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Environment pollution- CO2- It is the principle greenhouse

gas emitted as a result of human

An addition of certain materials to the activities such as the burning of
physical environment (water, air and coal, oil, and natural gases.
lands), making it less fit or unfit for life.
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC)
Lead- It is present in petrol, diesel,
Classification of pollutants-
lead batteries, paints, hair dye
1-According to the form in which they
products, etc. Lead affects children
persist after release into the environment-
in particular.
i) Primary pollutant-These persist in the
Ozone-At-the ground level, it is a
form in which they are added to the
pollutant with highly toxic effects.
environment e.g. DDT, plastic.
SPM-2.5 & 10
ii) Secondary pollutants-These are formed
SO2 -It is a gas produced from
by interaction among the primary
burning coal, mainly in thermal
power plants. It is major
contributor to smog and acid rain
2-According to their existence in nature-
i) Quantitative- These occur in nature and Smog- Smog has been coined from
become pollutant when their a combination of the words fog
concentration reaches beyond a threshold and smoke. Smog is a condition of
level. E.g. carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide. fog that had soot or smoke in it.
ii) Qualitative- These do not occur in Formation of smog-
Nature and are man-made. E.g. fungicides, Photochemical smog (smog) is a
Herbicides, DDT etc. term used to describe air pollution
that is a result of the interaction of
3) According to their nature of disposal- sunlight with certain chemicals in
i) Biodegradable-Waste products, the atmosphere.
Which are degraded by microbial action.
Effects of smog-
E.g. sewage.
It hampers visibility and harms the
ii) Non-biodegradable- Pollutants, Which
are not decomposed by microbial action.
E.g. plastics, glass, DDT, salts of heavy Respiratory diseases
metals, radioactive substances etc. Death relating to bronchial
Air Pollution- Heavy smog greatly decreases
The presence in the atmosphere of one or ultraviolet radiations.
More contaminants in such quality and for
Such duration as it is injurious, or tends to Indoor air pollution-
be injurious, to human health or welfare, It refers to the physical, chemical and
animal or plant life. biological characteristics of the air in the
Major air pollutant and their sources- indoor environment within home or
Carbon monoxide-It is a colourless, institution.
odourless gas that is produced by Different conditions are responsible for
the incomplete combustion of indoor air pollution in the rural areas and
carbon-based fuels including the urban areas-
petrol, diesel, and wood. 1. Rural-
Traditional fuels like firewood charcoal
and cow dung for cooking and heating.
Burning such fuels produces large amount
of smoke and other air pollutants in the Abandoned mines can be filled up
confined space of the home, resulting in with fly ash.
high exposure. Fly ash can increase the crop yield
and it also enhances water holding
2-Urban- capacity of the land.
Construction of more tightly sealed Fly ash utilization policy (2016)-
buildings Ash would also be used in the
Reduced ventilation production of bricks and other
Used of synthetic material for building and construction material, besides
furnishing. helping in setting up of ash
The use of chemicals products, pesticides based construction material
and household care products. production unit within its
Fly ash- The use of fly ash is to be
It is produced whenever the combustion increased to a radius of 300 km.
of solid material takes place. Fly ash is The thermal plants would use
very fine particle which tend to travel far the ash in the construction of
in the air. The ash that does not rise is roads under Pradhan Mantri
called bottom ash. Gram Sadak Yojana.
Composition- Effects of air pollution-
Aluminium silicate, silicon dioxide, calcium 1) On health-
oxide etc. Most of the gases generally affects
Fly ash particles are oxide reach and the respiratory system.
consist of silica, alumina, oxide of iron, They causes diseases like asthma,
calcium and magnesium and toxic heavy emphysema and chronic
metal like lead, arsenic, cobalt. bronchitis.
Fly ash collection- Hydro carbon, tobacco smoke and
Fly ash is generally captured by coal dust can cause cancer.
electrostatic precipitators or other particle 2) Effects on vegetation-
filtration equipment before the flue gases Retard photosynthesis
reach the chimneys of coal-fired power Hydrocarbon such as ethylene
plants. causes premature leaf fall, fruit
Advantages of fly ash- drop, shredding of floral buds.
Cement can be replaced by fly ash
up to 35%, thus reducing the cost Control measures-
of construction, making roads, etc. destroying the pollutants by
Fly ash bricks are light in weight thermal or catalytic combustion
and offer high strength and conversion of the pollutants to a
durability. less toxic form
Fly ash is a better fill material for collection of the pollutant
road Some devices - Two. Types of devices -
Embankments and in concrete arresters and scrubbers are used to
roads. remove particulate pollutants from air.
Fly ash can be used in reclamation
of wastelands.