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Lecture 6:

Aqwa Slender Body Modelling and Drag

Linearization 16.0 Release

Introduction to Hydrodynamic Analysis with ANSYS Aqwa

1 2015 ANSYS, Inc. July 23, 2015

Aqwa Slender Body Modelling
In the previous lectures and workshops we have
only looked at structures with a significant volume
displacement that requires the utilization of panel
elements to include the effects of wave diffraction
and radiation effects.
Aqwa can also include slender bodies, where it is
assumed that there will be no interference effects
on the approaching wave, and that loading can be
described in a simple formula that includes both
viscous drag and added mass effects.

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Morison Elements
In lecture 2 we introduced the computation of hydrodynamic forces on non-diffracting
structures, modelled with Morison elements (TUBE, STUB and DISC)
For slender cylindrical elements (D/<0.2), e.g. tube elements, the hydrodynamic force
(including drag) per unit length can be calculated using the Morison equation:
1 C DV V
F aw Ca aw Ca X d
aw and X are the accelerations of the flow and the body, respectively;
Ca and Cd are the added mass and drag coefficients of the element;
V is the relative velocity between the flow and the body;
is the volume of the element (per unit length);
D is the element diameter;
is the wave length.
The Froude-Krylov and wave inertia terms are sometimes combined and written in terms
of the inertia coefficient, Cm = 1 + Ca
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Morison Elements
While the diffraction elements provide a linear solution to the wave frequency loading, the
Morison elements include the viscous drag effects which are non-linear. For frequency
domain solutions we need to consider how to include these effects in a linear fashion.
In both the radiation/diffraction analysis and frequency statistical analysis the linearization
is undertaken for a specific spectrum.
Note that in the HD system, while the modified RAOs may be reported and plotted, they
are NOT stored on the hydrodynamic database for use in any subsequent analysis. Likewise
the QTFs are not re-computed.

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Drag Linearization in Diffraction Analysis

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In the calculation of drag force V.|V| is a non-linear term in which the |V|
can be replaced by a factor multiplied by the r.m.s. velocity in order to create
an equivalent linear term.
In the literature (Borgman 1967) this factor is given as (8/). We thus get
Full Drag Force = ..A.Cd .V.|V|
Linearized Drag Force = ..A.Cd ..Vrms .V
where V = relative fluid velocity
and = (8/)

Vrms is calculated using a defined spectrum. As V is relative velocity the

calculation is iterative.

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Modified RAO equation
[-2 {M()+MS} i {C() + CDL() }+ K ] X(,) = FD(,) + FK(,) + FDL(,)

relative velocity for each component of the spectrum
rms velocity
drag coefficients
new RAOS check for convergence

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When current is included, we assume that the linearization factor is in the form
= [ (*Vrms)2 + Vc2 ]

Where = 2 [ 2 e-r ]
r = Vc/( Vrms)

Found by numerical investigation of the error in dissipation of drag energy

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Additional Drag Linearization Functionality
In a frequency statistical analysis, further drag
linearization may be included in the
Current hull drag
Wind drag
Dynamic cables
With the exception of dynamic cables, drag
linearization is requested by setting the
Linearized Morison Drag option in the analysis
settings. When cable dynamics is employed,
drag linearization for the cables is always

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Workshop 6.1 Aqwa Slender Body Modelling
Workshop 6.1 Slender Body and Drag Linearization
Create a model containing both diffraction and slender
body components and investigate the effects in the
frequency and time domains.

10 2015 ANSYS, Inc. July 23, 2015