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Drying

9.65 A batch of leather leaving a dryer weighs 1000 kg and contains 5% moisture. During drying
the leather loses 50% of its original weight. Determine the following: (a) The moisture content of
the leather entering the dryer on a dry basis (b) The amount of moisture removed per kg of bone
dry leather (c) Water removed as percent of the original water present

9.66 A wet paper pulp containing 70% water is dried in order to remove 60% of the water
present. Determine the following: (a) The mass of water removed per 100 kg of wet pulp (b) The
composition of the dried pulp

9.67 A wet granular material containing 80% water is dried in a rotary counter-current drier. The
charge is admitted at one end and hot dry air is passed from the other end. In a typical
operation, it is found that 100 kg of water is removed from the material giving a dry product
containing 40% water. What is the weight of the wet material charged to the drier?

9.68 Wood containing 40% moisture is dried to 20% moisture, both moistures expressed on a
wet basis. Determine the quantity of water evaporated per kilogram dry wood.

9.69 A drier is fed with wet solid to reduce the moisture content from 90% to 20%. The product
leaving the drier is admitted to an oven which further brings down the moisture to 2%. If the drier
can handle 1000 kg of wet solid per day, calculate the following: (a) The weight of products
leaving the drier and the oven per day (b) The percentage of the original water that is removed
in the drier and the oven

9.70 Soap as produced contains 50% moisture on a wet basis. Before it can be pressed into
cakes for sale, the moisture should be reduced to 20%. How many 100 g cakes can be pressed
from 1000 kg of wet soap?

9.71 A solid material wet with toluene is dried in an adiabatic drier to recover toluene and to
produce dry solids. The drier is fed with 100 m3/h of an air-toluene mixture at 101.3 kPa and
333 K with a wetbulb temperature of 305 K. The gases leave the drier at 310 K DBT with
relative saturation of 95%. The vapour pressure of toluene is given by the Antoine equation
lnPS 13.9987 3096.52= 53.67 where pressure is in kPa and temperature is in K. The latent
heat of vaporization is 404 kJ/kg and the psychrometric ratio for the toluene-air system is 1.88
kJ/kg K. Determine the following:
(a) The mole of toluene evaporated in the drier, (kg/h)
(b) The volume of gases leaving the drier, (m3/h)

9.72 Air supplied to an adiabatic drier is at 101.3 kPa and 369.15 K with a dew point of 301.15
K. 2.0 kg of water is evaporated per 100 cubic metres of wet air entering the drier. Calculate the
following:
(a) The exit air wet-bulb temperature and dry-bulb temperature
(b) The exit air percent humidity
(c) The volume of exit air per 100 cubic metres of inlet air
9.73 A laboratory drier produces 50 kg of dry solid containing 6% (weight) water from a wet-feed
material containing 20.5% water. The drier operates adiabatically, with the wet solid entering the
drier at the wet-bulb temperature of the dryer air. A total of 500 m3/h of hot air at 365.7 K and
101.3 kPa with a dew point of 303.2 K is supplied to the drier. Calculate the following:
(a) The temperature of the air leaving the drier
(b) The percent humidity of the air leaving the drier

9.74 Air at 101.3 kPa enters an adiabatic drier at 372 K with a dew point of 287 K and leaves at
80% humidity. Wet paper enters the drier with 25% moisture and leaves with 5% moisture.
Determine the following:
(a) The temperature of air leaving the drier
(b) Water evaporated in kilograms per 100 cubic metres of air entering (c) The mass of finished
product (in kilograms) per 100 cubic metres of air entering.

9.75 Wet lumber (5% moisture) is dried to 1% moisture in a hot-air drier. Air fed to the drier
contains 0.5% water. The moist air leaving the drier contains 2% (weight) water. How much air
is required to dry 2000 kg/h of lumber?

9.76 1000 kg/h of precipitated chalk slurry containing 10% CaCO3 is to be filtered and dried
continuously. The filter cake is expected to carry 0.8 kg of water per kg of chalk. Hot air would
enter the adiabatic drier at 350 K and 1 bar and 5% humidity. At the exit the air would be
saturated. The dried chalk would contain only 5% water on a wet basis. Calculate on an hourly
basis the following:
(a) The weight of filtrate
(b) The weight of the cake after dying
(c) The weight of air at the drier inlet

9.77 CaCO3 slurry is to be dried. The drier is designed to remove 100 kg of moisture per hour.
Air at 293 K and 40% relative humidity enters the drier, and leaves at 338 K and 65% relative
humidity. (a) What is the weight in kilograms of bone dry air required per hour? The atmospheric
pressure is 103 kPa. If the humidity of the air entering the drier can be varied. (b) What will be
the minimum amount of dry air required? The constants for the Antoineequation for vapour
pressure of water in kPa may be taken as A = 16.26205, B = 3799.887 and C = 46.854.

9.65 (a) 1.105 kg of water per kg of dry leather (b) 1.05 kg of water per kg of dry leather (c) 95.24% 9.66 (a) 42 kg
(b) Pulp = 51.72%, Water = 48.28% 9.67 150 kg 9.68 0.4167 kg 9.69 (a) 125 kg, 102.04 kg (b) 97.22%, 2.55% 9.70
6250 9.71 (a) 17.74 kg/h (b) 97.99 m3/h 9.72 (a) 313.15 K, 318.65 K (b) 70% (c) 89.22 m3 9.73 (a) 318.65 K (b) 70%
9.74 (a) 311 K (b) 2.43 kg (c) 9.11 kg 9.75 5279.5 kg of wet air/h 9.76 (a) 820 kg (b) 105.26 kg (c) 4024.16 kg 9.77
(a) 911.77 kg (b) 508 kg