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LAB 2 :

TITRATION

INTRODUCTION
The titration of a weak acid with a strong base involves the direct transfer of protons from the
weak acid to the hydoxide ion. The reaction of the weak acid, acetic acid, with a strong base,
NaOH, can be seen below. In the reaction the acid and base react in a one to one ratio.

C2H4O2(aq) + OH-(aq) C2H3O-2(aq) + H2O(l)

In this reaction a buret is used to administer one solution to another. The solution
administered from the buret is called the titrant. The solution that the titrant is added to is
called the analyte. In a titration of a Weak Acid with a Strong Base the titrant is a strong base
and the analyte is a weak acid. In order to fully understand this type of titration the reaction,
titration curve, and type of titration problems will be introduced.

OBJECTIVE
1. To observe the property of weak acid with pH changes
2. To learn how to use pH meter correctly
3. To experience how to titrate acid-base

EQUIPMENTS
Phenolphthalein indicator
Buret
250ml beakers
pH meter
White paper towel
METHODS
A) Titration of monoprotic acid (acetic acid) with NaOH
1. The buret was filled with 0.1M NaOH . 25.00mL of 0.1M CH3COOH was pipet into a
250mL beaker and 3 drops of phenolphthalein was added . The beaker was placed on a white
paper towel to best observe colour changes .
2. The solution was titrated by adding the NaOH titrant 2 mL increments . Swirl the beaker
carefully with each addition .
3. The phenolphthalein coloured would begun to stay for a while and then disappeared . At
this point the NaOH was added dropwised until the acetic acid is a very light colour . This is
end point of phenolphthalein .
4. Measured and recorded the pH of the solution in the beaker at this end point . Then rinsed
the pH probe with distilled water and the prob tip was replaced into its vial .
5. Any colour changes was observed during titration . The pH and added NaOH volume at the
indicator`s endpoint was used to estimate the target point when conducting the following
procedure ,
6 . Step 1-6 were repeated with polyprotic acid (phosphoric acid) with NaOH .

RESULT
TITRATION OF MONOPROTIC ACID (ACETIC ACID ) WITH NaOH

pH mL of titrant
4 2
4.02 4
4.25 6
4.46 8
4.57 10
4.72 12
4.83 14
5 16
5.24 18
5.6 20
6.36 22
11.13 24
11.57 26
12.32 28
12.98 30
13.68 32
Find the mole of the titrant
Mole of titrant = Volume of titrant (L) x Concentration of titrant (M)
= 0.012 L x 0.1 M
= 1.2x10-3 mol

Moles of titrant = Moles of analytes


Mole of analytes = 0.1 M

1. Concentration of analytes = Moles of analytes, mol / Volume of analytes, L


= 0.1 mol / 0.025 L
= 4 mol/L

2. pKa = -log Ka
pKa = 5

3. Ka = -log (5)
= 1x10-5
TITRATION OF POLYPROTIC ACID (PHOSPHORIC ACID) WITH NaOH

Volume Reactant pH
0 1.3
2 1.97
4 2
6 2.03
8 2.15
10 2.2
12 2.24
14 2.27
16 2.34
18 2.42
20 2.5
22 2.58
24 2.68
26 2.78
28 2.89
30 3.01
32 3.16
34 3.35
36 3.69
38 4.61
40 5.87
42 6.25
44 6.48
46 6.63
48 6.73
50 6.84
52 6.87
54 7
56 7.1
58 7.18
60 7.29
62 7.39
64 7.49
66 7.59
68 7.7
70 7.84
72 8.01
74 8.22
76 8.66
78 9.2
80 9.93
82 10.72
84 11.04
86 11.27
88 11.44
90 11.55

pH
14
12
10
Axis Title

6
4
2
0
0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88
Axis Title

pH

Find the mole of the titrant


Mole of titrant = Volume of titrant (L) x Concentration of titrant (M)
= 0.038 L x 0.1 M
= 0.0038 mol

Moles of titrant = Moles of analytes


Mole of analytes = 0.0038 M

1. Concentration of analytes = Moles of analytes, mol / Volume of analytes, L


= 0.0038 mol / 0.025 L
= 0.152 mol/L
2. pKa = -log Ka
pKa = 2.27

3. Ka = -log (-2.27)
= 5.37 x 10-3

DISCUSSION

Titration is a technique to determine the concentration of an unknown solution. A solution of


known concentration (titrant) is used to determine the concentration of an unknown solution
(titrand or analyte).

Typically, the titrant (the solution of known concentration) is added through a burette to a
known volume of the analyte (the solution of unknown concentration) until the reaction is
complete. Knowing the volume of titrant added allows us to determine the concentration of
the unknown analyte. Often, an indicator is used to signal the end of the reaction,
the endpoint. Titrant and analyte is a pair of acid and base. Acid-base titrations are monitored
by the change of pH as titration progresses.

For the purposes of this tutorial, its good enough to know that an indicator is a weak acid or
base that is added to the analyte solution, and it changes color when the equivalence point is
reached i.e. the point at which the amount of titrant added is just enough to completely
neutralize the analyte solution. The point at which the indicator changes color is called the
endpoint. So the addition of an indicator to the analyte solution helps us to visually spot the
equivalence point in an acid-base titration.

Our analyte is acetic acid CH3COOH (weak acid) and the titrant is sodium hydroxide NaOH
(strong base). If we start plotting the pH of the analyte against the volume of NaOH that we
are adding from the burette, we will get a titration curve as shown below.
In strong acid + strong base titrations, the pH changes slowly at first, rapidly through the
equivalence point of pH=7, and then slows down again. If it is being titrated in a strong acid,
the pH will go up as the base is added to it. Conversely, if it is in a strong base, the pH will fall
down as acid is added.

In strong acid + weak base titrations, the pH changes slowly at the equivalence point
and the pH equals the pKa of the acid. The pH is below 7.
For the weak acid + strong base, the pH is above 7 at the equivalence point.
If there is strong acid or strong base left over after the equivalence point, this can be
used to find the pH of the solution.

Now let's try something a little harder. The ionization of phosphoric acid (three dissociation
reactions this time) can be written like this:

Start with H3PO4:

Ka1:H3PO4(aq)H+(aq)+H2PO4(aq)Ka1:H3PO4(aq)H(aq)++H2PO4(aq)
Ka2:H2PO4(aq)HPO4(aq)+H+(aq)Ka2:H2PO4(aq)HPO4(aq)+H(aq)+
Ka3:HPO4(aq)H+(aq)+PO34(aq)Ka3:HPO4(aq)H(aq)++PO4(aq)3

So from these above reactions we can see that it takes three steps to fully remove the H+ ion.
This also means that this reaction will produce three equivalence points. Polyprotic Bases are
bases that can accept at least one H+ ion, or proton, in acid-base reactions.
CONCLUSION
The strength of an acid refers to its ability or tendency to lose a proton. A weak acid is an
acid that dissociates incompletely. It does not release all of its hydrogen in a solution,
donating only a partial amount of its protons to the solution. These acids have higher pKa
than strong acid, which release all of their hydrogen atoms when dissolved in water.
Acetic acid is a monoprotic acid and its pKa value is 5 .

REFERENCES
https://chem.libretexts.org/Demonstrations_and_Experiments/Basic_Lab_Techniques/Titratio
n/Titration_Of_A_Weak_Acid_With_A_Strong_Base
http://shinaebiochem.blogspot.my/2013/03/experiment-1-acid-base-experiment.html

https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/mcat/chemical-processes/titrations-and-solubility-
equilibria/a/acid-base-titration-curves

https://chem.libretexts.org/Core/Physical_and_Theoretical_Chemistry/Acids_and_Bases/Mon
oprotic_Versus_Polyprotic_Acids_And_Bases/Polyprotic_Acids_And_Bases