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Conference Paper October 2016


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4 authors, including:

Ali Soukhak Lari Ahmad Rahbar

Amirkabir University of Technology Amirkabir University of Technology


Mehdi Soukhak Lari

Amirkabir University of Technology


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Ali Soukhak Lari1, Ahmad Rahbar Ranji2, Mostafa Bahmani Shourijeh3 and Mehdi Soukhak Lari4

1) Maritime Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran, asl61@aut.ac.ir

2) Maritime Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran, rahbar@aut.ac.ir
3) Civil Engineering Department, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran, bahmani.mostafa@gmail.com
4) Maritime Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran, mehdi.soukhak@aut.ac.ir

When subsea pipelines are laid down on the uneven seabed or buried into the seafloor, it may have upheaval buckling. This issue with
high temperature and high pressure (HT/HP) of oil inside of the pipeline leads to large displacement. Finally, bending moment and the
effective axial force are created. This way, the cross section of pipeline may leads to failure. In this research, a pipeline on the seabed
has been simulated in ABAQUS software, and various influential factors such as the friction coefficient of seabed soil, external and
internal hydrostatic pressure and temperature changes on the process of creating upheaval buckling is evaluated. The results have shown
that the friction coefficient of soil has much more effect than the other parameters. Furthermore, the pipeline is unstable when the
effective axial force is increased.

and derived analytical solution to both of upheaval and

1. Introduction lateral buckling of pipelines to critical axial force, buckling
amplitude and length. Taylor and Gan [3] derived analytical
In recent years, application of offshore pipelines has been solution of first and second order on the basis of an initial
increased due to increase in energy demand in the industries, imperfection in the pipelines. Wang and et al. [4, 5] have
and need to explore new oil and gas fields. This issue leads studied on the upheaval buckling of pipelines with soft
to transfer explorations of new hydrocarbon sources to the seabed. They have considered effects of initial imperfection
deep waters. Production and discovery of oil and gas in the and soil friction coefficient on the pipeline. Liu and et al. [6,
deep waters needs to long pipelines. More importantly, 7] have investigated influences of thermal stress and
design of these pipelines have generated many challenges temperature differences on the lateral and upheaval modes
for big corporations and engineers. by analytical and numerical methods such as finite element
Pipelines play an important role in the offshore models. Zeng and et al. [8] proposed three types of formula
transportation system. For the time being, it is the cheapest for simulating of initial imperfection in the upheaval
and the best transportation way of hydrocarbons from deep buckling based on a finite element method on the rigid
waters to the shore and refineries. seabed. In this research, an attempt has been made to verify
In accordance with DNV-RP-F110 [1], in deep water and the upheaval buckling of pipeline on the uneven seabed
on the uneven seabed, there are two types of buckling using ABAQUS software. Several parameters including
possibility; lateral buckling and upheaval buckling. These pipeline length, pipeline weight, external and internal
two modes of buckling are kind of global buckling. Also pressure, initial imperfection and operating temperature
upheaval buckling can be occurred in buried situation or in more have been considered.
the trench.
In deep water, by imposing the initial imperfection, 2. Finite element model
increasing the temperature and internal pressure;
compression axial tensions develops on the pipeline wall All of the elements in this research have been simulated
thickness and shape of pipeline is changed when in 3D framework (Figure 1). Also all properties have been
compression load is more than soil resistance. Subsequently, selected based on Persian Gulf situations.
this issue will be led to release of inner accumulated tension
that it has been made by interaction between pipeline and Soil type of seabed is silty clay, and the Mohr
seabed. Coulomb behavior is considered to similar the soil behavior.
Many researchers have studied on this topic and they have The C3D8R element is used for the soil. For the boundary
obtained good results, but all of them have neglected one or conditions, it is tried to constraint all directions at the bottom
some parameters for simulating and analyzing due to easier of The FEA model, while, for the lateral sides only X and Y
analysis. Hobbs [2] suggested some lateral buckling modes
directions have been restricted. Other parameters are the pipeline, these fluctuations are damped, and they are
tabulated in Table 1. converged to the straight lines. Table 3 shows all details
The PIPE31 element has been considered to mesh. The about the end of displacement in all diagrams.
pipeline and an Elasto Plastic behavior model to simulate
the pipe behavior. Also, the properties of pipeline are:
length is 1000 m, diameter is 323.9 mm, wall thickness is
12.7 mm from API 5L X65 grade. Other details are listed in
Table 2.
Operational characteristics are as follow: water depth is
70 m, operating temperature is 120 and internal pressure
is 10 MPa.

Figure 2. Displacements in the middle of pipeline

Table 3. The values of maximum displacement.

Soil friction Maximum
coefficient Displacement
Figure 1. Numerical modeling of pipeline and seabed. ( ) (m)
0.1 6.83
Table 1. Seabed properties. 0.2 6.81
0.3 6.78
Elasticity Mass Internal
Poissons 0.4 6.75
Modulus Density Friction Cohesion `
ESoil Angle C (N/m2)

(N/m2) (Kg/m3) ( ) It can be seen in Figure 3 that increase in from 0.1 to
5.5106 1960 0.3 25 20000 0.4 have a great influence on the effective axial force, and
this force is augmented in the supports and the middle of
pipeline. As a matter of fact, this issue shows that whatever
Table 2. Pipeline properties. would be bigger, deformation of the middle point due to
increasing friction between soil and the pipeline is more
Elasticity Thermal Minimum difficult. Consequently, the level of saved potential energy
Mass Poissons
Modulus Expansion Yield is increased. For more clarification, when is 0.1, the
Density Ratio
ESteel Coefficient Stress effective axial force in the middle and the supports are -
(N/m2) ( -1) y (N/m2) 222539 N and -270158 N respectively. When reaches to
2.061011 7850 0.3 1.1610-5 450106 0.4, the effective axial force in the middle and the supports
are increased to -224648 N and -414845 N respectively,
which shows 0.95% and 53.6% growth. Furthermore, the
3. Analysis results pipeline will be unstable when the effective axial force rises.
These values are derived easily, as illustrated in Table 4.
The sensitivity of upheaval buckling with respect to
changing friction coefficient between soil and pipeline was
investigated by considering four different magnitude of .
Also the initial imperfection in the middle of pipeline and
the imperfection length was considered 100 cm and 100 m
The variations of displacement with increasing the
friction coefficient illustrated in Figure 2. As increases
from 0.1 to 0.4, the displacement at the end of curves is
decreased, although the difference between the curves are
very low. This issue indicates that the smaller would be,
the easier deflection in the middle would be. Also the
oscillations and their frequency are similar in the curves. Figure 3. Effective axial force in the pipeline
Subsequently, because of the friction between seabed and
Table 4. The values of effective axial force.
Soil friction Supports of Middle of
coefficient the pipeline the pipeline
( ) (N) (N)
0.1 -270158 -222539
0.2 -318378 -223216
0.3 -366377 -223715
0.4 -414845 -224648

Figure 4 shows the effective axial force in the middle of

pipeline. On the basis of this Figure, when the temperature
Figure 5. Bending moments of the pipeline
rises from 0 to 120, some oscillations are generated at the
beginning of the process. These oscillations exist till over
20. But after it, the fluctuations are vanished by
damping the effects of soil gradually. Eventually, these
4. Conclusion
diagrams are converged to the partly straight directions. An attempt was made to investigate the upheaval
According to Table 4, it is obvious that with increasing the buckling of pipeline. It is clear that with increasing , the
soil friction coefficient, the values of effective axial force in displacement and the bending moment are reduced and the
the middle of pipeline have been increased. effective axial force is increased in the pipeline. Then level
of the energy is developed continuously. This matter
emphasizes that the soil friction changes has an important
impact in the upheaval buckling of the pipeline.

5. References
[1] D. N Veritas., Global Buckling of Submarine Pipelines
Structural Design Due to High Temperature/High Pressure DNV
RP-F110, 2007
[2] Hobbs, R. E., In-service buckling of heated pipelines,
Journal of transportation engineering, 110, 2, March 1984, pp.
[3] Taylor, N., and Gan, A. B., Submarine pipeline buckling
imperfection studies, Thin- walled structures, 4, 4, Jan 1986, pp.
Figure 4. Effective axial force in the middle of pipeline 295-323.
[4] Wang, L., Shi, R., Yuan, F., Guo, Z., and Yu, L., Global
In accordance with Figure 5, the graphs illustrate buckling of pipelines in the vertical plane with a soft seabed,
changes of bending moment in the pipeline. With increasing Applied Ocean Research, 33, 2, April 2011, pp. 130-136.
of the soil friction coefficient, the maximum positive and [5] Shi, R., Wang, L., Guo, Z., and Yuan, F., Upheaval buckling
of a pipeline with prop imperfection on a plastic soft seabed, Thin-
maximum negative values of bending moment are
Walled Structures, 65, April 2013, pp. 1-6.
diminished vicinity of the pipeline mid. Also, the maximum [6] Guo, L. P., Liu, R., and Yan, S. W.,Global buckling behavior
moments are in the positive parts of diagrams. Moreover, of submarine unburied pipelines under thermal stress, Journal of
moments of the fix end (the bending moment in the central south university press and springer, 20, 7, July 2013, pp.
supports) are not zero, and these values are almost similar. 2054-2065.
Table 5 displays of the details of bending moments in the [7] Liu, R., Wang, W. G., and Yan, S. W., Finite element analysis
pipeline. on the thermal upheaval buckling of submarine burial pipelines
with initial imperfection, Journal of central south university press
Table 5. The values of bending moment and springer, 20, Jan 2013, pp. 236-245.
[8] Zeng, X., Duan, M., and Che, M., Critical upheaval buckling
Maximum Maximum forces of imperfect pipelines, Applied Ocean Research, 45,
Soil friction Moment of
positive negative March 2014, pp. 33-39.
coefficient the fix end
moment moment
( ) (N. m)
(N. m) (N. m)
0.1 3143.62 537869 -395239
0.2 3144.37 537748 -394637
0.3 3145.12 537225 -393765
0.4 3145.75 537180 -393550

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