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Toll road
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A toll road, also known as a turnpike or tollway, is a public or private roadway for which a fee (or toll) is assessed for
passage. It is a form of road pricing typically implemented to help recoup the cost of road construction and maintenance.

Toll roads in some form have existed since antiquity, collecting their fees from passing travellers on foot, wagon or
horseback; but their prominence increased with the rise of the automobile, and many modern tollways charge fees for
motor vehicles exclusively. The amount of the toll usually varies by vehicle type, weight, or number of axles, with freight
trucks often charged higher rates than cars.

Tolls are collected at points known as toll booths, toll houses, plazas, stations, bars, or gates. Some toll collection points are A high-speed toll booth on SR 417 near
unmanned and the user deposits money in a machine which opens the gate once the correct toll has been paid. To cut costs Orlando, Florida, United States.
and minimise time delay many tolls today are collected by some form of automatic or electronic toll collection equipment
which communicates electronically with a toll payer's transponder. Some electronic toll roads also maintain a system of toll
booths so people without transponders can still pay the toll, but many newer roads now use automatic number plate
recognition to bill drivers who use the road without a transponder, and some older toll roads are being upgraded with such

Criticisms of toll roads include the time taken to stop and pay the toll, and the cost of the toll booth operatorsup to about
one third of revenue in some cases. Automated toll paying systems help minimise both of these. Others object to paying
"twice" for the same road: in fuel taxes and with tolls.
A toll collection area in the United
In addition to toll roads, toll bridges and toll tunnels are also used by public authorities to generate funds to repay the cost Kingdom.
of building the structures. Some tolls are set aside to pay for future maintenance or enhancement of infrastructure, or are
applied as a general fund by local governments, not being earmarked for transport facilities. This is sometimes limited or
prohibited by central government legislation. Also road congestion pricing schemes have been implemented in a limited
number of urban areas as a transportation demand management tool to try to reduce traffic congestion and air pollution.[1]

1 History
1.1 Ancient times
Hong Kong toll booth.
1.2 Middle ages
1.3 20th century
1.4 21st century
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1.5 United Kingdom turnpikes

1.6 Toll roads elsewhere
2 Charging methods
3 Collection methods
4 Financing and management
5 Criticism
6 See also
7 References
8 External links

Ancient times

Toll roads have existed for at least the last 2,700 years, as tolls had to be paid by travellers using the SusaBabylon
highway under the regime of Ashurbanipal, who reigned in the 7th century BC.[2] Aristotle and Pliny refer to tolls in
Arabia and other parts of Asia. In India, before the 4th century BC, the Arthashastra notes the use of tolls. Germanic tribes
charged tolls to travellers across mountain passes.

Middle ages

A 14th-century example (though not for a road) is Castle Loevestein in the Netherlands, which was built at a strategic point
where two rivers meet. River tolls were charged on boats sailing along the river. The resund in Scandinavia was once
subject to a toll to the Danish Monarch, which once provided a sizable portion of the king's revenue.

Many modern European roads were originally constructed as toll roads in order to recoup the costs of construction,
maintenance and as a source of tax money that is paid primarily by someone other than the local residents. In 14th-century
England, some of the most heavily used roads were repaired with money raised from tolls by pavage grants. Widespread
toll roads sometimes restricted traffic so much, by their high tolls, that they interfered with trade and cheap transportation
needed to alleviate local famines or shortages.[3] A table of tolls in pre-decimal currency
for the College Road, Dulwich, London
Tolls were used in the Holy Roman Empire in the 14th and 15th centuries. SE21 tollgate.

20th century

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In the 20th century, road tolls were introduced in Europe to finance the construction of motorway networks and specific transport infrastructure such as bridges
and tunnels. Italy was the first European country to charge motorway tolls, on a 50 km motorway section near Milan in 1924. It was followed by Greece, which
made users pay for the network of motorways around and between its cities in 1927. Later in the 1950s and 1960s, France, Spain and Portugal started to build
motorways largely with the aid of concessions, allowing rapid development of this infrastructure without massive State debts. Since then, road tolls have been
introduced in the majority of the EU Member States.[4]

In the United States, prior to the introduction of the Interstate Highway System and the large federal grants supplied to states to build it, many states constructed
their first controlled-access highways by floating bonds backed by toll revenues. Starting with the Pennsylvania Turnpike in 1940, and followed by similar roads in
New Jersey (Garden State Parkway (1946) and New Jersey Turnpike, 1952), New York (New York State Thruway, 1954), Massachusetts (Massachusetts Turnpike,
1957), and others, numerous states throughout the 1950s established major toll roads. With the establishment of the Interstate Highway System in the late 1950s,
toll road construction in the U.S. slowed down considerably, as the federal government now provided the bulk of funding to construct new freeways, and
regulations required that such Interstate highways be free from tolls. Many older toll roads were added to the Interstate System under a grandfather clause that
allowed tolls to continue to be collected on toll roads that predated the system. Some of these such as the Connecticut Turnpike and the RichmondPetersburg
Turnpike later removed their tolls when the initial bonds were paid off. Many states, however, have maintained the tolling of these roads, however, as a consistent
source of revenue.

As the Interstate Highway System approached completion during the 1980s, states began constructing toll roads again to provide new controlled-access highways
which were not part of the original interstate system funding. Houston's outer beltway of interconnected toll roads began in 1983, and many states followed over
the last two decades of the 20th century adding new toll roads, including the tollway system around Orlando, Florida, Colorado's E-470, and Georgia State Route

21st century

London, in an effort to reduce traffic within the city, instituted the London congestion charge in 2003, effectively making all roads within the city tolled.

In the United States, as states looked for ways to construct new freeways without federal funding again, to raise revenue for continued road maintenance, and to
control congestion, new toll road construction saw significant increases during the first two decades of the 21st century. Spurred on by two innovations, the
electronic toll collection system, and the advent of high occupancy and express lane tolls, many areas of the U.S saw large road building projects in major urban
areas. Electronic toll collection, first introduced in the 1980s, reduces operating costs by removing toll collectors from roads. Tolled express lanes, by which
certain lanes of a freeway are designated "toll only", increases revenue by allowing a free-to-use highway collect revenue by allowing drivers to bypass traffic
jams by paying a toll. The E-ZPass system, compatible with many state systems, is the largest ETC system in the U.S., and is used for both fully tolled highways
and tolled express lanes. Maryland Route 200 and the Triangle Expressway in North Carolina were the first toll roads built without toll booths, with drivers
charged via ETC or by optical license plate recognition and are billed by mail.

United Kingdom turnpikes

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Turnpike trusts were established in England and Wales from about 1706 in response to the need for better roads than the
few and poorly-maintained tracks then available. Turnpike trusts were set up by individual Acts of Parliament, with powers
to collect road tolls to repay loans for building, improving, and maintaining the principal roads in Britain. At their peak, in
the 1830s, over 1,000 trusts[5] administered around 30,000 miles (48,000 km) of turnpike road in England and Wales,
taking tolls at almost 8,000 toll-gates.[6] The trusts were ultimately responsible for the maintenance and improvement of
most of the main roads in England and Wales, which were used to distribute agricultural and industrial goods economically.
The tolls were a source of revenue for road building and maintenance, paid for by road users and not from general taxation.
The turnpike trusts were gradually abolished from the 1870s. Most trusts improved existing roads, but some new roads,
usually only short stretches, were also built. Thomas Telford's Holyhead road followed Watling Street from London but
was exceptional in creating a largely new route beyond Shrewsbury, and especially beyond Llangollen. Built in the early
19th century, with many toll booths along its length, most of it is now the A5. In the modern day, one major toll road is the
19th-century toll booth in Brooklyn,
M6 Toll, relieving traffic congestion on the M6 in Birmingham.
New York

Toll roads elsewhere

Some cities in Canada had toll roads in the 19th century. Roads radiating from Toronto required users to pay at toll gates
along the street (Yonge Street, Bloor Street, Davenport Road, Kingston Road)[7] and disappeared after 1895.[8]

19th-century plank roads were usually operated as toll roads. One of the first U.S. motor roads, the Long Island Motor
Parkway (which opened on October 10, 1908) was built by William Kissam Vanderbilt II, the great-grandson of Cornelius
Vanderbilt. The road was closed in 1938 when it was taken over by the state of New York in lieu of back taxes.[9][10]
Toll bar in Romania, 1877
Charging methods
Road tolls were levied traditionally for a specific access (e.g. city) or for a specific infrastructure (e.g. roads, bridges).
These concepts were widely used until the last century. However, the evolution in technology made it possible to
implement road tolling policies based on different concepts. The different charging concepts are designed to suit different
requirements regarding purpose of the charge, charging policy, the network to the charge, tariff class differentiation etc.:[11]

Time Based Charges and Access Fees: In a time-based charging regime, a road user has to pay for a given period of time
in which they may use the associated infrastructure. For the practically identical access fees, the user pays for the access to
a restricted zone for a period or several days.

Motorway and other Infrastructure Tolling: The term tolling is used for charging a well-defined special and Plaque commemorating the suppression
comparatively costly infrastructure, like a bridge, a tunnel, a mountain pass, a motorway concession or the whole of toll on a York bridge in 1914.
motorway network of a country. Classically a toll is due when a vehicle passes a tolling station, be it a manual barrier-
controlled toll plaza or a free-flow multi-lane station.
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Distance or Area Charging: In a distance or area charging system concept, vehicles are charged per total distance driven in a defined area.

Some toll roads charge a toll in only one direction. Examples include the Sydney Harbour Bridge, Sydney Harbour Tunnel and Eastern Distributor (these all
charge tolls city-bound) in Australia, the Severn Bridges where the M4 and M48 in Great Britain crosses the River Severn, in the United States, crossings between
Pennsylvania and New Jersey operated by Delaware River Port Authority, crossings between New Jersey and New York operated by Port Authority of New York
and New Jersey, and in Hong Kong, the Lantau Link, which is the only vehicular access between Lantau Island and the rest of Hong Kong. This technique is
practical where the detour to avoid the toll is large or the toll differences are small.

Collection methods

Traditionally tolls were paid by hand at a toll gate. Although payments may still be made in cash, it is more common now
to pay by credit card, by pre-paid card, or by an electronic toll collection system. In some places, payment is made using
stickers which are affixed to the windscreen.

Three systems of toll roads exist: open (with mainline barrier toll plazas); closed (with entry/exit tolls) and open road (no
toll booths, only electronic toll collection gantries at entrances and exits, or at strategic locations on the mainline of the
road). Modern toll roads often use a combination of the three, with various entry and exit tolls supplemented by occasional
mainline tolls: for example the Pennsylvania Turnpike and the New York State Thruway implement both systems in
different sections. Balintawak toll plaza of the North
Luzon Expressway in Caloocan,
On an open toll system, all vehicles stop at various locations along the highway to pay a toll. (Not to be confused with Philippines. The toll barrier has both
"open road tolling", where no vehicles stop to pay toll.) While this may save money from the lack of need to construct toll electronic toll collection and cash
booths at every exit, it can cause traffic congestion while traffic queues at the mainline toll plazas (toll barriers). It is also payment in the same barrier.
possible for motorists to enter an 'open toll road' after one toll barrier and exit before the next one, thus travelling on the
toll road toll-free. Most open toll roads have ramp tolls or partial access junctions to prevent this practice, known in the
U.S. as "shunpiking".

With a closed system, vehicles collect a ticket when entering the highway. In some cases, the ticket displays the toll to be paid on exit. Upon exit, the driver must
pay the amount listed for the given exit. Should the ticket be lost, a driver must typically pay the maximum amount possible for travel on that highway. Short toll
roads with no intermediate entries or exits may have only one toll plaza at one end, with motorists traveling in either direction paying a flat fee either when they
enter or when they exit the toll road. In a variant of the closed toll system, mainline barriers are present at the two endpoints of the toll road, and each interchange
has a ramp toll that is paid upon exit or entry. In this case, a motorist pays a flat fee at the ramp toll and another flat fee at the end of the toll road; no ticket is
necessary. In addition, with most systems, motorists may only pay tolls with cash and/or change; debit and credit cards are not accepted. However, some toll roads
may have travel plazas with ATMs so motorists can stop and withdraw cash for the tolls.
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The toll is calculated by the distance travelled on the toll road or the specific exit chosen. In the United States, for instance,
the Kansas Turnpike, Ohio Turnpike, Pennsylvania Turnpike, New Jersey Turnpike, most of the Indiana Toll Road, New
York State Thruway, and Florida's Turnpike currently implement closed systems.

The Union Toll Plaza on the Garden State Parkway was the first ever to use an automated toll collection machine. A plaque
commemorating the event includes the first quarter collected at its toll booths.[12]

The first major deployment of an RFID electronic toll collection system in the United States was on the Dallas North
Tollway in 1989 by Amtech (see TollTag). The Amtech RFID technology used on the Dallas North Tollway was originally The open road tolling lanes at the West
developed at Sandia Labs for use in tagging and tracking livestock. In the same year, the Telepass active transponder RFID 163rd Street toll plaza, on the Tri-State
system was introduced across Italy. Tollway near Markham, Illinois, United
Highway 407 in the province of Ontario, Canada, has no toll booths, and instead reads a transponder mounted on the
windshields of each vehicle using the road (the rear licence plates of vehicles lacking a transponder are photographed when
they enter and exit the highway). This made the highway the first all-automated toll highway in the world. A bill is mailed
monthly for usage of the 407. Lower charges are levied on frequent 407 users who carry electronic transponders in their
vehicles. The approach has not been without controversy: In 2003 the 407 ETR settled[13] a class action with a refund to

Throughout most of the East Coast of the United States, E-ZPass (operated under the brand I-Pass in Illinois) is accepted
on almost all toll roads. Similar systems include SunPass in Florida, FasTrak in California, Good to Go in Washington
State, and ExpressToll in Colorado. The systems use a small radio transponder mounted in or on a customer's vehicle to
deduct toll fares from a pre-paid account as the vehicle passes through the toll barrier. This reduces manpower at toll Overhead cameras and reader attach to
booths and increases traffic flow and fuel efficiency by reducing the need for complete stops to pay tolls at these locations. gantry on Highway 407 in Ontario.

By designing a tollgate specifically for electronic collection, it is possible to carry out open-road tolling, where the
customer does not need to slow at all when passing through the tollgate. The U.S. state of Texas is testing a system on a
stretch of Texas 121 that has no toll booths. Drivers without a TollTag have their license plate photographed automatically
and the registered owner will receive a monthly bill, at a higher rate than those vehicles with TollTags.[14]

The first all-electric toll road in the eastern United States, the InterCounty Connector (Maryland Route 200) was partially
opened to traffic in February 2011,[15] and the final segment was completed in November 2014.[16] The first section of
another all-electronic toll road, the Triangle Expressway, opened at the beginning of 2012 in North Carolina.[17] E-ZPass lanes at a New Jersey Turnpike
(I-95) Toll Gate for Exit 8A in Monroe
Financing and management Township, New Jersey, United States

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Some toll roads are managed under such systems as the Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) system. Private companies build the roads and are given a limited
franchise. Ownership is transferred to the government when the franchise expires. This type of arrangement is prevalent in Australia, Canada, Hong Kong, India,
South Korea, Japan and the Philippines. The BOT system is a fairly new concept that is gaining ground in the United States, with California, Delaware, Florida,
Illinois, Indiana, Mississippi,[18] Texas, and Virginia already building and operating toll roads under this scheme. Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, New Jersey, and
Tennessee are also considering the BOT methodology for future highway projects.

The more traditional means of managing toll roads in the United States is through semi-autonomous public authorities. Kansas, Maryland, Massachusetts, New
Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia manage their toll roads in this manner. While most of the
toll roads in California, Delaware, Florida, Texas, and Virginia are operating under the BOT arrangement, a few of the older toll roads in these states are still
operated by public authorities.

In France, all toll roads are operated by private companies, and the government takes a part of their profit.

Toll roads have been criticized as being inefficient in various ways:[19]

1. They require vehicles to stop or slow down (except open road tolling); manual toll collection wastes time and raises vehicle operating costs.
2. Collection costs can absorb up to one-third of revenues, and revenue theft is considered to be comparatively easy.
3. Where the tolled roads are less congested than the parallel "free" roads, the traffic diversion resulting from the tolls increases congestion on the road system
and reduces its usefulness.
4. By tracking the vehicle locations, their drivers are subject to an effectual restriction of their freedom of movement and freedom from excessive surveillance.

A number of additional criticisms are also directed at toll roads in general:

1. Toll roads are a form of regressive taxation; that is, compared to conventional taxes for funding roads, they benefit wealthier citizens more than poor
2. If toll roads are owned or managed by private entities, the citizens may lose money overall compared to conventional public funding because the private
owners/operators of the toll system will naturally seek to profit from the roads.[22]
3. The managing entities, whether public or private, may not correctly account for the overall social costs, particularly to the poor, when setting pricing and
thus may hurt the neediest segments of society.[23]

See also
List of toll roads
Automobile costs
Barrier toll system

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High-occupancy toll lane

Private highway
Shadow toll
Shunpiking, the practice of avoiding turnpikes
Toll house
Toll roads around the world
Turnpike trusts - England and Wales

1. "Road Pricing Defined" (http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/ipd/revenue/road_pricing/defined/). Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
2. Gilliet, Henri (1990). "Toll roads-the French experience." Transrouts International, Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines.
3. Bernstein, William J.; "The Birth of Plenty: How the Prosperity of the Modern World was Created"; p. 245-6; McGraw-Hill (2010); ISBN 978-0071747042
4. Jordi, Philipp (2008): "Institutional Aspects of Directive 2004/52/EC on the Interoperability of Electronic Road Toll Systems in the Community."
Europainstitut der Universitt Basel.
5. Parliamentary Papers, 1840, Vol 280 xxvii.
6. Searle 1930, p. 798.
7. "Toronto.ca" (http://www.toronto.ca/archives/toronto_history_faqs.htm). Retrieved 19 September 2014.
8. "Lostrivers.ca" (http://www.lostrivers.ca/points/earlyrds.htm). Retrieved 19 September 2014.
9. Patton, Phil (2008-10-12). "A 100-Year-Old Dream: A Road Just for Cars" (https://www.nytimes.com/2008/10/12/automobiles/12LIMP.html). The New York
Times. Retrieved 2010-03-27.
10. "BBS.keyhole.com" (http://bbs.keyhole.com/ubb/ubbthreads.php?ubb=showflat&Number=1249017&site_id=1#import). Retrieved 19 September 2014.
11. Oehry, Bernhard (2004): Tolling with Satellites a System Concept for Everybody?" in: Jordi, Philipp (2008): "Institutional Aspects of Directive
2004/52/EC on the Interoperability of Electronic Road Toll Systems in the Community." Europainstitut der Universitt Basel.
12. "Union Watersphere" (http://lostinjersey.wordpress.com/2009/03/19/the-union-watersphere/). lostinjersey.wordpress.com. March 19, 2009. Retrieved
13. "407ETR.com" (http://www.407etr.com/documents/news/ni03-07-03.pdf) (PDF).
14. Texas 121 (http://www.texas121.org/)
15. Michael Dresser (2011-02-07). "First phase of ICC to open Feb. 22" (http://weblogs.baltimoresun.com/news/traffic/2011/02/fiirst_phase_of_icc_to_open_fe.
html). Baltimore Sun. Retrieved 2011-02-07.
16. Kevin Rector (2014-11-05). "Final section of ICC to Laurel, new I-95 interchange to open this weekend" (http://www.baltimoresun.com/news/maryland/bs-
md-icc-opening-20141105-story.html). Baltimore Sun. Retrieved 2015-06-19.
17. "Drivers roll on state's first toll road" (http://www.wral.com/traffic/story/10554492/). WRAL.com. 2012-01-31. Retrieved 2012-04-07.
18. Toll Road Bill Passage a Milestone for Mississippi, Mississippi DOT Website, May 11, 2007 (http://www.mdot.state.ms.us/newsApp/newsDetail.aspx?referr
19. Roth, Gabriel (1998). Roads in a market economy. Ashgate Publishing Company. p. 122. ISBN 0-291-39814-6.
20. Transportation Quarterly. 57. 2003. p. 26 https://books.google.com/books?id=RF9UAAAAMAA. "Nakamura and Kockelman (2002) show that tolls are by
nature regressive ..." Missing or empty |title= (help)

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21. Robertson, Christopher Charles; Prozzi, Jolanda; Walton, C. Michael (2008). Who Uses Toll Roads?: An Analysis of Central Texas Turnpike Users (https://b
ooks.google.com/books?id=S7MkAQAAMAAJ). Southwest Regional University Transportation Center, Center for Transportation Research, University of
Texas at Austin. p. 30. "Low income users unable to pay to use toll facilities, however, will not gain most of the benefits accessible to those with the ability
to pay. ... The study concludes that ... toll roads are a regressive form of funding road systems ..."
22. Kurtz, David L.; Boone, Louis E. (2008). Contemporary Business (https://books.google.com/books?id=1RQ53EH4pOAC). p. 17.
23. von Hirschhausen, Christian. Modernizing Infrastructure in Transformation Economies (https://books.google.com/books?id=ecQDn_8DtSMC). p. 155.

External links
Overview of European Tolling Systems (http://www.tolltickets.com/country/europe/europe.aspx?lang=en-GB)
International Bridge, Tunnel and Turnpike Association (http://ibtta.org/Information/?navItemNumber=847) The International Bridge, Tunnel and Turnpike
Association (IBTTA) is the worldwide alliance of toll operators and associated industries that provides a forum for sharing knowledge and ideas to promote
and enhance toll-financed transportation services.
Turnpikes and Toll Roads in Nineteenth-Century America (http://eh.net/encyclopedia/article/Klein.Majewski.Turnpikes) (EH.Net Economic History
Collection of tollroad news (http://www.tollroadsnews.com/) from contractor perspective
English Turnpike roads (http://www.turnpikes.org.uk), for background on toll roads during the turnpike era in England

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