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Fuel and cooling system diesel engine

kelompok 12:
042117450000 Istiqlal Sanatu Dzahab

04211745000033 Muhamad Nafi Annur

04211745000034 Anugrah Jessa Menggolo

DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK SISTEM PERKAPALAN

FAKULTAS TEKNOLOGI KELAUTAN

INSTITUT TEKNOLOGI SEPULUH NOPEMBER

SURABAYA
2017
DIESEL FUEL ENGINE SYSTEM

1. Purpose of Fuel Injection System

The performance of diesel engines is heavily influenced by their injection system design. In fact,
the most notable advances achieved in diesel engines resulted directly from superior fuel
injection system designs. While the main purpose of the system is to deliver fuel to the cylinders
of a diesel engine, it is how that fuel is delivered that makes the difference in engine
performance, emissions, and noise characteristics.

Unlike its spark-ignited engine counterpart, the diesel fuel injection system delivers fuel under
extremely high injection pressures. This implies that the system component designs and
materials should be selected to withstand higher stresses in order to perform for extended
durations that match the engines durability targets. Greater manufacturing precision and tight
tolerances are also required for the system to function efficiently. In addition to expensive
materials and manufacturing costs, diesel injection systems are characterized by more intricate
control requirements. All these features add up to a system whose cost may represent as much as
30% of the total cost of the engine.

The main purpose of the fuel injection system is to deliver fuel into the cylinders of an engine. In
order for the engine to effectively make use of this fuel:

1. Fuel must be injected at the proper time, that is, the injection timing must be controlled
and
2. The correct amount of fuel must be delivered to meet power requirement, that is,
injection metering must be controlled.

However, it is still not enough to deliver an accurately metered amount of fuel at the proper time
to achieve good combustion. Additional aspects are critical to ensure proper fuel injection system
performance including:

Fuel atomizationensuring that fuel atomizes into very small fuel particles is a primary
design objective for diesel fuel injection systems. Small droplets ensure that all the fuel
has a chance to vaporize and participate in the combustion process. Any remaining liquid
droplets burn very poorly or are exhausted out of the engine. While modern fuel injection
systems are able to produce fuel atomization characteristics far exceeding what is needed
to ensure complete fuel evaporation during most of the injection process, some injection
system designs may have poor atomization during some brief but critical periods of the
injection phase. The end of the injection process is one such critical period.
Bulk mixingWhile fuel atomization and complete evaporation of fuel is critical,
ensuring that the evaporated fuel has sufficient oxygen during the combustion process is
equally as important to ensure high combustion efficiency and optimum engine
performance. The oxygen is provided by the intake air trapped in the cylinder and a
sufficient amount must be entrained into the fuel jet to completely mixed with the
available fuel during the injection process and ensure complete combustion.
Air utilizationEffective utilization of the air in the combustion chamber is closely tied
to bulk mixing and can be accomplished through a combination of fuel penetration into
the dense air that is compressed in the cylinder and dividing the total injected fuel into a
number of jets. A sufficient number of jets should be provided to entrain as much of
available air as possible while avoiding jet overlap and the production of fuel rich zones
that are oxygen deficient.

2. DIESEL FUEL SYSTEM

The primary job of the diesel fuel system is to inject a precise amount of atomized and pressurized fuel
into each engine cylinder at the precise time. The major parts of the diesel system are the fuel tank, fuel
transfer pump, fuel filters, injection pump, and injection nozzles
Major part of the diesel system

Fuel tank
Place to keep(source) of fuel diesel engine

Fuel filter
To filter impurity material which carried at fuel to avoid more crust on the combustion chamber
and to avoid clogged on pump and nozzle

Fuel filters

Fuel Transfer Pump


The fuel transfer pump is normally used on modern high-speed diesel engines. It can be driven
by either engine or battery voltage. The fuel transfer pump can be located on the outside of the
fuel tank in the supply line, submerged within the fuel tank, or mounted on the backside of the
injection pump. The fuel pump pushes or draws the fuel through the filters where the fuel is
cleaned.

Injection Pump(high pressure pump)


Several types of injection pumps are used on diesel engines. Each has its own unique operating
principles. The primary function of the injection pump is to supply high-pressure fuel for
injection.
Injection Nozzles
A wide variety of injector nozzles are in use today. All are designed to perform the same basic
function which is to spray the fuel in atomized form into the combustion chamber of each
cylinder.
3. Types of Diesel Fuel Injection Systems

Diesels were some of the first engines to receive fuel injection. Although many people consider
diesels to be little more than agrarian chuggers, the fact that they're often used in industrial
settings for hours on end means that cost and public sentiment take a backseat to efficiency,
durability and economy.

Throttle Body Injection

Throttle body injection (TBI) is very similar to carburetion; so similar, in fact, that many throttle
body injection units were actually adapted from gas carburetors. TBI differs from carburetion in
that it uses one or a set of downward-facing injectors to shoot fuel into the engine under pressure
rather than allowing it to be drawn in by engine vacuum. TBI is fairly uncommon on modern
diesel engines, primarily since it doesn't work well with turbocharging and because there were
already better options on the scene when it was developed.

Multipoint Injection

Some industrial diesel engines use multi-point fuel injection (MPI) similar to that used in most
cars. MPI systems utilize a single or dual fuel pumps to feed fuel injectors mounted in the intake
port of the engine. The injectors spray fuel into the engine's intake valves through the intake port.
This design is fairly rare on diesels, primarily since it was developed after the mechanical direct
injection used on most diesels and offers no real advantage for compression-ignition engines.
Direct Injection

Direct injection has been used on diesel engines since the 1950s. These systems use a powerful,
positive displacement fuel pump to pump diesel through injectors mounted directly in the
cylinder. These injectors sit about where the spark plug would be on a gas engine and work well
with diesel engines because they can introduce huge amounts of fuel into the combustion
chamber just as the piston reaches its peak compression. This makes the combustion event much
faster, quieter and more powerful than it would otherwise be. One interesting component that
sets direct injection apart from other types is the fuel pump. A direct injection pump is almost
identical in form and function to a tiny four-stroke engine, but passes liquid diesel fuel instead of
air and fuel. These "positive displacement" pumps develop the very high and stable fuel
pressures needed to inject fuel against the compressive force of a rising piston. Without a
positive displacement pump, the air on top of the rising piston would overcome the fuel pressure
and force air backward into the fuel line.

Common Rail Injection

Common rail injection (CRI) is a combination of both direct injection and multi-port injection.
Like multi-port injection, CRI uses a common fuel rail (reservoir) to feed multiple fuel injectors,
but those injectors are mounted inside of the cylinder-like direct injection. This design gives
engineers the flexibility to control the amount of fuel injected and fuel injection timing with a
computer, an impossible feat for traditional mechanical direct injection that relies only on
injector pump timing to regulate fuel flow. The secret to CDI's success is its single, powerful fuel
pump, which can pressurize the (very thick) fuel rail to more than 23,000 pounds per square
inch.
Cooling system
The purpose of cooling system is reduce heat from engine to avoid over heat on engine
may can make engine breakdown. Generally,diesel engine cooling system have 2 type
cooling system :
1. Liquid(water/coolant) cooling system
2. Air cooling system

Liquid (water/coolant) cooling system

Liquid (water/coolant) cooling system use liquid as media of heat transfer to reduce heat
from engine. The liquid flow to all engine to the absorb heat rejected to environment. Liquid just
cooling the oil of lubricating system which carried heat from engine too.

Major part of liquid cooling system

1. Water pump
To pump the liquid(water/coolant) to all engine
2. Thermostat
Temperature censor which control flow of liquid(water/coolant) to keep engine operate
on temperature with optimum performance.. If the engine too heated the flow of liquid
can be more fast,if the engine too cooled the flow can be slow to keep engine operate at
optimum performance.
3. Radiator
The heat exchanger which reject heat from liquid to environment with ambient air which
blow from fan

At marine liquid (water/coolant) cooling system there are 3 type:


1. A fully closed IC engine cooling system
A schematic of a fully closed internal combustion engine cooling system for ships. 1.
Cooling pipes; filled with chemical cooling substance; fully closed; cooled itself by
seawater. 2. Pump 3. IC engine 4. Outlet pipe for exhaust fumes 5. Clutch

2. Open IC engine cooling system


A schematic of an open internal combustion engine cooling system for ships. 1. Valve 2.
Filter 3. Pump 4. IC engine 5. Clutch 6. Outlet pipe (works as water seal) Note: As visible
in the drawing, coolant water and exhaust fumes are mixed.
3. Semiclosed IC engine cooling system
A schematic of a semi-closed internal combustion engine cooling system for ships. 1.
Valve 2. Pump 3. Filter 4. Cooling pipe; filled with chemical cooling substance; fully
closed; cooled itself by seawater 5. Engine IC 6. Clutch 7. Outlet pipe (works as water
seal) Note: As visible in the drawing, coolant water and exhaust fumes are mixed.
Air cooling system

Air cooling system use direct cooling engine or cooling liquid from liquid cooling
system. Fan or blower use to flow air ambient to cooling engine or liquid