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# CHAPTER 4:

TRIGONOMETRY

## Dr. Nizamuddin Razali

Introduction of Trigonometry
Trigonometry ... is all about triangles.
The name comes from Greek trigonon
"triangle" + metron "measure"
Trigonometry helps us find angles and
distances, and is used a lot in science,
engineering, video games, and more!
Right-Angled Triangle
A right-angled triangle (also called a right
triangle) is a triangle with a right angle (90) in
it.
The little square in the corner tells us it is a
right angled triangle
Right-Angled Triangle
Another angle is often
labeled , and the three
sides are then called:
(next to) the angle
Opposite: opposite
the angle
and the longest side is
the Hypotenuse
Sine, Cosine and Tangent
The main functions in trigonometry are Sine, Cosine and
Tangent
They are often shortened to sin, cos and tan.
For any angle "":
Sine, Cosine and Tangent

## Example: what are the sine, cosine and tangent of 30 ?

Sine, Cosine and Tangent
Example: What is the sine of 35?
Sine, Cosine and Tangent
Example: What is the missing height
here?
Less Common Functions
To complete the picture, there are 3 other functions where
we divide one side by another, but they are not so commonly
used.
They are equal to 1 divided by cos, 1 divided by sin, and 1
divided by tan:
Try Sin Cos and Tan
Play with this for a while and get familiar with
values of sine, cosine and tangent for different
angles, such as 0, 30, 45, 60 and 90.

## Also try 120, 135, 180, 240, 270 etc, and

notice that positions can be positive or
negative by the rules of Cartesian coordinates,
so the sine, cosine and tangent change between
positive and negative also.
Menentukan Nilai Perbandingan Trigonometri untuk Sudut Khusus

## Sudut Khusus (sering pula disebut sebagai sudut istimewa) adalah

suatu sudut di mana nilai perbandingan trigonometrinya dapat
ditentukan secara langsung tanpa menggunakan daftar trigonometri
atau kalkulator.
Sudut-sudut khusus : 0, 30 , 45 , 60 , dan 90 .

Lingkaran Satuan
y
a) sin = PP
OP = 1 =
y,

b) cos = OP = x = x, dan
OP 1
y
c) tan = PP = x , dengan catatan x 0

OP

Nilai Perbandingan Trigonometri untuk Sudut 0

a) sin 0 = Y = 0

b) cos 0 = 1, dan
P(1,0)

c) tan 0 = sin 0 = 0 = 0 0 1 x
cos 0 1
Values of Trigonometric function

In degree () 0 30 45 60 90
Sine 0 0.5 1/2 3/2 1

## Cotangent Not defined 3 1 1/ 3 0

Perbandingan Trigonometri Sudut-sudut di Semua Kuadran

Y A

P(x,y)

y (tentang)

0 x (sebelah) x

a) sin = = y
jarak r tentang

b) cos = = r =
x
tentang
jarak

## tentang y f) cosec = jarak

c) tan = = = r
sebelah x tentang y
Tanda-Tanda Perbandingan Trigonometri Sudut-Sudut di

II I
sin, positif semua positif
cosec, positif

0 X
III IV
tan, positif cos, positif
cot, positif sec, positif

Sin (+) y Semua (+)

## sin (1800 ) = sin sin (900 ) = cos

cos (1800 ) = cos cos (900 ) = Sin
tan (1800 ) = tan tan (900 ) = Cotan

x
sin (1800 + ) = sin sin (3600 ) = sin
cos (1800 + ) = cos cos (3600 ) = cos
tan (1800 + ) = tan tan (3600 ) = tan

tan (+) Cos (+)
5
maka nilai dari cos adalah ....
3

A 5

B 1
4
C
5
4
D
5
E 1
Unit Circle
What you just played with is the Unit Circle.
It is a circle with a radius of 1 with its center at
0.
Because the radius is 1, we can directly measure
sine, cosine and tangent.
And now you know why
the circle.
degrees
Let us see why 1 Radian is equal
to 57.2958... degrees:
In a half circle there are
= 57.2958...
To go from radians to degrees:
multiply by 180, divide by
To go from degrees to radians:
multiply by , divide by 180
Angles can be in Degrees or Radians. Here are
some examples:
Right Angle 90 /2
__ Straight Angle 180
Full Rotation 360 2
Repeating Pattern
Because the angle is rotating around and around the circle the
Sine, Cosine and Tangent functions repeat once every full
rotation
When we want to calculate the function for an angle larger
than a full rotation of 360 (2 radians) we subtract as many
full rotations as needed to bring it back below 360
Example: what is the cosine of 370?
370 is greater than 360 so let us subtract 360
370 360 = 10
cos(370) = cos(10) = 0.985 (to 3 decimal places)
Repeating Pattern
And when the angle is less than zero, just add full rotations.
Example: what is the sine of 3 radians?
3 + 2 = 3 + 6.283... = 3.283... Radians
sin(3) = sin(3.283...) = 0.141 (to 3 decimal places)
Trigonometric Identities
The Trigonometric Identities are equations that are true for
Right Angled Triangles
Sine, Cosine and Tangent
When we divide Sine by Cosine we get:
sin() Opposite/Hypotenuse Opposite
tan()
sin()
tan()= [our first Trigonometric Identity]
cos()
cos()
cot()=
sin()
Trigonometric Identities
Pythagoras Theorem
The Pythagorean Theorem says that, in a right triangle, the square of a
plus the square of b is equal to the square of c:
a2 + b 2 = c 2
Dividing through by c2 gives
a2/c2 + b2/c2 = c2/c2
This can be simplified to:
(a/c)2 + (b/c)2 = 1
Now, a/c is Opposite / Hypotenuse, which is sin()
and b/c is Adjacent / Hypotenuse, which is cos()
So (a/c)2 + (b/c)2 = 1 can also be written:
sin2 + cos2 = 1
Note:
sin2 means to find the sine of , then square the result, and
sin 2 means to square , then do the sine function
Trigonometric Identities
Pythagoras Theorem
a2 + b2 = c2
Dividing through by b2 gives
a2/b2 + b2/b2 = c2/b2
This can be simplified to:
(a/b)2 + 1 = (c/b)2
Now, a/b is Opposite / adjacent, which is tan()
and c/b is Hypotenuse/ adjacent, which is sec()
So (a/b)2 + 1= (c/b)2 can also be written:
tan2 + 1 = sec2
Trigonometric Identities
Pythagoras Theorem
a2 + b2 = c2
Dividing through by a2 gives
a2/a2 + b2/a2 = c2/a2
This can be simplified to:
1 + (b/a)2 = (c/a)2
Now, b/a is Adjacent / Opposite, which is cot()
and c/a is Hypotenuse/ Opposite, which is cosec()
So 1+ (b/a)2 = (c/a)2 can also be written:
1 + cot2 = cosec2
sin2 + cos2 = 1
1 cos2 = sin2
1 sin2 = cos2

tan2 + 1 = sec2
sec2 - tan2 = 1
sec2 - 1 = tan2

cot2 + 1 = cosec2
cosec2 - cot2 = 1
cosec2 - 1 = cot2
28
Identiti-identiti trigonometri:

## Rumus trigonometri untuk dua sudut:

1. Sin Sin Cos Cos Sin
5. Tan Tan
2.
Sin ( ) Sin Cos Cos Sin Tan
1 Tan Tan
3. Cos Cos Cos Sin Sin Tan Tan
6. Tan
4. Cos( ) Cos Cos Sin Sin 1 Tan Tan

## Rumus trigonometri untuk satu sudut:

1. Sin2 2 Sin Cos

## 2. Cos2 Cos 2 Sin 2

2Tan
3. Tan 2
1 Tan2
Yang dimaksud dengan sudut pertengahan adalah sudut
trigonometri di sebelah kiri dari sudut trigonometri di
sebelah kanan, dalam hal ini sudutnya .
Solving a Problem with
the Tangent Ratio
We know the angle and the
side adjacent to 60. We want to
know the opposite side. Use the
tangent ratio:

h=? opp h
tan 60

2
60
3 h
53 ft
1

1 53
h 53 3 92 ft
Application: Height

## To establish the height of a

building, a person walks 120
ft away from the building.
At that point an angle of
elevation of 32 is formed
when looking at the top of
the building.
h=?

32
120 ft
h = 74.98 ft
36
Application: Height

68
An observer on top of a hill
measures an angle of
depression of 68 when
looking at a truck parked in
h=?
the valley below.
If the truck is 55 ft from the
base of the hill, how high is
the hill?

55 ft
h = 136.1 ft
37
Applications of Trigonometry

## This field of mathematics can be

music theory, acoustics, optics, analysis
of financial markets, electronics,
probability theory, statistics, biology,
medical imaging (CAT scans and
ultrasound), pharmacy, chemistry,
number theory (and hence
cryptology), seismology, meteorology,
oceanography, many physical
sciences, land surveying and geodesy,
architecture, phonetics, economics,
electrical engineering, mechanical
engineering, civil engineering,
computer graphics, cartography,
crystallography and game
development.
Applications of Trigonometry in Astronomy

## Since ancient times trigonometry was

used in astronomy.
The technique of triangulation is used
to measure the distance to nearby
stars.
In 240 B.C., a mathematician named
the Earth using trigonometry and
geometry.
In 2001, a group of European
astronomers did an experiment that
started in 1997 about the distance of
Venus from the Sun. Venus was about
105,000,000 kilometers away from the
Sun .
Application of Trigonometry in Architecture

## Many modern buildings have

beautifully curved surfaces.
Making these curves out of steel,
stone, concrete or glass is extremely
difficult, if not impossible.
One way around to address this
problem is to piece the surface
together out of many flat panels,
each sitting at an angle to the one
next to it, so that all together they
create what looks like a curved
surface.
The more regular these shapes, the
easier the building process.
Exercise 1:

## (a) sin a (d) cosec a

(b) cos a (e) sec a
(c) tan a (f) cot a

## 3. Berdasarkan segitiga tepat dalam

gambar di sebelah, tentukan nilai panjang
bagi BC?

## 5. Cari nilai tan ACB ?

Exercise 2:

1. Diketahui tan = 5 , apabila berada di kuadran III, maka nilai sin ?
12
2. Diketahui segitiga ABC berada pada koordinat A(3, 1), B(5,2), dan C(1, 5),
maka nilai sudut BAC ?

## 3. Nyatakan nilai bagi trigonometri dibawah dan ianya berada di kuandran

mana?, bagi setiap soalan berikut:

## (a) cos 50 (b) sin 5 (c) tan 125 (d) cot(-17 )

6
(f) csc 7

(e) Sec (g) sin 247 (h) cos (-119 )
6 6
4. Dengan menggunakan sudut rujukan, cari nilai bagi sin , cos , tan , csc
, sec dan cot ?

3 6
Exercise 3:

## 1. Using trigonometry identities, simplfy each:

(a) 1 sin
2
(b) 1 + 1 (c) (1 tan 2 x ) cos x
1 sin 1 sin x 1 sin x

## 2. Prove or verify using trigonometry identities:

sin x 1 cos x
(a) = (b) sin x cot x cos x
1 cos x sin x

3. Let and be two angles in quadrant III and IV respectively such that
4 8
sin and cos . Find the values of the following:
5 17
(a) sin( ) (b) sin( ) (c) cos( ) (d) cos( )
(e) tan( ) (f) tan( )
Exercise 4:

1. Prove that:

## (a) sin x sin 3x (b) sin 5 x sin 3x

cot x tan x
cos x cos 3x cos 5 x cos 3 x
Exercise 4:

1. Let and be two angles in quadrant III and IV respectively such that
4 8
sin and cos . Find the values of the following:
5 17
(a) sin( )
(b) sin( )
(c) cos( )
(d) cos( )
(e) tan( )

(f) tan( )
Exercise 5:

1. Prove that:

cot x
(sin x sin(2 x))
Thank you