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The methodology of qualitative studies is guided

By the broad qualitative research paradigm, as well as gather the data, manage a growing bulk of collected data,
by a specific philosophical base (see chapter 4) and interpret the meaning of the data. Qualitative
Strategies for methods of sampling, data gathering analysis techniques use words rather than numbers as the
and analyses are not as tightly controlled as those of basis of analysis. However, qualitative researchers need
the quantitative paradigm. Because data analysis the same careful skills in analytical reasoning as those
begins as date are gathered, insights from early data needed for quantitative analysis. In qualitative analysis,
my suggest fruitful methods of sampling, data reasoning flows from concreteness to increasing
gathering or analyses that were not originally abstraction. This reasoning process guides the
planned. In qualitative studies, the researcher is free organization, reduction, and clustering of the findings
to modify the original methodology based on and leads to theoretical explanations. Even though the
these insights. researcher may change data collection or analysis
This chapter allows you to understand the process and strategies during the study, the process is not as
to envision what the experience will be like if you spontaneous and impulsive as one might think. The
conduct a qualitative study. However, we suggest that procedures must be carefully planned.
you seek additional sources of guidance for This chapter begins with a description of some of the
understanding the philosophical base you plan to use. frequently used approaches for collecting and analyzing
as well as the process of collecting and analyzing qualitative data. Next, research methodologies and
qualitative data developing a mentorship with designs of specific approaches are presented. These
someone experienced in the type of qualitative include phenomenology, grounded theory,
analysis you wish to perform is still the most useful ethnographical methodology, historical research
approach to learning these skills (Morse, 1997: methodology, philosophical studies, and critical social
Sandelowski, 1997). theory methodology. The chapter ends with a discussion
The step of the qualitative research process are of issues that are important to qualitative research:
similar to those used in quantitative research, which theoretical frameworks for qualitative studies,
include reviewing the literature, developing a frame researcher- participant relationships, participatory
work developing objectives or questions, and samling research, reflexivity, auditability, and appraisal of
aspects of qualitative studies are explored in the qualitative studies.
chapters that focus on each of these topics. However,
researchers conducting a qualitative study use some DATA COLLECTION METHODS
methods of data collection and analysis that are Because data collection occurs simultaneously with data
unique to qualitative research and will be discussed in analisys in qualitative studies. The process is complex
this chapter. Other methods, similar to quantitative collecting data is not a mechanichal process that can be
methods are applied differently in qualitative studies. completely planned before it is initiated.
Because data analysis occurs concumently with data
collection the researcher is attempting to