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Chapter 2

Perception, Personality, and


Emotions
Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins,
Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian
Edition
2-1
Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada
Chapter Outline

Perception Defined
Factors Influencing Perception
Perceptual Errors
Why Do Perception and Judgment Matter?
Personality
Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins,
Emotionsof Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian
Fundamentals
Edition
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Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada
Perception, Personality, and Emotions

1. What is perception?
2. What causes people to have different perceptions of
the same situation?
3. Can people be mistaken in their perceptions?
4. Does perception really affect outcomes?
5. What is personality and how does it affect
Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins,
behaviour?
Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian
6. Can emotions help or get in the way when dealing
Edition
with others?
2-3
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Perception

What Is Perception?
The process by which individuals organize and interpret
their impressions in order to give meaning to their
environment.

Why Is It Important?
Because peoples behaviour is based on their perception
Chapterof2,what reality
Nancy is, notand
Langton on reality
Stephenitself.
P. Robbins,
Fundamentals
The worldof Organizational
as it is perceivedBehaviour,
is the world Third Canadian
that is
Editionbehaviourally important.
2-4
Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada
Why We Study Perceptions
To better understand how people make
attributions about events.
We dont see reality. We interpret what we see
and call it reality.
The attribution process guides our behaviour,
regardless
Chapter 2, Nancyof the truth
Langton of the attribution.
and Stephen P. Robbins,
Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian
Edition
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Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada
Factors Influencing Perception

The Perceiver
The Target
The Situation

Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins,


Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian
Edition
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Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada
Exhibit 2-1 Factors that Influence
Perception
The Situation The Perceiver

Time Attitudes
W ork setting Motives
Social setting Interests
Experience
Expectations

Perception

The Target
Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins,
Novelty

Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian


Motion
Sounds
Size
Edition Background
Proximity
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Perceptual Errors

Attribution Theory
Selective Perception
Halo Effect
Contrast Effects
Projection
Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins,
Stereotyping
Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian
Edition
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Attribution Theory

When individuals observe behaviour, they attempt to


determine whether it is internally or externally caused.
Distinctiveness
Does the individual act the same way in other situations?
Consensus
Does the individual act the same as others in same situation?
Consistency
Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins,
Doesof
Fundamentals theOrganizational
individual act theBehaviour,
same way over time?Canadian
Third
Edition
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Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada
Attribution Theory

Fundamental Attribution Error


The tendency to underestimate external factors
and overestimate internal factors when making
judgments about others behaviour.
Self-Serving Bias
The tendency to attribute ones successes to
Chapterinternal factors
2, Nancy while
Langton and putting
Stephen the blame for
P. Robbins,
failuresofon
Fundamentals external factors.
Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian
Edition
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Exhibit 2-2 Attribution Theory
Attribution
Observation Interpretation of cause
High
(Seldom)
Distinctiveness External
(How often does the
person do this in
Internal
other situations?) Low
(Frequently)
High
Consensus (Frequently
) External
Individual (How often do other
behaviour people do this in
Internal
r na l
similar situations?) Low
(Seldom)
High
(Frequently)
Consistency Internal
(How often did the
person do this in
Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins,
the past?) Low External
(Seldom)
Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian
Edition
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Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada
Perceptual Errors

Selective Perception
People selectively interpret what they see based on their
interests, background, experience, and attitudes.
Halo Effect
Drawing a general impression about an individual based
on a single characteristic.
Contrast
Chapter Effects
2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins,
Fundamentals of Organizational
A persons Behaviour,
evaluation is affected Third Canadian
by comparisons with
Editionother individuals recently encountered.
2-12
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Perceptual Errors
Projection
Attributing ones own characteristics to other
people.
Stereotyping
Judging someone on the basis of your perception
of the group to which that person belongs.
Prejudice
Chapter
An2, unfounded
Nancy Langton and Stephen
dislike P. Robbins,
of a person or group based
Fundamentals
on theirofbelonging
Organizational
to aBehaviour,
particular Third Canadian
stereotyped
Editiongroup.
2-13
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Why Do Perceptions and Judgment
Matter?
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
A concept that proposes a person will behave in
ways consistent with how he or she is perceived
by others.

Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins,


Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian
Edition
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Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada
Personality
The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts
and interacts with others.
Personality Determinants
Heredity
Environmental Factors
Situational Conditions
Personality Traits
Enduring characteristics that describe an individuals
Chapterbehaviour.
2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins,
The Myers-Briggs
Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour,
Type Indicator Third Canadian
(MBTI)
Edition The Big Five Model
2-15
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Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

Personality test to determine how people usually act or feel in


particular situations.
Classifications:
Extroverted (E) or Introverted (I)
Sensing (S) or Intuitive (N)
Thinking (T) or Feeling (F)
Perceiving (P) or Judging (J)
Combined
Chapter to form
2, Nancy types, for
Langton andexample:
Stephen P. Robbins,
ESTP of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian
Fundamentals
INTJ
Edition
2-16
Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada
The Big Five Model

Classifications
Extraversion
Agreeableness
Conscientiousness
Emotional Stability
Openness
Chapter to Experience
2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins,
Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian
Edition
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Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada
Exhibit 2-4
Big Five Personality Factors

Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins,


Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian
Edition
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Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada
Major Personality Attributes
Influencing OB
Locus of Control
Machiavellianism
Self-Esteem
Self-Monitoring
Risk-Taking
Type2,ANancy
Chapter Personality
Langton and Stephen P. Robbins,
Type B Personality
Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian
Edition
Proactive Personality
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Locus of Control

The degree to which people believe they are in


control of their own fate.
Internals
Individuals who believe that they control what
happens to them.
Externals
Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins,
Individuals
Fundamentals who believe
of Organizational that whatThird
Behaviour, happens to them
Canadian
Edition is controlled by outside forces such as luck or
2-20 chance.
Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada
Exhibit 2-5 The Effects of Locus of
Control on Performance
Condition Performance
Information Processing
The work requires complex information Internals perform better
processing and complex learning

The work is quite simple and easy to learn Internals perform better than externals

Initiative
The work requires initiative and independent Internals perform better
action

The work requires compliance and conformity Externals perform better

Motivation
The work requires high motivation and Internals perform better
Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins,
provides valued rewards in return for greater
effort; it offers incentive pay for greater
productivity
Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Source: J. B. Miner,
Industrial-Organizational

Edition The work does not require great effort and


contingent rewards are lacking; hourly pay
Externals perform at least as well as
internals
Psychology (New York:
McGraw Hill, 1992), p. 151.
Reprinted with permission
rates are determined by collective bargaining of The McGraw-Hill
2-21 Companies.

Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada


Machiavellianism

Degree to which an individual is pragmatic,


maintains emotional distance, and believes that
ends can justify means.

Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins,


Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian
Edition
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Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada
Self-Esteem

Individuals degree of liking or disliking of


themselves.

Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins,


Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian
Edition
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Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada
Exhibit 2-6 Brandens Six Pillars of
Self-Esteem
1. Living consciously: Be aware of everything that affects your values and goals,
and act with awareness.

2. Self-acceptance: Accept who you are without criticism and judgment.

3. Personal responsibility: Take responsibility for the decisions you make and the
things you do.

4. Self-assertiveness: Honour your wants, needs, and values, and dont be afraid
to speak up for things that are important to you.

Chapter 2, Nancy
5. Living Langton
purposefully: andandStephen
Develop short- P. Robbins,
long-term goals, and make realistic
plans to achieve your goals.
Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian
6. Personal integrity: Live up to your word and your values.
Edition
2-24
Source: Adapted from N. Branden, Self-Esteem at Work: How Confident People Make Powerful Companies (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1998), pp. 33-36).

Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada


Self-Monitoring

A personality trait that measures an


individuals ability to adjust behaviour to
external situational factors.

Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins,


Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian
Edition
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Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada
Risk-Taking

Refers to a persons willingness to take


chances or risks.

Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins,


Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian
Edition
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Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada
Type A Personality

Moves, walks, and eats rapidly


Impatient
Multitasks
Dislikes leisure time
Obsessed with numbers, measures success in
Chapterterms of how
2, Nancy manyand
Langton orStephen
how much of everything is
P. Robbins,
acquired
Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian
Edition
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Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada
Type B Personality

Never suffers from a sense of time urgency


Doesnt need to display or discuss achievements
or accomplishments
Plays for fun and relaxation, not to win
Can relax without guilt
Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins,
Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian
Edition
2-28
Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada
Proactive Personality

A person who identifies opportunities, shows


initiative, takes action, and perseveres until
meaningful change occurs.

Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins,


Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian
Edition
2-29
Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada
What Are Emotions?

Two related terms:


Emotions
Intense feelings that are directed at someone or
something.
Moods
Feelings that tend to be less intense than emotions
Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins,
and that lack a contextual stimulus.
Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian
Edition
2-30
Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada
Choosing Emotions: Emotional Labour
When an employee expresses organizationally-
desired emotions during interpersonal
interactions.

Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins,


Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian
Edition
2-31
Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada
Emotional Intelligence

Noncognitive skills, capabilities, and competencies


that influence a person's ability to interact with others.
Five dimensions
Self-awareness
Self-management
Self-motivation
Empathy
Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins,
Social skills
Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian
Edition
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Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada
Negative Workplace Emotions

Negative emotions can lead to negative


workplace behaviours:
Production (leaving early, intentionally working
slowly)
Property (stealing, sabotage)
Political
Chapter 2, Nancy(gossiping,
Langton andblaming
Stephen co-workers)
P. Robbins,
Personal
Fundamentals aggression (sexual
of Organizational harassment,
Behaviour, verbal
Third Canadian
Editionabuse)
2-33
Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada
Summary and Implications

1. What is perception?
Perception is the process by which individuals
organize and interpret their impressions in
order to give meaning to their environment.
2. What causes people to have different
perceptions of the same situation?
2,
Chapter Nancy Langton
Perceptions and Stephen
are affected P. Robbins,
by factors in the
Fundamentals of Organizational
perceiver, Behaviour,
in the object or targetThird
beingCanadian
Edition perceived, and in the context or situation.
2-34
Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada
Summary and Implications

3. Can people be mistaken in their perceptions?


Shortcuts, such as attribution theory, selective
perception, halo effect, contrast effects,
projection, and stereotyping are helpful and
even necessary, but can and do get us in
trouble.
3. Does
Chapter perception
2, Nancy Langtonreally affectP. outcomes?
and Stephen Robbins,
Perceptions
Fundamentals often affect
of Organizational productivity
Behaviour, more than
Third Canadian
Edition the situation does.
2-35
Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada
Summary and Implications

5. What is personality and how does it affect


behaviour?
Personality helps us predict behaviour.
Personality can help match people to jobs, to some
extent at least.
5. Can emotions help or get in the way when were
dealing
Chapter withLangton
2, Nancy others?and Stephen P. Robbins,
They of
Fundamentals canOrganizational Behaviour,
hinder performance, Thirdwhen
especially Canadian
emotions
Edition are negative.
2-36
They can also enhance performance.
Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada
OB at Work

Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins,


Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian
Edition
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Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada
For Review

1. Define perception.
2. What is attribution theory? What are its implications for
explaining behaviour in organizations?
3. What is stereotyping? Give an example of how stereotyping can
create perceptual distortion.
4. Give some positive results of using shortcuts when judging
others.
Chapter 2, Nancy
5. Describe Langton
the factors in the and
Big Stephen P. Robbins,
Five model. Evaluate which
Fundamentals
factor showsofthe
Organizational
greatest value Behaviour,
in predictingThird Canadian
behaviour.
Edition
2-38
Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada
For Review

6. What behavioural predictions might you make if you knew that


an employee had (a) an external locus of control? (b) a low
Mach score? (c) low self-esteem? (d) a Type A personality?
7. To what extent do peoples personalities affect how they are
perceived?
8. What is emotional labour and why is it important to
understanding OB?
9. What 2,
Chapter is Nancy
emotional intelligence
Langton and why P.
and Stephen is it important?
Robbins,
Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian
Edition
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Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada
For Critical Thinking
1. How might the differences in experience of students and instructors
affect each of their perceptions of classroom behaviour (e.g., students
written work and class comments)?
2. An employee does an unsatisfactory job on an assigned project. Explain
the attribution process that this persons manager will use to form
judgments about this employees job performance.
3. One day your boss comes in and hes nervous, edgy, and argumentative.
The next day he is calm and relaxed. Does this behaviour suggest that
personality traits arent consistent from day to day?
4. What,
Chapter 2,ifNancy
anything, can managers
Langton do to manage
and Stephen emotions? Are there
P. Robbins,
ethical implications in any of these actions? If so, what?
Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian
5. Give some examples of situations where expressing emotions might
Edition
enhance job performance.
2-40
Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada
Breakout Group Exercises
Form small groups to discuss the following topics:
1. Think back to your perception of this course and your instructor
on the first day of class. What factors might have affected your
perceptions of what the rest of the term would be like?
2. Describe a situation in which your perception turned out to be
wrong. What perceptual errors did you make that might have
caused this to happen?
3. Compare your scores on the Learning About Yourself Exercises at
the 2,
Chapter endNancy
of the Langton
chapter. What conclusions
and Stephen could you draw about
P. Robbins,
your group
Fundamentals ofbased on these scores?
Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian
Edition
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Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada
Supplemental Material

Slides for activities I do in my own


classroom
Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins,
Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian
Edition
2-42
Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada
Personality Inventory

In groups:
Quickly determine the means for each of the
personality items.
Develop a summary statement of your group
based on the means for each of the items.
What are the implications for the workplace of
Chapterscoring either
2, Nancy highand
Langton or Stephen
low on these dimensions?
P. Robbins,
(Your of
Fundamentals group will be asked
Organizational to examine
Behaviour, one of the
Third Canadian
Editiondimensions.)
2-43
Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada
Perception Exercise
In the new OB project team, two members obviously have different perceptions on
just about everything the team does. Kevin sees the project one way; Kim sees it
differently. They have different perceptions about team goals, methods, values, and
the roles team members should play. Kevin gives the impression he wants to be in
charge and he argues aggressively to get his way. Kim, who is more reserved,
offers thoughtful ideas in rebuttal, and usually consults with the other group
members for their views and support. Privately, Kevin bad-mouths Kim to anyone
who will listen. He says that he has been on successful teams many times and
knows the best ways to operate the team. He says that Kim is a control freak and
the only one on the team holding up progress.Kim, on the other hand, only
conveys her feelings about Kevin when team members are present, but she has
repeatedly said out loud, There are more ways of getting this team started than just
yours! Too bad you have a closed mind! For the most part, the other team
Chapter
members 2,perceive
NancyKim Langton
and Kevinand Stephen
to have P. Robbins,
a personality conflict, and they are
avoiding getting
Fundamentals ofinvolved. The team is ineffective
Organizational Behaviour,so far, Third
and theres pressure to get
Canadian
the team on track because of the impending class assignment deadline.
Edition
2-44
Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada
In Groups
Agree on answers to the following questions, and then report back on your groups
conclusions. Time: 30 minutes.
What main factors may account for the different perceptions held by
Kevin and Kim?
In each perceiver?
In the targets?
In the current situation?
What are some short cuts each may be taking in judging the other? Are
these judgements correct?
To what extent might the current situation be affecting the different
perceptions?
To what extent might each persons apparent personality be the cause for
Chapterthe2,current
Nancy conflict?
LangtonDefineand
theirStephen
respectiveP.
personalities.
Robbins,
If behaviour
Fundamentals such as this happensBehaviour,
of Organizational often, how canThird
perceptions be changed
Canadian
to that people in conflict like Kevin and Kim can reach consensus? List
Edition some ideas.
Source:
2-45 Larry Anderson, Sauder School of Business, UBC
Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada