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Annotated Bibliography

1. The citation guide that I will be using for my sources in the proposal is APA formatting, which

will be most commonly used in my future profession.

Economic & Social Research Council. (2011, May 19). Teachers need greater awareness of

language disorders, research finds. ScienceDaily. Retrieved November 13, 2017 from


This article discusses the importance of teachers being aware of the difficulties that

students with SPI face, that is, Specific Language Impairment. This disorder deals specifically

with language, and kids who have trouble with their language in turn have trouble learning,

especially in higher education. Without intervention, these children go on to have difficulty

obtaining a good education, which in turn effects their future job outlook as well as their social

skills throughout life. It claims that teachers need to be made aware of this disorder in order to

expose them to the difficulties that these children face in the classroom, as according to the

article, 50 to 90 percent of these children will never be able to reach typical levels of language

use. The article goes on to say that teachers who are aware of the difficulties that this impairment

entails can then learn techniques to help the child with SPI learn more effectively.

Nungesser, N. R., & Watkins, R. V. (2005). Preschool Teachers Perceptions and Reactions to

Challenging Classroom Behavior. Language Speech and Hearing Services in Schools,

36(2), 139. doi:10.1044/0161-1461(2005/013)

This article discusses how speech language pathologists could be of use in the classroom

by helping teachers in their interventions with students who have behavioral issues related to

their communication disorders. The study conducted researches 45 head preschool teachers, who
participated in a survey which yielded results that stated that the most disruptive classroom

behaviors were aggressive behaviors. It also stated the manners in which they tend to deal with

this behavior, which included time outs, restraints, and withdrawal from classroom activities. It

went on to state that most teachers reported that they felt the child's home environment was a key

factor as to why these children behaved the way that they did. The goal of the research was for

speech language pathologists to figure out the best way in which to train educators on how to

effectively deal with these behaviors, including the use of language and talking about the

behavior rather than disciplining the child and stated that awareness of communication disorders

needed to be promoted so that teachers better understand how to deal with these problems.

Marshall, J., Stojanovik, V., & Ralph, S. (2002). I never even gave it a second thought: PGCE

students attitudes towards the inclusion of children with speech and language

impairments. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 37(4), 475-

489. doi:10.1080/1368282021000008892

The goal of this study was to try to get an understanding of teacher's attitudes in regards

to children with communication disorders and how this in turn would affect their teaching style

towards that particular child as well as the speech language pathologist's role in trying to help the

child. This study was conducted by researching teachers who were in training and asking them

certain questions about a child with a language impairment, including their perceptions on how

the child's language disorder would affect their teaching environment, whether they would feel

comfortable teaching the child, and how the child would behave and be treated by their peers.

Most of the answers in the study were of negative connotation, with one person even stating that

the child with the language disorder, the peers, and himself were all at a disadvantage by having
the child in the class. This study concludes with a look at how the lack of desire of these trainees

to educate children with language impairments brings to light the question of whether students

with language impairments should be incorporated into mainstream education systems, and if

they are, teachers would need additional training in order to be aware of the effects of language

impairments in order to successfully educate these children.

Adams, C., & Lloyd, J. (2008). The effects of speech and language therapy intervention on

children with pragmatic language impairments in mainstream school. British Journal of

Special Education, 34(4), 226-233. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8578.2007.00483.x

The main goal of this study was to observe the results yielded from the speech

pathologist's extreme intervention of children with PLI, that is Pragmatic Language Intervention.

However, the study relates to educators in that the educators as well as parents took place in the

study by answering questionnaires prior to, during, and after the intervention therapy. The reason

that they were a part of the study was because, as according to the study, they are the people who

are in the child's immediate environment. This meaning that they are the people who interact

with the child on a day to day basis and will be able to see the most rewards from the

intervention besides the children themselves. Included in the teacher's reports were that they felt

actively involved in the intervention, that they felt that they gained skills by being part of the

intervention, felt that they had changed their approach according to the child's learning style, and

that the gains made in the child's progress were reflected in the school environment.
Overby, M., Carrell, T., & Bernthal, J. (2007). Teachers Perceptions of Students With Speech

Sound Disorders: A Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis. Language Speech and

Hearing Services in Schools, 38(4), 327. doi:10.1044/0161-1461(2007/035)

This study was different from the other studies in that it included a great deal of

quantitative calculations. The study had second grade teachers listen to students that had speech

sound disorders, the students being those that they would not recognize. They then separated the

teacher's perceptions of these students according to qualities such as pitch, intelligibility level,

and order of sentence presentation. For the qualitative part of the study, teachers were asked a

series of questions, some of which included what was your overall impression of the child as

well as what would you project regarding his or her experience in school. Based on this data, the

study provided results which yielded the conclusion that teachers have a more negative view on

children with speech sound disorders than students without speech sound disorders. This then

affected the teacher's perception of the child's academic status, behavioral status, and social

status. The research concluded with the fact that speech language pathologists need to make

teachers better aware of students with speech language disorders and the difficulties that they

may entail.

Fogle, P. T. (2013). Essentials of Communication Sciences & Disorders (1st ed., Vol. 1). Clifton

Park, NY: Delmar, Cengage Learning.

This book offers a multitude of facts on a variety of speech language pathology disorders,

including their etiologies, the anatomy and physiology affected, the emotional, social, and

multicultural aspects of the disorders, and the treatment plan, which always includes a team

approach. This team can include doctors, nurses, teachers, speech pathologists, parents, and most
importantly the patient themselves. This book is important to my research because it can offer

me a variety of perspectives and variables of a certain speech or language disorder that the

speech pathologist especially needs to be aware of, but also certain perspectives and variables

that the educator may also need to be made aware of. While it does not directly conduct research

on teacher's inability to recognize speech language disorders, it does offer a considerable amount

of information on how speech pathologists are made aware of speech language disorders as well

as the speech language pathologists role in treating the student or patient with the disorder, which

could then be used to train the teacher with.