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The ontologies SAN and SSN do not provide elements to model the

services exposed by the IoT Resources. Because of that, the


QoDisco Information also includes the OWL-S ontology, that have
been largely used to semantic model the Web services in
applications in the academy and industry. To represent the relation
between resources and services, we create the property exposes,
that connects the concepts of resources and services.

1.2.InformationModel

TheinformationmodelofQoDiscocomprisesavocabularyof
conceptsrelatedtoIoTresourcesandservicesaswellas
relationshipsamongthem.Section1.2.1presentsthe
ontologiesandvocabulariesthatcomposetheproposed
informationmodel.Section1.2.2givesdetailsoftheQoCIM
metamodel,includinghowthismetamodelisusedalong
withtheontologiesandvocabulariespresentedinSection
1.2.1tocomposetheinformationmodelproposedby
QoDisco.

1.2.1.OntologiesandVocabularies

Inordertosemanticallydescriberesources(i.e.,sensorsand
actuators),theQoDiscoinformationmodeltakesadvantage
oftheSANontology[3],anextensionoftheW3CsSSN
ontology[4].DespiteSSNprovidesusefulconcepts,
attributes,andpropertiestorepresentsensors,itlacksof
conceptsrelatedtoactuators.Therefore,SANsubsumes
SSNinordertoincludeconceptsfordescribingsensors,
actuators,observationsassessedbysensors,propertiestobe
modifiedbyactuators,andstimuligoverningtheir
operation.

Despitetheircomprehensivenessfordescribingsensorsand
actuators,bothSSNandSANontologiesdonotprovideany
concepttorelateresourceswiththegeographiclocationof
devices.Includingsuchlocationrelatedinformationis
importantsinceitisusefulforapplicationsindifferentIoT
domains[6].Forthispurpose,weusetheBasicGeo
Vocabulary[7],avocabularythatdefinesconceptssuchas
latitude,longitude,andaltitudeofageographiclocation.We
associatetheseconceptstothedefinitionofresources
(sensorsandactuators)byincludinganewpropertycalled
hasGeographicalLocationtotheSANontology.

AnothergapofSSNandSANreferstothefactthattheydo
nothavesemanticsformodelingservicesexposedby
resources.Forthisreason,theinformationmodelofQoDisco
alsoencompassestheOWLSontology[5],whichiswidely
usedinbothacademiaandindustrialapplicationsfor
semanticallymodelingWebservices.InOWLS,aserviceis
describedintermsofthreesubontologies,namely
ServiceProfile,ServiceModel,andServiceGrounding.A
ServiceProfiledescribesaserviceintermsofitsinputs,
outputs,preconditions,andeffects.AServiceModeldescribes
theoperationsperformedbyaserviceandallowsinvoking,
composing,andmonitoringit.AServiceGroundingdescribes
howaserviceisinvokedandprovidesinformationabout
datatypesusedinitsoperations.

Inadditiontothedefinitionofhowtomodelresourcesand
services,wealsohavetocreatealinkbetweenthesetwo
concepts.Forthispurpose,wehavecreatedtheexposes
propertylinkingtheSensorandActuatorconcepts
(respectivelydefinedintheSSNandSANontologies)tothe
OWLSsServiceconcept.Thecardinalityoftheexposes
propertyisonetomanysincearesourcecansimultaneously
offermorethanoneservice.Finally,wealsoaddeda
propertycalledhas_qoc.Thispropertyisresponsiblefor
linkingQoCindicatorstotheobservationmadebythe
resources,whichexpressthequalityofthecontext
informationofthedatameasuredbyadevice.TheseQoC
indicatorsmustbeassociatedwithQoCcriterion,which
mustfirstbespecifiedaccordinglywiththeQoCIMmeta
model.

WealsoaddedanotherontologycalledSOUPA.TheSOUPA
ontologyincludesmodularcomponentvocabulariesto
representintelligentagentswithassociatedbeliefs,desires,
andintentions,time,space,events,userprofiles,actions,
andpoliciesforsecurityandprivacy.Inourwork,weonly
hadinterestinthespacevocabulary.

1.2.2.QoCIM

Theresourcesexposeservicesthatprovidecontext
information,whichisevaluatedthroughQoCcriteria.Thus,
QoCisnotassociatedspecificallywitharesourceora
service,butwiththedataproducedbyaresource.Tospecify
QoCcriteriaweusetheQoCIMmodel[8].Insteadof
definingalistofsupportedQoCcriteria,QoCIMprovidesa
metamodelabletosupportthedesignandthe
representationofanyQoCcriterion.Thepurposeofthe
QoCIMmetamodelistoofferasolutiontodefineQoC
criteriathatcouldbe:primitive,acriterionthatdoesnot
dependonanyothercriteriaforitsdefinition;composite,a
criterionbuiltuponothercriteria,and;invariant,acriterion
thathasawelldefinedlistofpossiblevalues.

TheQoCIMmodelisbuiltuponsixinterrelated
constructionsthatarerespectivelydedicatedtothe
definitionanddescriptionoftheQoCcriterion(classes
QoCCriterion,QoCMetricDefinitionandDescription),its
valuation(classQoCMetricValue)andthebindingofaQoC
criterion(classQoCCriterion)withcontextinformationtobe
qualified(classesQoCIndicatorandContextInformation).A
QoCcriterionspecifiedusingthismetamodelisrepresented
asaXMLdocument,whichcanbeusedtogetherwiththe
informationmodelproposedbytheQoDiscotoinclude
conceptsregardingQoCinformation.Forinstance,the
precisionQoCcriterioncanbespecifiedusingtheQoCIM
metamodel.Afterthat,aclientcanusetheClientInterface
APIofQoDiscotoaddanewresourcedescriptionwiththe
precisionpropertyasaQoCindicatorassociatedwith
contextinformationproducedbythisresource.

AspreviouslymentionedinSection1.2.1,theQoCIMmeta
modelis

necessarytospecifytheQoCcriteriasupportedinthe
informationmodelofQoDisco.

Figure3presentstheQoCIMmetamodeldescribedinOWL.
Notethat,exceptforthepropertycomposed_by,allthe
propertiesdefinedtodescribeaQoCcriterionhave
cardinalityofexactly1,indicatingthatallofthemare
mandatory.Ontheotherhand,thepropertycomposed_by
indicatesthataQoCcriterioncanbecomposedforany
numberofQoCcriteria,includingzero.

Finally,Figure4presentstheOWLdescriptionofaQoC
indicator.AQoCindicatoriscomposedbyanintegervalue
andareferenceforaQoCcriterion.ThevalueofaQoC
indicatormustbebetweentheminimumandthemaximum
valuesdefinedintheassociatedQoCcriterion.

As previously mentioned, the information model of ForwarDS-IoT


comprises a vocabulary of concepts related to IoT resources and services
as well as relationships among them. In order to semantically describe
resources (i.e., sensors and actuators), such an information model takes
advantage of the SAN ontology [8], an extension of the W3Cs SSN
ontology [9]. Despite SSN provides useful concepts, attributes, and
properties to represent sensors, it lacks of concepts related to actuators.
Therefore, SAN subsumes SSN in or- der to include concepts for describing
sensors, actuators, observations assessed by sensors, properties to be
modified by actuators, and stimuli governing their operation.

Despite their comprehensiveness for describing sensors and actuators,


both SSN and SAN ontologies do not provide any concept to relate
resources with the geographic location of devices. Including such a
location-related information is important since it is useful for applications
in different IoT domains [14]. For this purpose, we use the Basic Geo
Vocabulary [15], a vocabulary that defines concepts such as latitude,
longitude, and altitude of a geographic location. We associate these
concepts to the definition of resources (sensors and actuators) by
including a new property called hasGeographicalLocation to the SAN
ontology.

Another gap of SSN and SAN refers to the fact that they do not have
semantics for modeling services exposed by resources. For this reason,
the information model of ForwarDS-IoT also encom- passes the OWL-S
ontology [10], which is widely used in both ac- ademia and industrial
applications for semantically modeling Web services. In OWL-S, a service
is described in terms of three sub- ontologies, namely ServiceProfile,
ServiceModel, and Service- Grounding. A ServiceProfile describes a service
in terms of its in- puts, outputs, preconditions, and effects. A ServiceModel
describes the operations performed by a service and allows invoking,
com- posing, and monitoring it. A ServiceGrounding describes how a
service is invoked and provides information about data types used in its
operations. Fig. 3 presents a partial OWL-S description of a service
providing the temperature of an environment where a sen- sor is
deployed. GetTempSensorProfile presents the service with information
about its functionalities, GetTempSensorProcess de- scribes the service
operation as a one-step process, and GetTempSensorGrounding supports
the service by describing how to access the service in terms of the URL of
the GetTempSen- sorService operation.

Fig. 4 illustrates the main relations in the information model adopted by


ForwarDS-IoT. The following four prefixes are used to indicate the original
ontology in which a given concept is defined: (i) the ssn prefix refers to
the SSN ontology; (ii) the san prefix refers to the SAN ontology; (iii) the
owl-s prefix means that the concept is originated from the OWL-S
ontology; and (iv) the geo prefix is related to the location concepts
defined by the Basic Geo Vocabulary. In addition to the definition of how to
model resources and services, we also have to create a link between
these two concepts. For this purpose, we have created the exposes
property linking the Sensor and Actuator concepts (respectively defined in
the SSN and SAN ontologies) to the OWL-Ss Service concept. As also
shown in Fig. 4, the cardinality of the exposes property is one-to-many
since a resource can simultaneously offer more than one service.

Fig. 5 shows an example of resource modeling by using the concepts


defined in the information model. In this example, a sensor device
(temperatureSensorRoom13) provides temperature in Celsius about a
room (Room13) with geographic properties of longitude, latitude, and
altitude (51.25, 0.59, 1stFloor). The sensor is de- scribed by an exposed
service called getTemperature: it is presented by the
getTemperatureProfile service profile, described by the
getTemperature_ServiceModel service model, and supported by the
getTemperature_ProcessGrounding service grounding.