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# *lessons were made to be 1 hour and 15 minutes long because one of our teacher associates said that is how

long
we have for each period.
Lesson
Human Footprints Date
Title/Focus
Grade 6 Science 1h 15 min
Level Duration

## Unit Evidence and Investigation Teacher

In this lesson students will examine the differences between treads of shoes. Students
will compare their shoes to classmates and note how footprints change when shoes
change. After watching a short video introducing students to footprint analysis, students
Lesson will explore how footprints change when a student is running or walking through direct
Overview observations outside in snow, sand, or dirt. Specifically, students will examine how the
depth of footprints changes when someone is running and how distance between
footprints change when someone in running. This will be completed by working in
groups and filling out a formative analysis worksheet.

## OUTCOMES FROM ALBERTA PROGRAM OF STUDIES

General 6-1 Design and carry out an investigation, using procedures that provide a fair test of the
Learning questions being investigated.
Outcomes: 6-2 Recognize the importance of accuracy in observation and measurement; and, with
guidance, apply suitable methods to record, compile, interpret and evaluate observations
and measurements.
6-3 Design and carry out an investigation of a practical problem, and develop a possible
solution.
6-8 Apply observation and inference skills to recognize and interpret patterns and to
distinguish a specific pattern from a group of similar patterns.
6-9 Apply knowledge of the properties and interactions of materials to the investigation
and identification of a material sample.
KSA: A, C, D, E, F, I, K
Specific 2. Observe a set of footprints, and infer the direction and speed of travel.
Learning 3. Recognize that evidence found at the scene of an activity may have unique
Outcomes: characteristics that allow an investigator to make inferences about the participants
and the nature of the activity, and give examples of how specific evidence may be
used
4. Investigate evidence and link it to a possible source

Main
Inquiry
How can we use clues, patterns, and environmental changes to investigate disturbances?
Question

Guiding
Questions
How can you tell the direction of travel when looking at a footprint?
(These
How does the depth of a footprint change when a person is walking or running?
facilitate
How does the distance between footprints change when a person is walking or running?
and guide
the lesson)
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Students will:
1. Identify differences between shoes and the footprints of different individuals
2. Use observations and measurement to identify how depth of footprints change when a person is
walking or running
3. Use observations and measurement to identify how the distance between footprints change when
a person is walking or running
4. Understand that footprints can be used as a means of gathering information to investigate an area
ASSESSMENTS
Formative: Anecdotal Discussion: When students are measuring the distance and depth
Observation/Anecdotal of footprints, at the end, ask them what conclusion they came to Are
Self-Assessment footprints closer together when running or walking? Are footprints deeper
Peer Assessment when running or walking? Note any students that are struggling with the
Student/Teacher concept and re-explain it.
conferencing The footprint worksheet will be accepted formatively to ensure that
students understand through observation that footprints become deeper and
farther apart when students are walking.
learned about footprints today, how this knowledge can be used in
investigation, and something else about footprint investigation that they wish
to learn, or something that needs clarification..
LEARNING RESOURCES CONSULTED MATERIALS AND
EQUIPMENT
Learnhistory12. (2011, January 30th). Britains CSI School- Footprints- The Wear interesting shoes that
esqwmLmCs Tape measures
Ansberry, K., & Morgan, E. R. (2010). Picture-perfect science lessons: Using Clipboards
children's books to guide inquiry. NSTA Press. Footprint worksheet
Cue Cards for exit slips
PROCEDURE
Prior to lesson Get clipboards for each pair of students. Ask students if they have a clip board to
bring it that day. If there is snow, we will be making tracks in the snow,
otherwise in sand or dirt.

Introduction Time
Attention Grabber - Put on interesting shoes, and ask class if there is
- After they guess shoes, take them off and look at them and
bring out your normal pair of shoes and ask the class how
would the footprints of these two shoes look different.
- Ask them to compare shoes to their neighbors and 10 min
discuss how this would impact the differences of foot
prints
- Ask some students to share differences between shoes
and the shoe print they would make, in front of the class

Assessment of Prior - Ask Where may you see footprints? (look for answers
Knowledge such as in the snow, mud, sand etc)
- Ask How can you used footprints to solve problems?
(look for answers such as to help figure out which people
were at a crime, to help find someone who is lost) 10 min
- Show the video about CSI footprints
you run compared to walk?

## Expectations for - Initially students will be sitting quietly at tables.

Learning and - We will be going outside to look at our footprints in the
Behavior snow, dirt or sand.
- Students will walk quietly to get outside and then will
meet with the teacher when required.
- Students are required to stay in the same area as the
10 min
teacher, as we will be referring back to each other
frequently.
- Before going outside, ask students to brainstorm ideas
how behavior should be when working outside
- Compile a list and write it on the chalk board for everyone
to see.
Advance - Students will begin in classroom, eventually students will
Organizer/Agenda be going outside.
- Make sure that bag of supplies containing clipboards, tape
measures and rules are brought outside.
Transition to Body - Explain the instructions: I will be splitting you into 4
groups, based on the colour of assignment sheet. When we
get outside, stand by your group
- Ask students to go to their lockers and put on jackets and
get whatever they need to go outside and to come back
and form a line to walk outside.
10 min
- Break students into 4 groups based on colour of
assignment paper, hand out the papers and clipboards
when the students are in a line ready to go
- Bring tape measures and rulers.
- Walk to the sand pit or fresh snow.

Body Time
Learning Activity #1 Length between walking strides
- Hand out one tape measure and ruler to each group
- Number each student in group 1-5. Number 1s are the first
runners, number 2s and 3s are the measurers, number 4s
and 5s are the recorders.
- Get number 1s to take 4 walking steps starting from a
starting point. Students (2 and 3) measure the distances 10min
between footprints. Students 4 and 5 record the distance
and observations.
- Get number 1 to take 4 running steps, from the same
starting point. Number 4 and 5 now measure distance and
students 2 and 3 record the distance and observations.
- Students can exchange observations back in the classroom
Teacher Notes: Differentiation
Assessments/ - Students with any physical disabilities do not have to be
Differentiation runners if they do not want to.
- Students with a hard time writing do not have to be
recorders, and can switch with another number 3 min
Assessment: Ask the class: How did the distance between
footprints change when someone was walking or running?
How can we used footprints to tell if someone was walking or
running?
Explain: Walking footprints are closer together because the stride
is smaller than when running. Running footprints are farther apart.
Learning Activity #2 Depth of Footprints
- Number 3s are the first runners, number 1s and 2s are the
measurers, number 4s and 5s are the recorders.
- Get number 3s to take 4 walking steps starting from a
starting point. Students (2 and 3) measure the depth
(deepest point) of footprint. Students 4 and 5 record the
10 min
depth and observations.
- Get number 3 to take 4 running steps, from the same
starting point. Number 4 and 5 now measure the deepest
point and students 2 and 3 record the depth and
observations

## Teacher Notes: Differentiation:

Assessments/ - Students with any physical disabilities do not have to be
Differentiation runners if they do not want to.
- Students with a hard time writing do not have to be
recorders, and can switch with another number
3 min
Assessment: Ask the class: How did the deepest point change
when the person was walking or running?
How can this be used to tell if someone was walking or running?
So if someone is running, their footprint will be deeper because
their foot hits the ground harder
Closure Time
Consolidation of - Come back into classroom, let any groups finish gathering
Learning: observations from each other
- Go over the answers to the questions on the Footprint
Analysis form
- Include discussions of how investigators use footprints, to
look for a distinct toe and heel to infer direction, and how
Indigenous Peoples use footprints and animal prints to
track and hunt. 8 min
- Assessment: on an Exit Slip (hand out cue cards), ask
students to write down the following 3 things:
- 1. What they learned about footprints today
- 2. How this knowledge can help recognize a disturbance
or solve a problem.
- 3. What is something else you want to know about
footprint investigation or need clarification on?
Feedback From Based on students responses on exit slip, any information that
Students: needs to clarified can be done so in the next class

Feedback To Students At the end of the lesson, let students know what behavior was
good, and what needs work. Encourage students to look for 0.5 min
footprints while going for a walk or walking home from school
Transition To Next Next lesson we will be using pen ink and hand writing as clues. I
Lesson want you to think about the two clues we looked at already
0.5 min
(footprints and fingerprints) and how these can be used to solve
clues.

Reflections from
the lesson
Name___________________

Date___________________

Footprint Analysis

Walking Running
Distance Distance Measured (cm): Distance Measured (cm):
Between
Footprints
Observations (describe the Observations (describe the
footprints): footprints):

Footprints

## Observations (describe the Observations (describe the

footprints): footprints):

## Conclusion: Here students should write that footprints get farther

apart when someone is running compared to walking. Footprints also
get deeper when someone runs compared to walk.
How can you tell the direction of footprints?

## How can footprints be used in investigations?

How do you think footprints and other animal prints were used in
First Nations culture?