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Kydyrbekova Aizada

Summary
Citizenship as Social Disclosure (Rogers Brubaker)
In this text he profoundly describes the basic idea of term citizenship and explain it
from various and related areas. According to him, the modern state is a territorial organization,
and a personal association where people belong to certain territories and interact with each
other. Also he covers interesting topics about insider and outsider, nation-state, liberal political
theory, naturalization, ascription, attachment of rights and obligations to modern citizens.
Having read the text I realized how each everyday processes and terms could be
interpreted in academic way. There was a question regarding the political theory by which I was
intrigued. The idea that political membership ought to be founded on individual consent. Why
is citizenship typically ascribed at birth? Answer was: administrative convenience.

Cosmopolitanism and Global citizenship (Bhikhu Parekh)


The main idea of this text is to define the duties and obligations of people and explain the
term globally oriented citizen. He gives two fundamental duties, negative and positive.
Negatively, we do not have to damage or interfere others ability to achieve their well beings and
should not use others weakness to our end. Positively, we have duty to help people when they are
in difficult situations but not as means of charity, but as means of justice. He argues against the
statement membership is accident of birth. saying that birth is not accident by itself. According
to B.Parekh globally oriented citizen has three main components: promotes the interests of
humankind, actively interested in affairs of other states, commitment to create a just world.
I learnt a new term which globally oriented citizenship and the difference between
global and cosmopolitan citizen. I acquired deep knowledge about equal treatment of human
beings. Despite our he nationality, gender, religion, and colour we are all share common needs. I
also knew much about general duties from his real life examples such as ,Mahatma Gandhi,
Mother Teresa, and Albert Schweitzer.

Global Citizenship in Theory and Practice (Hans Schattle)


In his book he discussed the historical origin of term global citizenship and it evolution
until modern world. The term rooted from the word cosmopolitan in ancient Greek. As an
example he gave Socrates, Marcus Aurelius, and Seneca. in contemporary days
cosmopolitanism defined as classical liberal principles as liberty, equality and justice. According
to him, awareness, responsibility, and participation are primary concept of global citizenship.o
cHe interviewed more than 150 people who considered themselves as global citizens and
represent their ideas as an examples of different understanding of global citizenship.
Kydyrbekova Aizada

From this reading I gained great knowledge about background of the term global
citizenship. In my opinion, it would be the best introduction into the studies of Global
Citizenship.
Borders, Boundaries, and Citizenship (Seyla Benhabib)
The main idea of S. Benhabib is the role of citizenship in self -governance and nation-
state. The actual and major topics such protection of human rights within states and outside of a
state, the increasingly growing rate of migration, and impact of globalization. The specific
conditions for citizenship within EU states and non EU, third states is also discussed in broader
concept.
Although, the reading was short it captured many issues which gave me broad idea of
citizenship in within borders and boundaries.