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COURSE OUTLINE FOR AGRARIAN REFORM LAW

AND SOCIAL LEGISLATION

Atty. Darwin P. Angeles


Institute of Government & Law Reform
University of the Philippines Law Center
Email: angelesdarwin@gmail.com
Mobile 0917 835 6675

Course Description
This two unit course is designed to provide law students with insights into the core
concepts of social justice and how the same is implemented in social justice legislation
governing agrarian reform, indigenous peoples rights and urban poor housing and
development. The focus of the course will be on agrarian reform with discussions on the
historical background and key ideas underpinning this important social justice legislation.
The student will also be given some perspectives on the agrarian reform dispute resolution
mechanisms, whether administrative or judicial.

The course aims to provide the student, not only with a working and practical knowledge of
agrarian reform law to assist potential clients, but also to develop their respective
perspectives on how the social justice thrust of the 1987 Constitution should be
interpreted and made a reality under the Philippine legal system.

I. Social Justice Under the 1987 Constitution

Alberto T. Muyot, Social Justice and the Constitution: Aiming for Utopia?, 70 Phil. L.J.
pp. 310 to 355 (1996).

II. Philippine Agrarian Reform Law

A. Historical Background

II Kasaysayan, Chapters 1 to 8, pp. 8 to 43.

IV Kasaysayan, Chapters 7 & 8, pp. 112 to 135

Jose Elvinia, Is Land Reform a Failure in the Philippines? An Assessment on CARP in


Limits of Good Governance in Developing Countries, pp. 333 to 362 (2011) available
at: http://www2.gsid.nagoya-u.ac.jp/blog/anda/files/2012/01/10_jose-
elvinia1.pdf

Senate Deliberations on RA 6657, pages 163 to 196, Rufus T. Rodriguez,


Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law Annotated (2004).

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The Mendiola Massacre: http://www.rappler.com/move-ph/159028-mendiola-
massacre-anniversary

B. Constitutional and Legislative Development

Friar Lands Act (Act No. 1120, 26 April 1904)

Public Land Act (Commonwealth Act No. 141, as amended, 1 December 1936),
Sections 11 to 57

1. Maintenance of Agrarian Peace

Agricultural Tenancy Act of the Philippines (RA No. 1199, 30 August 1954)

Code of Agrarian Reforms, Sections 1 to 48 (RA No. 3844, as amended by RA No.


6389, 10 September 1971)

2. Land Redistribution

Code of Agrarian Reforms, Sections 49 to 140 (RA No. 3844, as amended by RA


No. 6389, 10 September 1971)

Tenant Emancipation Decree (PD No. 27, Operation Land Transfer [OLT], 21
October 1972)

Proclamation 131 dated 22 July 1987 (Instituting a Comprehensive Agrarian


Reform Program [CARP])

1987 Constitution, Article II, Section 21; Article XIII, Sections 4 to 8 The right
of landless farmers and farmworkers to own the lands they till

Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law (RA 6657, 10 June 1988)

RA 7881 (Exemption of Fishponds and Prawn Farms from CARP, 20 February


1995)

RA 9700 (Strengthening the CARP, 7 August 2009)

3. Dispute Resolution Mechanism

Code of Agrarian Reforms, Sections 141 to 159 (RA No. 3844, as amended by RA
No. 6389, 10 September 1971)

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Batas Pambansa Blg. 129, Section 44 (Abolishing Courts of Agrarian Relations)

Executive Order 228 dated 17 July 1987 (Declaring Full Land Ownership to
Qualified Beneficiaries covered by PD 27)

Executive Order 129-A dated 26 July 1987 (Modifying EO 129 Reorganizing and
Strengthening DAR)

C. Concepts of Agrarian Reform

a. Agrarian Peace (State Power in Tenancy Relations)


Soliman v. Pampanga Sugar Development Company, Inc., 589 SCRA 236
(2009)
Perez-Rosario v. Court of Appeals, (2006), 494 SCRA 66(2006)

b. Revolutionary Expropriation
Association of Small Landowners v. Secretary of Agrarian Reform, 175 SCRA
343 (1989)
Confederation of Sugar Producers Association, Inc. v. Department of Agrarian
Reform, 519 SCRA 582 (2007)

c. Forced Sale
Hospicio de San Jose de Barili, Cebu City v. Department of Agrarian Reform,
(2005).

d. Right of Farmers to Own Lands They Till/Agrarian Reform and


Social Justice
Hacienda Luisita Inc. v. Presidential Agrarian Reform Council, 653 SCRA 154
(2011, main opinion; dissenting opinion of C.J. Corona)
Hacienda Luisita Inc. v. Presidential Agrarian Reform Council, 660 SCRA 525
(2011, main opinion)
Hacienda Luisita Inc. v. Presidential Agrarian Reform Council, 670 SCRA 392
(2012, main opinion; separate opinion of J. Brion; dissenting opinion of J.
Sereno).

D. Agrarian Reform Program Coverage

a. OLT Rice and Corn Lands


Aninao v. Asturias Chemical Industries, Inc.,464 SCRA 526(2005).

b. CARP

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Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law, Section 4

1. Exclusions
a. Non-agricultural Lands
Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law, Section 3(c)
Department of Justice Opinion No. 44
Agrarian Reform Beneficiaries Association v. Nicolas, 567 SCRA 540
(2008).
Buklod nang Magbubukid sa Lupaing Ramos, Inc. v. E.M. Ramos and
Sons, Inc., 645 SCRA 401 (2011).
Heirs of Luna v. Afable, 689 SCRA 207 (2013).

b. Poultry and Livestock Farms

Republic v. Salvador N. Lopez Agri-business Corporation, 639 SCRA


49 (2011). [Actual and direct use requirement]

c. Landowners Right of Retention


Daez v. Court of Appeals,325 SCRA 856 (2001)
Heirs of Aurelio Reyes v. Garilao,605 SCRA 294 (2009).

2. Lands Exempted from CARP Coverage

a. Education
Department of Agrarian Reform v. Department of Education Culture
and Sports, 426 SCRA 217 (2004).

b. National Defense
Department of Agrarian Reform v. Philippine Communications Satellite
Corporation, 490 SCRA 729 (2006).

c. Watersheds
Sta. Rosa Realty Development Corporation v. Amante, 453 SCRA 432
(2005).

d. Fishponds and Prawn Farms


Atlas Fertilizer Corporation v. Secretary, Department of Agrarian
Reform, 274 SCRA 30 (1997).

e. Tourism Purposes
Roxas & Company, Inc. v. DAMBA-NFSW,607 SCRA 33 (2009).

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f. Lands with 18% Slope

DAR Administrative Order No. 13, Series of 1990

E. Land Acquisition and Distribution Process

a. OLT
Sigre v. Court of Appeals,387 SCRA 15 (2002)
Del Castillo v. Orciga, 500 SCRA 498 (2006)

b. CARP

i. Compulsory Acquisition

Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law, Sections 7, 16


RA 9700, Section 30
DAR Memorandum Circular No. 2, Series of 2014
Holy Trinity Realty & Development Corporation v. Dela Cruz,739 SCRA
229 (2014)
Roxas v. Court of Appeals, 329 SCRA 106 (1999).

ii. Voluntary Offer to Sell


Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law, Sections 7 & 19

iii. Voluntary Land Transfer


Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law, Sections 7, 20, 2, & 31

iv. Stock Distribution Program


Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law, Section 31
Hacienda Luisita Inc. v. Presidential Agrarian Reform Council, supra.

v. Agribusiness Venture Agreement (AVA)


Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law, Section 29
DAR Administrative Order No. 9, Series of 2006
DAR Administrative Order No. 4, Series of 2014
Islanders CARP-Farmers Beneficiaries Multi-Purpose Cooperative
Development, Inc. v. Lapanday Agricultural and Development Corp.,489
SCRA 80 (2006).
Hijo Employees Agrarian Reform Beneficiaries Cooperative-1 v. Hon.
George E. Omelio, CA-G.R. SP No. 03851-MIN, 18 March 2011.

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F. Selection of Agrarian Reform Beneficiaries

a. OLT
Davao New Town Development Corporation v. Spouses Saliga,712 SCRA
260 (2013).

b. CARP
Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law, Sections 22, 22-a
Hermoso v. C.L. Realty Corporation,489 SCRA 556(2006)

1. Preferred beneficiaries (Children of Landowners)


Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law, Section 6, par. 1

G. Award of Land

a. OLT Emancipation Patent


Executive Order No. 228
Del Castillo v. Orciga, supra

b. CARP Certificate of Land Ownership Award


Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law, Sections 23-25
Diamond Farms, Inc. v. Diamond Farm Workers Multi-purpose Cooperative,
677 SCRA 271 (2012).

c. Indefeasibility of Agrarian Reform Titles


Maylem v. Ellano, 592 SCRA 440 (2009).
Estribillo v. Department of Agrarian Reform, 494 SCRA 218 (2006).

H. Land Tenure Improvement and Support Services

Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law, Sections 37& 38


RA 10000 Agri-Agra Reform Credit Act

I. Prohibited Acts

a. Illegal Land Transfers


Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law, Sections 6, 27, 70, 73(c)
DAR Administrative Order No. 1, Series of 1989
DAR Administrative Order No. 8, Series of 1995
DAR Administrative Order No. 7, Series of 2011, Section 40
Sta. Monica Industrial Corporation v. Department of Agrarian Reform, 555
SCRA 97 (2008)

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Lebrudo v. Loyola, 645 SCRA 156 (2011).
Cathay Metal Corporation v. Laguna West Multi-purpose Cooperative, Inc., 728
SCRA 482 (2014).
Filinvest Land, Inc. v. Adia, G.R. No. 192629, 25 November 2015.
Department of Agrarian Reform v. Carriedo, G.R. No. 176549, 20 January
2016.

b. Criminal Provisions
Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law, Section 73

J. Just Compensation
a. General Procedure
Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law, Section 17
DAR Administrative Order No. 7, Series of 2011, Sections 72, 84, 85

b. OLT-acquired Properties
Land Bank of the Philippines v. Natividad, 458 SCRA 441 (2005).

c. CARP-Acquired Properties

i. Strict Application of DAR Formula


Land Bank of the Philippines v. Banal, 434 SCRA 543 (2004).
Land Bank of the Philippines v. Celada, 479 SCRA 495 (2006)
Land Bank of the Philippines v. Luz Lim, 529 SCRA 129 (2007).

ii. Judicial Appreciation of Section 17 Factors


Apo Fruits Corporation v. Land Bank of the Philippines, 632 SCRA 727
(2010).
Apo Fruits Corporation v. Land Bank of the Philippines, 647 SCRA 207
(2011).
Land Bank of the Philippines vs. Yatco Agricultural Enterprises, 713
SCRA 370 (2014)

d. Imposition of Interest as Penalty for Delay


Land Bank of the Philippines vs. Wycoco, 419 SCRA 67 (2004)
Land Bank of the Philippines vs. Gallego, Jr., 702 SCRA 377 (2013)

K. Land Use Conversion


Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law, Section 65
DAR Administrative Order No. 1, Series of 2002
Chamber of Real Estate Builders Associations, Inc. v. Secretary of Agrarian Reform,
621 SCRA 295 (2010).

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Ros v. Department of Agrarian Reform, 468 SCRA 471 (2005).
Department of Agrarian Reform v. Polo Coconut Plantation Co., Inc.,564 SCRA
78(2008)

a. Illegal and Premature Conversion


Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law, Section 73(c)
Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization Act (RA 8435), Section 11
Nicorp Management and Development Corporation v. De Leon, 563 SCRA
606 (2008)

L. Dispute Resolution Mechanisms


Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law, Sections 50 to 62

a. Automatic Referral of Cases to the DAR


Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law, Section 50-A
Cuenca v. Department of Agrarian Reform, 439 SCRA 15 (2004).

b. Prohibition Against Injunction, Restraining Order and Undue


Interference
Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law, Sections 55 & 68
Department of Agrarian Reform v. Trinidad Valley Realty & Development
Corporation, 715 SCRA 650 (2014).

c. Agrarian Disputes
i. Tenancy Cases
Crisostomo v. Victoria, G.R. No. 175098, 26 August 2015.
Sanchez, Jr. v. Marin,537 SCRA 323 (2007)
Castillo v. Tolentino, 580 SCRA 629 (2009).

ii. Redemption/Pre-emption Cases


Planters Development Bank v. Garcia, 477 SCRA 185 (2005).

d. Reallocation Proceedings
Heirs of Buensuceso v. Perez, 692 SCRA 491 (2013).

e. Protests Against CARP Coverage


Roxas v. Court of Appeals, supra.

f. Cancellation of Emancipation Patents and Certificates of Land


Ownership Award
Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law, Sections 24, last paragraph

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Heirs of Dr. Jose Deleste v. Land Bank of the Philippines, 651 SCRA 352
(2011).
Mago v. Barbin, 603 SCRA 383 (2009).

g. Determination of Just Compensation


Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law, Sections 16(d), 57 to 60
2009 DARAB Rules of Procedure, Rule XIX, Section 6
Republic v. Court of Appeals, 263 SCRA 758 (1996).
Land Bank of the Philippines v. Martinez, 560 SCRA 776 (2008).

h. Special Proceedings before the Presidential Agrarian Reform


Council
Hacienda Luisita, Inc. v. Presidential Agrarian Reform Council, supra

III. Urban land Reform and Housing


1987 Constitution, Article XIII, Sections 9 & 10
Republic Act No. 7279 (UDHA)
Kalipunan ng Damayang Mahihirap v. Robredo, 730 SCRA 322 (2014).
Alangdeo v. Yaranon, G.R. No. 206423, 01 July 2015.
Pilar Develppment Corporation v. Dumadag, 693 SCRA 96 (2013).

IV. Indigenous Peoples Rights


1987 Constitution, Article XIII, Section 6
Republic Act No. 8371 (IPRA)
Cruz v. Secretary of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources,347 SCRA
128 (2000).
Lim v. Gamosa, G.R. No. 193964, 02 December 2015.
Unduran v. Aberasturi, G.R. No. 181284, 20 October 2015.
Central Mindanao University v. Executive Secretary, 631 SCRA 30 (2009).