes
the class, for the disturb the nt Bahas, The teacher
may not student friends, learning disturbi applies fun Skill To get the students FN
disturb or s etc process ng activities to get pract Purpos practiced their skills 01,02,0
mock friends, the students ice e every meeting 5,06,08
friends, etc. practice the 10 to 15 minutes
and other skill Freque
bad The students ncy To enable the
attitude. fill in the Fillin students to write FN
journal and g in Purpos their reflection 01,02,0
Students T use T wants Happen T asks Student show it to the the e/ aim To enable the 5,06,08
have to concep to check in the the s pay parents later on journ parents to control
when they get al their childrens
home. progress
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pay t the class questions attentio students by using picture and speak in
attention checki students after in n to the
to the T ng understan giving concept Ts target language all the time, Audio
explanati questio ding explanati checking explan Lingual Method in giving limited
on in the ns about on or form ation vocabulary for the students and
class. what has instructio or
been n instruct giving reinforcement for the effective
explained ion response done by the students, Total
Students T gives Students Happen T gives Student
Physical Response (TPR) by
are extra who have in the extra s have involving a lot of physical movement
required attentio many class out class and require and the idea of fun learning, and
to have n to the absences of normal make up d
90% student and the schedule class to attenda Communicative Approach or
attendanc s weak cover nce Communicative Language Teaching
e in the students. students and get (CLT) in adapting the three principle,
class so missing better
they can class improv such as communication principle,
get better ement. task principle, and meaningfulness
improve
ment.
principle.
As the consequence, the teaching
methods applied in both Young
Learners and Young Adults program
4.1.3 Core category
give positive impact on the students
The next step of analyzing the data is that achievement in English. It is shown
selective coding which is the process of from the Students Progress Report
(SPR) made by the teachers as the
choosing the core category, correlating the core
category with other categories systematically, result of students progress test.
validating the relationship, and completing the From the story line, it was identified the core
categories need revision. The result obtained in category which is supported by other categories.
this process is the story line which reflects the The category is the teaching methods applied by
core category. Story line is short the teachers in Young Learners program. And
conceptualization of description about incidents then another one category which is the impact of
related to phenomena of the focus of the research the teaching methods applied brings good impact
(Atmowardoyo: 2010). on the students achievement in English occurs as
In this case, the main phenomena are the the consequence. The categories are the focus of
learning process in the class in X1 English the research so it is classified as the core
course in relation to the teachers teaching category. The other category such as the
methods. Specifically, those phenomena cover teaching procedures of YL program and the
the teaching procedure of the teachers in the response of students on teaching methods are not
class, and the impact on students achievement elaborated completely in the story line because
as the consequence of the teaching methods they are subsidiary category. Those categories
applied in the class. Based on the description of are called peripheral categories.
phenomena in the previews part of this chapter,
the story line of this research is formulating as 4.1.4 The relationship between core
follows:
categories and peripheral
One of the program in X1 English
course is Young Learners program. categories
Young Learners (YL) program
The identification of relationship between
applied eclectic method which
core categories and peripheral categories is done
combines five teaching methods in
systematically by using the following paradigm
ELT such as Grammar Translation
pattern: a). causal conditions that cause the
Method (GTM) by asking students to
occurrence of phenomena, 2). the phenomena
memorize some vocabulary every
themselves, 3). the background causes of certain
meeting, Direct Method in teaching
action, 4). the action themselves, and 5). the
229

consequences of the actions. By using this form, are Grammar Translation Method (GTM), Direct
the relationship between core categories and Method, Audio Lingual Method, Total Physical
other categories can be elaborated in some Response (TPR), and Communicative Approach
pattern. or Communicative Language Teaching (CLT).
a. Grammar Translation Methods The teachers considered adapted the GTM, as
memorizing passwords Students discussed on page 19 to 21, in their teaching
vocabulary increased. procedure because they still rely on the students
b. Direct Methods Speak in target language memorization in building their vocabularies in
and using picture in teaching students get which the memorization is one of the principal
the point of presentation easily. characteristics of GTM according to Richards
c. Audio Lingual Method teaching limited and Rodgers (1986). He said that one of the
vocabulary students memorized principal characteristics of GTM is that
passwords or vocabulary easily without any vocabulary selection is based on the reading text
complains. used, and the words are taught through bilingual
d. Total Physical Response (TPR) the word lists, dictionary study, and memorization.
teaching procedure involved physical The students have to memorize some
movement and fun activities students are vocabularies as passwords before they enter to
enthusiast without feeling bored to study in their class; the passwords were given in the
the class. previous meeting so the students have plenty of
e. Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) time to memorize. Besides that, the number of
communication principle, task principle, passwords are limited from 3 t0 5 vocabularies
and meaningfulness principle students each meeting. Limited number of students
language ability improved. password aimed to avoid boredom and
f. Community Language Learning (CLL) difficulties of students in memorizing.
Free conversation and small group task The adaptation of Direct Method is also
all students involve in the activity and being considered done by the teacher because they use
closer with the teacher. picture, pantomime, and realia in their teaching
procedure. The basic premise of Direct Method
4.2 Discussion of Findings is to teach students how to communicate in the
target language. According to Larsen-Freeman
As qualitative case study research which (1986:24) the objective of using picture,
adapted the grounded theory design, this pantomime, and realia is that to teach the
research has obtained a theory of language students how to use the language spontaneously
teaching which was elaborated based on the data. and orally. The basic rule of Direct Method is
In general, the theory covers the effective that no translation allowed. This rule is
methods in English language teaching applied in supported by Richards and Rodgers (1986:9-10)
the most popular English course in Makassar and about the principal and procedure of the direct
its supporting factors. Specifically, the teaching method, he said that the new teaching points are
methods applied to teach young learners and the taught through modeling and practice and the
impact of those methods on students instruction is conducted exclusively in the target
achievement in English. language. This principal is along with the YL
teaching procedure where the students and the
4.3 Eclectic methods of young teacher speak in the target language before,
learner program during, and after the class.
The other teaching method in ELT that the
The researcher found that the teachers in X1 teacher adapted in their teaching procedure is
English course applied eclectic method in Audio Lingual Method because the teachers
teaching their students. The teachers of YL teaches limited number of vocabularies to the
program combine five teaching methods in ELT students and give reinforcement to the students
in teaching their students. The ELT methods that who give effective respond. This technique is
the teachers adapted in their teaching procedure supported by Brown (1994:57) opinion about the
230

key features of The Audio-Lingual method, in which are along with the idea of teaching YL
point e and i he said that the vocabulary is students in X1 English course. According to him
strictly limited and learn in context and the there are three elements of an underlying
effective responses are immediately reinforced. learning of CLT practice, the first is
As discussed in preceding paragraph that the communication principle (activities that involve
number of vocabulary given to the students are real communication that promote learning), the
limited to everyday vocabularies or the second element is task principle (activities in
vocabularies which are related to the lesson of which language is used for carrying out
the day. The teacher uses the new vocabulary at meaningful task promote learning), and the third
that day as password for next meeting, and when id meaningfulness principle (language that is
the students can mention the passwords they will meaningful to the learners support the learning
get number of ticket based on their class process).
agreement.
The next teaching method in ELT which is