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1 The nature and importance of belief in tawhid

Key Words:

Din way of life (belief and practice of Islam)

Tawhid the oneness of Allah

What is tawhid?

Tawhid is the oneness of Allah

It means believing in Allah and that he is the one and only God and Muhammad was
his messenger
This unity of Allah makes every Muslim united through the ummah
It holds everyone and everything in the Universe together
No one but Allah can do this and that is why every living creature depends on him
Nothing can be compared to Allah, he is the one and only

Why is the belief in tawhid important for Muslims?

It is taught in the Quran and that is the word of Allah

It helps make sense of life- believing that Allah is unique and holds everything
together helps them make sense of life whatever happens to them. It also gives a
direction and purpose for life
It helps Muslims think of Allah as the centre point of life and not themselves
It helps Muslims follow the teachings of Muhammad because the focal point of the
Prophets life was Allah. He showed full faith to Allah

How do Muslims try to show their belief in tawhid?

They recognise that no one and nothing else is worth worshipping apart from Allah
All living creatures must be treated with respect because theyre a creation of Allah
and belongs to him
The ummah should be one and united held together by their beliefs in Allah
When Muslims believe in Allah and he is the centre of their focus, they are being true
to their din
1.2 The sin of shirk and why it is such a major sin in Islam
Key Words:

Ibadah all acts of worship/any permissible action performed to obey Allah

Shirk the sin of regarding anything as an equal or partner to Allah

What is shirk?

Shirk is the worst sin any Muslim could ever commit

Shirk is putting Allah on the same level as anything or anyone else or worshipping
anything other than Allah
Many Muslims believe this sin can never be forgiven and if one commits this, they
stop being a Muslim
Muslims take it very seriously so try very carefully to avoid it
Associating anything with Allah can also be seen as shirk
Having any other idols is not real. Only Allah is real

Why is shirk such a major sin?

Belief in tawhid is the most basic principle of Islam and therefore nothing is as great
as him or could be associated with him
Muhammad spread the message to people in Makah when he threw the idols out of
the Kabah and this is why they disagree with Christianity and Judaism because they
praise Jesus as highly as God
Shirk breaks the commitment that Muslims make when they recite the Shahadah
Islam is the only true and pure religion- the sin of shirk takes away the purity by
equating Allah with other things
Worship defines the way a Muslims lives on Earth and every action must be done to
glorify Allah
Their Ibadah must be pure and nothing can get in the way of Allahs rightful place as
the first and most important influence in a Muslims life

How do Muslims avoid shirk?

Worship is not only about praying or Muslims do in a mosque but it refers to

anything or anyone that is regarded as important or worthwhile
One way to avoid this is by only concentrating on Allah when they pray meaning
there are never any pictures of Allah or the Prophet in a mosque as this keeps
prayers from being distracted
Most Muslims do not find it hard to believe in Allah or not worshipping other things
but it is hard not making other people or things a main part of their life like new
children or celebrities
1.3 The meaning and importance of belief in the creativity of Allah
Key Words:

Creativity the action of creating the universe by Allah

Iman faith in Allah

What is the belief of creativity in Allah?

Muslims believe Allah created the universe

This follows from the belief that Allah is One and that there is nothing and no one
that can compare
He is also the one that makes the universe happen by making it and keeping it going
More importantly, he creates life on Earth in all its varied forms, all animals, humans
and plants
Muslims do not agree that the universe came about by chance and that in fact Allah
made it and there is no other scientific explanation that can make sense of why the
universe is here
When scientists find more discoveries of how the world was made, Muslims believe
that this is a discovery of new things that show the creativity of Allah
Not everyone agrees that this proves the creativity of Allah, but for all Muslims it is a
question of their iman. This means they must trust and believe in Allah and his
They try to live their life in a way that shows their belief and will base their belief on
evidence from the Quran, not science

Why is the belief in the creativity of Allah important for Muslims?

It means that the universe and all human life are under the control of Allah and Allah
determines exactly what happens to them and why. He has the power to control
everything because he is Allah the Creator
It means Muslims are able to recognise the beauty and order of life that has come
from Allah. They are able to see the world as a place where Allah is in control and
therefore they have nothing to fear from it and even if they do not understand
something, they know that Allah is in control of it
Although scientists have made many discoveries of the world and how it works,
human knowledge is limited and can never understand all the wishes and purposes
of Allah. Humans are part of Allahs creation and therefore have a limited view of
things especially as their thoughts are confined to the world of time and space. Allah,
whose power is not limited, is not confined to the world of time and space
1.4 The meaning and importance of belief in the Mercy and Compassion of
Key Words:

Surah a verse in the Quran

Bismillah the words that begin a surah: In the name of Allah, Most
Compassionate, Most Merciful

What is the belief in the Mercy and Compassion of Allah?

Muslims are very careful not to describe Allah because he is so great that there are
no words that can describe him
However, the Quran helps Muslims do this because there are different names that
people use to describe him, known as the 99 names of Allah and are all mentioned
in the Quran once or more
The two that appear the most are Merciful and Compassionate as they appear in
almost every surah and most of the surah start with the bismillah so these two
names are clearly very important
The words Merciful and Compassionate can describe Allah as being forgiving,
loving, supporting and caring
Muslims believe Allah is always kind no matter what happens to them in life. Often
they get into difficult situations and can sometimes suffer pain from it but they
know Allah has planned this and it has a reason
A Muslim will of course emphasise that all the names of Allah are important and
that no quality is more important than another

Why is the belief in the Compassion and Mercy of Allah important for Muslims?

Without this belief, Muslims would feel hopeless. Many Muslims often fail to live as
Allah requires and if Allah dealt with them as they deserved they would be
punished very harshly but because Allah is compassionate and if a Muslim is truly
sorry and thoroughly repents, they will be forgiven
Muslims believe Allah is their judge and when their lives end they will be judged by
their good and bad deeds. If Allah was not merciful and compassionate then no one
would pass the judgment test. This belief gives Muslims courage that it is worth
striving to live a good life
It helps Muslims strengthen their lives because their love for Allah is increased and
they are so devoted to him. If Allah was cruel and merciless then they would regard
with fear and terror but instead he is kind and forgiving
Muslims must also remember that these qualities of Allah are not the only ones
mentioned in the Quran. Muslims must not think that they will always be dealt
with gently if they have done a terrible act. Allah will always be fair with them and
never lead them astray
1.5 The meaning and importance of belief in Islamic teaching on the nature
of humans as khalifah
Key Words:

Khalifah Custodian or steward of the world for Allah

What is a humans role as a khalifah?

The idea of minding the world and taking care of the Earth is very important for
Muslims because it affects the way they look at the world around them and reminds
them that
- The world belongs to Allah
- All gives peoples responsibility for taking care of the world for His
- They have a duty to look after their planet and that it is used properly
- They must not allow it to be misused
- They must give Allah an account of what they have done to make
Allahs world a better place to live in
This person is a khalifah. All humans and, especially Muslims, are khalifahs
In the Quran, Allah appointed Adam as the first human and therefore as the first
khalifah. Adam had to pass on the responsibility to all people who came after him

Why is the belief in khalifahs important to Muslims?

It helps make the relationship clear between humans and Allah. It shows that on one
side, humans are second only to Allah in the order of creation and on the other side
human beings are clearly not the masters of the universe because that role belongs
to Allah alone
People have to use reason and skill to decide how they should care for the Earth. It is
not always obvious what to do but Allah has given humans the responsibility to look
after the world that he has created and belongs to him
Allah has given humans authority over all living things so humans stand out from the
rest of creation. Only they have the responsibility for the Earth and Allah has given
them authority and put them in charge
Humans are answerable to Allah on the Day of Judgment for their stewardship and
even though they may try to avoid any sense of culpability during their lifetime,
saying that there are problems that are too great to solve or arguing that the Earth is
simply here for human beings to enjoy or exploit will make them morally responsible
and they will have to answer to Allah
1.6 The meaning and importance of belief in Islamic teaching on al-Qadar
and human freedom
Key Words:

Al-Qadar Allahs control of future events

What is the Muslims belief of al-Qadar?

Belief in al-Qadar is very important for Muslims because they believe that
everything happens because it is in Allahs control and he knows what will happen
in the future
This means good and bad things will happen to everyone but they should accept
that Allah will decide what is best for them

What is the Muslim belief in free will?

Muslims believe Allah is omnipotent and omniscient therefore there are no

restrictions to this power or what he can do
At the same time he has give humans free will which means they are able to do what
they wish to be it in a good or evil sense. This makes humans different from animals
On Judgement Day, the will be judged on how they have lived their lives
Without free will, Judgment Day would be unfair because you cant punish or reward
controlled robots who are unable to think for themselves
They must answer Allah on the Day of Judgement as to what their evil or good
actions have been and because Allah is omniscient, he cannot be decieved

Why is the belief in al-Qadar important for Muslims?

It is stated in the Quran

It was taught by the Prophet Muhammad
Submitting to the will of Allah is at the heart of being a Muslim
It helps Muslims make sense of the world. Knowing that Allah has knowledge of
everything and is in control of all events must mean that everything happens for a
1.7 The meaning and importance of belief in Islamic teachings on angels
What is the belief on angels?

Angels are often referred to in the Quran. The main teachings of them are
They are made from light
They were created to carry out the exact instructions of Allah
They have no free will so are counted as lower in importance then humans
The number of them is limitless
They are invisible, but on special occasions they may appear in human
Some angels are mentioned in the Quran by name because they are the most
important as they associated with certain special events or hold a special relevance:
Jibril- who brought the words of the Quran to the Prophet Muhammad
Izrail- the angel of death
Mikail- the guardian of places of worship
Israfil- the herald of the day of resurrection
Munkar and Nakir- who question the dead in their graves
Many Muslims believe that throughout their lives they are accompanied by two
angels who sit on their left and right shoulders. One records the good deeds and
the other the bad. These records are kept and examined on the Day of Judgement
Muslims use the end of the prayer to ask that the blessings of Allah may be given to
all worshippers on each side of them, as in the fellow worshippers as well as asking
for the blessing of the two angels

Why are angels important?

Angels are a vital part of communicating a persons good and bad deeds and
thoughts back to Allah on the Day of Judgement
Many Muslims believe that angels, as well as Allah, protect them when they pray
The Quran mentions other important tasks which certain angels carry out- such as
guarding the place of worship
Muslims believe that angels communicate the exact, uncorrupted message of Allah
to human beings, particularly when that message is extremely important
1.8 The meaning and importance of belief in risalah
Key Words:

Risalah Muslims beliefs about the prophets of Allah

What is the belief in risalah?

Muslims believe all chooses his messengers who are called prophets

He chose them because they brought his message accurately and they taught people
how to follow the message as well as living their own lives according to the teachings
Important messengers include:
The first prophet, Adam, was also the ancestor if the whole human race
Ibrahim- he is also known as Abraham in Christianity and Judaism
Musa- he brought the message of Islam to the Hebrew and Jewish people,
known as Moses in Christianity and Judaism
Isa is the prophet known as Jesus in the Bible
All prophets brought the same message of Allah and it hasnt changed from the
beginning. This message is sometimes known as the guidance

Why is the belief in risalah important?

Prophets brought the guidance of Allah to different nations at different times

showing that the message was from the beginning
All prophets brought the same message showing that Allah is unchanging
All prophets brought the same message of Islam showing that Islam is the true
All prophets prepared the way for the final prophet, Muhammad
1.9 The meaning and importance of belief in Islamic teachings on holy
books other than the Quran
What is the belief in other holy books?

The tawrat- this was given by Allah to the prophet Musa. Many people equate this to
the Jewish Torah or the five Books of Moses from the Christian Bible
The zabur- this was a collection of hymns and songs which Muslims believe was used
for worship in Solomans temple in Jerusalem. They believe that many of these were
written by Dawud. Some scholars equate this back to the Biblical books of Psalms
The injil- this was the revelation received by Isa. Some scholars equate this to the
four Gospels of the Christian Bible, although this is debated
Muslims believe throughout history Allah sent his messengers to nations and people
in a particular place at a particular time because it had a direct relevance
Muslims believe that all these books originally held the same message from Allah
and because they have been repeatedly amended and translated, the message
became distorted and its original meaning was lost
Muslims believe the books have many errors for example they do not believe Isa was
resurrected but instead ascended to Heaven by Allah
Muslims do not use them because they do not contain the full truth unlike the
Quran which is the complete and total direct word of Allah

Why is the belief in holy books important?

They demonstrate that Allah cares for people because Allah revealed his message
directly to people over time
They show that only the Quran contains the whole truth and therefore only that can
be used to guide people along the totally correct path
Although the messages have been distorted, the originals were revelations of Allah
and should therefore still be respected
Muslims should respect Christians and Jews because they have part true holy books
and therefore all Christians and Jews are respected because they are given special
place as the the People of the Book
1.10 The meaning and importance of belief in Islamic teaching on the
revelation of the Quran to Muhammad
What is the belief on the revelation of the Quran to Muhammad?

Muslims believe that the most important event in the life of the Prophet was when
he received the words of Allah for the first time
This is known as the Night of Power
Muhammad used to spend time alone praying and meditating. One day he was
doing just this in a cave on Mount Hira and suddenly the Angel Jibril came down
and commanded him to recite the words he read in front of him. He had never
been taught to read but he found he could read it word for word. These were the
first five verses of Surah 96 in the Quran. These words remained engraved on his

Why is this revelation of the Quran to Muhammad so important for Muslims?

It was the time when the first words of the Quran were revealed to Muhammad
He became the final Prophet of Allah because he had received this message from
It proves that the words in the Quran are the exact speech of Allah
It was the beginning of many such revelations which went on for 23 years and
formed the whole Quran
For Muslims, this is the great miracle of Islam
The message had been said to previous prophets but it was recorded for the first
time by Muhammad
This inspired the Prophet to spread the message and teach others how to live the
perfect life
1.11 How belief in akhirah affects the lives of Muslims
Key Words:

Taqwa consciousness

What is the belief on akhirah?

Akhirah is the belief in life after death

It is one of the main beliefs of Islam
Muslims believe life on earth is simply preparation for a better life when we die
The good will go to Paradise and the bad will go to Jahannam (Hell), a place of
torment and pain. Death is like a gateway to a new world
The process of death is:
Life on earth
Barzakh (where the souls wait until the Day of Judgement

How does this belief affect the life of a Muslim?

Muslims cannot hide any thoughts or deeds from Allah because everything is
recorded by him and the angels
During their life they try to stay perfect and sinless
During their life it is possible to ask for forgiveness for any wrong thought or actions
but after death this is not possible
It gives Muslims a greater Taqwa because they have to be conscious of everything
they do
They have to be sure that every Ibadah is pure and done to the best of their ability
Everybody does good and bad things but it is how you react to the situation, e.g.
whether you repent or not, that will determine if you pass the test and are rewarded
with Paradise