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Phone: +358 (0)10 709 080 Wrtsil homepage: www.wartsila.com
E-mail: service.solutions@wartsila.com

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Kimmo Kohtamki +358 10 709 2860


General Manager Mobile:
+358 40 558 2372
kimmo.kohtamaki@wartsila.com

Pivi Hirvonen +358 10 709 2861 Johanna Kilpinen +358 10 709 3260
Assistant in Vaasa paivi.hirvonen@wartsila.com Assistant in Turku johanna.kilpinen@wartsila.com

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Regional Manager Mobile: Sales Support Manager Mobile:
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Sales Support Mobile: Sales Support Manager Mobile:
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Regional Manager Mobile: Sales Support Manager Mobile:
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Sales Support Mobile: Sales Support Manager Mobile:
Manager +358 40 762 5563 +358 40 836 5579
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Regional Manager Mobile: Sales Support Manager Mobile:
+358 40 820 9235 +358 400 859 144
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Sales Support Mobile: Sales Support Manager Mobile:
Manager +358 400 863 062 +358 40 502 6882
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Regional Manager Mobile: Sales Support Manager Mobile:
+358 40 516 2902 +358 10 751 8285
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Jim Andersson +358 10 709 2065


Sales Support Mobile:
Manager +358 40 524 4370
jim.andersson@wartsila.com
!
Vesa Honkela +358 10 709 2837
Sales Manager Mobile:
+358 40 550 8815
vesa.honkela@wartsila.com
Eero Hakala +358 10 709 1632 Guy Blomquist +358 10 709 3475
Account Manager Mobile: Account Manager Mobile:
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eero.hakala@wartsila.com guy.blomquist@wartsila.com
Christian Wickstrm +358 10 709 2746 Ville Packaln +358 10 709 3642
Account Manager Mobile: Account Manager Mobile:
+358 40 556 3947 +358 40 502 4472
christian.wickstrom@wartsila. ville.packalen@wartsila.com
com
"
Leif Enlund +358 10 709 2906
Manager, Service Mobile:
Projects + 358 40 501 9262
leif.enlund@wartsila.com
Jens Norrgrd +358 10 709 1876 Mikael Karhulahti +358 10 709 1845
Project Manager, Gas Mobile: Project Manager, Mobile:
+358 40 748 5586 Electrical +358 40 748 6632
jens.norrgard@wartsila.com mikael.karhulahti@wartsila.com

Krister Slotte +358 10 709 3406 Ari Reunanen +358 10 709 3063
General Manager Mobile: Manager Mobile:
+358 400 526 763 Wrtsil 46, 50DF +358 40 835 8581
krister.slotte@wartsila.com ari.reunanen@wartsila.com

Pia Jerkku +358 10 709 3178 Stefan Wiik +358 10 709 2394
Assistant in Turku pia.jerkku@wartsila.com Manager Mobile:
Wrtsil 20, Vasa 22, 24 +358 40 540 8740
stefan.wiik@wartsila.com

Nancy Dahl +358 10 709 2781 Jonas Sundblom +358 10 709 1835
Assistant in Vaasa nancy.dahl@wartsila.com Manager Mobile:
Vasa 32, Wrtsil 32 & + 358 40 735 1835
Wrtsil 32, 34 Gas jonas.sundblom@wartsila.com
Engines
Johan Pellas +358 10 709 2806 Olli Tarvonen +358 10 709 2783
Manager Mobile: Technical Manager Mobile:
Condition Based +358 40 732 2687 Wrtsil 32, 34 Gas +358 40 590 2256
Maintenance johan.pellas@wartsila.com Engines olli.tarvonen@wartsila.com

Karl-Erik Lindholm +358 10 709 2790 Karl-Johan Nixholm +358 10 709 2807
Manager Mobile: Technical Manager Mobile:
Automation & Control +358 40 732 2689 Wrtsil 32 +358 40 765 5807
karl-erik.lindholm@ karl-johan.nixholm@wartsila.com
wartsila.com
Hans-Olof Norrgrd +358 10 709 2710 Mats Lagstrm +358 10 709 2804
Manager Mobile: Technical Manager mats.lagstrom@wartsila.com
Warranty +358 40 773 5531 Vasa 32
hans-
olof.norrgard@wartsila.com
Ingmar Ahlqvist +358 10 709 2750 Asko Vakkila +358 10 709 2756
Manager Mobile: Documentation Manager Mobile:
Documentation and +358 40 725 9954 Prime Movers +358 400 667 670
Software Systems ingmar.ahlqvist@wartsila.com asko.vakkila@wartsila.com

Arto Nikula +358 10 709 1325 Hannu Salminen +358 10 709 3337
Documentation Manager Mobile: Documentation Manager Mobile:
Plant Installations +358 40 748 2259 Ship Installations +358 40 838 5899
arto.nikula@wartsila.com hannu.salminen@wartsila.com

Thomas Nummelin +358 10 709 2832 Tapani Syrjnen +358 10 709 3359
General Manager Mobile: Manager Mobile:
Field Service +358 40 508 3114 Power Plants +358 40 502 3562
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Niina Haapala- +358 10 709 2731 Tiina Mkinen +358 10 709 3024
Livera Assistant in Turku tiina.makinen@wartsila.com
Assistant in Vaasa

Ralf Guldbrand +358 10 709 1859


Manager Mobile:
Field Service Resources +358 40 767 8859
ralf.guldbrand@wartsila.com
Kaj-Erik Holm +358 10 709 2836 Reijo Seikkula +358 10 709 3230
Service Co-ordinator Mobile: Service Co-ordinator Mobile:
Field Service Resources +358 40 837 3882 Field Service Resources +358 40 769 1787
kaj-erik.holm@wartsila.com reijo.seikkula@wartsila.com
Ulf-Johan Bjrkns +358 10 709 1152
Manager Mobile:
Marine Commissioning +358 40 729 2182
ulf-johan.bjorknas@wartsila.com
Anders Sthlgrd +358 10 709 2862
Service Co-ordinator Mobile:
Power Plant < 380 +358 40 556 2862
anders.stahlgard@wartsila.com
Anders Bergfors +358 10 709 2856
Service Co-ordinator Mobile:
Electrical & Automation +358 40 708 2856
Systems anders.bergfors@wartsila.com
50-200506-06 Contents, instructions, terminology

00. Contents, instructions, terminology

00.1 Contents of the Manual


This Manual contains data and instructions for operation and mainte-
nance of the engine as well as instruction for handling, personal
protection and first aid when fuel-, lubricating oils and cooling water
additives are handled during normal operation and maintenance work.
Basic general knowledge has not been entered. Consequently, it is
assumed that the engine operation and maintenance staff is well
informed of the care of diesel engines.
Wrtsil reserves for itself the right to minor alterations and im-
provements owing to engine development without being obliged to
enter the corresponding changes in this Manual.
The diesel engines will be equipped as agreed upon in the sales
documents. No claim can be made on the basis of this Manual as here
are described also components not included in every delivery. The
system diagram plans (fuel, oil, cooling etc.) are just indicative and thus
do not cover all installations. See installation specific system drawings
for more details.
Exact engine build-up in all details is defined by the specification
number on the name plate located on the engine.

Note! In all correspondence or when ordering spare parts, always state


engine type, specification number and engine number.

This Manual is supplemented by the Spare Parts Catalogue including


sectional drawings or exterior views of all components (partial assem-
blies).

00.2 General rules

1 Read the corresponding item carefully in this Manual before


any steps are taken.
2 Keep an engine logbook for every engine.
3 Observe utmost cleanliness and order at all maintenance
work.
4 Before dismantling, check that all systems concerned are
drained or pressure released. After dismantling, immediately cover all
holes for lubricating oil, fuel oil and air with tape, plugs, clean cloths
or similar.

WRTSIL 50DF 00 - 1
Contents, instructions, terminology 50-200506-06

5 When replacing a worn-out or damaged part provided with


an identification mark stating cylinder or bearing number, mark the
new part with the same number on the same spot. Every exchange
should be entered in the engine log and the reason should be clearly
stated.
6 After reassembling, check that all screws and nuts are tightened
and locked acoording to stated recommend.
7 Check that all shields and covers are fully functional and in
place.

Caution! Predictive maintenance is important when it comes to fire protec-


tion. Regular inspection of fuel oil lines, lubricating oil lines and
connections must be done.

00.3 Terminology

00.3.1 Explanation of terminology

The most commonly used terms in this manual are defined as follows,
see also Fig 00-1:
Operating side and rear side: Details located on the operating side
may be marked with "M" (Manoeuvering) and correspondingly "B" for
the back side of the engine (B-bank on a V-engine).
Driving end: The end of the engine where the flywheel is located.
Free end: The end opposite the driving end.
Clockwise rotating engine: When looking at the engine from the
driving end the shaft rotates clockwise.
Counter-clockwise rotating engine: When looking at the engine
from the driving end the shaft rotates counter-clockwise.
Bottom dead centre, abbreviated BDC, is the bottom turning point
of the piston in the cylinder.
Top dead centre, abbreviated TDC, is the top turning point of the
piston in the cylinder. TDC for every cylinder is marked on the
graduation of the flywheel.
Top dead centre at firing: During a complete working cycle, consist-
ing of two crankshaft revolutions in a four-stroke engine, the piston
reaches TDC twice:
a) TDC at scavenging: For the first time when the exhaust stroke of
the previous working cycle ends and the suction stroke of the following
one begins. Exhaust valves as well as inlet valves are then partially
open and scavenging takes place. If the crankshaft is turned backwards
and forwards from TDC position, both exhaust and inlet valves will
move, a fact that indicates that the crankshaft is near the position
which is called TDC at scavenging.

00 - 2 WRTSIL 50DF
50-200506-06 Contents, instructions, terminology

Terminology

end
Free B6

6
A6 B5

5
A5 B4

4
3
Op A4 B3

2
era A3 B2

1
tin A2 B1
gs A1
ide

end
ng
Drivi

Fig 00-1 Wv005

b) TDC at firing: The second time is after the compression stroke and
before the working stroke. Slightly before this TDC the fuel injection
takes place (on an engine in operation) and this TDC can therefore be
defined TDC at firing. In this case, all valves are closed and do not move
if the crankshaft is turned. When watching the camshaft and the
injection pump it is possible to note that the pump tappet roller is on
the lifting side of the fuel cam.
Designation of cylinders:
According to ISO recommendation 1204 and DIN 6265 the designation
of cylinders begins at the driving end. In a V-engine the cylinders in
the left bank, seen from the driving end, are termed A1, A2 etc. and in
the right bank B1, B2 etc.

WRTSIL 50DF 00 - 3
Contents, instructions, terminology 50-200506-06

Designation of bearings
Main bearings:
The flywheel bearing is No. 0, the first standard main bearing is No.
1, the second No. 2 etc., see Fig 00-2.
Thrust bearings:
The thrust bearing rails are located in the flywheel bearing. The outer
rails close to the flywheel are marked with "00" and the inner rails with
"0".
Camshaft bearings:
The camshaft bearings are designated the same as the main bearings
and the thrust bearing bushings are designated "00" (outer) and "0".
Camshaft gear bearings:
The bearings is a located on the flywheel side are designated "00" and
the inner bearings "0".
Upper and lower bearings shells:
In bearings where both shells are identical, the upper one is marked
with "UP".

Numbering system of engine bearings

00
5 4 3 2 1
0
00
0

00

5 4 3 2 1 0
0

Fig 00-2 4600030445

00 - 4 WRTSIL 50DF
50-200506-06 Contents, instructions, terminology

00.3.2 Designation of valves

Designation of inlet and exhaust gas valves in cylinder head

A D

B C

Fig 00-3 4600040445

A and B. Inlet valves, C and D. Exhaust valves.

00.3.3 Markings on the flywheel:

Markings on the flywheel: The flywheel is provided with a 360


scale, starting from TDC at firing for cylinder 1. TDC at firing for
every cylinder is marked on the flywheel. There is a common marking
for the cylinders in engines with even cylinder numbers, one cylinder
is at TDC at firing and the other is at TDC at scavenging. See also
chapter 01.
Firing intervals of an in-line engine (in degrees of crank angle) can
be determined by dividing 720 with the number of cylinders.
In V-engines the scale starts from TDC at firing for cylinder A1. TDC
at firing for cylinder B1 is consequently at 45. Firing intervals in a
bank of a V-engine can be determined by dividing 720 with the number
of cylinders of the bank.

WRTSIL 50DF 00 - 5
Contents, instructions, terminology 50-200506-06

Markings on the flywheel

5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5
10

110
60

Clockwise rotating engine


120 CYL A2, 5 TDC
Cyl A2 TDC

70
130
80
140
90

Fig 00-4 4600050445

Example: In this example of a clockwise rotating V engine, the fuel


timing is read to 10 for cylinder A2.

00 - 6 WRTSIL 50DF
200343 Risk Reduction Appendix A

00A. Risk Reduction

00A.1 General
Read the engine manual including this appendix before installing,
operating or servicing the engine and/or related equipment.
Failure to follow the instructions can cause personal injury, loss of life
and/or property damage.
Proper personal safety equipment, e.g. gloves, hard hat, safety glasses
and ear protection must be used in all circumstances. Missing, imper-
fect or defective safety equipment might cause serious personal injury
or loss of life.
This appendix contains listed general identified hazards, hazardous
situations or events, which are to be noticed during normal operation
and maintenance work.

Identified hazard,hazardous situation or Chapter of engine manual


event 3 4 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
Dropping parts during maintenance work x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

Turning device engaged during maintenance x x x x x x x x


work 1)
Crankcase safety expl. valves will open if crank- x x x
case explosion
Noise level x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

Running engine without covers x x x x x x x x x x

In case of major failure, risk of ejected parts x x x x x x x x

Contact with electricity during maintenance x x x x x x x


work if power not disconnected
Electrical hazard if grounding of electrical equip- x x x x x
ment is incorrect
Ejection of components / high pressure gas due x x x x x x x
to high firing pressures
Risk of ejected parts due to break down of turbo- x x
charger
Overspeed or explosion due to air-gas mixture in x x x
the charge air 2)
Ejection of fuel injector if not fastened and crank- x x x
shaft is turned
Engine rotating due to engaged gear box or x x x x x x x x
closed generator breaker during overhaul
Fire or explosion due to leakage on fuel / gas line x x x x x x
or lube oil system
Inhalation of exhaust gases due to leakage 3) x x x
Continues

00A - 1
Appendix A Risk Reduction 200343

Identified hazard,hazardous situation or Chapter of engine manual


event 3 4 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
Inhalation of exhaust gas dust x x x x x x x

Explosion or fire if flammable gas/vapour is x x


leaking into the insulation box. 4)
Touching of moving parts x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

High pressure hoses, risk of oil spray. x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

1)
Warning light when turning device engaged.
2)
Suction air to be taken from gas free space.
3)
Require proper ventilation of engine room/plant.
4)
Require proper ventilation and/or gas detector in the engine.

00A.1.1 General identified hazards, hazardous situ-


ations or events

00A.1.1.1 Hazards that may be due to moving parts


Running engine without covers, coming in contact with moving
parts,
Touching pump parts during unintentional start of el. driven
pump motor,
Charger starts to rotate due to draft if not locked during mainte-
nance,
Somebody sticks his hand into the compressor housing when the
silencer is removed and engine running,
Unexpected movement of valve or fuel rack(s) due to broken wire
or soft / hardware failure in the control system,
Unexpected movement of components,
Turning device engaged during maintenance work,
Turning device not engaged e.g. Turning device removed for
overhaul, during maintenance work could cause rotating crank-
shaft,
Mechanical breakage (of e.g. speed sensor) due to erratic actuator
assembly to engine or electrical connections.

00A.1.1.2 Hazards that may be due to incorrect operating con-


ditions
Overspeed or explosion due to air-gas mixture in the charge air,
Overspeeding due to air-oil mist mixture in the charge air,
Malfunction of crankcase ventilation,
Oil mist detector will trip if water is present in lubricating oil,
Crankcase explosion if oil mist is mixed with fresh air during
inspection after an oil mist shut down,

00A - 2
200343 Risk Reduction Appendix A

Crankcase safety explosion valves will open if there is a crankcase


explosion.
00A.1.1.3 Hazards that may be due to different leakages, break-
down or improper assembly of component
Fuel or gas pipe will burst and spray fuel / gas,
Leakage of:
fuel in joints on low and/or high pressure side,
lube oil,
high pressure water on DWI engines,
HT water,
charge air,
exhaust gas,
pressurised air from air container, main manifold or pipes,
high pressure gas and sealing oil on GD engines,
Fire or explosion due to leakage on fuel line,
Fire due to oil or fuel / gas leakage,
Explosion or fire if flammable gas/vapour is leaking into the
insulation box,
Inhalation of exhaust gases or fuel gases due to leakage,
Failure of pneumatic stop,
Ejected components due to:
breakdown of hydraulic tool,
breakdown of hydraulic bolt,
breakdown of turbocharger,
high firing pressures,
major failure,
Ejection of:
pressurised liquids and gases from the block and pipings,
high pressure fluid due to breakdown of hydraulic tool,
gas due to high firing pressures,
pressurised gases from high pressure gas system,
high pressure fluid due to breakdown of HP sealing oil pipe,
high pressure air during maintenance of oil mist detector main air
supply piping,
cooling water or fuel/lube oil if sensor is loosened while the circuit
is pressurised,
springs during maintenance work,
Oil spray if running without covers,
Ejection of fuel injector if not fastened and
turning device engaged and turned.
engine turning due to closed generator breaker/coupling

00A - 3
Appendix A Risk Reduction 200343

00A.1.1.4 Hazards that may be due to electricity or incorrect


connections of electricity
Fire or sparks due to damage or short circuit in electrical equip-
ment,
Contact with electricity during maintenance work if power not
disconnected,
Electrical hazard if grounding of electrical equipment is incorrect,
Electrical shock if electrical equipment has a lead isolation break
or connector damage or is dismantled with power connected,
Overheating of control system component due to erratic electrical
connections,
Incorrectly wired or disconnected emergency stop switch,
Overload of control system components due to damaged control
circuitry or incorrect voltage,
Engine not controllable if failure in the shutdown circuitry,
Unexpected start up or overrun,
Crankcase explosion if:
engine not safeguarded at high oil mist levels, due to energy supply
failure,
engine not (fully) safeguarded at high oil mist levels, due to failure
in oil mist detector circuitry,
engine not (fully) safeguarded at high oil mist levels, due to erratic
electrical connector or leakage in pipe connection.

00A.1.1.5 Other hazards and hazardous situations where its es-


pecially important to use personal safety equipment
Slip, trip and fall,
Water additives and treatment products (see appendix 02A, sec-
tion 02A.4),
Touching the insulation box, turbo-charger, pipes exhaust mani-
fold or (other) unprotected parts without protection during engine
operation,
Dropping parts during maintenance work,
Starting maintenance work too early i.e. causing risk when han-
dling hot components,
Neglecting use of cranes and/or lifting tools,
Not using proper tools during e.g. maintenance work,
Contact with fuel oil or oily parts during maintenance work (see
appendix 02A),
Noise level,
Touching or removing Turbocharger insulation,
Preloaded fixation springs during check / replacement of sensor.

00A - 4
200506 Welding Precautions Appendix B

00B. Welding Precautions

00B.1 Precautions General


Main principles:
Prevent uncontrolled current loops
Prevent radiation
Prevent sparkles flying around
If convenient, disconnect all global signals like power supply, data
communication etc.

00B.1.1 Preventing uncontrolled current loops

Welding current path must always be checked, there should be a


straight route from the welding point back to the return connection of
the welding apparatus.
The main current is always going where it meets the lowest resistance,
in certain cases the return current can therefore go via grounding wires
and electronics in the control system.
To avoid this, the distance between the welding point and the return
connection clamp of the welding apparatus should always be shortest
possible and without electronic components in the returning loop path.
Attention must be paid to the connectivity of the return connection
clamp, a bad contact might also cause sparkles and radiation.

00B.1.2 Preventing Radiation

The welding current and the arc is emitting a wide spectrum of


electromagnetic radiation. This might cause damages on sensitive
electronic equipment.
To avoid these damages all cabinets and terminal boxes must be kept
closed during the welding. Sensitive equipment can also be protected
by means of shielding with a conductive metal plate.
Also avoid having the cables of the welding apparatus going in parallel
with wires and cables in the control system. The high welding current
is easily inducting secondary currents in other conductive materials.

00B.1.3 Preventing damage due to sparkles

Sparkles are commonly flying around from the welding arc. Few
materials withstand the heat from these sparkles. Therefore all cabi-
nets and terminal boxes should be kept closed during the welding.
Sensors, actuators, cables and other equipment out on the engine must
be protected by means of proper protection.

00 - 1
Appendix B Welding Precautions 200506

Sparkles can also be a problem after they have cooled down, i.e. causing
short circuits, sealing problems etc.

00B.2 Precaution checklists

00B.2.1 Checklists General

The checklists (preferable glued to a plastic plate) in this chapter


should be put into the engines cabinet for respective system type. The
checklist must be easily visible and accessible when opening the
cabinet.

00B.2.2 Basic ECU (Despemes/Spemos) checklist

The following precautions must be paid attention to before welding in


the vicinity of a basic ECU system:
Close the cover of the cabinet
Deactive the system by disconnecting all external connectors
(X1...X4).
If convenient, protect cables, sensors and other equipment from
sparkles with a proper metal sheet.

00B.2.3 WECS 2000 checklist

The following precautions must be paid attention to before welding in


the vicinity of a WECS 2000 control system:
Open all terminal fuses (F1- FX) in the cabinet.
Close the covers of the cabinet and all the distributed units.
Deactivate the system by disconnecting all external connectors
(X1...X6).
If convenient, protect cables, sensors and other equipment from
sparkles with a proper metal sheet.

00B.2.4 WECS 3000 checklist

The following precautions must be paid attention to before welding in


the vicinity of a WECS 3000 control system:
Deactive the system by disconnecting all external connectors
(X1...X5).
Do not connect the welding apparatus return line to the alu-
minium profile containing CCUs, KDUs and ignition modules.
The profile is used as a common ground for these modules.
Open all terminal fuses (F1...F20) in the cabinet.
Close the covers of the cabinet and all the distributed units.

00 - 2
200506 Welding Precautions Appendix B

If convenient, protect cables, sensors and other equipment from


sparkles with proper metal sheet.

00B.2.5 WECS 7000/8000 checklist

The following precautions must be paid attention to before welding in


the vicinity of a WECS 7000 or 8000 control system:
Deactive the system by disconnecting all external connectors
(X1...X6).
If the welding point is close to (approximately within a radius of
2 m) an electronic module disconnect all connectors of the unit.
If an electronic module is connected through a CIB (Connection
Interface Box) then open the CIB cover and disconnect all connec-
tors of the unit and close cover again.
Close the covers of the cabinet
If engine equipped with harness: Disconnect the interconnections
between the harnesses and the cabinet.
If convenient, protect harnesses, cables, sensors and other equip-
ment from sparkles with a proper metal sheet.

00 - 3
Appendix B Welding Precautions 200506

00 - 4
50-2000507-05 Main Data, Operating Data and General Design

01. Main Data, Operating Data and


General Design

01.1 Main data for Wrtsil 50DF

Cylinder bore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500 mm


Stroke . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 580 mm
Piston displacement per cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113.9 l

Firing order
Engine Clockwise rotation Counter-clockwise rotation
type
6L50 1-5-3-6-2-4 1-4-2-6-3-5
8L50 I: 1-3-2-5-8-6-7-4 I: 1-4-7-6-8-5-2-3
II: 1-6-2-4-8-3-7-5 II: 1-5-7-3-8-4-2-6
9L50 I: 1-2-4-6-8-9-7-5-3 I: 1-3-5-7-9-8-6-4-2
II: 1-7-4-2-8-6-3-9-5 II: 1-5-9-3-6-8-2-4-7
12V50 A1-B1-A5-B5-A3-B3- A1-B4-A4-B2-A2-B6-
A6-B6-A2-B2-A4-B4 A6-B3-A3-B5-A5-B1
16V50 A1-B1-A3-B3-A2-B2-A5-B5- A1-B4-A4-B7-A7-B6-A6-B8-
A8-B8-A6-B6-A7-B7-A4-B4 A8-B5-A5-B2-A2-B3-A3-B1
18V50 A1-B8-A7-B6-A4-B3-A2-B9-A8- A1-B2-A5-B4-A9-B7-A3-B1-A6-
B5-A6-B1-A3-B7-A9-B4-A5-B2 B5-A8-B9-A2-B3-A4-B6-A7-B8

Normally the engine rotates clockwise.

Note! The engine specific firing order can be found in Setting table of
Test run reports in file Technical documents.

Lubricating oil volume in the engine (litres)


Engine type 6L50 8L50 9L50 12V50 16V50 18V50
Dry sump 250 330 370 370 490 550
Wet sump See section Lubricating oil level in chapter 18.

Approx. cooling water volume in the engine (litres)


Engine type 6L50 8L50 9L50 12V50 16V50 18V50
HT 950 1350 1500 1700 2100 2600
LT 100 100 100 200 200 200

01 - 1
Main Data, Operating Data and General Design 50-2000507-05

01.2 Recommended operating data


Apply to normal operation at nominal speed.

Normal values Limits


Alarm Stop
Temperatures, (C)
Lubricating oil before engine 60 - 65 70 80 (xx)
Lubricating oil dufferential high, after en- 10 - 15
gine
HT water after engine 85 - 95 105 105
120s(xx)
Ht water differential low, before engine 15 - 20
HT water, rise over turbocharger (only 8 - 12
VTR- and Napier-chargers)
LT water before engine 25 - 38
Charge air in air receiver 40 - 55 65 75(xx)
Exhaust gas after cylinder See test records 550 580(xx)
Exhaust gas after cylinder, deviation 80
from average
Preheating of HT water 74
Gas before engine 0 - 60
Gauge pressures (bar)
Lube oil before engine 4,0 3,0 2,0
Lube oil before turbocharger:VTR 0,5 - 1,5 0,4
TPL 1,25 - 2,25 1,0
Napier 2,3 - 3,3 2,1
HT water before engine 3,2 - 4,8(x) 2,5 2,0(xx)
LT water before charge air cooler 3,2 - 4,4(x) 2,0
Gas before engine 3,9 - 4,6
Fuel before engine 7-9 4,0
Starting air max. 30 18
Charge air See test records
Other pressures (bar)
Firing pressure See test records

(x)
Depending on speed and installation.
(xx)
Load reduction -20% at loads over 60%.

01 - 2
50-2000507-05 Main Data, Operating Data and General Design

01.3 Reference conditions


Reference conditions according to ISO 3046-1 (2002):
Air pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 kPa (1.0 bar)
Ambient temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298 K (25C)
Relative air humidity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 %
Cooling water temperature of charge air cooler . . . . . 298 K (25C)

In case the engine power can be utilized under more difficult conditions
than those mentioned above, it will be stated in the sales documents.
Otherwise, the engine manufacturer can give advice about the correct
output reduction. As a guideline additional reduction may be calculated
as follows:

Reduction factor = (a + b + c) %

a = 0.5 % for every C the ambient temperature exceeds the stated


value in the sales documents.
b = 1 % for every 100 m level difference above stated value in the sales
documents.
c = 0.4 % for every C the cooling water of the charge air cooler exceeds
the stated value in the sales documents.

01 - 3
Main Data, Operating Data and General Design 50-2000507-05

01.4 General engine design


The engine is a turbocharged intercooled 4-stroke diesel engine with
direct fuel injection.
The engine block is cast in one piece. The main bearings are under-
slung. The main bearing cap is supported by two hydraulically ten-
sioned main bearing screws and two horizontal side screws.
The cooling water header is cast into the engine block. The crankcase
covers, made of light metal, seal against the engine block by means of
rubber sealings.
The lubricating oil sump is welded.
The cylinder liners are designed with high collars and drilled cooling
holes. The cooling effect is optimized to give the correct temperature of
the inner surface.
The liner is provided with an anti-polishing ring in the upper part of
the bore to eliminate the risk of bore polishing.
The main bearings are tri-metal bearings and can be removed by
lowering the main bearing cap. A hydraulic jack is provided for every
main bearing to lower and lift the main bearing cap.
The crankshaft is forged in one piece and is balanced by counter-
weights as required.
The connecting rods are drop forged. The design is a three piece
marine design. The small end bearing is stepped to achieve large
bearing surfaces. The big end bearings are of tri-metal type.
The piston ring set in the Wrtsil Vasa 32 Low NOX engines consist
of two chromium-plated compression rings and one spring loaded oil
scraper ring with chromium-plated edges.
In the older engines the piston ring set consists of three chrome-plated
compression rings and one chrome-plated, spring-loaded oil scraper
rings.
The piston upper part ring grooves are hardened. Cooling oil enters
the cooling space through the connecting rod. The cooling spaces are
designed to give an optimal shaker effect. Part of the oil going to the
cooling space is led to piston skirt lubrication through nozzles situated
in the piston.
The piston ring set consists of two chrome-plated compression rings
and one chrome-plated, spring-loaded oil scraper ring.
The cylinder head, made of special cast iron, is fixed by four hyd-
raulically tensioned screws. The head is of the double deck design and
cooling water is forced from the periphery towards the centre giving
efficient cooling in important areas.
The inlet valves are stellite plated and the stems are chromium
plated. The valve seat rings are made of a special cast iron alloy and
are changeable.
The exhaust valves seal against the directly cooled valve seat rings.
The valves are made of Nimonic in engines using HFO as fuel or they
have Stellite seats and chromium-plated stems in case of using MDO
or gas.
The seat rings, made of a corrosion and pitting resistant material, are
changeable.

01 - 4
50-2000507-05 Main Data, Operating Data and General Design

The camshafts are made up from one-cylinder pieces with integrated


cams. The bearing journals are separate pieces and thus it is possible
to remove a camshaft piece sideways.
The injection pumps have integrated roller followers and can be
changed by adjusting the base measure with the tappet screw. The
pumps and piping are located in a closed space, so called hot box, for
heavy fuel operation.
The charge air cooler is designed for easy maintenance and
equipped with water separator (= water mist catcher).
The internal lubricating oil system is provided with a welded oil
sump, lubricating oil connections and a centrifugal type filter.
The starting system. The air supply into the cylinders is controlled
by the starting air distributor run by the camshaft.

01 - 5
Main Data, Operating Data and General Design 50-2000507-05

Cross-section of Wrtsil 50DF, in-line engine

Fig 01-1 500101

01 - 6
50-2000507-05 Main Data, Operating Data and General Design

Cross-section of Wrtsil 50DF, V-engine

Fig 01-2 500102

01 - 7
Main Data, Operating Data and General Design 50-2000507-05

01 - 8
32-200305-02 Fuel, Lubricating Oil, Cooling Water

02. Fuel, Lubricating Oil, Cooling Water

02.1 Fuel

02.1.1 General

The engine is designed to operate on natural gas as a main fuel and


light fuel oil as a pilot fuel. The maximum limits of natural gas and
light fuel oil for a certain engine are stated in the documentation
delivered with the engine.

02.1.2 Gas quality

The Wrtsil32DF/50DF engines are designed for running on natural


gas qualities according to the following specification:

Gas quality, maximum limits


32DF: Lower Heating Value LHV 1), min. 24 MJ/m3N
W 50DF: Lower Heating Value LHV 1), min. 28 MJ/m3N
Methane Number (MN), min. 80
Methane content CH4, min. 70 vol. %
Hydrogen sulphide H2S 2) 0.05 vol. %
Hydrogen 3 vol. %
Water and hydrocarbon condensates be-
fore the engine not allowed
Ammonia 25 mg/m3N
Chlorine + Fluorine 50 mg/m 3N
Particles or solids content *) 50 mg/m3N
Particles or solids size*) 5 mm
Gas inlet temperature 0 - 50 C
*) Content of gas in engine inlet

1) Lower Heating Value corresponds to the energy content of the


gas. If the LHV is lower than specified above, the engine output has to
be adjusted or a higher gas pressure to the engine is needed.

Methane Number is a scale for evaluation of the knock resistance of


the fuel. A higher number means better knock resistance. If the
components of the fuel gas are known, the methane number can be
calculated. Heavier hydrocarbons as ethane, propane and butane tend
to lower the methane number and special care should be taken if the
gas contains even small portions of butane and heavier hydrocarbons.
If the methane number does not match with the requirements, the
engine should be derated according to Fig 02-1.

32DF/W 50DF 02 - 1
Fuel, Lubricating Oil, Cooling Water 32-200305-02

Derating curve for methane number

Max. Engine Load (%)


110

100

90

80

70

60

50
30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110
Methane Number

Fig 02-1 3202589552

Carbon dioxide and nitrogen will increase the methane number.

2) Hydrogen contents above 3 vol-% must be agreed on case by case


basis.
Hydrogen sulphide, H2S may cause corrosion on the gas handling
equipments.

Particles can be the reason for improper sealing and function of the
gas handling equipments. The gas regulating unit should contain a
suitable filter.

NOTE! During dismantling and assembly of the gas components, special


care should be taken in order to avoid foreign particles entering the
gas system.

02 - 2 32DF/W 50DF
32-200305-02 Fuel, Lubricating Oil, Cooling Water

02.1.3 Pilot fuel quality

The Wrtsil32DF/50DF engines are designed to operate on light fuel


as a pilot fuel according to the following specification.

Pilot fuel characteristics, maximum limits


Kinematic viscosity cSt at 40 C 11.0
32DF: Kinematic viscosity, min. cSt at engine inlet 1.5
W 50DF: Kinematic viscosity, min. cSt at engine inlet 2.8
Kinematic viscosity, max.bef. cSt 24.0
injection pumps
Density kg/m3 at 15 C 900
Flash point, min. (PMCC) C 60
Pour point C 6
Sulphur mass-% 2.0
Carbon residue (micro method) mass-% 0.30
Ash mass-% 0.01
Sediment mass-% 0.07
Water, before engine vol-% 0.3
Cetane number, min. 35

The limits above correspond to the demands:


ISO 8217:1996 (E), ISO-F-DMX, DMA and DMB
The fuel characteristics limits for a specific engine may differ from the
numbers above. The valid values are stated in the sales contract. If the
values in the sales contract are exceeded during the warranty period,
the engine warranty is not valid anymore.

32DF/W 50DF 02 - 3
Fuel, Lubricating Oil, Cooling Water 32-200305-02

02.2 Lubricating oil

02.2.1 System oil characteristics, continuous natural


gas operation

Viscosity. Viscosity class SAE 40.


Viscosity Index (VI). Min.95.
Alkalinity (BN). Lubricants with a BN of 4 - 7 mg KOH/g have to be
used.
Sulphated ash level. The content of sulphated ash in gas engine
lubricants is a very important property. Too high ash content can cause
preignition and knocking, while too low ash content can lead to in-
creased valve wear. Low ash lubricants with sulphated ash levels of
0.3 - 0.6 w-% must be used.
Additives. The oils should contain additives that give good oxidation
stability, corrosion protection, load carrying capacity, neutralization of
acid combustion and oxidation residues, and should prevent deposit
formation on internal engine parts (piston cooling gallery, piston ring
zone and bearing surfaces in particular).
Foaming characteristics. Fresh lubricating oil should meet the follow-
ing limits for foaming tendency and stability, according to the ASTM
D 892-92 test method:
Sequence I: 100/0 ml
Sequence II: 100/0 ml
Sequence III: 100/0 ml
In this test a certain amount of air is blown through the lubricating oil
sample. The first number in the results is the foam volume after a
blowing period of 5 minutes and should be less than or equal to 100 ml.
The second number is the foam volume after a settling period of 10
minutes and should always be 0 ml.
Sequences I and III are performed at a temperature of 24 C and
sequence II at a temperature of 93.5 C.
Base oils. Use of virgin base oils is only allowed, i.e. recycled or
re-refined base oils are not allowed.

02.2.2 System oil characteristics, continuous liquid fuel


operation or periodical operation on natural gas
and light fuel oil as a main fuel

Viscosity. Viscosity class SAE 40.


Viscosity Index (VI). Min.95.
Alkalinity (BN). Liquid fuel always contains some sulphur and because
of that higher BN in lubricating oil compared to natural gas operation
is required. The required lubricating oil alkalinity in LFO operation is
tied to the fuel specified for the engine, which is shown in the table
below.

Additionally, the recommended lubricating oil BN depends on the mode


of operation (periodic operation with natural gas and LFO vs. continuous

02 - 4 32DF/W 50DF
32-200305-02 Fuel, Lubricating Oil, Cooling Water

operation with LFO): If gas oil or marine diesel oil is continuously used
as fuel, lubricating oil with a BN of 10-20 is recommended to be used.
In periodic operation with natural gas and light fuel oil lubricating oil
with a BN of 10-15 is recommended.

Fuel standards and lubricating oil requirements


Category Fuel standard Lube oil BN
ASTM D 975-94 GRADE 1D, 2D
A BS MA 100:1996 DMX, DMA 10 - 15
1)
2)
CIMAC 1990 DX, DA 10 - 20
ISO 8217: 1996(E) ISO-F-DMX, DMA
ASTM D 975-94 GRADE 4D
B BS MA 100:1996 DMB 15
1)
2)
CIMAC 1990 DB 15 - 20
ISO 8217: 1996(E) ISO-F-DMB

1)
Periodic operation with natural gas and light fuel oil as a main fuel.
2)
Continuous operation with light fuel oil as a main fuel.

Additives. The oils should contain additives that give good oxidation
stability, corrosion protection, load carrying capacity, neutralisation of
acid combustion and oxidation residues and should prevent deposit
formation on internal engine parts (piston cooling gallery, piston ring
zone and bearing surfaces in particular).
Foaming characteristics. Fresh lubricating oil should meet the follow-
ing limits for foaming tendency and stability, according to the ASTM
D 892-92 test method:
Sequence I:100/0 ml
Sequence II:100/0 ml
Sequence III:100/0 ml
In this test a certain amount of air is blown through the lubricating oil
sample. The first number in the results is the foam volume after a
blowing period of 5 minutes and should be less than or equal to 100 ml.
The second number is the foam volume after a settling period of 10
minutes and should always be 0 ml.
Sequences I and III are performed at a temperature of 24 C and
sequence II at a temperature of 93.5 C.
Base oils. Use of virgin base oils is only allowed, i.e. recycled or
re-refined base oils are not allowed.

02.2.3 Lubricating oil qualities

Lubricating oil is an integrated engine component and thus the quality


of it is upmost important. All lubricating oils, which have been ap-
proved for use in Wrtsil32DF/50DF engine types, have gone
through an approval test according to the engine manufacturers
procedure.
The use of approved lubricating oil qualities during the warranty
period is mandatory and is also strongly recommended after the
warranty period.

32DF/W 50DF 02 - 5
Fuel, Lubricating Oil, Cooling Water 32-200305-02

The list of approved lubricating oils can be found in the end of this
chapter.

Note! Never blend different oil brands unless approved by the oil supplier,
and during the warranty period, by the engine manufacturer.

Attention! Before using a lubricating oil not listed in the table the engine
manufacturer must be contacted. Lubricating oils that are not
approved have to be tested according to the engine manufac-
turers procedures.

02.2.4 Maintenance and control of the lubricating oil

Systems equipped with lubricating oil separators:


a) Centrifuging of the system oil is recommended in order to separate
water and insolubles from the oil. Water must not be added when
centrifuging (washing). The oil should be pre-heated to 80 - 95 C.
Many oil manufacturers recommend a separation temperature of 90 -
95 C for an effective separation. Please check with the supplier of your
lubricating oil what the optimal temperature is. Use the highest
recommended temperature. For efficient centrifuging, use only about
20 % of the rated flow capacity of the separator. For optimum conditions
the centrifuge should be capable of passing the entire oil quantity in
circulation 4 - 5 times every 24 hour at 20 % of rated flow. Gravity disc
should be chosen acc. to oil density at separation temperature.

Note! The separator should run always when the engine is running.

Caution! Defects on automatic, self-cleaning separators can quickly in-


crease the water content of the oil under certain circumstances!
(The water control valve fails.)

02 - 6 32DF/W 50DF
32-200305-02 Fuel, Lubricating Oil, Cooling Water

All systems:
b) During the first year of operation it is advisable to take samples of the
lubricating oil at 500 operating hours intervals. The sample should be
sent to the oil supplier for analysis. On the basis of the results it is
possible to determine suitable intervals between oil changes. Frequent
oil analysis at 500 - 1000 operating hours intervals is also recom-
mended after the first year of operation to ensure safe engine operation.
To be representative of the oil in circulation, the sample should be
taken with the engine in operation at the sampling cock located
immediately after the oil filter on the engine, in a clean container
holding 0.75 - 1 litre. Take samples before, not after adding new oil to
compensate for consumption. Before filling the container, rinse it with
the oil from which the sample is to be taken.
In order to make a complete assessment of the condition of the oil in
service, the following details should be furnished with the sample:
Installation, engine number, oil brand, engine operating hours, num-
ber of hours the oil has been in use, where in the system sample was
drawn, type of fuel, any special remarks. Oil samples with no informa-
tion except installation and engine number are close to valueless.

c) When estimating the condition of the used oil, the following proper-
ties should be observed. Compare with guidance values (type analysis)
for new oil of the brand used.

In continuous natural gas operation, in periodic operation with


natural gas and light fuel oil and in continuous light fuel operation:

Viscosity. Should not decrease by more than 20 % and not rise by more
than 25% above the guidance value at 100 C.
Should not decrease by more than 25 % and not rise by more than
50% above the guidance value at 40 C.
Flash point. Should not fall by more than 50 C below the guidance
value. Min. permissible flash point 190 C (open cup) and 170 C (closed
cup) . At 150 C risk of crankcase explosion.
Water content. Should not exceed 0.3 %. A value higher than 0.3% can
not be accepted for longer periods, but measures must be taken; either
centrifuging or oil change.
BN (Base Number). The minimum allowable BN value of a used oil is
50 % of the nominal value of a new oil.
TAN (Total Acid Number). Should not increase by more than
2.5 mg KOH/g compared to nominal value of a new oil.
Insolubles. The quantity allowed depends on various factors. The oil
suppliers recommendations should be followed. However, an n-Pentan
insoluble value above 0.5 w-% calls for attention. A value higher than
1.0 w-% cannot be accepted for longer periods.

Additionally, in continuous natural gas operation:

TAN (Total Acid Number). Should not increase by more than 2.5 mg
KOH/g compared to the nominal value of a new oil.

32DF/W 50DF 02 - 7
Fuel, Lubricating Oil, Cooling Water 32-200305-02

Nitration and oxidation. If nitration level exceeds 20 Abs/cm and/or


oxidation level exceeds 25 Abs/cm, oil must be changed.
In general it can be said that the changes in the analysis give a better
basis of estimation than the absolute value. Fast and great changes
may indicate abnormal operation of the engine or of a system.
d) Compensate for oil consumption by adding max. 10 % new oil at a
time. Adding larger quantities can disturb the balance of the used oil
causing, for example, precipitation of insolubles. Measure and record
the quantity added.
Attention to the lubricating oil consumption may give valuable infor-
mation about the engine condition.
A continuous increase may indicate that piston rings, pistons and
cylinder liners are getting worn, and a sudden increase motivates
pulling the pistons, if no other reason is found.
e) Guidance values for oil change intervals are to be found in chapter
04. Intervals between changes are influenced by system size (oil
volume), operating conditions, fuel quality, centrifuging efficiency and
total oil consumption.

It is recommended to follow up that the BN value of the lubricating oil


keeps within engine manufacturers limits during the whole oil change
interval.

When changing oil the following procedure is recommended:


1 Empty oil system while oil is still hot. Be sure that oil filters and
coolers are also emptied.
2 Clean oil spaces, including filters and camshaft compartment. In-
sert new filter cartridges.
3 Fill a small quantity of new oil in the oil sump and circulate with the
pre-lubricating pump. Drain!
4 Fill required quantity of oil in the system, see chapter 01, section
01.1.
Oil samples taken at regular intervals analyzed by the oil supplier,
and the analysis results plotted as a function of operating hours is an
efficient way of predicting oil change intervals.
Send or ask the oil supplier to send copies of oil analyses to the engine
manufacturer who will then assist in the evaluation.

02 - 8 32DF/W 50DF
32-200305-02 Fuel, Lubricating Oil, Cooling Water

02.2.5 Lubricating oil for the governor

See the Instruction Book for the governor, attached. An oil of viscosity
class SAE 30 or SAE 40 is suitable, and the same oil can be used as in
the engine. Turbocharger oil can also be used in the governor. In low
ambient conditions it may be necessary to use a multigrade oil (e.g.
SAE 5W-40) to get a good control during start-up. Oil change interval,
see maintenance schedule chapter 04.
Condensed water, high temperature or leaking drive shaft seal may
cause the oil to deteriorate, or internal surfaces of the governor to collect
deposits. If the reason cannot be clarified and rectified, a shorter oil
change interval or change of oil type should be considered.
The governor should be flushed with the oil in use or gasoil if heavy
contamination of the oil is evident.
Examples of suitable lubricating oils for governor can be found from
the end of this chapter, where the lists of approved lubricating oils for
an engine and turbocharger are available.
If the system is equipped with a start booster, then this should
also be emptied when changing oil.
In installations whereby the actuator is equipped with a filter, it
has to be cleaned when changing oil.
Depending on the governor type, oil should be separately emptied
from the power cylinder. This is done by removing the plug in the
bottom of the power cylinder.
Some governors are equipped with a magnetic oil plug, this plug
should be cleaned in connection with an oil change.

Caution! If turbine oil is used in the governor, take care not to mix it with
engine lubricating oil. Only a small quantity of engine lubricating oil
into the turbine oil may cause heavy foaming.

02.2.6 Lubricating oils for turbochargers

Please note that different types of turbochargers can be used for the
engine. The lubricating system is different for the different turbo-
charger. One type of chargers has a common lubricating oil system with
the engine, see chapter 15, while the other type of chargers has an
internal lubricating system for the bearings, see chapter 15. See the
Instruction Book for the turbocharger, attached.

Note! In the ABB VTR..4 series turbochargers the use of synthetic low friction
lubricating oils is strongly recommended by the engine and the
turbocharger manufacturers!

Oil change interval is 500 h service for normal mineral oils, 1 500 h
service for special mineral oils and 2 500 h service for synthetic
lubricating oils.

32DF/W 50DF 02 - 9
Fuel, Lubricating Oil, Cooling Water 32-200305-02

Caution! Take care that the turbine oil is not mixed with engine lubricating
oil. Only a small quantity may cause heavy foaming.

The list of approved lubricating oils for the ABB VTR..4 series turbo-
chargers can be found in the end of this chapter. These lubricating oils
are, regarding viscosity and quality, according to the recommenda-
tions.

02.2.7 Lubricating oils for engine turning device

It is recommended to use EP-gear oils, viscosity 400-500 cSt at


40 C=ISO VG 460 as lubricating oils for the turning device.
The list of lubricating oils for the engine turning device approved by
the turning device manufacturer can be found in the end of this chapter.

02.3 Cooling water

02.3.1 General

In order to prevent corrosion, scale deposits or other deposits in closed


circulating water systems, the water must be treated with additives.
Before treatment, the water must be limpid and meet the specifica-
tion found in the end of this chapter. Further, the use of an approved
cooling water additive or treatment system is mandatory.

Caution! Distilled water without additives absorbs carbon dioxide from the
air, which involves great risk of corrosion.

Sea water will cause severe corrosion and deposit formation even if
supplied to the system in small amounts.
Rain water has a high oxygen and carbon dioxide content; great risk
of corrosion; unsuitable as cooling water.
If risk of freezing occurs, please contact the engine manufacturer for
use of anti-freeze chemicals.
Fresh water generated by a reverse osmosis plant onboard often has
a high chloride content (higher than the permitted 80 mg/l) causing
corrosion.

Caution! The use of glycol in the cooling water is not recommended, if it is


not necessary. Since glycol alone does not protect the engine
against corrosion, additionally an approved cooling water additive
must always be used!

02 - 10 32DF/W 50DF
32-200305-02 Fuel, Lubricating Oil, Cooling Water

02.3.2 Additives

As additives, use products from well-known and reliable suppliers with


vast distribution nets. Follow thoroughly the instructions of the sup-
plier.

Attention! The use of emulsion oils, phosphates and borates (sole) is not
accepted.

In an emergency, if compounded additives are not available, treat the


cooling water with sodium nitrite (NaNO2) in portions of 5 kg/m3. To
obtain a pH value of 9, add caustic soda (NaOH), if necessary.

Attention! Sodium nitrite is toxic.

Corrosion rate as a function of nitrite concentration

To give full protection the Nitrite level


Corrosion rate

should be kept above X ppm. The


actual concentration is additive
supplier dependent.
A permanent lower level will lead to
an accelerated corrosion rate.

Nitrite Concentration
X ppm

Fig 02-2 3202602002

Nitrite based cooling water additives are so called anodic inhibitors and
require proper dosing and maintenance in order to serve as intended.
The nitrite of the additive is as such a salt and it will increase the
conductivity of the water. The conductivity is on the other hand one of
the main parameters affecting the corrosion rate once a corrosion process
gets started, the higher the conductivity the higher the corrosion rate.

32DF/W 50DF 02 - 11
Fuel, Lubricating Oil, Cooling Water 32-200305-02

If the conditions (nitrite level, chlorides, pH, etc.) in the systems are
such that the nitrite based additive is no longer able to protect the
entire surface of the system there may occur a rapid, local corrosion in
the areas that are not protected. The corrosion rate at the attacked
areas will even be much greater than it would be with no additive at
all present in the system, see schematic graph of the corrosion rate as
a function of the nitrite dosage in Fig 02-3. Observe that the position
of the curve peak on the x-axis (= dangerous condition for corrosion) is
not stable, but will shift depending on temperature, pH, chloride &
sulphate contents, etc. in the cooling water.
The table below shows shows examples of the most common cooling
water additive types.
Summary of the most common cooling water additives
Additive Advantages Disadvantages
- good efficiency, if - suitable as additive except
dosage is controlled in air cooled heat ex-
Sodium carefully changers with large soft
- small active quantities, solder surfaces
nitrite 0.5 % by mass - toxic
- cheap - risk of spot corrosion when
too low concentration
- no increased risk of - tendency to attack zinc
corrosion coverings and soft solde-
Nitrite at over doses rings
- innocuous for the skin - toxic: lethal dosage 3 - 4 g
+ solid nitrite
borate - risk of spot corrosion when
too
low concentration
- not toxic - not active when water
- harmless to handle velocity exceeds 2 m/s
- commercial products very
Sodium expensive
silicate - increased risk of corrosion
when too low concen-
tration; spot corrosion
- limited suitability
- not toxic - more expensive than toxic
- harmless to handle additives
- increased risk of corrosion,
Sodium if unsufficently dosed
molybdate - can cause deposit
formation
(molybdates can collect to
ferrous sulphates)
- not toxic - more expensive than
Organic sodium
and nitrite and molybdate
inorcanic based
synergistic additives
based - big active quantitives by
mass

02 - 12 32DF/W 50DF
32-200305-02 Fuel, Lubricating Oil, Cooling Water

02.3.3 Treatment

When changing the additive or when entering an additive into a system


where untreated water has been used, the complete system must be cleaned
(chemically) and rinsed before fresh treated water is poured into the system.
If, against our recommendations, an emulsion oil has been used, the
complete system must be absolutely cleaned of oil and greasy deposits.
Evaporated water should be compensated by untreated water; if
treated water is used the content of additives may gradually become
too high. To compensate for leakage or other losses, add treated water.
In connection with maintenance work calling for drainage of the
water system, take care of and reuse the treated water.
The list of approved cooling water additives and treatment systems
can be found in the end of this chapter.

Attention! Ask the supplier of the treatment product for instructions about
treatment procedure, dosage and concentration control.

Most suppliers will provide a test kit for the concentration control.
Additionally a frequent laboratory analysis of cooling water at 3 months
interval is recommended to ensure safe engine operation.

32DF/W 50DF 02 - 13
Fuel, Lubricating Oil, Cooling Water 32-200305-02

02 - 14 32DF/W 50DF
200507 Environmental Hazards Appendix A

02A. Environmental Hazards

02A.1 General

Fuel oils, lubricating oils and cooling water additives are environmen-
tally hazardous. Take great care when handling these products or
systems containing these products. Detailed information and handling
instructions can be found in the text below.

02A.2 Fuel oils

Prolonged or repetitive contact with the skin may cause irritation and
increase the risk of skin cancer (polyaromatic hydrocarbons, etc.).
Fumes, like hydrogen sulphide or light hydrocarbons, that are irritat-
ing for eyes and respiratory organs may be released during load-
ing/bunkering. Fuel oils are mainly non-volatile burning fluids, but
may also contain volatile fractions. Risk for fire and explosion. May
cause long-term harm and damages in water environments. Risk of
contamination of the soil and the ground water. Take every appropriate
measure to prevent water and soil contamination.

02A.2.1 Handling

Isolate from ignition sources, like sparks from static electricity for
example.
Avoid breathing evaporated fumes (may contain hydrogen sul-
phide, etc.) during pumping and opening of storage tanks for
example. Use gas mask if necessary.
The handling and storage temperatures must not exceed the flash
point of the product. Should be stored in tanks or containers
designed for flammable fluids.
Must not be let into the sewage system, water systems or onto the
ground.
Methane may during long-term storage be formed in tanks, due
to bacterial activities. Risk of explosions during unloading or
storage tank opening for example.
Cloths, paper or any other absorbent material used to soak up
spills are fire hazards. Do not allow these to accumulate.
Waste that contains the product is hazardous and has to be
disposed of according to directives issued by the local or national
environmental authorities. Collection, regeneration and burning
should be handled by authorized disposal plants.

02A - 1
Appendix A Environmental Hazards 200507

02A.2.2 Personal protection equipment

Respiratory organs protection: Oil mist: Use respirator, com-


bined particle and gas filter. Evaporated fumes (hydrogen sul-
phide, etc.): Use respirator, inorganic gas filter.
Hands protection: Strong, heat and hydrocarbon resistant
gloves (nitrile rubber for example).
Eye protection: Wear goggles if splash risk exists.
Skin and body protection: Wear facial screen and covering
clothing as required. Use safety footwear when handling barrels.
Wear protecting clothes if hot product is handled.

02A.2.3 First aid measures

Inhalation of fumes: Move victim to fresh air, keep warm and


lying still. Give oxygen or mouth to mouth resuscitation as
needed. Seek medical advice after significant exposures. Inhala-
tion of oil mist: Seek medical advice.
Skin contact: Hot oil on the skin should be cooled immediately
with plenty of cold water. Wash immediately with plenty of water
and soap. Do not use solvents, the oil is spread and may be
absorbed into the skin. Remove contaminated clothing. Seek
medical advice if irritation develops.
Eye contact: Rinse immediately with plenty of water, for at least
15 minutes and seek medical advice. If possible, keep rinsing until
eye specialist has been reached.
Ingestion: Rinse mouth with water. Do not induce vomiting, in
order not to risk aspiration into respiratory organs. Seek medical
advice.

Note! Complete safety data sheets for the specific products used at your
installation should be available from the fuel oil delivering com-
pany.

02A - 2
200507 Environmental Hazards Appendix A

02A.3 Natural gas


Natural gas is non-toxic and will not harm anyone breathing in the low
concentrations near minor fuel leaks. Heavy concentrations, however,
can cause drowsiness and eventual suffocation.
In a gas engine installation, gas may cause danger situations in some
cases. The most serious situations are caused by gas leaks into the
engine room, gas fires and gas explosions caused by unburned gas in
the exhaust system.
If a gas explosion occurs, it is important to protect people, equipment
and environment from damages. Damages are caused by shock wave
and burning effect of the expanding and partly burning gases. Damages
can be avoided by preventing pressure build up in equipment and
guiding the released pressure to an open area.
Read the Gas Safety Manual that can be found at the end of chap-
ter 03 for gas engine installations.

02A.4 Lubricating oils


Fresh lubricating oils normally present no particular toxic hazard, but
all lubricants should always be handled with great care. Used lubricat-
ing oils may contain significant amounts of harmful metal and PAH
(polyaromatic hydrocarbons) compounds. Avoid prolonged or repetitive
contact with the skin. Prevent any risk of splashing and keep away
from heat, ignition sources and oxidizing agents. Risk of long term
contamination of the soil and the ground water. Take every appropriate
measure to prevent water and soil contamination.

02A.4.1 Handling

Ensure adequate ventilation if there is a risk of release of vapours,


mists or aerosols. Do not breathe vapours, fumes or mist.
Keep away from flammable materials and oxidants.
Keep away from food and drinks. Do not eat, drink or smoke while
handling.
Use only containers, piping, etc. which are resistant to hydrocar-
bons. Open the containers in well ventilated surroundings.
Immediately take off all contaminated clothing.
Empty packaging may contain flammable or potentially explosive
vapours.
Cloths, paper or any other absorbent material used to recover
spills are fire hazards. Do not allow these to accumulate. Keep
waste products in closed containers.
Waste that contains the product is hazardous and has to be
disposed of according to directives issued by the local or national
environmental authorities. Collection, regeneration and burning
should be handled by authorized disposal plants.

02A - 3
Appendix A Environmental Hazards 200507

02A.4.2 Personal protection equipment

Hand protection: Impermeable and hydrocarbon resistant


gloves (nitrile rubber for example).
Eye protection: Wear goggles if splash risk exists.
Skin and body protection: Wear facial screen and covering
clothing as required. Use safety footwear when handling barrels.
Wear protecting clothes if hot product is handled.

02A.4.3 First aid measures

Inhalation of fumes: Move victim to fresh air, keep warm and


lying still.
Skin contact: Wash immediately with plenty of water and soap
or cleaning agent. Do not use solvents (the oil is spread and may
be absorbed into the skin). Remove contaminated clothing. Seek
medical advice if irritation develops.
Eye contact: Rinse immediately with plenty of water, continue
for at least 15 minutes and seek medical advice.
Ingestion: Do not induce vomiting, in order not to risk aspiration
into respiratory organs. Seek medical advice immediately.
Aspiration of liquid product: If aspiration into the lungs is
suspected (during vomiting for example) seek medical advice
immediately.

Note! Complete safety data sheets for the specific products used at your
installation should be available from the lubricating oil manufac-
turer or your local dealer.

02A.5 Cooling water additives, nitrite based


The products are toxic if swallowed. Concentrated product may cause
serious toxic symptoms, pain giddiness and headache. Significant
intake results in greyish/blue discoloration of the skin and mucus
membranes and a decreasing blood pressure. Skin and eye contact of
the undiluted product can produce intense irritation. Diluted solutions
may be moderately irritating.

02A.5.1 Handling

Avoid contact with skin and eyes.


Keep away from food and drinks. Do not eat, drink or smoke while
handling.
Keep in well ventilated place with access to safety shower and eye
shower.

02A - 4
200507 Environmental Hazards Appendix A

Soak liquid spills in absorbent material and collect solids in a


container. Wash floor with water as spillage may be slippery.
Contact appropriate authorities in case of bigger spills.
Bulk material can be land dumped at an appropriate site in
accordance with local regulations.

02A.5.2 Personal protection equipment

Respiratory protection: Not normally required. Avoid expo-


sure to product mists.
Hands protection: Rubber gloves should be worn (PVC or natu-
ral rubber for example).
Eye protection: Eye goggles should be worn.
Skin and body protection: Use protective clothing and take
care to minimize splashing. Use safety footwear when handling
barrels.

02A.5.3 First aid measures

Inhalation: In the event of over exposure to spray mists move


victim to fresh air, keep warm and lying still. If effects persists,
seek medical advice.
Skin contact: Wash immediately with plenty of water and soap.
Remove contaminated clothing. If irritation persists, seek medical
advice.
Eye contact: Rinse immediately with plenty of clean water and
seek medical advice. If possible, keep rinsing until eye specialist
has been reached.
Ingestion: Rinse mouth with water. Drink milk, fruit juice or
water. Do not induce vomiting without medical advice. Immedi-
ately seek medical advice. Do not give anything to drink to an
unconscious person.

Note! Complete safety data sheets for the specific products used at your
installation should be available from the cooling water additive
manufacturer or local representative.

02A - 5
Appendix A Environmental Hazards 200507

02A.6 Fly ashes and exhaust gas dust contami-


nated components

When handling the fly ashes, exhaust gas dusts and when working
inside the exhaust gas system or when handling any component
contaminated with exhaust gas dust, at least the following minimum
precautions and safety procedures must be applied:

Note! Inhaling, eye contacts, skin contacts and swallowing of fly ashes
and dusts must be avoided.

Employees must be required to study the safety instructions before


they start to overhaul the exhaust gas system or engine components
that have been in contact with exhaust gases.

Note! Spreading and spillage of the fly ashes and dusts to the environment
must be avoided.

When opening the manholes of the exhaust gas system and specially
the SCR avoid spreading the dust in the surrounding area. During
replacement of components in the exhaust gas system and during
handling as well as during normal operation of the system, dust
spreading must be avoided.
Appropriate flue gas dust spillage disposal instructions must be
applied. The dusts collected from the exhaust gas system must be
considered as hazardous waste and must be treated according to the
local regulations and legislation.

02A.6.1 Personal protection equipment

Respiratory organs protection: Toxi particles: Use P3 filter respi-


rator or for work inside the SCR or other places in the exhaust gas
system, where the dust concentration is high, a respiration mask
with fresh filtered compressed air supply is recommended.
Hands protection: Gloves.
Eye protection: Wear goggles.
Skin and body protection: Wear covering clothing.
Also when machining or cleaning engine components that have been
in contact with exhaust gases, proper protection according to the above
must be used.
Consideration must also be given to whether the ventilation is
suitable for collecting dust from the machining and cleaning of the
components.

02A - 6
200507 Environmental Hazards Appendix A

02A.6.2 First aid measures

Inhalation of ashes: Move victim to fresh air, keep warm and lying
still. Give oxygen or mouth to mouth resuscitation as needed. Seek
medical advice after significant exposures.
Skin contact: Hot ash on the skin should be cooled immediately
with plenty of cold water. Wash immediately with plenty of water
and soap. Do not use solvents, the ash is spread and may be
absorbed into the skin. Remove contaminated clothing. Seek
medical advice if irritation develops.
Eye contact: Rinse immediately with plenty of water, for at least
15 minutes and seek medical advice. If possible, keep rinsing until
eye specialist has been reached.
Ingestion: Rinse mouth with water. Do not induce vomiting, in
order not to risk aspiration into respiratory organs. Seek medical
advice.

02A.7 Lead in bearings


Lead has valuable lubricating properties and therefore it is incorpo-
rated into many bearing alloys.
The bearings in Wrtsil engines consists of lead and are therefore a
toxic hazardous waste. Lead containing bearings that are not used
anymore must be wasted according to local waste disposal plant
instructions.

02A - 7
Appendix A Environmental Hazards 200507

02A.8 Fluoride rubber products

02A.8.1 Handling instructions - normal sealing applica-


tions

In normal sealing applications the use of fluoride rubber products does


not cause any health hazards. The handling of products, e.g. installa-
tion and service, can be made without any risk provided that normal
industrial hygiene is applied.

02A.8.2 Handling instructions in case of overheated


seats and valve blow-by

When changing O-rings, for instance after a valve blow-by, operators


handling the remains of burnt fluoride rubber must wear impenetrable
acidproof gloves to protect the skin from the high corrosive remains.
Appropriate glove materials are neoprene or PVC. All liquid state
remains must be considered to be extremely corrosive.
Neutralisation of the remains can be done by using large amounts of
calcium hydroxide solution (lime water). Used gloves must be disposed
off.

02A.8.2.1 Use of fluoride rubber products at temperature above


275 C (527 F)
Fluoride rubber can be used in most applications (up to 275 C) without
any substantial degradation or health hazard. Use of or test of fluoride
rubber at temperatures above 275 C must be avoided. If the material,
in spite of above recommendations, is exposed to higher temperatures,
or in case of an accident, there is a risk that the temperature will rise
out of control.

02A.8.3 Special conditions

02A.8.3.1 Grinding dust


Dust and particles which originates from grinding or abrasion (wear)
of fluoride rubber can cause the formation of toxic degradation products
when burned (incinerated). Smoking must therefore be prohibited in
areas where there is fluoride rubber dust and particles present.

02A.8.3.2 Fire
In case of a fire, burning fluoride rubber can cause the formation of
toxic and corrosive degradation products (e.g. hydrofluoric acid, car-
bonyl fluoride, carbon monoxide and carbon fluoride fragments of low
molecular weight).
Burning (incineration) of fluoride rubber is allowed only when using
approved incinerators equipped with gas emission reduction systems.

02A - 8
200507 Environmental Hazards Appendix A

02A.8.3.3 Decontamination
Operators handling the remains of burnt fluoride rubber must wear
impenetrable acid-proof gloves to protect the skin from the high corro-
sive remains of burnt fluoride rubber. Appropriate glove materials are
neoprene or PVC. All liquid state remains must be considered to be
extremely corrosive.

02A.8.4 Personal protection equipment

Hand protection: impenetrable acidproof gloves (neoprene or


PVC).
Inhalation protection: breathing mask.

02A.8.5 First aid measures

Inhaling: Move the patient from the danger zone. Make sure that
he blows his nose. Consult medical personnel.
Eye contact: Rinse immediately with water. Contact medical
personnel.
Skin contact: Rinse immediately with water, put a 2%-solution of
calcium gluconate gel on the exposed skin. If calcium gluconate-
gel is not available, continue to rinse with water. Contact medical
personnel.

02A - 9
Appendix A Environmental Hazards 200507

02A - 10
Wrtsil
Corporation INSTALLATION MANUAL
Finland
Technology

This doc. is the property of Wrtsil Corp. and shall neither be copied, shown or communicated to a third party without the consent of the owner.
K Juoperi /
Subtitle Product Made 06.03.2000 Page Document No Rev
J Norrgrd
Wrtsil 32DF
-
Wrtsil 50DF
Appd. 12.10.2000 U strand 1 (10) 4V92A1051 e
Changed by: K Juoperi / M
Revised date: 01.08.2005 Approved by: M Wideskog D-message No.: 64408
Toija

REQUIREMENTS AND OIL QUALITY


SYSTEM OIL REQUIREMENTS AND QUALITY FOR WRTSIL 32DF
AND WRTSIL 50DF ENGINES

1. CONTINUOUS NATURAL GAS OPERATION

1.1 FRESH LUBRICATING OIL REQUIREMENTS

Viscosity
Viscosity class SAE 40

Viscosity Index (VI)


Min. 95

Alkalinity (BN)
Lubricating oils with BN of 4-7 mg KOH/g have to be used.

Sulphated ash level


The content of sulphated ash in gas engine lubricating oils is a very important property. Too
high ash content can cause preignition, knocking and spark plug fouling, while too low ash
content can lead to increased valve wear. Low ash lubricating oils with sulphated ash level
of max. 0.6 % m/m have to be used.

Additives
The oils should contain additives that give good oxidation stability, corrosion protection, load
carrying capacity, neutralisation of acid combustion and oxidation residues and should
prevent deposit formation on internal engine parts.

Foaming characteristics
Fresh lubricating oil should meet the following limits for foaming tendency and stability,
according to the ASTM D 892-92 test method:
Sequence I: 100/0 ml
Sequence II: 100/0 ml
Sequence III: 100/0 ml

Base oils
Use of virgin base stocks is only allowed, i.e. recycled or re-refined base oils are not
allowed.
Page Document No Rev
2 (10) 4V92A1051 e

1.2 CONDEMNING LIMITS FOR USED LUBRICATING OIL

When estimating the condition of used lubricating oil, the following properties along with the
corresponding limit values must be noted. If the limits are exceeded, measures must be
taken. Compare also with guidance values for fresh lubricating of the brand used.

Property Unit Limit Test method


Viscosity cSt at 40 C max. 25% decrease ASTM D 445
max. 50% increase
Viscosity cSt at 100 C max. 20% decrease ASTM D 445
max. 25% increase
Water % V/V max. 0.30 ASTM D 95 or D 1744
Base Number mg KOH/g max. 50% depletion ASTM D 2896
Total Acid Number mg KOH/g max. 2.5 mg KOH/g ASTM D 664
increase
Insolubles % m/m in n-Pentane max. 1.0 ASTM D 893b
Flash point, PMCC C min. 170 ASTM D 93
Flash point, COC C min. 190 ASTM D 92
Oxidation Abs/cm max. 25 IR
Nitration Abs/cm max. 20 IR

1.3 APPROVED LUBRICATING OIL QUALITIES FOR W 32DF AND W 50DF ENGINES

SUPPLIER BRAND NAME VISCOSITY BN SULPHATED


ASH (% m/m)
BP Energas NGL SAE 40 4.5 0.45
Castrol Duratec L SAE 40 4.5 0.45
Chevron (Texaco) Geotex LA SAE 40 5.2 0.45
ExxonMobil Pegasus 705 SAE 40 5.3 0.49
Pegasus 805 SAE 40 6.2 0.50
Pegasus 905 SAE 40 6.2 0.49
Pegasus 1 SAE 40 6.5 0.49
Petro-Canada Sentinel 445 SAE 40 4.7 0.40
Shell Mysella LA 40 SAE 40 5.2 0.45
Mysella XL 40 SAE 40 4.5 0.50
Total Nateria X 405 SAE 40 5.2 0.45
Page Document No Rev
3 (10) 4V92A1051 e

2. CONTINUOUS LIGHT FUEL OIL OPERATION OR PERIODIC


OPERATION WITH NATURAL GAS AND LIGHT FUEL OIL

2.1 FRESH LUBRICATING OIL REQUIREMENTS

Viscosity
Viscosity class SAE 40

Viscosity Index (VI)


Min. 95

Alkalinity (BN)
Liquid fuel always contains some sulphur and because of that higher BN in lubricating oil
compared to natural gas operation is required. The required lubricating oil alkalinity in
LFO operation is tied to the fuel specified for the engine, which is shown in the table
below.

FUEL STANDARDS AND LUBRICATING OIL REQUIREMENTS


Category Fuel standard Lube oil BN
ASTM D 975-01, GRADE NO. 1-D, 2-D
A BS MA 100: 1996 DMX, DMA 10 - 20
CIMAC 2003 DX, DA
ISO 8217: 1996(E) ISO-F-DMX, DMA
BS MA 100: 1996 DMB
B CIMAC 2003 DB 15 - 20
ISO 8217: 1996(E) ISO-F-DMB

Additives
The oils should contain additives that give good oxidation stability, corrosion protection, load
carrying capacity, neutralisation of acid combustion and oxidation residues and should
prevent deposit formation on internal engine parts (piston cooling gallery, piston ring zone
and bearing surfaces in particular).

Foaming characteristics
Fresh lubricating oil should meet the following limits for foaming tendency and stability,
according to the ASTM D 892-92 test method:
Sequence I: 100/0 ml
Sequence II: 100/0 ml
Sequence III: 100/0 ml

Base oils
Use of virgin base stocks is only allowed, i.e. recycled or re-refined base oils are not
allowed.
Page Document No Rev
4 (10) 4V92A1051 e

2.2 CONDEMNING LIMITS FOR USED LUBRICATING OIL

When estimating the condition of used lubricating oil, the following properties along with the
corresponding limit values must be noted. If the limits are exceeded, measures must be
taken. Compare also with guidance values for fresh lubricating of the brand used.

Property Unit Limit Test method


Viscosity cSt at 40 C max. 25% decrease ASTM D 445
max. 45% increase
Viscosity cSt at 100 C max. 20% decrease ASTM D 445
max. 25% increase
Water % V/V max. 0.30 ASTM D 95 or D 1744
Base Number mg KOH/g max. 50% depletion ASTM D 2896
Insolubles % m/m in n-Pentane max. 2.0 ASTM D 893b
Flash Point, PMCC C min. 170 ASTM D 93
Flash Point, COC C min. 190 ASTM D 92

2.3 APPROVED LUBRICATING OIL QUALITIES FOR W 32DF AND W 50DF ENGINES

If gas oil or marine diesel oil is continuously used as fuel, lubricating oil with a BN of 10-20
is recommended to be used. In periodic operation with natural gas and light fuel oil
lubricating oil with a BN of 10-15 is recommended.

SUPPLIER BRAND NAME VISCOSITY BN FUEL


CATEG.
BP Energol HPDX 40 SAE 40 12 A
Castrol HLX 40 SAE 40 12 A
MHP 154 SAE 40 15 A,B
Seamax Extra 40 SAE 40 15 A,B
Chevron (Texaco Delo 1000 Marine 40 SAE 40 12 A
+ Caltex + FAMM) Delo 2000 Marine 40 SAE 40 20 A,B
Taro 12 XD 40 SAE 40 12 A
Taro 20 DP 40 SAE 40 20 A,B
ExxonMobil Mobilgard ADL 40 SAE 40 15 A,B
Mobilgard 412 SAE 40 15 A,B
Mobilgard 1 SHC SAE 40 15 A,B
Indian Oil Servo Marine 1040 SAE 40 10 A
Corporation Servo Marine 2040 SAE 40 20 A,B
Petrobras Marbrax CCD-410-AP SAE 40 12 A
Marbrax CCD-415 SAE 40 15 A,B
Marbrax CCD-420 SAE 40 20 A,B
Shell Gadinia Oil 40 SAE 40 12 A
Statoil MarWay 1040 SAE 40 10.6 A
Total / Lubmarine Disola M 4015 SAE 40 14 A
Disola M 4020 SAE 40 20 A,B
Page Document No Rev
5 (10) 4V92A1051 e

3. CONTINUOUS HEAVY FUEL OIL OPERATION

3.1 FRESH LUBRICATING OIL REQUIREMENTS

Viscosity
Viscosity class SAE 40

Viscosity Index (VI)


Min. 95

Alkalinity (BN)
The required lubricating oil alkalinity in HFO operation is tied to the fuel specified for the
engine, which is shown in the table below.

FUEL STANDARDS AND LUBRICATING OIL REQUIREMENTS


Category Fuel standard Lube oil BN
ASTM D 975-01 GRADE NO. 4-D
ASTM D 396-94, GRADE NO. 5-6
C BS MA 100: 1996 DMC, RMA10-RMK55 30 - 55
CIMAC 2003 DC, A30-K700
ISO 8217: 1996(E) ISO-F-DMC, RMA10-RMK55

It is recommended to use in the first place min. BN 50 lubricants when operating on heavy
fuel. This recommendation is valid especially for engines having wet lubricating oil sump
and using heavy fuel with sulphur content above 2.0 % m/m. BN 40 lubricants can be used
as well if experience shows that the lubricating oil BN equilibrium remains at an acceptable
level.

BN 30 lubricants are recommended to be used only in special cases, such as installations


equipped with an SCR catalyst. Lower BN products eventually have a positive influence on
cleanliness of the SCR catalyst. With BN 30 oils lubricating oil change intervals may be
rather short, but lower total operating costs may be achieved because of better plant
availability provided that the maintenance intervals of the SCR catalyst can be increased.

An example of BN depletion curve with different BN lubricating oils is shown hereafter.


Page Document No Rev
6 (10) 4V92A1051 e

60

Oil Volume: 0.6 l/kW (Wet Sump)


BN Condening limit: 20 mg KOH/g
Fuel sulphur content: 2.5 w-%
40

20

-20
0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000
SERVICE HOURS
BN 55 Oil BN 40 Oil BN 30 Oil

Additives
The oils should contain additives that give good oxidation stability, corrosion protection, load
carrying capacity, neutralisation of acid combustion and oxidation residues and should
prevent deposit formation on internal engine parts (piston cooling gallery, piston ring zone
and bearing surfaces in particular).

Foaming characteristics
Fresh lubricating oil should meet the following limits for foaming tendency and stability,
according to the ASTM D 892-92 test method:
Sequence I: 100/0 ml
Sequence II: 100/0 ml
Sequence III: 100/0 ml

Base oils
Use of virgin base stocks is only allowed, i.e. recycled or re-refined base oils are not
allowed.

3.2 CONDEMNING LIMITS FOR USED LUBRICATING OIL

When estimating the condition of used lubricating oil, the following properties along with the
corresponding limit values must be noted. If the limits are exceeded, measures must be
taken. Compare also with guidance values for fresh lubricating of the brand used.
Page Document No Rev
7 (10) 4V92A1051 e

Property Unit Limit Test method


Viscosity cSt at 40 C max. 25% decrease ASTM D 445
max. 45% increase
Viscosity cSt at 100 C max. 20% decrease ASTM D 445
max. 25% increase
Water % V/V max. 0.30 ASTM D 95 or D 1744
Base Number mg KOH/g min. 20 ASTM D 2896
Insolubles % m/m in n-Pentane max. 2.0 ASTM D 893b
Flash Point, PMCC C min. 170 ASTM D 93
Flash Point, COC C min. 190 ASTM D 92

3.3 APPROVED LUBRICATING OIL QUALITIES FOR W 32DF AND W 50DF ENGINES

SUPPLIER BRAND NAME VISCOSITY BN FUEL


CATEG.
BP Energol IC-HFX 304 SAE 40 30 C
Energol IC-HFX 404 SAE 40 40 C
Energol IC-HFX 504 SAE 40 50 C
Castrol TLX Plus 304 SAE 40 30 C
TLX Plus 404 SAE 40 40 C
TLX Plus 504 SAE 40 50 C
TLX Plus 554 SAE 40 55 C
Cepsa Troncoil 3040 PLUS SAE 40 30 C
Troncoil 4040 PLUS SAE 40 40 C
Troncoil 5040 PLUS SAE 40 50 C
Ertoil Koral 3040 SHF SAE 40 30 C
Ertoil Koral 4040 SHF SAE 40 40 C
Ertoil Koral 5040 SHF SAE 40 50 C
Chevron (Texaco Taro 30 DP 40 SAE 40 30 C
+ Caltex + FAMM) Taro 40 XL 40 SAE 40 40 C
Taro 50 XL 40 SAE 40 50 C
Delo 3000 Marine 40 SAE 40 30 C
Delo 3400 Marine 40 SAE 40 40 C
Delo 3550 Marine 40 SAE 40 55 C
Chinese Marilube Oil W 304 SAE 40 30 C
Petroleum Marilube Oil W 404 SAE 40 40 C
Corporation Marilube Oil W 504 SAE 40 50 C
ENI S.p.A. Cladium 300 S SAE 40 SAE 40 30 C
Cladium 400 S SAE 40 SAE 40 40 C
Cladium 500 S SAE 40 SAE 40 50 C
Cladium 550 S SAE 40 SAE 40 55 C
ExxonMobil Mobilgard M 430 SAE 40 30 C
Mobilgard M 440 SAE 40 40 C
Mobilgard M50 SAE 40 50 C
Exxmar 30 TP 40 SAE 40 30 C
Exxmar 40 TP 40 SAE 40 40 C
Exxmar 50 TP 40 SAE 40 50 C
Page Document No Rev
8 (10) 4V92A1051 e

SUPPLIER BRAND NAME VISCOSITY BN FUEL


CATEG.
Fuchs Titan PSW 40 SAE 40 SAE 40 40 C
Titan PSW 55 SAE 40 SAE 40 55 C
Indian Oil Servo Marine K-3040 SAE 40 30 C
Corporation Servo Marine K-4040 SAE 40 40 C
Servo Marine K-5040 SAE 40 50 C
Servo Marine K-5540 SAE 40 55 C
Pertamina Martron 430 SAE 40 30 C
Martron 440 SAE 40 40 C
Martron 450 SAE 40 50 C
Salyx 430 SAE 40 30 C
Salyx 440 SAE 40 40 C
Salyx 450 SAE 40 50 C
Petrobras Marbrax CCD-430 SAE 40 30 C
Marbrax CCD-440 SAE 40 40 C
Marbrax CCD-450 SAE 40 50 C
Petron Petromar XC 3040 SAE 40 30 C
Petromar XC 4040 SAE 40 40 C
Petromar XC 5540 SAE 40 55 C
Repsol YPF Neptuno W NT 4000 SAE 40 SAE 40 40 C
Neptuno W NT 5500 SAE 40 SAE 40 55 C
Shell Argina T 40 SAE 40 30 C
Argina X 40 SAE 40 40 C
Argina XL 40 SAE 40 50 C
Total / Lubmarine Aurelia XL 4030 SAE 40 30 C
Aurelia XL 4040 SAE 40 40 C
Aurelia XL 4055 SAE 40 55 C

4. ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

LUBRICATING OIL LEVEL:

The intervals between lubricating oil changes may be extended by adding oil daily to keep
the oil level constantly close to the maximum level.

CHANGE OF LUBRICATING OIL BRAND:

If the main fuel type is changed from natural gas to light fuel oil or heavy fuel oil, or vice
versa, change the lubricating oil to a suitable product as shown in the chapters 1.3, 2.3 and
3.3 of this document.

In order to minimize the risk of lubricating oil foaming, deposit formation, blocking of
lubricating oil filters, damage of engine components, etc., the following procedure should be
followed when lubricating oil brand is changed from one to another:
If possible, change the lubricating oil brand in connection with an engine (piston)
overhaul
Drain old lubricating oil from the lubricating oil system
Page Document No Rev
9 (10) 4V92A1051 e

Clean the lubricating oil system in case of an excessive amount of deposits on the
surfaces of engine components, like crankcase, camshaft compartment, etc.
Fill the lubricating oil system with fresh lubricating oil
If the procedure described above is not followed, responsibility of possible damage and
malfunctions caused by lubricating oil change should always be agreed between the oil
company and customer.

USE OF NON-APPROVED LUBRICATING OILS:

Before using a lubricating oil not listed in the tables above, the engine manufacturer must be
contacted. Lubricating oils that are not approved have to be tested according to engine
manufacturers procedure.

Should unapproved lubricating oils be used during the engine warranty period, and there
exist no agreement with the engine manufacturer about testing, the engine guarantee does
not hold.

5. APPROVED LUBRICATING OILS FOR ENGINE TURNING DEVICE

It is recommended to use EP-gear oils, viscosity 400-500 cSt at 40 C = ISO VG 460 as


lubricating oils for turning device.

LUBRICATING OILS FOR ENGINE TURNING DEVICE


SUPPLIER BRAND NAME VISCOSITY VISCOSITY VISCOSITY
cSt at 40 C cSt at 100 C INDEX (VI)
BP Energol GR-XP 460 425 27.0 88
Castrol Alpha SP 460 460 30.5 95
Chevron (Texaco Meropa 460 460 31.6 100
+ Caltex + FAMM)
ENI S.p.A. Blasia 320 300 23.0 95
ExxonMobil Spartan EP 460 460 30.8 96
Mobilgear 634 437 27.8 96
Shell Omala Oil 460 460 30.8 97
Total / Lubmarine Epona Z 460 470 30.3 93

6. LUBRICATING OILS FOR GOVERNOR / ACTUATOR

An oil of viscosity class SAE 30 or SAE 40 is suitable and usually the same oil can be used
as in the engine. Turbocharger oil can also be used in the governor. In low ambient
conditions it may be necessary to use a multigrade oil (e.g. SAE 5W-40) to get a good
control during start-up. Oil change interval: 2000 service hours.
Page Document No Rev
10 (10) 4V92A1051 e

7. LUBRICATING OILS FOR COUPLING OF PILOT FUEL PUMP

ONLY FOR W32DF:

It is recommended to use lithium soap based EP-greases having penetration of 300350


1/10 mm at 25 C measured with the ASTM D 217 test method and NLGI Grade 1 at 30 C -
70 C operating temperature.

LUBRICATING OILS FOR COUPLING OF PILOT FUEL PUMP


SUPPLIER BRAND NAME
Chevron Dura-Lith Grease EP 1
(Texaco + Caltex + FAMM)
ENI S.p.A. GR-MU EP 1
ExxonMobil Beacon EP 1
Mobiltemp 78
Mobilux EP 111
Mobilith SHC 460
IP Athesia EP 1
Shell Alvania EP 1
Wrtsil ,167$//$7,210$18$/
Technology Oy Ab
Finland
This doc is the property of Wrtsil Technology and shall neither be copied, shown or communicated to a third party without the consent of the owner.

Subtitle Product Made 09.10.1998 KJi / HPH / Hanstn Page Document No Rev
Cooling Systems 20, 32, 46, 64, Appd. 12.10.1998 EFl / Fontell 1 (4) 4V92A0765 c
34SG, 32DF,
50DF

Revised date: 10.1.2003 Changed by: Kji /ILe Approved by: VJn / Nurminen D-message No.: 43058

5$::$7(548$/,7<$33529('&22/,1*:$7(5$'',7,9(6$1'

75($70(176<67(06

)25 :b576,/b 9$6$  :b576,/b  :b576,/b  :b576,/b  :b576,/b

:b576,/b'):b576,/b')$1':b576,/b6*(1*,1(7<3(6

5$::$7(548$/,7<

Raw water quality to be used in the closed cooling water circuits of engines has to meet the following
specification.

3URSHUW\ /LPLW

pH min. 6.5
Hardness max. 10 dH
Chlorides max. 80 mg/l
Sulphates max. 150 mg/l

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0DQXIDFWXUHU $GGLWLYHQDPH

S.A. Arteco N.V. Havoline XLi


Technologiepark-Zwijnaarde 2
B-9052 Ghent/Zwijnaarde, Belgium
GE Betz Europe CorrShield NT 4293
Interleuvenlaan 25
B-3001 Heverlee, Belgium
GE Betz CorrShield NT 4200
4636 Somerton Road
Trevose
PA 19053, United States
Drew Ameroid Marine Division DEWT-NC powder
Ashland Chemical Company Drewgard 4109
One Drew Plaza Liquidewt
Boonton, NJ 07005, USA Maxigard
Vecom CWT Diesel QC-2
Houseman Ltd Cooltreat 651
The Priory, Burnham
Slough SL1 7LS, UK
Kuwait Petroleum (Danmark) AS Q8 Corrosion Inhibitor Long-Life
Hummetoftveij 49
DK-2830 Virum, Denmark
Page Document No Rev
2 (4) 4V92A0765 c

0DQXIDFWXUHU $GGLWLYHQDPH

Maritech AB Marisol CW
Box 143
S-29122 Kristianstad, Sweden
Nalco Chemical Company Nalco 39 (L)
One Nalco Centre Nalcool 2000
Naperville, Illinois
60566-1024 USA
Nalfleet Marine Chemicals Nalcool 2000
PO Box 11 Nalfleet EWT 9-108
Winnington Avenue, Northwich Nalfleet CWT 9-131C
Cheshire, CW8 4DX, UK
Rohm & Haas RD11
La Tour de Lyon RD11M
185, Rue de Bercy RD25
75579 Paris, Cedex 12, France
RRS-Yhtit Korrostop KV
Pieksmentie 398A
77570 Jppil, Finland
Tampereen Prosessi-Insinrit Oy Ruostop XM
Keisarinviitta 22
33960 Pirkkala, Finland
Texaco Global Products, LLC Havoline XLi
1111 Bagby
Houston, TX 77002
TotalFinaElf WT Supra
Diamant B, 16, rue de la Rpublique
92922 Paris La Dfense Cedex, France
Unitor ASA Dieselguard NB
P.O. Box 300 Skyen Rocor NB liquid
N-0212 Oslo, Norway Cooltreat AL
Vecom Holding BV Vecom CWT Diesel QC-2
PO Box 27
3140 AA Maassluis, The Netherlands

In order to prevent corrosion in the cooling water system, the instructions of right dosage and
concentration of active corrosion inhibitors should always be followed. The information can be found
in the table below.

'RVDJHSHUPRI &RQFHQWUDWLRQRIDFWLYHFRUURVLRQ
3URGXFWGHVLJQDWLRQ
V\VWHPFDSDFLW\ LQKLELWRU

Corrshield NT 4293 10 litres 670 1000 ppm as NO2


CorrShield NT 4200
DEWT-NC powder 3 4.5 kg 1500 2250 ppm as NO2
Drewgard 4109 16 30 litres 640 1200 ppm as NO2
Liquidewt 8 12 litres 470 700 ppm as NO2
Maxigard 16 30 litres 640 1200 ppm as NO2
Cooltreat 651 5 litres 800 ppm as NO2
Page Document No Rev
3 (4) 4V92A0765 c

'RVDJHSHUPRI &RQFHQWUDWLRQRIDFWLYHFRUURVLRQ
3URGXFWGHVLJQDWLRQ
V\VWHPFDSDFLW\ LQKLELWRU

Q8 Corrosion Inhibitor 50 100 litres 1.6 - 3.2 w-% of active compounds


Long-Life measured with a suppliers refractometer
Maricol CW 8 16 litres 1000 2000 ppm as NO2
Nalco 39 (L) 16 - 36 litres 550 - 1200 ppm as NO2
Nalcool 2000 32 - 48 litres 1000 - 1500 ppm as NO2
Nalfleet EWT 9 - 108 2.2 - 3.4 litres 1000 - 1500 ppm as NO2
Nalfleet CWT 9 - 131C 8 - 12 litres 1000 - 1500 ppm as NO2
Korrostop KV 20 25 litres 120 - 150 ppm as Mo
RD11 (RD11M) 5 kg 1250 ppm as NO2
RD25 50 litres 710 ppm as Mo
Ruostop XM 20 litres 120 ppm as Mo
Havoline XLi 50 - 100 litres 1.6 - 3.2 w-% of active compounds
measured with a suppliers refractometer
WT Supra 50 - 100 litres 1.6 - 3.2 w-% of active compounds
measured with a suppliers refractometer
Dieselguard NB 2 - 4.8 kg 1500 ppm as NO2
Rocor NB Liquid 10 - 24 litres 1500 ppm as NO2
Cooltreat AL 50 100 litres 1.6 - 3.2 w-% of active compounds
measured with a suppliers refractometer
Vecom CWT Diesel QC-2 6 - 10 litres 1500 - 2500 ppm as NO2

1RWH)RUVRPHSURGXFWVWKHUHFRPPHQGHGPLQLPXPDQGPD[LPXPOLPLWV

DUHOLVWHGLQWKHWDEOHDERYH6LQFHWKHDPRXQWRIDFWLYHFRUURVLRQLQKLELWRUV

HVSHFLDOO\QLWULWHVLVGHFUHDVLQJGXULQJWKHVHUYLFHRIHQJLQHVWKHHQJLQH

PDQXIDFWXUHUUHFRPPHQGVWRVWDUWWKHGRVDJHIURPWKHXSSHUOHYHO

Note 2: The nitrite content of nitrite-based cooling water additives tends to


decrease in use. The risk of local corrosion increases substantially when
nitrite content goes below the recommended limit.

$33529('&22/,1*:$7(575($70(176<67(06

(/<6$725

As an alternative to the approved cooling water additives, the Elysator cooling water treatment
system can also be used. The Elysator protects the engine from corrosion without any chemicals. It
provides a cathodic/anodic protection to engines cooling water system by letting magnesium anodes
corrode instead of the engine itself. Raw water quality specification is the same as in connection with
cooling water additives. More information in document 4V92A1322.

The Elysator can be a sensible alternative in installations where the environmental factors are
considered important.
Page Document No Rev
4 (4) 4V92A0765 c

The installation, operation and maintenance instructions of the manufacturer should always be
followed. The contact information can be found in the table below.

6XSSOLHU 7UHDWPHQWV\VWHP

International Watertreatment Maritime AS Elysator


N-3470 Slemmestad
Norway
50-200509-07 Start, stop and operation

03. Start, stop and operation

03.1 Turning of the crankshaft

03.1.1 Turning of the crankshaft, general

Turning is performed by means of an electrically driven turning device


built on the engine.
The turning device consists of an electric motor which drives the turning
gear through a gear drive and a worm gear. There is a control box, including
a cable, which allows the turning to be accomplished from any position
near the engine. The turning speed is about 1/3 rev/min.
The engaging and disengaging of the turning gear is done by the lever
(1). The lever is secured by a locking pin (6). (Fig 03-1)
The turning device is provided with a stop valve which prevents the engine
from starting in case the turning gear is engaged. (See chapter 21.)
For careful adjustment of the crankshaft position there is a hand wheel
(2) with which it is possible to perform manual turning.

Electrically driven turning device

1 3
TGE
5

3
1
5
6
6

1
TGD 2

2
4
4
A) B) F03Y 0001_02EN

Fig 03-1 500301

A) In-line (L)-Engines, B) V-Engines, 1. Lever, 2. Hand wheel, 3. Vent


hole, 4. Drain hole, 5. Filling hole, 6. Locking pin. TGE. Turning Gear
Engaged, TGD. Turning Gear Disengaged

03 - 1
Start, stop and operation 50-200509-07

03.1.2 Maintenance of turning device

Secondary shaft
Grease the secondary shaft of the turning gear with water resistant
grease according to the maintenance schedule in chapter 04..
The greasing takes place with the turning gear engaged (the secondary
shaft in the in-position), when the extra grease comes out from the
locking pin bore in the other end of the shaft. Excessive greasing is to
be avoided.
Oil change
Change the gear box lubricating oil once during the first year of
operation. Approved lubricating oils, can be found in the end of chapter
02. After that, oil should be changed according to chapter 04..
Check also that the vent hole (3) is open.
1 Drain old oil, preferably when warm, through the drain hole (4).
2 Rinse the gear box with clean, thin fluid oil.
3 Fill the gear box with oil (according to the table in section 02.2.7)
through the filling hole (5) until the oil level reaches the lewel screw.
Utmost cleanliness must be observed.
4 Close the oil holes and drive the turning device a few revolu-
tions.
5 Check the oil level and fill, if necessary.

03 - 2
50-200509-07 Start, stop and operation

03.2 Start

03.2.1 Start, general

Before starting the engine, check that:


the fuel system is in running order (correct preheating, correct
pressure, sufficient precirculation to heat the fuel injection
pumps).
the LT and HTcirculating systems and the raw water system are
in running order (correct pressures, circulating water preheated
and precirculated sufficiently to heat the engine, see Fig 03-2).
the oil level in the governor is correct.
the starting air pressure exceeds 15 bar (normally, 10 bar is still
sufficient to start the engine, see also section 01.2.).
the instrument air pressure is correct (See section 01.2).
the starting air system is drained of condensate.
All covers and protecting shields are to be mounted before starting the
engine. Covers should be removed only occasionally for e.g. measure-
ments and checks.
Before starting the engine, ensure that possible maintenance and
service operations have been finished and all personnel have been
moved away from the engine room and other risk areas.

Note! Never leave the engine running with covers removed.

Caution! Avoid running the engine in gas mode without load. There is a risk
for misfiring which may lead to unburned gas entering the exhaust
system causing a gas explosion.

03 - 3
Start, stop and operation 50-200509-07

Output de-rating factor as function on HT water temperature

0,8

0,6

0,4

0,2

0
40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80
C

Fig 03-2 500302

03.2.2 Manual start

Before the PLC activates a start request the engine must be ready for
start. There is a list of conditions to be fulfilled before starting in
chapter 23 section Alarm and safety system.

1 Start the prelubricating oil pump to obtain a lubricating oil


pressure, min. approx. 0.5 bar, or if full flow electric lubricating pumps
are installed, adjust the pressure to nominal. (See section 01.2).

2 Due to the automatic slow turning function it is not required


to turn the engine with air before starting, but always when there is
time available turn the crankshaft two revolutions with turning gear
keeping the stop lever in stop position (S), see Fig 03-3.

3 Disengage the turning gear from the flywheel.

4 Check that the automatic alarm and stop devices in the in-
stallation are set in operation.

5 Check that the stop lever is in work position (N). See Fig 03-3.

6 Open the starting air valve and shut the blow-off valve
when there is no more condensate.

7 Choose the mode of operation (diesel mode with pilot injection


/ diesel mode without pilot injection / gas mode). The pilot fuel injection
should be omitted only if mono-needle type injectors are installed.

03 - 4
50-200509-07 Start, stop and operation

Stop lever position

Fig 03-3 500303

N. Normal, S. Stop.

8 Give a start command from the master console. If the engine


has not been running during last 30 minutes it will do automatic
slow-turning and the engine turns slowly two turns. When slow
turning is over the engine immediately takes a full start. The start
signal is automatically on for 12 seconds or until the engine has reached
the preset speed. (More detailed information in chapter 22.

Note! Re-start of the engine is possible after the ventilation sequence of


the exhaust system is finished. The exhaust system is equipped with
automatic ventilation and it will stay open for a while (see installation
documentation) after the stop. During this time the start will be
blocked.

Warning! Despite the safety system, there is always a risk of an explosion when
dealing with gas. To avoid possible accidents, no-one should re-
main in the engine room and boiler/silencer room during an engine
start.

9 Check immediately after start that the pressure and tempera-


ture values are normal. Check that all cylinders are firing, if not,
the engine must be stopped and the misfiring cylinders should
be checked.

03 - 5
Start, stop and operation 50-200509-07

03.2.3 Remote- and automatic start

See installation specific instructions.

03.3 Start after a prolonged stop (more than 8 h)

03.3.1 Local start after a prolonged stop

1 Check:
the lubricating oil level in the oil tank
the lubricating oil pressure
the circulating water level in the expansion tank
LT/HT water pressure
the raw water supply
the fuel oil level in the day tank
the fuel oil pressure
the starting air pressure
the governor oil level (sight glass or stick)
that the fuel racks move freely to prevent risk of overspeed
2 Observe section 03.2.2
3 After starting check:
that the starting air distributing pipes are not hot at any cylinder
(leakage from the starting valve)
the governor oil level
exhaust gas temperatures after each cylinder (all fuel pumps are
operating)

03.4 Start after overhaul

1 Check that the connections between the speed governor, over-


speed trip and injection pumps are set correctly (hold original values
in fuel pumps in relation to governor position) and move freely. Check
that all connections are locked properly and that the injection pump
racks move freely in the pumps.
2 Release the overspeed trip manually the speed governor con-
trol lever being in max. position and the stop lever in work position.
Check that all injection pump racks move to a value less than 5 mm.
3 If the injection pump, camshaft or its driving mechanism have
been touched, check the fuel pump timing, see chapter 16. and refer to
values in setting table included in the Official Trial Report. Adjust
the timing if necessary.

03 - 6
50-200509-07 Start, stop and operation

4 Check the cooling water system for leakage, especially:


the lower part of the cylinder liner
the oil cooler (installation)
the charge air cooler(s)
5 Check and adjust the valve clearances. If the camshaft or
its driving mechanism have been touched, check, at least, the valve
timing of one cylinder (V engines: on each cylinder bank). For guidance
values see chapter 06.
6 Start the priming pump. Adjust the pressure so that oil appears
from all the bearings and lubricating nozzles, from the piston cooling
oil outlet and from the valve mechanism. Adjust the oil pressure to
nominal (see section 01.2) and check that there is no leakage from the
pipe connections inside or outside the engine.
7 Rags or tools left in the crankcase untensioned or unlocked
screws or nuts (those which are to be locked) worn-out self-locking
nuts, may cause total breakdown. Well cleaned oil spaces (oil sump
and camshaft spaces) save the oil pump and oil filter.
8 When starting see the instructions in sections 03.2.2 and 03.3.

03 - 7
Start, stop and operation 50-200509-07

03.5 Stop

03.5.1 Stop, general

The engine can always be stopped manually (with the stop lever, see
Fig 03-3) independent of the remote control or automation system.

Warning! When overhauling the engine, make absolutely sure that the auto-
matic start and the priming pump are inoperative. Close the starting
air shut-off valve located before the solenoid valve. Otherwise it
might cause engine damage and/or personal injury.

Move the stop lever into STOP position.


If the engine is to be stopped for a long time, it is advisable to
cover the exhaust pipe opening.
The lubricating oil system on a stopped engine should be filled with oil
every second day by priming the engine. At the same time, turn the
crankshaft into a new position. This reduces the risk of corrosion on
journals and bearings when the engine is exposed to vibrations. Start
the engine once a week to check that everything is in order.
Prolonged stop
Circulate the cooling water properly once in a while during possible
prolonged stops (months) of the engine and keep the cooling water
additive (nitrite) dosage at least at the maximum recommended level
and preferably at 1,5 times the normal dosage.
The measures needed when keeping the engine stopped for a long time
depend much on the conditions in the place of storage.
If the engine is to be removed from service for months, please contact
Wrtsil for further instructions.

03.5.2 Manual stop, gas mode

1 Engines provided with built-on cooling water pumps: Idling


the engine before stopping is not possible.
Engines provided with separate cooling water pumps: Idling the
engine before stopping is not possible. Run the cooling water pumps
for 5 more minutes.
2 Stop the engine by giving a stop command from the master
console. Normally when the stop command is given the engine starts
to decrease the load automatically until it is near zero and the engine
stops. The time of slowing down offers a good opportunity to detect
possible abnormal sounds.

03 - 8
50-200509-07 Start, stop and operation

03.5.3 Manual stop, diesel mode

1 Engines provided with built-on cooling water pumps: Idle


the engine 5...7 min before stopping.
Engines provided with separate cooling water pumps: Idle the
engine 3...5 min before stopping. Run the cooling water pumps for 5
more minutes.
2 Stop the engine by moving the stop lever in stop position (see
Fig 03-3). The time of slowing down offers a good opportunity to detect
possible abnormal sounds.

03.5.4 Automatic stop

The automatic shut down system is activated by some disturbance in


the system. A stop signal is energized simultaneously with the stop
solenoid in the speed governor and the pneumatic stop valve on the
engine. Through the pneumatic stop valve air is fed to a stop cylinder
fitted on each fuel pump which drives the pumps to stop position.

03.6 Normal operation supervision

If an alarm limit is reached and an alarm is activated, the engine situation


is already serious. All necessary counter measures must be taken to
remove this emergency condition and return to normal operating condi-
tions. As the abnormal operating situation may cause damages to the
engine, all efforts must be put into returning to the normal operating
situation instead of just waiting for an automatic shut down of the engine.

03.6.1 Normal operation supervision, general

Note! There is no automatic supervision or control arrangement that could


replace an experienced engineers observations. LOOK and LISTEN
to the engine.

Strong gas blow-by


Strong gas blow-by past the pistons is one of the most dangerous things
that can occur in a diesel engine. If gas blow-by is suspected (e.g.
because of a sudden increase of the lubricating oil consumption) check
the crankcase pressure. If the pressure exceeds 30 mm H2O, check the
crankcase venting system. If that is in good working condition, pull the
pistons!
Operation at loads below 20 %
Operation at loads below 20 % of rated output should be limited to
maximum 100 hours continuously when operating on heavy fuel by
loading the engine above 70 % of rated load for one hour before
continuing the low load operation.

03 - 9
Start, stop and operation 50-200509-07

Idling (i.e. main engine declutched or generator disconnected) should


be limited as much as possible. Warming-up of the engine for more than
5 minutes before loading, as well as idling more than 5 minutes before
stopping is unnecessary and should be avoided.

03.6.2 Every second day or after every 50 running hours

1 Read all temperatures and pressures and, at the same time,


the load of the engine. All temperatures are more or less dependent on
the load, and the lubricating oil, cooling water pressures (built-on
pumps) are dependent on the speed. Therefore, always compare the
values read with those at corresponding load and speed in the Accep-
tance Test Records and curves. Guidance values are stated in
chapter 01.
The charge air temperature should, in principle, be as low as possible
at loads higher than 60 %, however, not so low that condensation
occurs, see Fig 03-4.
2 Check the indicator for pressure drop over gas and liquid fuel
filters. When the pressure drop over the filters increases, the feed
pressure to the engine might become too low and the output of the
engine must be decreased. Too high of a pressure drop may also result
in deformation of filter cartridges.
3 Check the indicator for pressure drop over the lubricating oil
filters. Too large of a pressure drop indicates clogged filter cartridges,
which results in reduced oil filtration when the by-pass valve is open.
Reduced oil filtration results in increased wear. Vent filters and, if no
improvement, change the cartridges.
4 Check the oil level in the oil sump/oil tank. Estimate the ap-
pearance and consistency of the oil. A simple control of the water
content: A drop of oil on a hot surface (about 150C), e.g. a hot-plate. If
the drop keeps quiet, it does not contain water; if it frizzles it
contains water. Compensate for oil consumption by adding max. 10 %
fresh oil at a time.
5 Check the ventilation (de-aerating) of the engine cooling water
system. Check that the leakage from the telltale hole of the cooling
water pumps are normal (slight).
6 Check that the drain pipes of the air coolers are open.
7 Check that the telltale holes of the oil coolers and the cooling
water coolers are open.
8 Clean the compressor side of the turbocharger by injecting
water. See the instruction manual of the turbocharger.
9 Running in diesel mode without pilot fuel injection, check the
quantity of leak fuel.

03 - 10
50-200509-07 Start, stop and operation

Condensation in charge air coolers

Amb air temperature C


60 f=40
50 f=60 f=80 f=100

40
30
f=Relative humidity %
20
10
0
10
Water dewpoint C

P=Air manifold pressure


20 bar abs

30
40
50
P=1,5
60 P=4,5 P=3,5 P=2,5

70
.01 .02 .03 .04 .05 .06 .07 .08 .09
Water content (kg water/kg dry air)

Fig 03-4 320352

Example: If the ambient air temperature is 35C and the relative


humidity is 80 % the water content in the air can be read from the diagram
(0.029 kg water/kg dry air). If the air manifold pressure (receiver pres-
sure) under these conditions is 2.5 bar, i.e. absolute air pressure in the
air manifold is abt. 3.5 bar (ambient pressure + air manifold pressure),
the dew point will be 55C ( from diag.). If the air temperature in the air
manifold is only 45C, the air can only contain 0.018 kg/kg (from diag.).
The difference, 0.011 kg/kg (0.029-0.018) will appear as condensed water.

03 - 11
Start, stop and operation 50-200509-07

03.6.3 Once a month or after every 500 running hours

1 Clean the centrifugal lubricating oil filters.


2 Clean the turbine side of the turbocharger by injecting water.
See chapter 15. and the Instruction manual chapter 04. for the turbo-
charger.
3 Check content of additives in the circulating water.
4 Keep the injection pump racks clean.
5 Check the cylinder pressures At the same time, note the load of
the engine. Fuel rack position, turbine speed, charge air pressure and
inlet air temperature all offer an accurate estimation of the engine load.

NOTE! Measurement of cylinder pressures without simultaneous measure-


ment of the engine load is practically worthless.

03.6.4 In connection with maintenance work

1 Record the following steps and the running hours in the engine
log:
lubricating oil sampling (record also operating time of oil). Lubri-
cating oil analyzes without statement of operating time is of
limited value (go - no go only).
lubricating oil changes
cleaning of centrifugal lubricating oil filters
cleaning of lubricating and fuel oil filter cartridges
change of parts in connection with maintenance according to
chapter 04.

2 Disconnect the electronic equipment according to the in-


structions in Appendix 00B., if any welding is performed on the engine.
Keep the return connection near the welding point.

Caution! Welding may, if incorrectly performed, cause serious injury on the


electronic engine control system.

03 - 12
50-200509-07 Start, stop and operation

03.7 Operation supervision after overhaul

1 At the first start, listen carefully for possible jarring sounds. If


anything is suspected, stop the engine immediately, otherwise stop the
engine after 5 minutes idling at normal speed. Check at least the
temperatures of the main and big end bearing and of all other bearings
which have been opened. Make visual inspection from below to the
cylinder liners and piston skirts which have been opened. If everything
is in order, restart.
2 Check that there is no leakage of gas, water, fuel, cooling oil
or lubricating oil. Especially observe the fuel lines, injection pumps and
injection valves. Watch the quantities emerging from the leak oil pipes!

Caution! Check that the starting air distributing pipe is not hot at any cylinder
(leaky starting valve). May cause explosion!

3 After overhauling, the following instructions are especially im-


portant:
Check pressures and temperatures.
Check the automatic alarm and stop devices.
Check the pressure drop over the fuel filter and lubricating oil
filter.
Check the oil level in the oil sump/oil tank. Estimate the condition
of the oil.
Check the ventilation (de-aerating) of the engine circulating water
system.
Check the quantity of leak fuel in diesel mode, pilot pump
switched off.
Check the telltale holes of the coolers.
Check the content of additives in the circulating water.
Listen for jarring sounds.
Check the crankcase pressure.
Check the starting air pipes.
Vent the filters.

03.8 Running-in

The running-in of a new engine must be performed according to


programme in Fig 03-5. It is also recommended that running-in proce-
dure is performed after following maintenance jobs.
1 After piston overhaul, follow program A in Fig 03-5.

03 - 13
Start, stop and operation 50-200509-07

The piston rings have slid into new positions and need time to bed-in.
If the program cannot be followed, do not load the engine fully for
4 h, at least.
2 After changing piston rings, pistons or cylinder liners and after
honing of cylinder liners follow program B in Fig 03-5 as closely as
possible.
If the program cannot be followed, do not load the engine fully for
10 h, at least.

Avoid "running-in" at continuous and constant low load

The important thing is to vary the load several times. The ring groove
will have a different tilting angle at each load stage, and consequently
the piston ring a different contact line to the cylinder liner.
The running-in may be performed either on distillate or heavy fuel,
using the normal lubricating oil specified for the engine.
For use of running-in filters see chapter 18

Running-in program

L%

100
90
80 A
70 B
60
50 1
40
30
20
10 2B
0 2A

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 h T

Fig 03-5 500305

A .......... After piston overhaul


B __________ After change of piston rings, pistons or cylinder liners,
after honing of cylinder liners
L. Engine load, T. Operating hours
1. Stop. Check big end bearing temperatures and inspect the cylinder
liners and pistons from below.
2. End of running-in programme. Engine may be put on normal load.

03 - 14
50-200509-07 Start, stop and operation

03.9 Loading
Engine loading, see Fig 03-6.
The loading of the engine is subjected to a heated engine with HT-water
temperatures 70C.
Lubrication oil temperatures 40C.
If the temperatures are lower the loading time must be twice as long.
Normally the loading is automatically controlled by the engine control
system.

Engine loading curve, diesel mode

L%

100

75
1 2 3

50

25

0
0 30 60 90 120 150 180 300 360
T (s)

Fig 03-6 500306

L. Engine load, T. Time


1. Emergency load
2. Normal max. loading in operating condition
3. Load acceptance with preheated engine in stand-by condition
(HT-water temperature min. 70C, Lub.oil temperature min. 40C)

03 - 15
Start, stop and operation 50-200509-07

Engine loading curve, gas mode

L%
100
G

75

50

25
G

0
0 30 60 90 120 150 180 570 600
T (s)

Fig 03-7 500307

L. Engine load, T. Time


G. Gas operation

03 - 16
50-200536-13 Maintenance Schedule

04. Maintenance Schedule

04.1 General

The actual operating conditions, and above all the quality of the fuel
used, will largely determine the maintenance necessary for the engine.
Because of the difficulty in anticipating the various operating condi-
tions that may be encountered in the field, the periods stated in the
schedule should be used for guidance purposes only, but must not be
exceeded during the warranty period. Where any indications are
encountered that the performance of a maintenance procedure is
required in advance of the recommended time period, prudent industry
practice dictates that the suggested maintenance procedure be per-
formed. Additionally, where inspection or observation reveals that a
part shows wear or use beyond the prescribed tolerances, that part
should be renewed immediately.
See also the instruction books of the turbocharger separate instructions
for additional equipment and chapter 03.

1 Before any steps are taken, carefully read the corresponding


item in this Manual.

2 Note the Risk Reduction in chapter 00A.

3 Note the Environmental Hazards in chapter 02A.

4 At all maintenance work, observe the utmost cleanliness and


order.
5 Before dismantling, check that all systems concerned are
drained or the pressure released. After dismantling, immediately
cover holes for lubricating oil, gas and air with tape, plugs, clean cloth
or the like.

6 When exchanging a worn-out or damaged part provided


with an identification mark stating cylinder or bearing number, mark the
new part with the same number on the same spot. Every exchange should
be entered in the engine log and the reason should be clearly stated.
7 Always renew all gaskets, sealing rings and O-rings at
maintenance work. Note! The O-rings in the cooling water system
must not be lubricated with oil based lubricants, use soap or similar.

8 After reassembling, check that all screws and nuts are tight-
ened and locked, if necessary.

04 - 1
Maintenance Schedule 50-200536-13

Caution! When overhauling the engine, make absolutely sure that the auto-
matic start and the priming pump are disconnected. Make also sure
that the starting air shut-off valve located before main starting valve
is closed. Then drain the engine starting air system to avoid engine
damage and/or personal injury.

Caution! When overhauling the engine, make absolutely sure that the gen-
erator breaker is secured/gear box is not engaged to avoid acci-
dental turning of engine.

Caution! Accidental turning of engine may cause engine damage and/or


personal injjury.

04 - 2
50-200536-13 Maintenance Schedule

04.2 Dayly routine inspections


Control mechanism Inspect for free movement 22.

Gas system Inspect the gas system for leakage 17.


Inspect the gas system for leakage by using a hand held gas
detector.
Oil mist detector Observe normal operation
(if installled)
Pneumatic system Drain condensated water 21.5

04.3 Every second day, irrespective of the engine being in operation or not
Automatic prelubrication Check operation 03.1

Crankshaft Marine engine: 03.


In a stopped engine, turn crankshaft into a new position

04.4 Once a week irrespective of the engine being in operation or not


Start process Test start (if the engine on stand-by). 03.1

04.5 Interval: 50 operating hours


Air coolers Check draining of air coolers 15.6
Check that the draining pipes are open, check if any leakage. 03.6.2
Automation Check operating values 03.6.2
Check and record all operating values.
Cooling water system Check water level in cooling system 19.
Check the water level in the expansion tank(s) and/or the
static pressure in the engine cooling circuits.
Inspect that the ventilation (de-aerating) of the expansion
tank is working.
Gas, fuel and lub. oil filters Check pressure drop indicators 17.2
18.2
Replace filter cartridges if high pressure drop is indicated.
Governor, actuator Check oil level in governor 02.2.5
Check oil level, and look for leaks 22.2
Turbocharger Water cleaning of compressor 15.4
Clean the compressor by injecting water.
Valve mechanism Check valve clearances 12.2.5
Check the valve clearances after 50 hours running in new 06.1
and overhauled engines.

04.6 Interval: 100 operating hours


Turbocharger Water cleaning of turbine if the engine is using HFO fuel 15.3
(Diesel mode) Clean the turbine by injecting water; more often if necessary.

04 - 3
Maintenance Schedule 50-200536-13

04.7 Interval: 500 operating hours


Centrifugal filter Clean centrifugal filter(s) 18.3
Clean more often if necessary. Remember to open the valve
before the filter after cleaning.
Charge air cooler Measure the pressure drop over charge air cooler(s) 15.6

Cooling water Check water quality 19.1


Check content of additives. 02.3
Control mechanism Maintenance of control mechanism 22.
Check for free movement, clean and lubricate.
Injection and fuel system Check clean leak fuel quantity in diesel mode 03.6.2
Check the amount of clean leak fuel from the injection pumps and 17.
nozzles running in diesel mode and pilot injection temporary
switched off.
Lubricating oil Take oil sample 02.2.4
In a new installation or after change to use of a new lub-
ricating oil brand, take samples for analyzing.
Oil mist detector Inspect function
(if installed) See manufacturers instruction.
Turbocharger Water cleaning of turbine if the engine is using MDO fuel 15.3
(Diesel mode) Clean the turbine by injecting water; more often if necessary.
Wastegate valve Function inspection 15.M

By-pass valve Function inspection 15.


(if installed)

04 - 4
50-200536-13 Maintenance Schedule

04.8 Interval: 1000 operating hours


Air filter (on-built) Clean turbocharger air filter(s) 15.
Remove the filter(s) and clean according to instructions of the
manufacturer (more often, if necessary).
Electrical fuel feed pump Regrease el. fuel feed pump 17.
Regrease the pump under running condition.
El. lubricating oil pump Regrease prelubricating pump 18.
Regrease the pump under running condition.
Engine fastening bolts Inspect tightening
Inspection to be done on new installations.
Fuel filter Clean and inspect fuel oil filter
Clean the wire gauze and filter housing. The filter is to be 17.6
cleaned earlier if the pressure difference indicator shows too
high pressure drop.
Fuel system Replace pilot fuel oil filter cartridges 17.9
Clean the wire gauze and filter housing. Replace the filter
cartridges. (The cartridges are to be replaced earlier if the
pressure difference indicator shows too high pressure drop).
Gas filter Clean gas filter cartridges
Engine mounted The engine mounted filter cartridge can be cleaned by 17.1
pressurized air from inside, replace cartridge if necessary. 17.2
Clean the filter housing outside and inside.
The cartridge is to be replaced earlier if the pressure
difference indicator shows too high pressure drop.
Following intervals for the filter 4000 hours.
Gas filter Replace gas filter cartridges
On gas regulating unit Gas regulating unit, replace the filter cartridge. 17.1
Clean the filter housing outside and inside. 17.2
Following intervals for the filter 4000 hours or when the
pressure difference indicator shows pressure drop 0,5 bar.

04 - 5
Maintenance Schedule 50-200536-13

04.9 Interval: 2000 operating hours


Air cooler(s) Check water side of charge air cooler(s) 15.6
The first time check and possible cleaning of the waterside. If
in good condition and deposits insignificant: future intervals
4000 running hours.
Automation Functional check of safety system 23.7
01.2
Check function of the sensors for the alarm system and
automatic stop devices.
Control mechanism Check control mechanism 22.
Check for wear in all connecting links between the governor
and all injection pumps.
Inspect that the fuel rack moves easily and the fuel pumps
follow.
El.-pneu. overspeed trip Check el.-pneumatic overspeed trip device 22.
device
Note that the electrical overspeed trip takes place first. 06.1
Check function and tripping speed.
Gas system Maintenance of gas system
Make the leak test. 17.2
Governor Change oil in governor 02.2.5
Change lubricating oil. 22.2
Lubricating oil filter Clean and inspect lubricating oil filter 18.
Drain the filter housings. Clean the wire gauze and filter
housing. The filter is to be cleaned earlier if the pressure
difference indicator shows too high pressure drop.
Oil mist detector Replace fresh air filter
(if installed) See manufacturers instruction.
Valves Check yoke and valve clearances. 12.4
Check yoke and valve clearances. 06.1
Valve rotators Visual inspection of valve rotators 12.4
Check valve rotators. 06.1

04.10 Interval: 3000 operating hours


Injection valves Inspect fuel injectors 16.6
Test fuel injectors if engine operated in diesel mode.

04 - 6
50-200536-13 Maintenance Schedule

04.11 Interval: 4000 operating hours


Air cooler(s) Clean the charge air cooler(s) 15.6
Clean and pressure test. Look carefully for corrosion.
Cleaning interval is based on the cooling performance of the
cooler.
Measure the pressure difference over the charge air cooler
before and after cleaning. Use U-gauge.
Automation Check connectors and cables 23.10
Check mounting and connections. Apply contact lubricant to
contact surfaces. Check tightness of connections. Check
condition of cables, wires and cable glands. Replace
damaged connectors and cables.
Camshaft Inspect contact faces of camshaft 14.1.3
Check the contact faces of the cams and tappet rollers. Check 03.1
that the rollers rotate. Rotate the engine with the turning gear.
Crankshaft Check crankshaft alignment 11.1.3
Check alignment, use form No. 4611V005. Alignment check is
performed on a warm engine.
If mounted on rubber not necessary to perform.
Flexible coupling Inspect flexible coupling
Vulkan-Rato-S/R Make a visual inspection of the flexible coupling.
See manufacturers instructions.
Flexible coupling Check alignment of flexible coupling
Check alignment of flexible coupling. use form WV98V041.
Flexible mounting Check the alignment
(if used) Check compression of the thrust rubber elements.
Inspection according to maintenance instructions for resilient
installation. See technical documents.
Gas filter Replace gas filter cartridges
Replace the filter cartridge. 17.1
(The cartridge is to be replaced earlier if the pressure 17.2
difference indicator shows too high pressure drop.)
Clean the filter housing outside and inside.
Gas filter Replace gas filter cartridges
On gas regulating unit Gas regulating unit, replace the filter cartridge. 17.1
(The cartridge is to be replaced earlier if the pressure 17.2
difference indicator shows too high pressure drop 0,5 bar.)
Clean the filter housing outside and inside.
Wastegate Check the wastegate valve and actuator 15.M.
Change the positioner pilot valve.

04 - 7
Maintenance Schedule 50-200536-13

04.12 Interval: 6000 operating hours


Flexible pipe connections Inspect flexible pipe connections
Renew if necessary.
Exhaust manifold Inspect expansion bellows 20.
Replace parts if necessary.
Inspect supports of the exhaust system.
Injection valves Inspect injection valves 16.6
Replace the nozzle with new ones. Renew the O-rings.
Adjust the main needle opening pressure in a test pump.
Renew the complete injection valve if necessary.
Mechanical overspeed Check function of the mechanical overspeed trip 22.
trip device device
Note that the electrical overspeed trip takes place first. 06.
Check function and tripping speed.

04.13 Interval: 8000 operating hours


Fuel system Check and adjustment of fuel system 17.7
Check the adjustment of the pressure control valve.

04 - 8
50-200536-13 Maintenance Schedule

04.14 Interval: 12000 operating hours


Air filter Clean the filter 21.
(in pneumatic systems) Clean the cartridge, replace if necessary.
Clean the filter housing outside and inside.
Injection pumps Overhaul of injection pumps 16.3
Clean and inspect injection pumps, replace worn parts.
Replace the erosion plugs.
Flexible pipe connections Renew flexible pipe connections
Depending on the condition of the connection and the
target of usage these can be used even longer.
Oil mist detector Replace oil mist detector supply air filter
(if installed) See manufacturers instructions.
Turbocharger(s) Dismount and clean 15.2
Inspect and assess the shaft and the bearing parts.
Clean turbine and compressor casings and check for any
cracks and erosion/corrosion.
Clean nozzle ring and check for any cracks and erosion.
Measure and note the axial clearance. If the clearance is out
of tolerance, contact the engine manufacturer.
See manufacturers instructions.
Turbocharger(s) Inspect turbocharger bearings 15.2
ABB TPL-chargers Inspect and replace the bearings if necessary.
Replace the bearings by new ones on 36000h at the latest.
See manufacturers instructions.
Turning device Grease the secondary shaft of the turning device 03.1.2

Wastegate General overhaul of wastegate valve and actuator 15.M.


Change the positioner pilot valve.

04.15 Interval: 16000 operating hours


Fuel feed pump General overhaul of fuel feed pump 17.8
Inspect pump and replace gaskets. Replace worn parts.

04 - 9
Maintenance Schedule 50-200536-13

04.16 Interval: 18000 operating hours


Air coolers Clean the charge air cooler(s) 15.6
More often if necessary. Cleaning interval is based on the
cooling performance of the cooler.
Camshaft driving gear Inspect intermediate gears 13.2
Inspect teeth surfaces and running pattern. 06.2
Replace parts if necessary.
Connecting rods Inspect big end bearing, one/bank 11.2
Dismantle the big end bearing. Inspect mating surfaces. 06.2
If defect found, open all big end bearings.
Renew bearing shells, if necessary.
Measurement records 4611V008 and 4611V003.
Connecting rods Check small end bearing and piston pin, one/bank
If defects found, open all and renew if needed. 11.2
Measurement record 4611V004. 06.2
Crankshaft Inspect main bearings 10.2
Inspect one main bearing. If in bad condition, check/change 06.2
all main bearings. Note the type of bearing in use and do the
inspection accordingly.
Crankshaft Check thrust bearing clearance 11.1.4
Check axial clearance. 06.2
Cylinder heads Overhaul of cylinder head
Dismantle and clean the under side, inlet and exhaust valves 12.2
and ports. Inspect cooling spaces and clean, if the deposits 12.5
are thicker than 1 mm. If cylinder head cooling waters paces 14.1.3
are dirty, check also the cooling water spaces in liners and
engine block and clean them all, if the deposits are thicker
than 1mm. Improve the cooling water treatment.
Grind all seats. Grind the valves.
Inspect the valve rotators. Check rocker arms.
Replace the O-rings in the valve guides.
Replace the O-rings at bottom of cylinder head screws at
every overhaul. Replace the knocking sensors by new ones.
Check the starting valves. Renew parts if necessary.
Cylinder liners Inspect the cylinder liners 10.5.1
Measure the bore using form No. 5010V001, replace liner if wear 06.2
limits are exceeded. Hone the liners.
Check the deposits from cooling bores. If the deposits are thicker
than 1mm, clean.
Renew the anti-polishing ring.
Engine fastening bolts Check tightening of engine fastening bolts 07.

Gas admission valves Replace the main gas admission valves 17.4
Woodward In installations where connectors used, replace also the
female connector.
Gas admission valves can be sent to the engine
manufacturer to be reconditioned.
Gas system Maintenance of gas system
Replace sealings in pipe connections, check sealing faces
for wear and corrosion. Make the leak test. 17.2

Continue

04 - 10
50-200536-13 Maintenance Schedule

Hydraulic jack Check function 10.2


Replace O-rings in the hydraulic jack if they are leaking when
lifting the main bearing cap.
Injection valves Renew complete fuel injection valves 16.6
Nozzle holders can be sent to the engine manufacturer for
reconditioning.
Pistons Check the cooling gallery deposit, one piston/bank 11.2
If the deposition exceeds 0.3 mm, open all piston tops.
Inspect the piston skirt, clean lubricating oil nozzles.
Pistons, piston rings Inspect pistons and replace piston rings
Pull, inspect and clean. Check the height of the piston ring 11.2
grooves, use forms No. 4611V009 and 4611V002. 06.2
Check the retainer rings of the gudgeon pins. 03.8
Replace complete set of piston rings. Note the running-in
programme.
Turning device Change lubricating oil in the turning device 02.2.7
Vibration damper Take oil sample from vibration damper 14.2.6
Viscous type Take oil sample for analyzing.

04.17 Interval: 24000 operating hours


Booster servomotor General overhaul of the booster servomotor 22.2
for governor
Replace worn parts. See manufacturers instructions.
Exhaust manifold Renew expansion bellows 20.
Renew the expansion bellows between exhaust pipe sections,
after the cylinder head and before the turbocharger.
Flexible coupling Check the flexible coupling
(Oil supply from engine) Dismantle and check flexible coupling acc. to manufacturers
recommendations.
Fuel injection pump Overhaul of injection pumps
Clean and inspect injection pumps, replace worn parts. 16.3
Renew fuel injection pump elements.
Replace the erosion plugs.
Governor driving gear Inspect governor driving gears 22.2.2
Replace parts if necessary. 06.2
Governor General overhaul of the governor
Can be sent to engine manufacturer for overhaul.
HT-water pump Inspect HT-water pump 19.2
Dismantle and check. Renew bearings and shaft sealing.
HT-water pump driving gear Inspect HT-water pump driving gear 19.2
Replace parts if necessary. 06.2
HT-water thermostatic valve Clean and inspect HT-water thermostatic valve 19.
Clean and check the thermostatic element, valve cone-cas-
ing and sealings.
LT-water pump Inspect LT-water pump 19.2
Dismantle and check. Renew bearings and shaft sealing.
Continue

04 - 11
Maintenance Schedule 50-200536-13

LT-water pump driving gear Inspect LT-water pump driving gear 19.2
Replace parts if necessary. 06.2
LT-water thermostatic valve Clean and inspect LT-water thermostatic valve 19.
Clean and check the thermostatic element, valve cone-cas-
ing, indicator pin and sealings.
Lube oil pump Inspect lubricating oil pump 18.5
Renew bearings and shaft sealing.
Lube oil pump driving gear Inspect lubricating oil pump driving gear 18.5
Replace parts if necessary. 06.2
Lube oil thermostatic valve Clean and inspect lubricating oil thermostatic valve 18.
Clean and check the thermostatic element, valve cone-cas-
ing and sealings.
Main starting valve General overhaul of main starting valve
Renew worn parts. 21.2
Pilot fuel pump Replace the pilot fuel pump
Replace the pilot fuel pump. 16.5
Turbocharger(s) Inspect turbocharger parts 15.2
ABB TPL-chargers Inspect and replace the nozzle ring, turbine diffuser/cover
ring if necessary.
See manufacturers instructions.

04.18 Interval: 32000 operating hours


Turbocharger Check rotor balance
Napier Check rotor balance every 32 000 hours or every 4 years. See 15.2
manufacturers instructions.

04.19 Interval: 36000 operating hours


Air cooler Renew charge air cooler(s) 15.6

Camshaft Inspect camshaft bearing bush, one/bank 10.4.1


If defects are found, inspect all including driving end and 06.2
thrust bearing. Renew if necessary.
Measurement record 4610V003
Connecting rods Replace big end bearing 11.2
Replace big end bearing shells. Inspect mating surfaces. 06.2
Measure the big end bore, use form No. 4611V008 and
4611V003.
Connecting rods Replace the small end bearings 11.2
Replace the small end bearing shells. 06.2
Crankshaft Renew main bearing shells 10.
Renew main bearing shells, flywheel bearings and thrust 06.2
bearing halves.
Crankshaft Renew the crankshaft seal 11.1
Inspect the crankshaft for wear and renew the chrankshaft
seal. Continue

04 - 12
50-200536-13 Maintenance Schedule

Cylinder liners Clean cylinder liner cooling water spaces


Clean cylinder liner cooling water spaces and replace the liner 10.5
O-rings by new ones at every overhaul.
Cylinder head Renew inlet- and exhaust valve seats 12.3

Cylinder head Renew inlet- and exhaust valves 12.3

Cylinder head Renew valve rotators and valve guides 12.3

Elastic coupling General overhaul of the elastic coupling 07.


in camshaft driving end The elastic coupling must only be opened by authorized
personnel. Contact the engine manufacturer.
Exhaust manifold Renew exhaust pipe support plates 20.

Fuel injection pump Renew fuel injection pump parts


Renew fuel injection pump tappet roller pins, control sleeve 16.3
and control rack.
Intermediate gear Renew the intermediate gear thrust bearing/bushes 13.2
Renew thrust bearing and bearing bushes of intermediate gear.
Piston Inspect the piston cooling gallery, all cylinders 11.2
Clean if needed
Starting air distributor General overhaul of starting air distributor 21.3
Renew worn parts.
Valve mechanism Check bearing clearances in the tappets and rocker 12.
arms, one/cylinder
Dismantle one rocker arm assembly for inspection, proceed 14.1
with other rocker arm bearings if defects are found. 06.
Renew valve tappet roller bearing bushes.
Vibration damper in cam- Dismantle the damper, check condition 07.
shaft free end
(spring type, optional)) The damper must only be opened by authorized personnel. 14.2.6.1
Contact the engine manufacturer.
Vibration damper in Dismantle the damper, check condition 07.
crankshaft free end
(spring type, optional) The damper must only be opened by authorized personnel. 11.1.2
Contact the engine manufacturer.

04 - 13
Maintenance Schedule 50-200536-13

04.20 Interval: 48000 operating hours


Charge air bellow Renew expansion bellow(s) 20.
Renew expansion bellow(s) betweenthe turbocharger and air
inlet box.
Control mechanism Renew parts 22.
Renew:
-bearing bushes and thrust washers for control shaft
-ball joints between the control shaft and control racks
-ball joint for the spring loaded rod
Governor drive Renew bearing bushes 22.
Renew bearing bushes for:
-governor drive vertical shaft
-governor driving gear horizontal shaft
Turbocharger Replace rotor and rotating parts 15.2
Lifetime dependent of operating conditions.
See manufacturers instructions.
Turbocharger(s) Inspect turbocharger gas-inlet/outlet casings 15.2
ABB TPL-chargers Inspect and replace the gas-inlet/oulet casings if necessary.
See manufacturers instructions.

04.21 Interval: 72000 operating hours


Camshaft bearings Renew camshaft bearings 10.4
Renew camshaft driving end bearing bush and camshaft 13.
thrust bearings.
Cylinder heads Renew cylinder heads 12.2

Fuel system Renew fuel system pipes 17.


Renew main injection pipes and pilot injection pipes (optional).
Flexible mounting Renew rubber elements
(if used) See technical documents.
Valve mechanism Renew rocker arm bearing bushes 12.
14.
Piston Renew pistons and gudgeon pins 11.2

04 - 14
5020053603 Maintenance tools 05

05. Maintenance tools

05.1. Maintenance tools, general


Maintenance of a diesel engine requires some special tools developed in the
course of engine design. Some of these tools are supplied with the engine and oth-
ers are available through our service stations or for direct purchase by the custom-
er.
Tool requirements for a particular installation may vary greatly depending on the
use and service area. Standard tool sets are therefore selected to meet basic re-
quirements.
Tool sets are grouped in order to facilitate selection for specific service opera-
tions. This makes the job of the enduser much easier.

05.1.1. Use of this list


1 Read the corresponding item in this Instruction Manual before any mainte-
nance work is started.
2 Check with list below that all the maintenance tools are available.
3 Check that necessary spare parts and consumable parts are available.

05.1.2. Ordering of maintenance tools


1 Find the tools that interests you in the following pages.
2 Select the tool or parts required. You should use the code number in the list
when ordering.
3 Make a note of the specifications and other information as required for the
order.
4 Send the order to your local service station.When possible, state the installa-
tion name and engine number(s) when ordering.

W50DF 001 05 1
05 Maintenance tools 5020053603

05.2. Cylinder cover


(Chapter 12)
Description Code Weight Dimensions
No (kg)
Hydraulic pump with hoses 860100 30

Hydraulic pump 860175


1000 bar

861011 0,7

861012 2,0

Flexible hose, short 860177


860176

Flexible hose, long

Quick coupling, male


Quick coupling, female

05 2 002 W50DF
5020053603 Maintenance tools 05

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Pin for hydraulic tensioning tool 861146 0,6

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Hydraulic tightening tool for M90x6 861143 95
screws

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Lifting tool for cylinder cover 832001 20,5
580
280
400

0515ah07002

W50DF 003 05 3
05 Maintenance tools 5020053603

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Assembly tool for valves 834001 38

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Turning tool for grinding valves 841010 4

05 4 004 W50DF
5020053603 Maintenance tools 05

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Lifting eye for injection valve 805001 2,5 590

210
0515ah11003

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Valve clearance feeler gauge 848001 0.035

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Spindle for removing valve seat 845001 1.4
rings

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Extraction tool for exhaust valve 845002 4,8
seat rings

W50DF 005 05 5
05 Maintenance tools 5020053603

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Extraction tool for inlet valve seat 845003 4,6
rings

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Spindle for valve guide removing 845004 5
tool

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Bed for tension cylinder 845005 5,2

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Bed for tension cylinder 845011 5,6

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Fitting tool for inlet valve seat ring 845012 5

05 6 006 W50DF
5020053603 Maintenance tools 05

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Fitting tool for exhaust valve seat 845006 7
ring

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Lapping tool for injection valve 840001 4.3
sealing surface

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Lapping tool for starting valve 840003 2,6 670
sealing surface
120

0515ah24002

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Grinding device for valve seats 842015 18

W50DF 007 05 7
05 Maintenance tools 5020053603

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Flange for removing tool 845031 13

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Lifting tool for rocker arms 836031 2

05 8 008 W50DF
5020053603 Maintenance tools 05

05.3. Piston
(Chapter 11)
Description Code Weight Dimensions
No (kg)
Lifting tool for piston 835001 39 498

445
0520ah02005

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Piston assembly ring for liner with 845010 9

128
antipolishing ring

520
0520ah04002

W50DF 009 05 9
05 Maintenance tools 5020053603

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Protecting sleeve for connecting rod 835005 4.0

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Assembly guide for connecting rod 836008 3,6
and piston 80
714
220

0520ah06003

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Pliers for piston rings 800002 0.5

05 10 0010 W50DF
5020053603 Maintenance tools 05

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Pliers for securing ring 800001 1.3

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Clamp device for piston rings 843001 1.5

130

546

0520ah09002

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Guide lever for piston assembly 835002 1.2

W50DF 0011 05 11
05 Maintenance tools 5020053603

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Lifting tool for piston and connect- 835008 665
ing rod

160
0520ah12001

05 12 0012 W50DF
5020053603 Maintenance tools 05

05.4. Connecting rod

(Chapter 11)

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Hydraulic tightening tool for M72x6 861142 66
screws

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Pin for hydraulic tensioning tool 861028 0.05

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Hydraulic tightening tool for M42 861120 10
srcews

W50DF 0013 05 13
05 Maintenance tools 5020053603

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Distance sleeve 861027 2.3

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Stud remover (M42) 803001 0.5

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Stud remover (M72x6, M90x6) 803003 0.8

05 14 0014 W50DF
5020053603 Maintenance tools 05

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Mounting device for big end bear- 836011 123
ing, complete

Mounting device for big end bearing 81,5


upper half

1. Frame complete
Frame
Frame
Support
Rail
2. Car 836038

Mounting device for big end bearing 41,5


lower half

1.Outside support 846006


2. Inside support
Clip
Plate
Shaft
3. Rod 846009

W50DF 0015 05 15
05 Maintenance tools 5020053603

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Mounting device for big end bear- 836010 150
ing, complete

Mounting device for big end bearing 100


upper half
1. Frame

2. Car 836038

Mounting device for big end bearing 50


lower half
1.Outside support 836006
2. Inside support
Clip
Plate
Shaft
3. Rod 836007

05 16 0016 W50DF
5020053603 Maintenance tools 05

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Combined big end bearing lock and 846005 3,1
foot support

W50DF 0017 05 17
05 Maintenance tools 5020053603

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Combined big end bearing lock and 846008 3.1
foot support

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Guide lever for positioning the big 846012 5
end bearing at the piston assembly.

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Removing and assembling tool for 834012 46
gudgeon pin bearing

05 18 0018 W50DF
5020053603 Maintenance tools 05

05.5. Cylinder liner

(Chapter 10)

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Lifting tool for cylinder liner 836009 20

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Yoke for lifting the cylinder liner 836039 11 540
70
130

0530ah02502

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Measuring rail for cylinder bore 847001 2,0
145

1060

0530ah03002

W50DF 0019 05 19
05 Maintenance tools 5020053603

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Inside micrometer for cylinder bore 848012 0.6

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Support for cylinder liner lifting de- 836032 38
vice

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Dismantling tool for antipolishing 836043
ring

500

0530ah08003

05 20 0020 W50DF
5020053603 Maintenance tools 05

05.6. Main bearing


(Chapter 10)
Description Code Weight Dimensions
No (kg)
Stud remover screw for mounting 803004 0.9
and dismantling device (M56)

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Turning tool for main bearing shell 851001 0.5

W50DF 0021 05 21
05 Maintenance tools 5020053603

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Turning tool for thrust washer and 851020 3.4
bearing shell

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Hydraulic pump, complete 860050
Hydraulic pump, low pressure 860181 12.4
(Max. 150 bar)

860172

861012 2.0
Quick coupling, male
860174
Flexible hose, long
860173

Straight male stud

Quick coupling, female

05 22 0022 W50DF
5020053603 Maintenance tools 05

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Mounting device for hydraulic cylin- 861040 9,8
der

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Mounting device for hydraulic cylin- 861041 10,2
der

W50DF 0023 05 23
05 Maintenance tools 5020053603

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Hydraulic tightening tool for M56 861100 13
screws

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Distance sleeve 861009 4.4

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Distance sleeve 861009 4,5

05 24 0024 W50DF
5020053603 Maintenance tools 05

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Pin for tightening nuts 861010 0.05

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Bar for lifting tool 831003 16.5

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Lifting tool 1000 kg 836001 10

W50DF 0025 05 25
05 Maintenance tools 5020053603

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Transport device 836030 0.6

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Transport device into crankcase 836044 14

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Transport device into crankcase 836041 16

05 26 0026 W50DF
5020053603 Maintenance tools 05

05.7. Injection equipment


(Chapter 16)
Description Code Weight Dimensions
No (kg)
Flare nut Wrench (32 mm) 806052 0.13

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Special key for high pressure line 806058 3.5
(46 mm)

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Special key for main nozzle cap nut 806054 4,2 365
(75 mm)
115

0540ah04002

W50DF 0027 05 27
05 Maintenance tools 5020053603

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Box insert tool for pilot nozzle cap 806055 0.2
nut (36 mm)

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Special socket wrench for main fuel 809032 0.1
valve connection piece (36 mm)

05 28 0028 W50DF
5020053603 Maintenance tools 05

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Testing device for nozzle equipment 864001

561
450

300
280

0540ah07004

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Lifting tool for injection pump 831001 0,3

W50DF 0029 05 29
05 Maintenance tools 5020053603

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Lifting tool for injection pump 831004 2

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Yoke for injection pump lifting tool 831007

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Withdrawing device for injection 836040 4.3
pump spindle

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Timing tool for injection pump, GD 862020 2

05 30 0030 W50DF
5020053603 Maintenance tools 05

05.8. Camshaft

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Locking device for camshaft 834053 14

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Locking bar for valve tappet 845013 0.4

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Locking bar for injection pump 845014 0.4
tappet

W50DF 0031 05 31
05 Maintenance tools 5020053603

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Mounting and removing device for 834010 70
camshaft bearings

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Camshaft piece mounting device 845020

05 32 0032 W50DF
5020053603 Maintenance tools 05

05.9. Miscellaneous tools


Description Code Weight Dimensions
No (kg)
Deflection indicator for crankshaft 848111 4,3

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Limiter for fuel rack movement 863001 0.3

W50DF 0033 05 33
05 Maintenance tools 5020053603

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Hydraulic tension cylinder 834050 19

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Checking device for cylinder 848020
86

198
270

0545ah06002

05 34 0034 W50DF
5020053603 Maintenance tools 05

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Mounting device for overspeed 837020 0.5
cylinder and elastic link rod

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Lever for drawing off the overspeed 837040 2.5
cylinder

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Stud remover M20 837039 0.2

W50DF 0035 05 35
05 Maintenance tools 5020053603

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Universal puller 837038 4.3

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Guiding mandrel for assembly of 846160 4 144
HT pipe sealing
138

0545ah14502

05 36 0036 W50DF
5020053603 Maintenance tools 05

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Torque wrench 730R/20 820008 1.5
(Max 200 Nm)
(vfrc. 200

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Torque wrench 721/80 820009 4.8
(Max 800 Nm)
)

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Torque wrench 820010 0.8

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Air operated hydraulic pressure unit 860170 8,2

W50DF 0037 05 37
05 Maintenance tools 5020053603

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Eyebolt screw (M10) 831005 0.1

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Eyebolt screw (M12) 831002 0.18

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Eyebolt screw (M16) 831006 0.3

05 38 0038 W50DF
5020053603 Maintenance tools 05

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Shackle A 0.4 833002 0.1

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Shackle A 0.6 833003 0.2

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Shackle A 1.6 833004 0.4

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Lifting bend, 500 kg 833005 1 1500 mm

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Differential pressure gauge 848051

0545ah30001

W50DF 0039 05 39
05 Maintenance tools 5020053603

05.10. Miscellaneous tools for air cooler


Description Code Weight Dimensions
No (kg)
Mounting device for air cooler 846053 127 1310
V50DF

782
158
1313

646

40 x 60
200

825

656
288

230

450 x 80 x 10
0550ah02014

05 40 0040 W50DF
5020053603 Maintenance tools 05

05.11. Optional tools


Description Code Weight Dimensions
No (kg)
Lifting tool for camshaft pieces 836024 34.6

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Lifting tool for drive gear 836023 16.5

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Lifting bar for drive gear 836034 16.5

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Connecting piece for camshaft ex- 836019 18.0
tension piece lifting tool

W50DF 0041 05 41
05 Maintenance tools 5020053603

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Lifting device for end piece of cam- 836018 6.5
shaft

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Lifting device for camshaft piece 836029 12.7

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Lifting device for bigger intermedi- 836021 1.7
ate gear

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Lifting device for end piece of cam- 836017 14.5
shaft

05 42 0042 W50DF
5020053603 Maintenance tools 05

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Lifting device for camshaft drive 836020 12
gear

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Lifting device for smaller intermedi- 836022 8.4
ate gear

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Guide shaft extension for heat ex- 845009 4.3
changer plates

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Pressure testing flange for cylinder 848021 115
head

W50DF 0043 05 43
05 Maintenance tools 5020053603

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Pressure test flange 847012 4

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Honing machine with crane 842010 45

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Assembly rig for cylinder head 847002

05 44 0044 W50DF
5020053603 Maintenance tools 05

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Assembly trestle for injection pump 862023

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Distance sleeve 861122 4

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Hydraulic tightening tool for M48x3 861121 13
screws

W50DF 0045 05 45
05 Maintenance tools 5020053603

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Extractor for water pump WD200L 837001
impeller

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Assembling tool for WD200L wa- 846030
ter pump bearing

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Assembling tool for water pump 846031
WD200L sealings

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Extractor for water pump WD125L 837005
impeller

05 46 0046 W50DF
5020053603 Maintenance tools 05

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Assembling tool for WD125L wa- 846002
ter pump front bearing

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Assembling tool for water pump 846004
WD125L sealings

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Assembling tool for WD125L wa- 846003
ter pump back bearing

W50DF 0047 05 47
05 Maintenance tools 5020053603

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Lifting tool for lubricating oil pump 836046 83

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Lifting tool for cooling water pump 836054

05 48 0048 W50DF
5020053603 Maintenance tools 05

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Rail for pump lifting tools 836055 24

216
SWL 650 kg

400

1210
0580ah53001

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Rail for pump lifting tools 836061 32 240
SWL 110 kg

387
1404

0580ah54001

W50DF 0049 05 49
05 Maintenance tools 5020053603

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Glide for pump lifting tools 836056 6,6 210

200
0580ah55001

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Fastener for pump lifting tools 836057 2,6

281
0580ah56001

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Bracket for pump lifting tools 836058 12
696

90 319

0580ah57001

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Lifting lug for oil pump 836059 3,1
85

420 50
0580ah58001

05 50 0050 W50DF
5020053603 Maintenance tools 05

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Lifting lug for water pump 836060 18 300 228

550
0580ah59001

Description Code Weight Dimensions


No (kg)
Lifting bracket for pilot fuel pump 836062 12,7

370 275

860

0580ah60001

W50DF 0051 05 51
05 Maintenance tools 5020053603

This page intentionally left blank.

05 52 0052 W50DF
50-200510-09 Adjustments, clearances and wear limits

06. Adjustments, clearances and wear limits

06.1 Adjustments
The valve timing is fixed and cannot be changed individually, cylinder
by cylinder.

Schematic valve timing

TDC
Inlet valve opens Exhaust valve closes
E
AUST VALV

INL ET VAL VE
EXH

Exhaust valve opens


Inlet valve closes
BDC

Fig 06-5 500600

Other set values:


Valve clearances, cold engine: inlet valves 1.0 mm
exhaust valves 1.5 mm
Fuel delivery commencement: See test records
Opening pressure of main fuel injection valve: 450 bar
Opening pressure of safety valve on lub. oil pump: 6-8 bar

Tripping speed of electro-pneumatic / mechanical overspeed trip devices

Nominal speed Electro-pneumatic Mechanical


Installation tripping speed tripping
[rpm] [rpm] speed [rpm]
Power plants, 500 550 575
Marine, diesel electric 514 565 590
Marine, propulsion
500 550 590
514 570 605

W50DF 06 - 1
Adjustments, clearances and wear limits 50-200510-09

06.2 Clearances and wear limits (at 20C)

06.2.1 Clearances and wear limits for W50DF

Drawing dimension Nominal Wear


Part, measuring point (mm) clearance limit
Min. Max. (mm) (mm)
10 Crankshaft journal, diameter 449,960 450,000
Crankshaft journal, ovality 0,020 0,030
Crankshaft journal, taper 0,020/100 0,025/100
Main bearing shell thickness 9,825 9,845 9,800
Measurement record 4610V004: Main bearing shell
Bore of main bearing housing 470,000 470,040
Assembled bearing bore
vertical 450,405 450,485
horizontal 450,450 450,530
Main bearing clearance vertical 0,405-0,525
(also flywheel bearing) horizontal 0,450-0,570
Thrust bearing, axial clearance 0,470-1,050 1,500
Thrust washer thickness 24,720 24,750 24,50
Camshaft diameter 299,968 300,000
Camshaft bearing bush thickness 9,875 9,890
Camshaft bearing housing bore 320,000 320,036
Assembled bearing bore 300,260 300,330 300,370
Camshaft bearing clearance 0,260-0,362 0,400
Measurement record 4610V003: Camshaft bearing bore
Camshaft thrust bearing housing, bore 230,000 230,029
Camshaft thrust bearing diameter 210,000 210,029
Assembled bearing bore 210,200 210,260 210,300
Camshaft thrust bearing width
- housing 60,000 60,060
- shaft 29,980 30,020
Camshaft thrust bearing clearance 0,200-0,290 0,350
Camshaft thrust bearing, axial 0,280-0,440 0,700
clearance
Cylinder liner diameter 500,000 500,063
Cylinder liner ovality at TDC 0,04 0,30
Measurement records 5010V001 and 5010V002: Cylinder liner
Thrust bearing thickness 14,820 14,850

06 - 2 W50DF
50-200510-09 Adjustments, clearances and wear limits

Drawing dimension Nominal Wear


Part, measuring point (mm) clearance limit
Min. Max. (mm) (mm)
11 Crank pin, diameter 449,960 450,000
Crank pin, ovality 0,020 0,030
Crank pin, taper 0,020/100 0,030/100
Big end bearing shell thickness 9,820 9,840
Measurement record 4611V008: Big end bearing shell
Big end bore diameter 470,000 470,040
Ovality 0,020 0,10
Measurement record 4611V003: Big end bearing bore
Assembled bearing bore 450,420 450,540
vertical 450,340 450,460
horizontal
Big end bearing clearance 0,420-0,580
vertical 0,340-0,500
horizontal
Gudgeon pin diameter 219,980 220,000
Small end bore 250,000 250,046
Assembled bearing bore 220,150 220,226 220,260
Gudgeon pin bearing clearance 0,150-0,246
Measurement record 4611V004: Gudgeon pin
Connecting rod axial clearance in 0,40 0,90
piston
Small end bearing bush, thickness 14,920 14,935
Clearance gudgeon pin - piston 0,06-0,10
Bore diameter in piston 220,06 220,08
Piston ring gap (clamped diam.460)
Compression ring 1 1,50-1,90 3,0
Compression ring 2 2,00-2,60 3,0
Oil scraper ring 1,60-2,60 3,0
Measurement record 5011V001: Piston rings
Piston ring axial clearance:
Compression ring 1 0,223-0,265 0,7
Compression ring 2 0,223-0,265 0,7
Oil scraper ring 0,063-0,105 0,3
Measurement record 4611V002: Piston ring groove wear curve
Piston ring groove height:
Groove I and II 10,110 10,130 10,6
Groove III 8,050 8,070 8,3
Measurement record 4611V009: Piston ring groove height
Piston clearance at bottom in cross 0,250-0,290
direction of engine
Corresponding piston diameter

W50DF 06 - 3
Adjustments, clearances and wear limits 50-200510-09

Drawing dimension Nominal Wear


Part, measuring point (mm) clearance limit
Min. Max. (mm) (mm)
12 Valve guide diameter assembled 34.147 34.174 34.350
Measurement record 4612V002: Valve guides
Valve stem diameter 33.975 34.000 33.900
Measurement record 4612V001: Valves
Valve stem clearance 0.147-0.199 0.450
Valve seat radial deviation in relation 0.10
to valve guide (max. value)
Inlet valve seat bore in cylinder head 172.000 172.025
Exhaust valve seat bore in cylinder
head:
outer bore 180.000 180.029
inner bore 162.00 162.025

06 - 4 W50DF
50-200510-09 Adjustments, clearances and wear limits

Drawing dimension Nominal Wear


Part, measuring point (mm) clearance limit
Min. Max. (mm) (mm)
13 Intermediate gear of camshaft
drivebearing clearance (1) (see Fig 06-6) 0.200-0.350 0.5
axial clearance (2) 0.33-0.52
Bearing diameter, in situ 210.200 210.320
Bearing journal diameter 209.971 210.000
Camshaft driving gear backlash:
Crankshaft gear wheel
- intermediate gear wheel 0.300-0.904
Small intermediate gear wheel
- camshaft gear wheel 0.389-0.754

Intermediate gear of camshaft drive

Fig 06-6 500601

W50DF 06 - 5
Adjustments, clearances and wear limits 50-200510-09

Drawing dimension Nominal Wear


Part, measuring point (mm) clearance limit
Min. Max. (mm) (mm)
14 Valve tappet diameter (1) (see Fig 06-7) 159.815 159.915
Guide diameter (2) 160.00 160.063
Diameter clearance (3) 0.085-0.248
Roller pin bore in the tappet (4) 60.000 60.030
Bearing bush bore diameter (5) 60.090 60.120 60.200
Tappet pin diameter 59.971 59.990
Bearing clearance
tappet-tappet pin (6) 0.010-0.059
bearing bush-tappet pin (7) 0.100-0.149
Roller bore diameter (12) 70.000 70.030
Bearing bush outer diameter (13) 69.870 69.900 69.800
Diameter clearance (14) 0.100-0.160
Bearing journal diameter (8) (see Fig 06-8) 109.966 109.988
Rocker arm bearing diameter, in situ (9) 110.088 110.154 110.500
Bearing clearance 0.100-0.188
Yoke pin diameter (10) 41.904 41.920
Yoke bore diameter (11) 42.000 42.025
Diameter clearance 0.121-0.080

Valve tappet

1, 2
12, 13

A
4, 5

A 6 7 14
A-A

Fig 06-7 500602

06 - 6 W50DF
50-200510-09 Adjustments, clearances and wear limits

Rocker arm

10, 11
B
8, 9 B

B-B

Fig 06-8 500603

Drawing dimension Nominal Wear


Part, measuring point (mm) clearance limit
Min. Max. (mm) (mm)
16 Nozzle needle lift (see Fig 06-9)
Main (M): 0,98 1,02 1,12
Pilot (P): 0,16 0,19

Nozzle needle lift

M P

Fig 06-9 500604

W50DF 06 - 7
Adjustments, clearances and wear limits 50-200510-09

Drawing dimension Nominal Wear


Part, measuring point (mm) clearance limit
Min. Max. (mm) (mm)
16 Injection tappet diameter (1) (see Fig 06- 179.875 179.915
10)
Guide diameter (2) 180.000 180.063
Diameter clearance (3) 0.085-0.188
Roller pin bore in tappet (4) 75.000 75.030
Tappet pin diameter (5) 74.971 74.990
Roller bore diameter (12) 75.090 75.120
Bearing clearance
tappet - tappet pin (6) 0.010-0.059
roller bore - tappet pin (7) 0.100-0.149

Injection tappet

1, 2

3
4, 5
12

6 7

Fig 06-10 500605

06 - 8 W50DF
50-200510-09 Adjustments, clearances and wear limits

Drawing dimension Nominal Wear


Part, measuring point (mm) clearance limit
Min. Max. (mm) (mm)
18 Lubricating oil pump, diameter of shaft (1) 59. 970 60.000
Backlash for driving gear 0.422-0.731

Lubricating oil pump

Fig 06-11
1 500606

W50DF 06 - 9
Adjustments, clearances and wear limits 50-200510-09

Drawing dimension Nominal Wear


Part, measuring point (mm) clearance limit
Min. Max. (mm) (mm)
19 Backlash for water pump driving gear 0.422-0.731
WD 200 (see Fig 06-12)

Water pump WD 200

Fig 06-12 500607

Drawing dimension Nominal Wear


Part, measuring point (mm) clearance limit
Min. Max. (mm) (mm)
19 Backlash for water pump driving gear 0.456-0.729
WD 125 (see Fig 06-13)

Water pump WD 125

Fig 06-13 500608

06 - 10 W50DF
50-200510-09 Adjustments, clearances and wear limits

Drawing dimension Nominal Wear


Part, measuring point (mm) clearance limit
Min. Max. (mm) (mm)
22 Driving shaft for governor (1) (see Fig 06-14) 32.000 32.016
Bearing for driving shaft (2) 32.050 32.075
Bearing clearance 0.034-0.075 0.15
Axial clearance (3) 0.100-0.150 0.40
Backlash for driving gear (7) (see Fig 06-14)
L-engine 0.125-0.680 0.80
V-engine 0.138-0.685 0.80
Backlash for driving gear (8) (see Fig 06-14)
L-engine 0.040-0.190 0.30
V-engine 0.040-0.185 0.30
Control shaft (4) (see Fig 06-15) 44.961 45.000
Control shaft bearing (5) (see Fig 06-15) 45.080 45.180
Bearing clearance (5) 0.080-0.219 0.50
Axial clearance (6) 0.300-0.500 1.00
Shaft for connection bar levers (11)
(see Fig 06-16) V-engines 44.961 45.000
Bearing diameter, in situ (10)
(see Fig 06-16) V-engines 45.025 45.064
Bearing clearance (10) V-engines 0.025-0.103 0.2
Axial clearance (9) V-engines 0.400-0.600 1.00

Driving shaft for governor

2 7

Fig 06-14 500609

W50DF 06 - 11
Adjustments, clearances and wear limits 50-200510-09

Control shaft

6
4 5

Fig 06-15 500610

Bearing support for link levers, V-engine

11

10
A 9

Fig 06-16 500611

06 - 12 W50DF
50-200519-10 Adjustments, clearances and wear limits

06. Adjustments, clearances and wear limits

06.1 Adjustments
The valve timing is fixed and cannot be changed individually, cylinder
by cylinder.

Schematic valve timing

TDC
Inlet valve opens Exhaust valve closes
E
AUST VALV

INL ET VAL VE
EXH

Exhaust valve opens


Inlet valve closes
BDC

Fig 06-5 500600

Other set values:


Valve clearances, cold engine: inlet valves 1.0 mm
exhaust valves 1.5 mm
Fuel delivery commencement: See test records
Opening pressure of main fuel injection valve: 450 bar
Opening pressure of safety valve on lub. oil pump: 6-8 bar

Tripping speed of ESM overspeed / mechanical overspeed shutdown

Nominal speed ESM overspeed Mechanical


Installation shutdown tripping
[rpm] [rpm] speed [rpm]
Power plants, 500 565 575
Marine, diesel electric 514 580 590
Marine, propulsion
500 565 590
514 580 605

W50DF 06 - 1
Adjustments, clearances and wear limits 50-200519-10

06.2 Clearances and wear limits (at 20C)

06.2.1 Clearances and wear limits for W50DF

Drawing dimension Nominal Wear


Part, measuring point (mm) clearance limit
Min. Max. (mm) (mm)
10 Crankshaft journal, diameter 449,960 450,000
Crankshaft journal, ovality 0,020 0,030
Crankshaft journal, taper 0,020/100 0,025/100
Main bearing shell thickness 9,825 9,845 9,800
Measurement record 4610V004: Main bearing shell
Bore of main bearing housing 470,000 470,040
Assembled bearing bore
vertical 450,405 450,485
horizontal 450,450 450,530
Main bearing clearance vertical 0,405-0,525
(also flywheel bearing) horizontal 0,450-0,570
Thrust bearing, axial clearance 0,470-1,050 1,500
Thrust washer thickness 24,720 24,750 24,50
Camshaft diameter 299,968 300,000
Camshaft bearing bush thickness 9,875 9,890
Camshaft bearing housing bore 320,000 320,036
Assembled bearing bore 300,260 300,330 300,370
Camshaft bearing clearance 0,260-0,362 0,400
Measurement record 4610V003: Camshaft bearing bore
Camshaft thrust bearing housing, bore 230,000 230,029
Camshaft thrust bearing diameter 210,000 210,029
Assembled bearing bore 210,200 210,260 210,300
Camshaft thrust bearing width
- housing 60,000 60,060
- shaft 29,980 30,020
Camshaft thrust bearing clearance 0,200-0,290 0,350
Camshaft thrust bearing, axial 0,280-0,440 0,700
clearance
Cylinder liner diameter 500,000 500,063
Cylinder liner ovality at TDC 0,04 0,30
Measurement records 5010V001 and 5010V002: Cylinder liner
Thrust bearing thickness 14,820 14,850

06 - 2 W50DF
50-200519-10 Adjustments, clearances and wear limits

Drawing dimension Nominal Wear


Part, measuring point (mm) clearance limit
Min. Max. (mm) (mm)
11 Crank pin, diameter 449,960 450,000
Crank pin, ovality 0,020 0,030
Crank pin, taper 0,020/100 0,030/100
Big end bearing shell thickness 9,820 9,840
Measurement record 4611V008: Big end bearing shell
Big end bore diameter 470,000 470,040
Ovality 0,020 0,10
Measurement record 4611V003: Big end bearing bore
Assembled bearing bore 450,420 450,540
vertical 450,340 450,460
horizontal
Big end bearing clearance 0,420-0,580
vertical 0,340-0,500
horizontal
Gudgeon pin diameter 219,980 220,000
Small end bore 250,000 250,046
Assembled bearing bore 220,150 220,226 220,260
Gudgeon pin bearing clearance 0,150-0,246
Measurement record 4611V004: Gudgeon pin
Connecting rod axial clearance in 0,40 0,90
piston
Small end bearing bush, thickness 14,920 14,935
Clearance gudgeon pin - piston 0,06-0,10
Bore diameter in piston 220,06 220,08
Piston ring gap (clamped diam.460)
Compression ring 1 1,50-1,90 3,0
Compression ring 2 2,00-2,60 3,0
Oil scraper ring 1,60-2,60 3,0
Measurement record 5011V001: Piston rings
Piston ring axial clearance:
Compression ring 1 0,223-0,265 0,7
Compression ring 2 0,223-0,265 0,7
Oil scraper ring 0,063-0,105 0,3
Measurement record 4611V002: Piston ring groove wear curve
Piston ring groove height:
Groove I and II 10,110 10,130 10,6
Groove III 8,050 8,070 8,3
Measurement record 4611V009: Piston ring groove height
Piston clearance at bottom in cross 0,250-0,290
direction of engine
Corresponding piston diameter

W50DF 06 - 3
Adjustments, clearances and wear limits 50-200519-10

Drawing dimension Nominal Wear


Part, measuring point (mm) clearance limit
Min. Max. (mm) (mm)
12 Valve guide diameter assembled 34.147 34.174 34.350
Measurement record 4612V002: Valve guides
Valve stem diameter 33.975 34.000 33.900
Measurement record 4612V001: Valves
Valve stem clearance 0.147-0.199 0.450
Valve seat radial deviation in relation 0.10
to valve guide (max. value)
Inlet valve seat bore in cylinder head 172.000 172.025
Exhaust valve seat bore in cylinder
head:
outer bore 180.000 180.029
inner bore 162.00 162.025

06 - 4 W50DF
50-200519-10 Adjustments, clearances and wear limits

Drawing dimension Nominal Wear


Part, measuring point (mm) clearance limit
Min. Max. (mm) (mm)
13 Intermediate gear of camshaft
drivebearing clearance (1) (see Fig 06-6) 0.200-0.350 0.5
axial clearance (2) 0.33-0.52
Bearing diameter, in situ 210.200 210.320
Bearing journal diameter 209.971 210.000
Camshaft driving gear backlash:
Crankshaft gear wheel
- intermediate gear wheel 0.300-0.904
Small intermediate gear wheel
- camshaft gear wheel 0.389-0.754

Intermediate gear of camshaft drive

Fig 06-6 500601

W50DF 06 - 5
Adjustments, clearances and wear limits 50-200519-10

Drawing dimension Nominal Wear


Part, measuring point (mm) clearance limit
Min. Max. (mm) (mm)
14 Valve tappet diameter (1) (see Fig 06-7) 159.815 159.915
Guide diameter (2) 160.00 160.063
Diameter clearance (3) 0.085-0.248
Roller pin bore in the tappet (4) 60.000 60.030
Bearing bush bore diameter (5) 60.090 60.120 60.200
Tappet pin diameter 59.971 59.990
Bearing clearance
tappet-tappet pin (6) 0.010-0.059
bearing bush-tappet pin (7) 0.100-0.149
Roller bore diameter (12) 70.000 70.030
Bearing bush outer diameter (13) 69.870 69.900 69.800
Diameter clearance (14) 0.100-0.160
Bearing journal diameter (8) (see Fig 06-8) 109.966 109.988
Rocker arm bearing diameter, in situ (9) 110.088 110.154 110.500
Bearing clearance 0.100-0.188
Yoke pin diameter (10) 41.904 41.920
Yoke bore diameter (11) 42.000 42.025
Diameter clearance 0.121-0.080

Valve tappet

1, 2
12, 13

A
4, 5

A 6 7 14
A-A

Fig 06-7 500602

06 - 6 W50DF
50-200519-10 Adjustments, clearances and wear limits

Rocker arm

10, 11
B
8, 9 B

B-B

Fig 06-8 500603

Drawing dimension Nominal Wear


Part, measuring point (mm) clearance limit
Min. Max. (mm) (mm)
16 Nozzle needle lift (see Fig 06-9)
Main (M): 0,98 1,02 1,12
Pilot (P): 0,16 0,19

Nozzle needle lift

M P

Fig 06-9 500604

W50DF 06 - 7
Adjustments, clearances and wear limits 50-200519-10

Drawing dimension Nominal Wear


Part, measuring point (mm) clearance limit
Min. Max. (mm) (mm)
16 Injection tappet diameter (1) (see Fig 06- 179.875 179.915
10)
Guide diameter (2) 180.000 180.063
Diameter clearance (3) 0.085-0.188
Roller pin bore in tappet (4) 75.000 75.030
Tappet pin diameter (5) 74.971 74.990
Roller bore diameter (12) 75.090 75.120
Bearing clearance
tappet - tappet pin (6) 0.010-0.059
roller bore - tappet pin (7) 0.100-0.149

Injection tappet

1, 2

3
4, 5
12

6 7

Fig 06-10 500605

06 - 8 W50DF
50-200519-10 Adjustments, clearances and wear limits

Drawing dimension Nominal Wear


Part, measuring point (mm) clearance limit
Min. Max. (mm) (mm)
18 Lubricating oil pump, diameter of shaft (1) 59. 970 60.000
Backlash for driving gear 0.422-0.731

Lubricating oil pump

Fig 06-11
1 500606

W50DF 06 - 9
Adjustments, clearances and wear limits 50-200519-10

Drawing dimension Nominal Wear


Part, measuring point (mm) clearance limit
Min. Max. (mm) (mm)
19 Backlash for water pump driving gear 0.422-0.731
WD 200 (see Fig 06-12)

Water pump WD 200

Fig 06-12 500607

Drawing dimension Nominal Wear


Part, measuring point (mm) clearance limit
Min. Max. (mm) (mm)
19 Backlash for water pump driving gear 0.456-0.729
WD 125 (see Fig 06-13)

Water pump WD 125

Fig 06-13 500608

06 - 10 W50DF
50-200519-10 Adjustments, clearances and wear limits

Drawing dimension Nominal Wear


Part, measuring point (mm) clearance limit
Min. Max. (mm) (mm)
22 Driving shaft for governor (1) (see Fig 06-14) 32.000 32.016
Bearing for driving shaft (2) 32.050 32.075
Bearing clearance 0.034-0.075 0.15
Axial clearance (3) 0.100-0.150 0.40
Backlash for driving gear (7) (see Fig 06-14)
L-engine 0.125-0.680 0.80
V-engine 0.138-0.685 0.80
Backlash for driving gear (8) (see Fig 06-14)
L-engine 0.040-0.190 0.30
V-engine 0.040-0.185 0.30
Control shaft (4) (see Fig 06-15) 44.961 45.000
Control shaft bearing (5) (see Fig 06-15) 45.080 45.180
Bearing clearance (5) 0.080-0.219 0.50
Axial clearance (6) 0.300-0.500 1.00
Shaft for connection bar levers (11)
(see Fig 06-16) V-engines 44.961 45.000
Bearing diameter, in situ (10)
(see Fig 06-16) V-engines 45.025 45.064
Bearing clearance (10) V-engines 0.025-0.103 0.2
Axial clearance (9) V-engines 0.400-0.600 1.00

Driving shaft for governor

2 7

Fig 06-14 500609

W50DF 06 - 11
Adjustments, clearances and wear limits 50-200519-10

Control shaft

6
4 5

Fig 06-15 500610

Bearing support for link levers, V-engine

11

10
A 9

Fig 06-16 500611

06 - 12 W50DF
50-200538-11 Tightening torques and use of hydraulic tools

07. Tightening torques and use of hydraulic


tools

07.1 Tightening torques for screws and nuts


Note! See section 07.3 for hydraulically tightened connections!

The position numbers in the tables below refer to the corresponding


figures A to K, which are located in the engine according to Fig 07-1.
Note that the position numbers of components in this chapter are not
necessarily the same as those to be found in the assembly instructions
in chapters 10-23. This is to be taken in consideration when looking for
torque values. Always tighten to stated torque shown in the tables. A
loosen screw connection might cause serious damages/human injury.
Threads and contact faces of nuts and screw heads should be oiled with
lubricating oil unless otherwise stated. Note that locking fluids are
used in certain cases.

Note! Molycote or similar low friction lubricants must not be used for any
screws or nuts. Great risk of overtensioning of screws.

1 Nm = 0.102 kpm

Tightening torques

K F E D

C
G

I
B

H A

Fig 07-1 500701

W50DF 07 - 1
Tightening torques and use of hydraulic tools 50-200538-11

A: Crankshaft and flywheel

18

19 17

Fig 07-2 500702

Torque
Pos. Screw connection Nm
17 Split gear screws on crankshaft
(M30) 10.9 1900100
(M36) 10.9 3160150
Apply Loctite 243 on threads M36. (See section 07.2)
18, Flywheel fastening screws and flywheel fitting bolts
19 In case you need the tightening torque for these screws,
please contact the nearest Wrtsil service office.

07 - 2 W50DF
50-200538-11 Tightening torques and use of hydraulic tools

B: Governor drive

Alternative 1 Alternative 2

34
34

Fig 07-3 500703

Torque
Pos. Screw connection Nm
34 Alternative 1:
Hexagon socket head screw M10x130, 10.9 50
Hexagon socket head screw M10x130, 12.9 80
Apply Loctite 243 on threads, see section 07.2
34 Alternative 2: 25
Hexagon socket hed screw M8x60

W50DF 07 - 3
Tightening torques and use of hydraulic tools 50-200538-11

B: Overspeed trip device

6
A-A Alternative 1 Alternative 2

54

56

A
A

49

Fig 07-4 500704

Torque
Pos. Screw connection Nm
6 Overspeed trip lever screw (M12) 854
49 Locking screw of centrifugal tripping mechanism 14
54 Overspeed trip housing fastening screws (M12) 854
56 Overspeed trip fastening screws (M10) 502

07 - 4 W50DF
50-200538-11 Tightening torques and use of hydraulic tools

C: Camshaft

1 Alternative1 2

1
47
50

Alternative 2

Fig 07-5 500705

Torque
Pos. Screw connection Nm
1 Alternative 1:
Pretightening of camshaft flange connection nuts (M20) 200
Final tightening of camshaft flange connection nuts (M20) 55024
1 Alternative 2:
Pretightening of camshaft flange connection screws (M20) 200
Final tightening of camshaft flange connection screws 62025
(M20)
2 Camshaft gear flange connection screws (M20) 57525
47 In-line engines:
Camshaft damper (H&W) connection screws (M20) (8.8) 41015
(optional)
47 V-engines:
Vibration damper (viscous type), connection screws (M20) 41015
(8.8)
Vibration damper (spring type), connection screws (M20) 57525
(10.9)
50 Elastical coupling, vibration damper fastening screws 85
(M10)(optional)

W50DF 07 - 5
Tightening torques and use of hydraulic tools 50-200538-11

D: Cylinder head

12 13 48

8
67

10

40
41

42
43

Fig 07-6 500706

Torque
Pos. Screw connection Nm
8 Main injection valve fastening screws (M12) 725
10 Injection pipe nuts 2005
Use Molykote G-n plus lubricant on threads and the
sealing cone.
12 Rocker arm console fastening screws (M24) 60025
13 Locking screw for valve clearance adjusting screw (M12) 305
48 Locking nut for adjusting screw of yoke (M24x2) 40025
40 Fastening screws for connection pipe pressure flange 382
(M12)
41 Fastening screws for connection pipe sealing flange (M12) 855
42 Pilot fuel pipes (M22x1,5) 252
43 Fastening screws for pilot fuel pipe connection piece (M8) 172
67 Clamp tightening screw (M16) 17010

07 - 6 W50DF
50-200538-11 Tightening torques and use of hydraulic tools

D: Starting valve

15 16

Fig 07-7 500707

Torque
Pos. Screw connection Nm
15 Fastening nuts for starting valve (M16) 1655
16 Nut for starting valve spindle (M12) 452

E: Piston

55

Fig 07-8 500708

Torque
Pos. Screw connection Nm
55 Piston crown connection screws
1. Thread and contact surface of screw to be lubricated
with oil.
2.Screws to be tightened crosswise. 310
3. Screws to be slackened off.
4. Screws to be retightened crosswise. 50
5. Screws to be cross tightened. 120
6. Test for the right tighteness.
Screws should not move when tightening by 245 Nm
torque.

W50DF 07 - 7
Tightening torques and use of hydraulic tools 50-200538-11

F: Injection pump

A
26

105

46 46

A
106 23

24

25

22

Fig 07-9 500709

Torque
Pos. Screw connection Nm
22 Locking screw (M12) for injection pump adjusting screw 605
(locked with locking fluid)
23 Injection pump fastening nuts (M24) 46020
24 Injection pump cover fastening screws (M14) 1505
25 Injection pump element fastening screws (M12) 1255
26 Main injection pipe fastening nut 2005
Use Molykote G-n plus lubricant on threads and the
sealing cone.
46 Erosion plug, see instructions for locking in section 16.3.6. 3505
105 Stop washer mounting screw 100
106 Pneumatic cylinder fastening screw 30

07 - 8 W50DF
50-200538-11 Tightening torques and use of hydraulic tools

F: Injection valve

60 28

Fig 07-10 500710

Torque
Pos. Screw connection Nm
28 Main injection nozzle cap nut 60015
Use Molykote G-n plus lubricant on threads and shoulder
60 Counter nut of main injection valve adjusting screw 200

G: Turbocharger, Napier

31

Fig 07-11 500711

Torque
Pos. Screw connection Nm
31 Turbocharger fastening screws (M24) 950

W50DF 07 - 9
Tightening torques and use of hydraulic tools 50-200538-11

G: Turbocharger, TPL

31

Fig 07-12 500712

Torque
Pos. Screw connection Nm
31 Turbocharger fastening screws (M24), TPL73 78050

H: Engine driven lube oil pump

30

Fig 07-13 500713

Torque
Pos. Screw connection Nm
30 Lube oil pump gear fastening screws 41 4

07 - 10 W50DF
50-200538-11 Tightening torques and use of hydraulic tools

H: Engine driven pilot fuel pump

14

17

13

Fig 07-14 500724

Torque
Pos. Screw connection Nm
13 Pipe union for supply connection 30
14 Connection piece 50
17 Pipe union for drain connection 25

W50DF 07 - 11
Tightening torques and use of hydraulic tools 50-200538-11

I: Engine driven cooling water pump WD-125

44 43

Fig 07-15 500714

Torque
Pos. Screw connection Nm
43 Water pump gear fastening screws 503
Tighten the screws crosswise (0-20-40-50)Nm
44 Hexagon screw 110
Apply Loctite 243 on threads, see section 07.2

I: Engine driven cooling water pump WD-200

66

24 43

Fig 07-16 500715

Torque
Pos. Screw connection Nm
43 Water pump gear fastening screws 41
24 Hexagon screw. 200
Apply Loctite 243 on threads, see section 07.2
66 Hexagon screw 10
Apply Loctite 243 on threads, see section 07.2

07 - 12 W50DF
50-200538-11 Tightening torques and use of hydraulic tools

J: Free end of crankshaft

44

45

Fig 07-17 500716

Torque
Pos. Screw connection Nm
44 Tightening screws of vibration damper or gear wheel for 2800
engine driven pumps (M39x3) (optional)
45 Fitting bolts of vibration damper or gear wheel for engine 2200
driven pumps (M39x3) (optional)

W50DF 07 - 13
Tightening torques and use of hydraulic tools 50-200538-11

K: Exhaust pipe

84 83 84

Fig 07-18 500717

Torque
Pos. Screw connection Nm
83 Exhaust manifold fastening screws (M20) 300
Use Molykote G-n plus lubricant on the threads.
84 Flange connections of the exhaust manifold
Use Molykote G-n plus lubricant on the threads.
M24 510
M20 300
M16 145
M12 61

07 - 14 W50DF
50-200538-11 Tightening torques and use of hydraulic tools

07.1.1 General torques

We recommend the use of torque measuring tools also when tightening


other screws and nuts. The following torque values apply to screws
treated with lubricating oil or Loctite.
These tightening values can not be used if the rod diameter of the screw
has been reduced or the thread ends in final pass.

Width across Key width of Torque


Screw flats of hexagon
dimension hexagon socket head (Nm) (kpm)
screws (mm) screws (mm)
Strength class 8.8
M6 10 5 10 1.0
M8 13 6 25 2.5
M10 17 8 50 5.0
M12 19 10 85 8.5
M16 24 14 190 19.0
M20 30 17 370 37.5
M24 36 19 640 65.0
Strength class 10.9
M6 10 5 14 1.4
M8 13 6 37 3.8
M10 17 8 75 7.7
M12 19 10 130 13.3
M16 24 14 310 31.6
M20 30 17 620 63.2
M24 36 19 1060 108
Strength class 12.9
M6 10 5 18 1.8
M8 13 6 43 4.4
M10 17 8 87 8.9
M12 19 10 150 15.3
M16 24 14 370 37.7
M20 30 17 720 73.4
M24 36 19 1240 126.5

W50DF 07 - 15
Tightening torques and use of hydraulic tools 50-200538-11

07.2 Use of locking fluids


When using locking fluid (Loctite), clean parts carefully in degreasing
fluid and let them dry completely before applying locking fluid.

07.3 Hydraulically tightened connections

07.3.1 General

In case it is impossible to turn the nuts, when the maximum hydraulic


pressure is reached, check is there corrosion in the threads and are the
tools and manometers operational.

Note! The screws will be overloaded if the maximum hydraulic pressure


is exceeded.
It is recommended to change the screws if maximum hydraulic
pressure is exceeded for some reason.

When tightening hydraulic bolt connections, follow the instructions


given in section 07.3.4

07 - 16 W50DF
50-200538-11 Tightening torques and use of hydraulic tools

07.3.2 Hydraulically tightened connections

Hydraulically tightened connections

34

34

39

41 38
38
37 39
49 49
37

36
35 40 40
35

Fig 07-19 500718

Hydraulic
pressure Tightening
when tightening torque for Hydraulic
Pos. Screw connection
(bar) (3%) stud cylinder
(Nm)
Stage I Stage II
34 Cylinder head bolts M90 x 6 300 500 40040 861143
35 Main bearing bolts M90 x 6 400 815 40040 861143
36 Thrust bearing bolts M56 400 600 30030 861100
37 Lateral bolts of main bearings and 300 600 By hand 861100
thrust bearing M56
38 Big end bearing bolts M72x6 400 800 40040 861142
39 Connecting rod bolts M42 400 760 15010 861120
40 Counterweight bolts M56 L-engine 300 600 30030 861100
40 Counterweight bolts M72x6 V-engine 300 650 40040 861142
41 Central bolts for intermediate gears 400 815 40040 861143
M90x6
49 Fixing bolts M42 300 700 By hand 861120
(resilient mounting)

W50DF 07 - 17
Tightening torques and use of hydraulic tools 50-200538-11

07.3.3 Dismantling hydraulically tightened screw con-


nections

1 Attach distance sleeves and hydraulic cylinders to the nuts


according to Fig 07-19.A. Screw on the cylinders by hand.
2 Connect the hoses to the pump and cylinders according to
scheme Fig 07-19.B. Open the release valve (2) and screw cylinders in
clockwise direction to expel possible oil.
3 Turn the cylinders or distance sleeves in counter-clckwise
direction about half a revolution (180), M72 x 6 thread sleeve 3/4
revolution (270). Otherwise the nuts will be locked by the cylinder and
impossible to loosen.
4 Close the release valve and pump pressure to the stated
value. (See stage II in section 07.3.2). Read pressure in both manome-
ters (6), see Fig 07-19.
5 Turn the nuts in counter-clockwise direction about one revo-
lution with a pin.
6 Open the release valve slowly and remove the hydraulic tool
set.
7 Screw off the nuts.

Hydraulic cylinders

861143 861142 861100 861009


M90x6 M72x6 M56

1 6 5

B 4

7 2 3

Fig 07-20 500719

07 - 18 W50DF
50-200538-11 Tightening torques and use of hydraulic tools

07.3.4 Reassembling hydraulically tightened screw


connections

1 Screw on the nuts and attach distance sleeves. Screw on


the cylinders by hand.
2 Connect the hoses to the pump and cylinders according to
Fig 07-19. Check that the release valve (2) is open and screw the
cylinders inclockwise direction to expel possible oil.
3 Close the release valve (2) and pump the pressure to the
value of stage I stated in the table of section
4 Tighten the nuts with a pin until close contact to face. Keep the
pressure constant at the stated value during tightening.
5 Release the pressure.
6 Pump the pressure to the value of stage II and tighten the
nuts. Observe, that the nuts turn equally.
7 Open the release valve slowly and remove the hydraulic tool
set.

07.3.5 Maintenance of high pressure tool set

The hydraulic tool set consists of a high pressure hand pump with
integrated oil container, hoses fitted with quick-connections and non-
return valves, cylinders and a pressure gauge mounted on the hand
pump and another mounted after the last hydraulic jack. See Fig 07-19.
The components are connected in series, the pressure gauge being the
last component thus ensuring that every cylinder is fed with the correct
pressure.
The non-return valves in the hoses are integrated with the quick-con-
nections and are opened by the pins located in the centre of the male
and female parts. If these pins get worn the connection must be
replaced due to the risk of blocking.
In the high pressure hydraulic tool set it is recommended to use
a special hydraulic oil or at least an oil with a viscosity of about
2E at 20C.
During the filling of the high pressure pump container, it is
recommended to connect the set according to scheme B Fig 07-19.
Before filling, open the release valve (2) and empty the cylinders
(4) by pressing piston and cylinder together. After that, the con-
tainer can be filled through the filling plug (1).
After filling, vent the system by pressing in, with a finger, the
centre pin of the female part of the last quick-connection; the
connection being disconnected from the pressure gauge. Keep on
pumping until airfree oil emerges from the connection.
Check the pressure gauge of the hydraulic tool set regularly. For
this purpose a comparison pressure gauge is supplied. This pres-
sure gauge can be connected to the plug hole (7) and the outlet
hose of the pump is connected direct to the pressure gauges.

W50DF 07 - 19
Tightening torques and use of hydraulic tools 50-200538-11

07.4 Use of hydraulic extractor cylinder


For some power demanding operations a hydraulic extractor cylinder
is used. In connection with this cylinder the hydraulic high pressure
hand pump is utilized. (Connection scheme acc. to Fig 07-20.)

Hydraulic extractor cylinder

1
B

Fig 07-21 500720

The effective area of the piston is 58.32 cm2 which gives the following
relation between pressure and force (Fig 07-21.)

Relation between pressure and force (hydraulic cylinder 834050)

p
(bar) A. Max. Pressure
600

300

F
0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 (kN)

Fig 07-22 500721

According to the design of the cylinder, the outer cylinder (1) must not be
loaded, but the force is created between the surfaces A and B in Fig 07-20.

07 - 20 W50DF
50-200538-11 Tightening torques and use of hydraulic tools

The piston is prevented from running out of the cylinder by an expan-


sion ring (2). The strength of this ring is limited and it is recommended
that care be taken when operating at the end of the stroke.

07.5 Use of low pressure pump for lifting pur-


poses in the crankcase
A special low pressure pump (150 bar, 860050) is delivered for lifting
the main bearing cap in the crankcase. Normal engine oil, which is
used in the engine lubricating system (sump) must be used in
this pump if the drain oil from the tools is led to the sump of the engine.
However, it is also possible to connect the drain oil back to the pump
chamber. (Fig 07-22.) When lifting the main bearing connect the
pressure hose to connection UP, when lowering connect the hose to
connection DOWN.

Low pressure pump

A
A

UP DOWN

1 2

Fig 07-23 500722

W50DF 07 - 21
Tightening torques and use of hydraulic tools 50-200538-11

07.6 Torque calculations


Note! Torque wrench settings must be recalculated according to the
following formula when using tools (806058) and together with
torque wrench (820009) or (820008).

Example

B xM
M1 =
B+A

M M1

A B

Fig 07-24 500723

Example:
M = 600 Nm
A = 272 mm
B = 880 mm

M1 = 600 x 880 / ( 880 + 272 ) = 458 Nm

07 - 22 W50DF
50-200513-06 Operating Troubles 08

08. Operating Troubles

08.1 Trouble shooting


The engine should be maintained according to the schedule in chapter
04. Some possible operating troubles require prompt action. Operators
should acquire knowledge of this chapter for immediate action when
needed.

Trouble See chapter,


Possible reason section
1. Crankshaft does not rotate at starting attempt
a) Control system indicates start blockings
- low lubricating oil pressure
- low starting air pressure
- low HT temperature before engine
- turning device engaged
- emergency stop activated
Check the alarm list or the local display unit
b) Engine in shutdown or emergency stop mode 23
c) Communication to external system not running
d) Incorrect CCM configuration
e) MCM not restarted after power disconnection
f) Starting air solenoid valve faulty
g) Starting system faulty (starting air distribution piston or starting valve jammed) 21
h) Inlet or exhaust valve jammed in open position or "negative" valve clearance
2. Crankshaft rotates but engine fails to fire
a) Too low speed 21
b) Fuel oil insufficiently precirculated
c) Fuel and injection system not vented after overhaul / Repeat the start procedure 23
d) Very low air and engine temperatures in connection with fuel of low ignition 02
quality
e) Gas supply restricted or blocked 17
f) Charge air system restricted or blocked 15
g) TDC/speed sensor failure or wrongly adjusted
h) Pilot fuel system failure 17, 23
i) Gas fuel and charge air pressure difference too high
j) Fuel filter clogged 17
k) Three-way cock of fuel filter wrongly set, valve in fuel inlet pipe closed, fuel day 17
tank empty, fuel feed pump not started or faulty

W50DF 08 - 1
08 Operating Troubles 50-200513-06

3. Engine fires irregularly, some cylinders do not fire at all


a) Faulty main gas admission valve 17
- jamming when closed
- damaged wiring or electrical connector
- gas fuel and charge air pressure difference too high
b) Faulty pilot fuel injector 16
c) Incorrect pilot injection timing or duration 23
- incorrect software setting
- TDC/speed sensor wrongly adjusted
d) Incorrect air-fuel ratio (too lean) 23
- incorrect software setting
- malfunction of wastegate valve
- Insufficient charge air pressure
- air intake clogged
- turbocharger compressor dirty
- charge air cooler clogged on air side
- turbocharger turbine badly fouled
e) Faulty CCM
f) 1218-cylinder engines. It may be troublesome to make these fire on all
cylinders when idling, due to the small quantity of fuel gas required.
In normal operation this is acceptable.
g) See point 2c
In diesel fuel operation:
h) Diesel fuel rack linkage set-up incorrect or too much limitation in start fuel limiter 22
(software setting)
i) Injection pump control sleeve does not mesh properly with rack (may cause 16
overspeed if set in direction towards increased fuel quantity)
j) Injection pump faulty (plunger or tappet sticking; delivery valve spring broken or 16
sticking, constant pressure relief valve leaking)
k) Injection valve faulty; nozzle holes clogged 16
l) Speed actuator start booster not functional
4. Engine speed not stable
a) Loading automation outside engine faulty
Speed signal to speed controller disturbed due to wrong sensing distance or
poor connection / Wrong dynamic setting in speed controller or misfiring
Misfire in cylinder
- Faulty main gas admission valve (3a)
- Faulty pilot fuel injector (3b)
b) Incorrect ignition timing 23
- incorrect software setting
- TDC/speed sensor wrongly adjusted
c) Incorrect pilot injection timing or duration 23
- incorrect software setting
- malfunction of wastegate valve
- insufficient charge air pressure (see point 3d)
d) Incorrect software setting of speed control parameters 23
e) Gas pressure too low 17, 23
f) Fuel oil pressure too low 17

08 - 2 W50DF
50-200513-06 Operating Troubles 08

Knocks or detonations occur in engine


5. (if reason cannot be found immediately, stop the engine!)
a) Big end bearing clearance too large (loose screws!) 06, 07, 11
b) Valve springs or injection pump tappet spring broken 12
c) Inlet or exhaust valve jamming when open
d) Too large valve clearances 06, 12
e) One or more cylinders overloaded
f) Tappet guide block or injection pump loose 14, 07
g) Initial phase of piston seizure
h) Incorrect air-fuel ratio (too rich) 23
- incorrect software setting
- malfunction of wastegate valve
- insufficient charge air pressure (see point 3d)
i) Faulty main gas admission valve 17
- jamming when open
- particles in gas fuel system
j) Incorrect pilot injection timing or duration 23
- incorrect software setting
- TDC/speed sensor wrongly adjusted
- Faulty pilot fuel injector
k) Changes in gas fuel characteristics (gas with lower methane number) 02
6. Dark exhaust gases
a) Late injection (wrongly set camshaft drive) 06, 16, 17
b) See points 3b, c, d, e
c) Insufficient charge air pressure: Test Records
- air intake clogged 15, 04
- turbocharger compressor dirty
- charge air cooler clogged on air side
- turbocharger turbine badly fouled
Note! In case of a rapid increase of load the engine may smoke in diesel mode.
7. Engine exhaust gases blue-whitish or gray-whitish
a) Excessive lubricating oil consumption due to: gas blow-by past piston rings; worn or 03, 11
broken oil scraper rings or worn cylinder liners; sticking compression rings; compression
rings turned upside-down; ring scuffing (burning marks on sliding surfaces)
b) Gray-whitish exhaust gases due to water leakage from exhaust boiler/turbocharger
or due to water content in fuel.
8. Exhaust gas temperature of all cylinders abnormally high
a) Engine overloaded
b) Charge air temperature too high Test Rec, 01
- charge air cooler clogged on water side or dirty on air side 15
- water temperature to air cooler too high, water quantity insufficient
- engine room temperature abnormally high
c) Excessive deposits in cylinder head inlet or exhaust ports
d) Exhaust pipe pressure after turbine high 04, 15
e) Leakage in charge air system
f) Leakage in exhaust gas system
g) Incorrect air-fuel ratio (too rich) 23
- incorrect software setting
- malfunction of wastegate valve
- insufficient charge air pressure (see point 3d)

W50DF 08 - 3
08 Operating Troubles 50-200513-06

9. Exhaust gas temperature of one cylinder above normal Test Records


a) Exhaust valve
- jamming when open
- negative valve clearance
- sealing surface blown by (burned)
b) Faulty main gas admission valve 17
- jamming when open
- particles in gas fuel system
c) Leakage in cylinder head inlet
d) Faulty pilot fuel injector 16
e) Injection pump faulty 16
10. Exhaust gas temperature of one cylinder below normal
a) Faulty exhaust gas temperature transducers 23, 03
b) Leakage in gas fuel system 17
c) When idling, see point 3g 03

e) Incorrect air-fuel ratio (too lean) 23


- incorrect software setting
- malfunction of wastegate valve
- insufficient charge air pressure (see point 3d)
f) Faulty main gas admission valve 17
- stacked in close position
- damaged wiring or electrical connector
- gas and charge air pressure difference too high
- open connection i valves cable
g) Faulty pilot fuel injection valve 16
- sticking needle
- pilot nozzle hole clogged
- open connection i valves cable
h) Leaky injection pipe or pipe fittings 16
11. Lubricating oil pressure lacking or too low 01
a) Faulty pressure transducers 23
b) Lubricating oil level in oil sump too low 01, 18
c) Lubricating oil pressure control valve out of adjustment or jamming 18
d) Three-way cock of lubricating oil filter wrongly set 18
e) Leakage in lubricating oil suction pipe connections 18
f) Lubricating oil viscosity too low 02
g) Lubricating oil pipes inside engine loose or broken 18

12. Too high lubricating oil pressure


a) See points 11a and c
13. Too high lubricating oil temperature 01
a) Faulty temperature transducer
b) Insufficient cooling water flow through oil cooler (faulty pump, air in system, 19, 01
valve closed), too high raw water temperature
c) Oil cooler clogged, deposits on tubes 18
d) Faulty thermostat valve 18

08 - 4 W50DF
50-200513-06 Operating Troubles 08

Abnormally high cooling water outlet temperature, difference 01


14. between cooling water inlet and outlet temperatures too large
a) One of temperature transducer faulty
b) Circulating water cooler clogged, deposits on tubes
c) Insufficient flow of cooling water through engine (circulating water pump faul- 19, 03
ty), air in system, valves closed
d) Thermostat valve faulty 19
15. Water in lubricating oil 02, 03
a) Leaky oil cooler 18
b) Leakage at cylinder liner O-rings (always pressure test when cooling water
system has been drained or cylinder liners have been dismantled)
c) Faulty lubricating oil separator. See separator instruction book!
Water in charge air receiver 15
16. (escapes through drain pipe in air cooler housing)
a) Leaky air coolers
b) Condensation (too low charge air cooling water temperature) 03
17. Engine looses speed or power
a) Engine overloaded or too fast load increase 23
b) See points 4e, 5g
18. Engine stops
a) Shortage of fuel
b) Automatic shutdown or emergency stop from control system 23
c) Power failure to electronic equipment
19. Engine does not stop although remote stop signal is given
a) Faulty wiring. Stop the engine by closing the shut-off valve in the gas supply
system
20. Engine does not stop although stop signal is given
a) Injection pump control rack wrongly set (3b, c)
Press emergency stop button. If the engine does not stop immediately, block
fuel supply as near the engine as possible (e.g. by fuel filter three-way
cock).Before restarting the engine, the fault must be located and corrected.
Great risk of overspeed
b) The engine driven by generator or propeller or by another engine connected to
same reduction gear
Engine overspeeds and does not stop although
21. overspeed trip device trips
a) Injection pump control rack wrongly set (3b,c). Load the engine, if possible.
Block fuel supply, e.g. by means of fuel filter three-way cock.
- Diesel fuel control rack blocked or incorrectly set
b) An overspeeding engine is hard to stop. Therefore, check regularly the 22
adjustment of the control mechanism (the injection pump rack positions):
1) the stop lever being in stop position or the overspeed trip device being
tripped and the speed governor at max. fuel admission
2) the stop lever and the overspeed trip being in work position and the speed
governor in stop position.
This control should be done always when the control mechanism or the
injection pumps have been touched.

W50DF 08 - 5
08 Operating Troubles 50-200513-06

08.2 Emergency operation

08.2.1 Operation with defective air cooler(s)

If the water tubes of an air cooler are defective, the cooling water may
enter the cylinders. If water or water mist flows out of the drain pipe
at the bottom of the cooler housing, check whether it is raw water or
condensate. If condensate, reduce cooling (see chapter 03, Fig 03-2). If
raw water, stop the engine as soon as possible and fit a spare cooler.
In case of no available spare cooler, the following procedure can be
carried out as an emergency solution:
a) Dismantle the cooler for repair and blank off the opening in the
charge air cooler housing. Shut off the water supply and the return
pipes. Repair the cooler, e.g. by plugging the leaking tubes.
b) If there is not time enough to remove the defective cooler to re-
pair it, then only shut off the water supply and the return pipes.
c) Operating with a partially plugged, shut-down or removed air
cooler.
The engine output must be limited and normal full load exhaust
temperatures must not be exceeded. The turbocharger may surge
before the admissible exhaust temperatures are reached. In such a
case, engine load must be reduced further to avoid continuous surging.

08.2.2 Operation with defective turbocharger(s)

A defective turbocharger is to be treated in accordance with the service


instructions given in the turbocharger instruction book (blocking of
rotor, blanking of turbocharger etc.)
If one of the turbochargers on a V-engine is defective and must be
blocked, the other charger has to be blocked too. The air connection
between the turbocharger and the air cooler housing should be removed
and the engine will operate as a naturally aspirated engine. Available
load from the engine with blocked turbocharger(s) is about 20 % of full
load. The engine output must, however, be limited so that the normal
full load exhaust temperatures are not exceeded.

Note! Both turbochargers on a V-engine must be blocked or blanked in


case of one charger is defective and blocked

08 - 6 W50DF
50-200513-06 Operating Troubles 08

08.2.3 Operation with defective cams

If the camshaft piece with damaged cams cannot be removed and


replaced by a new one, the engine can be kept running by the following
measures:
a) Injection pump cams:
Slight damage:
Set the injection pump control rack to zero position and lock it by using
the limiter tool 863001.
Bad damage:
Remove the fuel injection pump. See chapter 16.

Attention! Concerning vibrations, see sec. 08.2.5.

When operating with a shut-off injection pump over a long period, the
valve push rods of the inlet and outlet valves are to be removed, and
the indicator valve on the respective cylinder is to be opened once an
hour to allow any accumulated oil to escape.With one cylinder out of
operation, reduce load to prevent exhaust temperature of the remain-
ing cylinders from exceeding normal full load temperatures.
b) Valve cams
Shut off the fuel injection to the cylinder concerned, see chapter 16.
Remove the valve push rods and cam followers of the cylinder. Replace
the tubes covering the push rods.

Run the engine with reduced load to prevent the exhaust tempera-
tures from exceeding their respective normal full load temperatures.

08.2.4 Operation with removed piston and connecting


rod

In case of such damage on piston, connecting rod or big end bearing


that cannot be repaired, the following can be done to allow emergency
operation:
1 Remove the piston, the connecting rod and the big end bear-
ing.
2 Cover the lubricating oil bore in the crank pin with a suit-
able hose clip, and secure it.
3 Fit the cylinder head without mounting the valve push rods.
4 Prevent starting air entry to the cylinder head by removing
the pilot air pipe.
5 Set the injection pump fuel rack to zero position and lock it
using the limiter tool 863001.

W50DF 08 - 7
08 Operating Troubles 50-200513-06

Run the engine with reduced load to prevent the exhaust temperatures
from exceeding their respective normal full load temperatures. If the
turbocharger(s) surges, reduce load further to avoid continuous surg-
ing.
Operation with removed piston and connecting rod, from one or more
cylinders, should be performed only in absolute emergency conditions
when there are no other means of proceeding under own power.

08.2.5 Torsional vibrations and other vibrations

When running the engine with one cylinder, or more, out of operation,
the balance of the engine is disturbed and severe, or even dangerous,
vibrations may occur. The vibration conditions are, in practice, depen-
dant on the type of the installation.As a general advice, when there are
cylinders out of order:
1 Reduce load as much as possible.
2 Keep the speed in a favourable range (completely depend-
ing on the type of installation).

If one or several pistons are removed, lowest possible speed should be


used.

08 - 8 W50DF
2005-01 Specific Installation Data

09. Specific Installation Data

09.1 General Marine installations


Chapter 09 is reserved for specific installation data.
Depending on installation, the specific installation data can also be
found from separate binder, Attachments.

09.2 General Power installations


All test reports and certificates are collected in series 8 Quality records.
The specific installation data can be found from binder 7A 02 01.

09 - 1
Specific Installation Data 2005-01

09 - 2
50-200524-05 Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump

10. Engine block with bearings, cylinder and


oil sump

10.1 Engine block


The nodular cast iron engine block is cast in one piece. The jacket water
distributing pipes are incorporated in the engine block. The crankcase
covers as well as other covers tighten against the engine block by rubber
sealings and four screws each. Some of the crankcase covers are
equipped with safety valves which relieve the overpressure in case of
a crankcase explosion. The number of relief valves depends on the
crankcase volume. The crankcase is also provided with a vent pipe
including a non-return valve with a drain connection. This vent pipe
should be routed away from the engine room.

10.2 Main bearings


The main bearing caps, which support the underslung crankshaft, are
clamped by hydraulically tensioned screws, two from below and two
horizontally. The bearing shells are axially guided by lugs to provide a
correct assembly. All main bearings are equipped with temperature
sensors.

10.2.1 Maintenance of the main bearings

For maintenance intervals see chapter 04., Maintenance schedule. If


abnormal temperatures appears the bearing has to be inspected.

10.2.2 Dismantling of a main bearing

Loosening the side screws:


1 In case of a wet oil sump: Pump oil from the oil sump to the
storage tank if not done yet.
2 Remove two crankcase covers on each side of the bearing,
on both side of the engine.
3 Remove carefully the main bearing temperature sensor (1)
and the clamps for the cable, see Fig 10-1.
4 Remove the caps from the side screws of the concerned
bearing.
5 Lift the distance sleeves (861009) into position on the side
screws. Both sides can be loosened simultaneously.

W46/W50DF 10 - 1
Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump 50-200524-05

Main bearing side screws

861009
861100

Fig 10-1 501001

6 Screw on the hydraulic tool (861100), connect the hoses of


the hydraulic pump (860170) according to Fig 10-2. Open the valve.

Note! Some hydraulic pump types are to be used with a separate oil return
hose. Always follow the instructions delivered with the pump.

Hydraulic pump connection

860170 861009

861100

Fig 10-2 501002

7 Keep on turning the hydraulic tool until the piston and cylin-
der end faces are at the same level.
8 Turn the hydraulic tool counter-clockwise about half a turn
(180) and close the valve.
9 Pump the hydraulic pressure to the stated value, see section
07.3.2.
10 Loosen the nut about half a turn with the pin 861010.
11 Release the pressure slowly. Disconnect the hoses and un-
screw the hydraulic tool.
12 Remove the nuts from the side screws by hand.

10 - 2 W46/W50DF
50-200524-05 Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump

Stud remover

Left hand threads


803004

Fig 10-3 501010

13 Remove the side screws to be able to lower the main bearing


cap. Use stud remover (803004), see Fig 10-3.
Opening the main bearing nuts:

10.2.2.1 A. Using transport device (836044) on L-engines


1 Fit the transport device (836044) and tackle (836001) according
to Fig 10-4A. Fasten the transport device to the threaded holes of the
crankcase cover fastening screws. Use e.g. M24 screws from the mount-
ing device for big end bearing (836011).

10.2.2.2 B. Using transport device (836030) with bar (831003) on


L-engines
1 Fit the bar (831003) together with transport device (836030) and
tackle (836001) into position inside the crankcase, see Fig 10-4B.

Transport device, L-engines

836001 836001 836003 836030


A: B:

836044

861143 861143
861040 861040

Fig 10-4 501003

W46/W50DF 10 - 3
Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump 50-200524-05

2 Lift the hydraulic tool (861143) inside the engine by using the
mounting device (861040) connected to the tackle, see Fig 10-5.
3 Mount the hydraulic tool by using a wrench when at the right
position. Repeat the procedure with the other screw by fitting the
hydraulic jack from the other side of the engine.

Mounting device, L-engines

A: B:

836044
836001

861143 861143
861040 861040

Fig 10-5 501004

10.2.2.3 Using transport device (836041) on V-engines


1 Fit the transport device (836041) and tackle (836001) accord-
ing to Fig 10-6. Fasten the transport device to the threaded holes of
the crankcase cover fastening screws. Use e.g. M24 screws from the
mounting device for big end bearing (836010).

10 - 4 W46/W50DF
50-200524-05 Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump

Transport device, V-engines

836001

836041

861143
861041

Fig 10-6 501005

2 Lift the hydraulic tool (861143) inside the engine by using the
mounting device (861041) connected to the tackle, see Fig 10-7.

Mounting device, V-engine

836041

836001

861143 861041

Fig 10-7 501006

3 Mount the hydraulic tool by using a wrench when at the right


position. Repeat the procedure with the other screw by fitting the
hydraulic jack from the other side of the engine.

W46/W50DF 10 - 5
Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump 50-200524-05

Note! Hydraulic tool can also be lifted in two parts. Use lifting device for
lifting the cylinder in position and lock it together with the nut by
using two pins or bolts (see Fig 10-8). The inside part of the hydraulic
tool can then be lifted by hand and screwed into position.

Note! On a V-engine, never turn the crankshaft with hydraulic tools


mounted to the main bearing screws, because then the counter-
weights do not have enough space to rotate.

Hydraulic tool

861143
Inside part of 861143
lifted by hand

Fig 10-8 501007

4 Connect the hoses of the hydraulic pump (860170) to hy-


draulic tool according to Fig 10-9 and open the pump valve.

Note! Some hydraulic pump types are to be used with a separate oil return
hose. Always follow the instructions delivered with the pump.

Hydraulic pump

861143

Fig 10-9 501008

5 Keep on turning the hydraulic tool as long as it rotates. Re-


peat the procedure few times to get all oil out from the tool.

10 - 6 W46/W50DF
50-200524-05 Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump

6 Turn the hydraulic tool back about 3/4 of a turn (270).


7 Shut the pump valve and pump the hydraulic pressure to the
stated value. See section 07.3.2.
8 Loosen the nuts about 3/4 of a turn by using the pin (861010).
9 Release the pressure slowly, disconnect the hoses and un-
screw the hydraulic tools. Remove the hydraulic jacks from the
crankcase by using the tool (861040) and the tackle.
Lowering the main bearing cap:
10 Connect the hoses of the hydraulic pump to the hydraulic
jack, the supplying hose set to the side marked DOWN. From the
connection UP, the hose is preferred to be connected back to the
pump chamber, see Fig 10-10. Use clean engine oil.

Lowering the main bearing cap

Dry oil sump:

A:

A
860050 UP DOWN

Wet oil sump: B:

DOWN UP

B 860050

Fig 10-10 501009

W46/W50DF 10 - 7
Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump 50-200524-05

11 Remove the nuts of the main bearing screws.


12 Lower the main bearing cap by pumping oil pressure to the
hydraulic jack with the hydraulic pump if necessary. If the bearing
cap comes down without pumping, control the lowering speed with
the valve of the pump.

Note! Only the lower part of the hydraulic jack is pulling down.

Removing the bearing shells:


13 Remove the lower bearing shell by hand.
14 Insert the turning tool (851001) into the main bearing journal
radial oil hole, see Fig 10-11.

Removing bearing shell

851001

Fig 10-11 501011

15 Turn the crankshaft carefully until the bearing shell has


turned 180 and can be removed.
16 Cover the two main bearing journal radial oil holes with tape.

Note! Every second main bearing should be in place at the same time to
support the crankshaft.

10 - 8 W46/W50DF
50-200524-05 Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump

10.2.3 Inspection of main bearings and journals

Bearings
1 Clean the bearing shells and inspect for wear, scoring and
other damage. If the main bearing shells are of TRI-METAL type,
they can be used until the overlay is partially worn off. When the
underlaying nickel-barrier or the lining material is exposed in any
area, the bearing must be renewed.

Caution! Never re-install a tri-metal bearing with the nickel barrier exposed
in any part of the bearing shell.

Note! It is highly recommended to always renew a bearing shell that has


been removed.

Caution! Mark the new bearings with the bearing numbers.

Journals
2 Inspect the surface finish of the main bearing journals.
Damaged journals (i.e. rough surface, scratches, marks of shocks
etc.) must be polished. If, after a longer running period, considerably
uneven wear appears (table 10. section 06.2) the crankshaft may be
reground and used together with thicker bearing shells.

Note! No scraping or other damage of bearing shells, caps or saddles is


allowed. Burrs should be locally removed, only.

W46/W50DF 10 - 9
Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump 50-200524-05

10.2.4 Assembling of main bearing

Mounting the bearing shells:


1 Clean the main bearing shells, the cap and the journal very
carefully.
2 Take off the protecting tapes from the journal oil holes and
lubricate the journal with clean engine oil.
3 Lubricate the bearing surface and end faces of the upper bear-
ing shell with clean lubricating oil.

Caution! The bearing shell can be completely destroyed (deformed) during


the assembly, if it is not lubricated properly.

4 Place the end of the bearing shell in the slot between the
journal and the bearing bore, with the lug guiding in the oil
groove (see Fig 10-12), and push it by hand as far as possible
(recommended 2/3 of its lenght).

Assembling bearing shell

A Push by
hand Detail A:

Fig 10-12 501012

5 Insert the turning tool (851001) into the main bearing journal
radial oil hole and turn the crankshaft carefully until the bearing
shell has turned into position. Take care that the bearing shell lug
slides into the oil groove without being damaged, see Fig 10-13.

10 - 10 W46/W50DF
50-200524-05 Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump

Caution! A bearing shell forced into its place can be completely destroyed
due to deformation.

Turning tool

851001

Fig 10-13 501013

6 Remove the turning tool.


7 Lubricate the bearing surface and both ends of the lower
bearing shell with clean lubricating oil and place it in the bearing
cap.

Lifting the bearing cap:


8 Connect the hoses of the hydraulic pump (860050) to the
hydraulic jack, the supplying hose connected to the side marked
UP, see Fig 10-14.

W46/W50DF 10 - 11
Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump 50-200524-05

Lifting bearing cap

Dry oil sump:

A: A
860050

UP DOWN

Wet oil sump:

B: 860050
DOWN UP

Fig 10-14 501014

From the connection DOWN the hose can be connected back to the
pump chamber. Grease the guide faces of the main bearing cap.
9 Lift the main bearing cap by pumping oil pressure to the hy-
draulic jack with the hydraulic pump. Screw the main bearing nuts
in position by hand. Ensure that the bearing caps and shells are
correctly in joining places.

Fitting the side screws:


10 Replace the O-rings on the side screws.
11 Clean the side screws properly and lubricate the threads
(the threads towards the bearing cap). Fit the screws and tighten
to bottom by hand or by using the tool (803004), see Fig 10-3.
12 Tighten the side screw nuts by hand.

10 - 12 W46/W50DF
50-200524-05 Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump

Pretightening the side screws:


13 Lift the distance sleeve (861009) into position on the side
screw on the rear side of the engine.
14 Screw on the hydraulic tool (861100) and connect the hoses
and open the valve, see Fig 10-15.

NOTE! Some hydraulic pump types are to be used with a separate oil return
hose. Always follow the instructions delivered with the pump.

Hydraulic tool for side screws

860170 861009

861100

Fig 10-15 501015

15 Keep on turning the hydraulic tool until the piston and cyl-
inder end faces are at the same level.
16 Shut the pump valve and pump to the pretightening pressure
of 200 bar.
17 Tighten the nuts by the pin.

W46/W50DF 10 - 13
Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump 50-200524-05

Tightening the main bearing on a L-engine:


18 Lift the hydraulic tool (861143) for main bearings into posi-
tions by using the mounting device (861040). See Fig 10-4A when
using transport device (836044) or Fig 10-4B when using transport
device (836030) with the bar (831003).

Tightening the main bearing on a V-engine:


19 Lift the hydraulic tool (861143) for main bearings into posi-
tions by using the mounting device (861041). See Fig 10-7.
20 Connect the hoses of the hydraulic pump (860170) and
open the valve. Keep on turning the hydraulic jack as far as it
rotates. See connection schema in Fig 10-9.
21 Close the pump valve and pump to the stated pressure,
(see section 07.3.2) and tighten the nuts by the pin (861010).
22 Remove the tools.
23 Re-install the temperature sensor and cable clamps.

Final tightening of the side screws


24 Connect the pump and the hoses.
25 Pump to full stated pressure, see section 07.3.2.
26 Tighten the nut by the pin.
27 Lift the distance sleeve (861009) into position on the ma-
noeuvring side screw.
28 Screw on the hydraulic tool (861100) Open the pump valve
and connect the hoses.
29 Close the pump valve and pump to full stated pressure,
see section 07.3.2.
30 Tighten the nut by the pin.
31 Release the pressure slowly, disconnect the hoses and un-
screw the hydraulic tools.
Tightening
Tightening order pressure
Loosening: 1. Side screw nuts one by one or simultaneously
2 . Main bearing nuts simultaneously
Pretightening: 1. Side screw nut on
200 bar
rear side
Final tightening: 1. Main bearing nuts simultaneously 07.3
2. Side screw nut on 07.3.2
rear side
3. Side screw nut on
manoeuvring side

32 Take care that all tools and clothes will be removed from
the oil sump.

10 - 14 W46/W50DF
50-200524-05 Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump

33 In case of a wet oil sump: Fill the oil sump with oil if you
have finished your work.
34 Mount the crankcase covers.

10.3 Flywheel / thrust bearings


A combined flywheel/thrust bearing is located at the driving end.
The flywheel bearing shells are of the same type as the main bearings,
only different size. The two pairs of thrust washers guide the crank-
shaft axially.

10.3.1 Maintenance of flywheel / thrust bearings

For maintenance intervals see chapter 04., Maintenance schedule. If


abnormal temperatures appear, the bearing has to be inspected.

10.3.2 Dismantling of flywheel / thrust bearing

Loosening the side screws:


1 In case of a wet oil sump: Pump oil from the oil sump to the
storage tank if not done yet.
2 Remove the two crankcase covers next to the flywheel end,
on both sides of the engine.
3 Remove carefully the temperature sensor (1) and the cable
clamps, see Fig 10-1. Ensure that it will not be damaged while
working with the bearing.
4 Remove the caps from the side screws of the fly-
wheel/thrust bearing.
5 Lift the distance sleeves (861009) into position on the side
screws. Both sides can be loosened simultaneously.
6 Mount the hydraulic tool (861100), connect the hoses of the
hydraulic pump (860170) according to Fig 10-2 and open the pump
valve.

Note! Some hydraulic pump types are to be used with a separate oil return
hose. Always follow the instructions delivered with the pump.

7 Keep on turning the hydraulic tool until the piston and the
cylinder end faces are at the same level.
8 Turn the hydraulic toolcounter-clockwise about half a turn
(180).
9 Close the valve and pump the hydraulic pressure to stated
value, see section 07.3.2.

W46/W50DF 10 - 15
Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump 50-200524-05

10 Loosen the nut about half a turn with the pin (861010).
11 Release the pressure slowly, disconnect the hoses and un-
screw the hydraulic tool.
12 Remove the nuts from the side screws by hand

Opening of flywheel / thrust bearing nuts:


13 Lift the distance sleeve (861009) into position on the fly-
wheel bearing nut and hang it by inserting the pin (861010), see Fig
10-16.

Note! Some hydraulic pump types are to be used with a separate oil return
hose. Always follow the instructions delivered with the pump.

Opening of flywheel / thrust bearing nuts

861009

861010

Fig 10-16 501016

Hydraulic tool connection

860170

861100

Fig 10-17 501017

10 - 16 W46/W50DF
50-200524-05 Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump

14 Mount the hydraulic tools (861100), connect the hoses of the


hydraulic pump (860170) according to (Fig 10-17 ) and open the
pump valve.
15 Keep on turning the hydraulic tool until the piston and the
cylinder and faces are at the same level.
16 Turn the hydraulic tool counter-clockwise about half a turn
(180).
17 Close the pump valve and pump to stated pressure value,
see section07.3.2
18 Loosen the nuts about half a turn with the pins (861010).
19 Open the pump valve slowly, disconnect the hoses and re-
move the hydraulic tools.

Lowering the flywheel / thrust bearing cap:


20 Connect the hoses of the hydraulic pump (860050) to the
hydraulic jack, the supplying hose set to the side marked DOWN.
From the connection UP the hose is preferred to be connected back
to the pump chamber, see Fig 10-18.

Lowering the flywheel / thrust bearing cap

Dry oil sump:

A:

A
860050 UP DOWN

Wet oil sump: B:

DOWN UP

B 860050

Fig 10-18 501009

W46/W50DF 10 - 17
Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump 50-200524-05

21 Remove the side screws of the flywheel / thrust bearing to


be able to lower the bearing cap. If necessary, use stud remover
(803004), see Fig 10-3.
22 Remove the nuts of the flywheel / thrust bearing screws.
23 Lower the bearing cap by pumping oil pressure to the hydrau-
lic jack with the hydraulic pump.

Note! Only the lower part of the hydraulic jack is pulling down.

Removing the flywheel/thrust bearing shells:


24 Remove the lower bearing shell and the lower thrust washers.
To remove the thrust washer next to the driving end an M8 screw
or eyebolt can be fitted to each end of the washer to help the
removing, see Fig 10-19. Note the guide pins (C).

Removing the flywheel/thrust bearing shells

M8

Fig 10-19 501019

25 Insert the turning tool (851020) into the bearing journal ra-
dial oil hole to remove the upper bearing shells, see Fig 10-20.

10 - 18 W46/W50DF
50-200524-05 Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump

Turning tool 851020

851020

Fig 10-20 501020

26 Turn the crankshaft carefully until the bearing shell and the
washers have turned 180 and can be removed. Depending on the
position of the crankshaft the thrust washers can be quite loose.
27 Cover the two bearing journal radial oil holes with tape
28 Check the bearing in the same way as the main bearings, (see
Section10.2.3 ). The thrust washers on the same side have to be
changed in pairs.

10.3.3 Assembling the flywheel / thrust bearing

Fitting the flywheel / thrust bearings:


1 Clean the bearing shells, washers, cap and journal very
carefully.
2 Take off the protecting tape from the bearing journal radial
oil holes and lubricate the journal with clean engine oil.
3 Lubricate the upper bearing shell running surface and place
the end of the bearing shell in the slot between the journal and the
bearing bore. The axial location of the shell is to be secured by
keeping the bearing shell end recesses (A) at the same level with
the axial faces (B) of the engine block. (See Fig 10-21).

W46/W50DF 10 - 19
Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump 50-200524-05

Upper bearing shell

B B

A A

Fig 10-21 501021

Caution! The bearing shell can be completely destroyed (deformed) during


the assembly, if it is not properly lubricated.

4 Insert the shell by hand as far as possible, see Fig 10-22.

Assembling flywheel/thrust bearing shell

Push by hand

Fig 10-22 501022

10 - 20 W46/W50DF
50-200524-05 Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump

5 Insert the turning tool (851020) into the bearing journal radial
oil hole and turn the crankshaft carefully until the bearing shell has
turned into position.
6 Remove the turning tool
7 Lubricate the running surfaces of the upper thrust washers
and push the washers into position by hand. To facilitate the
mounting of the washer the crankshaft can be axially moved to each
direction.

Caution! A bearing shell forced into its place can be completely destroyed
due to deformation.

8 Lubricate the running surfaces of the lower thrust washers


and push them into position on the guiding pins (C) in the bearing
cap. For mounting the thrust washer next to the driving end an M8
screw can be fitted to each end of the washer, see Fig 10-19.
9 Lubricate lower bearing shell running surface and place shell
in bearing cap. The axial location of the shell is to be secured by
keeping the bearing shell end recesses (A) at the same level with
the axial faces (B) of the cap, see Fig 10-23.

Lower bearing shell

A A

B B

Fig 10-23 501023

Lifting the bearing cap:


10 Connect the hoses of the hydraulic pump (860050) to the
hydraulic jack, the supplying hose connected to the side marked
UP, see Fig 10-24.

W46/W50DF 10 - 21
Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump 50-200524-05

Lifting the bearing cap

Dry oil sump

A: A
860050

UP DOWN

Wet oil sump

B: 860050
DOWN UP

Fig 10-24 501024

11 Lift the bearing cap by pumping oil pressure to the hydraulic


jack with the hydraulic pump. Screw the main bearing nuts in
position and tighten by hand. Ensure that the bearing caps and
shells are correctly in joining places.

Fitting the side screws:


12 Replace the O-rings on the side screws.
13 Clean the side screws properly and lubricate the threads
(the threads towards the bearing cap). Fit the screws and tighten
to bottom by hand or by using the tool (803004).
14 Tighten the side screw nuts by hand.

Pre tightening of the side screws:


15 Lift the distance sleeve (861009) into position on the side
screw on the rear side of the engine.
16 Screw on the hydraulic tool (861100) and connect the hoses.
Open the pump valve, see Fig 10-15.

10 - 22 W46/W50DF
50-200524-05 Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump

Note! Some hydraulic pumps types are to be used with a separate oil
return hose. Always follow the instructions delivered with the pump.

17 Keep on turning the hydraulic tool until the piston and cylin-
der end faces are at the same level.
18 Shut the pump valve and pump to the pretightening pressure
of 200 bar.
19 Tighten the nut with the pin (861010).

Tightening of the flywheel / thrust bearing:


20 Lift the distance sleeves (861009) into position on the fly-
wheel bearing nuts and hang them by inserting the pins (861010).
(See Fig 10-16.)
21 Screw on the hydraulic tools (861100).
22 Open valve and connect the hoses of the hydraulic pump
(860170), according to Fig 10-17. Keep on turning the hydraulic
tool until the piston and cylinder end faces are at the same level.

Note! Some hydraulic pump types are to be used with a separate oil return
hose. Always follow the instructions delivered with the pump.

23 Close the valve and pump to the stated pressure, (see sec-
tion 07.3.2.) and tighten the nuts with the pin (861010).
24 Release the pressure slowly, disconnect the hoses and un-
screw the hydraulic tools.
25 Reinstall the temperature sensor and cable clamps.

Final tightening of the side screws:


26 Connect the pump and the hoses.
27 Pump to full stated pressure, see section 07.3.2.
28 Tighten the nut by the pin.
29 Lift the distance sleeve (861009) into position on the ma-
noeuvring side screw.
30 Screw on the hydraulic tool (861100). Open the valve and
connect the hoses.
31 Pump to full stated pressure, see section 07.3.2.
32 Tighten the nut by the pin.
33 Open the pump valve slowly , disconnect the hoses and un-
screw the hydraulic tool.
34 Take care that all tools and clothes will be removed from
the oil sump.

W46/W50DF 10 - 23
Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump 50-200524-05

35 In case of a wet oil sump: Fill the oil sump with oil if you
have finished your work.
36 Mount the crankcase covers.

10.4 Camshaft bearings


The camshaft bearing bushes are fitted in housings directly machined
in the engine block. Bushing can be inspected and measured either by
removing the camshaft journal or opening one connection in the cam-
shaft and sliding the complete shaft towards the free end of the engine.

10.4.1 Maintenance of camshaft bearings

For maintenance intervals see Chapter 04..

10.4.2 Inspection of the camshaft bearing bushing

When the camshaft bearing journal has been removed, the inner
diameter of the bearing bushing can be measured at site, by using a
ball anvil micrometer screw. The wear limit is stated in chapter 06. If
the wear limit for one camshaft bearing bushing is reached, all cam-
shaft bearing bushes should be replaced. For visual inspection of the
camshaft bearing bushing, proceed as follows:

1 Remove the both camshaft covers adjacent to the bearing


concerned.
2 Remove the cover from the starting air distributor, see chap-
ter 8
3 Loosen the rocker arm bracket fastening nuts on the cylin-
ders where the camshaft is to be moved axially, see chapter 8
4 Open the flange connection between the camshaft piece and
bearing journal on the driving end of the bearing concerned.
5 Move the camshaft towards the free end of the engine max. 35
mm by using a suitable lever.

Inspection of the bearing:


6 Check the uncovered part of the bearing bushing by means
of a mirror. All camshaft bearing bushes towards the free end of the
engine, seen from the bearing concerned, can be checked when the
camshaft is in this position.

10 - 24 W46/W50DF
50-200524-05 Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump

10.4.3 Removing the camshaft bearing bushing

1 Remove the camshaft cover, injection pump, valve tappets


and camshaft piece from the two cylinders adjacent to the bearing
concerned, see chapter 8 If an end bearing has to be removed, the
respective camshaft end piece has also to be removed.
2 Remove the camshaft bearing journal, see chapter 8
3 Assemble the removing device (834010) according to Fig 10-
25A or, if the first bearing at the flywheel end is concerned, accord-
ing to Fig 10-25B.

Note! Ensure that the hydraulic tool is unharmed and completely returned
to inner position before being used.

Removing the camshaft bearing bushing

5 Bearing bush 2 Bearing bush 5

^ 4 3 1 3 _ 4

Fig 10-25 501025

4 Tighten the hydraulic tool (2) (834050) by tensioning the pull


screw (1) slightly.
5 Connect the hoses of the hydraulic pump (860100) to the
hydraulic tool according to Fig 10-26.
6 Pump pressure to the hydraulic tool to withdraw the bearing
bushing. If the bearing bush does not move when this pressure is
achieved a light knock on the end flange (5) may be necessary.

Note! The pressure must not exceed the Max. pressure value stated in
section 07.4.

W46/W50DF 10 - 25
Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump 50-200524-05

Hydraulic pump 860100

860100

Fig 10-26 501026

7 Open the pump valve, disconnect the hoses of the hydraulic


tool and dismantle the removing device.

10.4.4 Mounting of camshaft bearing bushing

Alternative 1
1 A new bearing bush of the camshaft can be freezed in (e.g.
nitrogen). Ensure that the bearing bush is mounted to correct
position. (The oil slot directed upwards and the oil hole of the bush
directed against the oil hole of the engine block, detail C in Fig 10-28.
The mark at the end of the bearing bush has to be directed straight
down on L-engines/aligned with the side of the engine block on
V-engines, see detail D in Fig 10-28.
Alternative 2
2 Lubricate the outer surface of a new bearing bushing lightly
with clean engine oil and put it on the guide sleeve (4).
3 Assemble the mounting device (834010) according to Fig 10-
27A, or if the first bearing at the flywheel end is concerned according
to Fig 10-27B. Ensure that the bearing bush is mounted to correct
position. (The oil slot directed upwards and the oil hole of the bush
directed against the oil hole of the engine block, detail C in Fig 10-28.
The mark at the end of the bearing bush has to be directed straight
down on L-engines/aligned with the side of the engine block on
V-engines, see detail D in Fig 10-28.

10 - 26 W46/W50DF
50-200524-05 Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump

Mounting of camshaft bearing bushing

5 4 2 1 2 4 5

^ _

Bearing bush 3 Bearing bush

Fig 10-27 501027

Bearing bush end

L-engine V-engine

C
C
D
D

Fig 10-28 501028

4 Tighten the hydraulic tool (2) by tensioning the pull screw (1)
slightly.
5 Connect the hoses of the hydraulic pump (860100) to the
hydraulic tool according to Fig 10-26.
6 Pump pressure to the hydraulic tool to mount the bearing
bushing.

W46/W50DF 10 - 27
Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump 50-200524-05

Note! The pressure must not exceed the Max. pressure - value stated in
the diagram in section 07.4.

7 Open the pump valve, disconnect the hoses of the hydraulic


tool and dismantle the mounting device.
8 Lubricate the bearing bushing running surface with clean
engine oil and insert the camshaft bearing journal. See chapter 8
9 Mount the camshaft pieces, valve tappets, injection pumps
and camshaft covers, see chapter 8 and chapter 16.
10 Check the valve clearances, see section 12.2.4. Check deliv-
ery commencement of the injection pumps on all cylinders towards
the free end, see chapter 01.firing order and chapter 13.

10 - 28 W46/W50DF
50-200524-05 Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump

10.5 Cylinder liner


The cylinder liner is centrifugally cast of special cast iron alloy. The
collar is equipped with cooling bores and drillings for temperature
monitoring.

10.5.1 Maintenance of the cylinder liner and antipolish-


ing ring

The cylinder liner must always be inspected when overhauling the


piston, see chapter 04.. The liner diameter is measured according to
the measuring record 4610V001GB for a W46-engine and record
5010V001 for W50DF-engine. To estimate the lifetime of a cylinder
liner it is very important to fill in the record properly.
Measuring records can be found in chapter ATTACHMENTS.
When overhauling the liner, if necessary, the cooling water space can
be cleaned of deposits by using a wire brush. The cooling bores in the
collar can be cleaned by boring with a suitable drill.
It is recommended to always change the antipolishing ring when
changing the piston rings.

10.5.2 Removing the cylinder liner

1 Drain the engine cooling water. Remove the cylinder head,


antipolishing ring and piston with connecting rod. (See chapter 12.
and chapter 11.).
2 Loosen the cylinder liner fastening screw (1) and remove the
holder (2), see Fig 10-29.

Removing the cylinder liner

L-engines V-engines

1 1
2
2

Fig 10-29 501029

W46/W50DF 10 - 29
Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump 50-200524-05

3 Fit the cylinder liner lifting device (836009) in position ac-


cording to Fig 10-30. Note the different lifting holes for In-line
engines and V-engines.

Note! The lifting tool is only for lifting and not for pulling out the liner. Note
maximum capacity of the tool.

Cylinder liner lifting device

In-line V-engine
engine
836009

B
A
836009

View A: View B:

Fig 10-30 501030

4 Remove the cylinder liner temperature sensors.

Note! An alternative cylinder liner removing tool can be find at section


10.5.2.1

10 - 30 W46/W50DF
50-200524-05 Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump

5 Turn the crankshaft so that the counterweights are pointing at


the manoeuvring side and fit the support (836032) on a L-engine,
(see Fig 10-31) and support (836033) on a V-engine (see Fig 10-32)
to the counterweight fastening bolts. Use the transport device
(836041) and tackle (836001) on a V-engine when lifting the support
into position inside the crankcase. Fasten screws (5).

Hydraulic tool support for L-engine

A 836039

834050

836032

View A

Fig 10-31 501031

Hydraulic tool support for V-engine

836041

836033
836001

Fig 10-32 501032

W46/W50DF 10 - 31
Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump 50-200524-05

6 Turn the crankshaft to BDC and fit the hydraulic tool (834050)
and yoke (836039) on the support, see Fig 10-31 for a L-engine and
Fig 10-34 for a V-engine.

Connection of hydraulic pump to hydraulic tool for L-engine

834050

860100

Fig 10-33 501033

Connection of hydraulic pump to hydraulic tool for V-engine

View B:

836039

834050

860100
836033 B

Fig 10-34 501034

10 - 32 W46/W50DF
50-200524-05 Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump

7 Connect the hoses of the hydraulic pump (860100) to the


hydraulic tool (834050) according to Fig 10-33 for a L-engine and
Fig 10-34 for a V-engine.
8 Pump pressure to the hydraulic tool to push the cylinder liner
out. When the liner starts to move freely, use crane to lift the liner
out, see Fig 10-33 for a L-engine and Fig 10-34 for a V-engine. Be
careful not to damage the cylinder head screws.

Note! The pressure must not exceed the Max. pressure - value stated in
the diagram in section 07.4.

9 Open the pump valve , disconnect the hoses of the hydraulic


jack and remove the tools 836039, 834050 and 836032 for L-engine
or 836033 for V-engine.

10.5.2.1 W46-engines alternative tool for cylinder liner removing


1 Mount the hydraulic tool (861166) inside the extraction tool
(836047) and fit the tools between the cylinder liner and one of the
cylinder head screws, see Fig 10-35.
2 Pump pressure to the hydraulic tool with the hydraulic pump
(860100) to push the cylinder liner up. When the liner starts to move
freely, use crane to lift the liner out. Be careful not to damage the
cylinder head screws.

Note! The pressure must not exceed the Max. pressure - value stated in
the diagram in section 07.4.

Cylinder liner removing tool

836047

861166

860100

Fig 10-35 501039

W46/W50DF 10 - 33
Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump 50-200524-05

Note! Because the top of the liner is very heavy the removed liner must
be properly supported e.g. to engine room wall.

Avoid unnecessary turning of the liner. Extreme care must be taken if


turning is compulsory.

Note Note the location of the centre of gravity, see Fig 10-36.

Centre of gravity

1. Centre of gravity

Fig 10-36 501038

10.5.3 Mounting the cylinder liner

1 Check that all the contact faces of the engine block and cyl-
inder liner are clean and intact.
2 Check that the O-ring grooves of the cylinder liner are clean,
and insert new O-rings.
3 Lubricate the lower O-rings and the corresponding sealing
faces with vaseline or soft soap and assemble the lifting device
(836009).
4 Apply sealing compound to the sealing surfaces between
lower part of collar and engine block.
5 Lower the liner carefully into the bore of the engine block.
When the lowest O-ring touches the engine block align the liner
so that the mark on the liner is directed towards the driving
end of the engine, see Fig 10-37 for L-engine and Fig 10-38 for
V-engine. Lower further until the liner collar faces the engine block.

10 - 34 W46/W50DF
50-200524-05 Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump

Mounting the cylinder liner, L-engine

O-ring

A: Marks for the position


of the cylinder liner

Fig 10-38 501035

Mounting the cylinder liner, V-engine

836009
Driving end

Distinct mark

Fig 10-37 501036

6 Mount the holder (2) (Fig 10-29 ) and tighten the cylinder liner
fastening screw (M24x100) to stated torque. See chapter 07.

W46/W50DF 10 - 35
Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump 50-200524-05

7 Check the cylinder liner inner diameter (see Fig 10-39 ) and
complete the measurement record 4610V001 for W46 engine and
record 5010V001 for W50DF engine, see ATTACHMENTS.

Cylinder liner inner diameter

W46 W50DF

100 120

250 270

848012 847001 848012 847001


640 660

1020 1040

Fig 10-39 501037

8 Re-install the temperature sensors.


9 Mount the piston with connecting rod and cylinder head. Re-
fill the cooling water, see chapter 12. and chapter 11.
10 Check the O-ring seals from the crankcase side while circu-
lating cooling water. If there is an engine driven cooling water
pump, apply 3 bar static pressure.

10.5.4 Honing of the cylinder liner bore

It is recommended to hone the cylinder liner whenever new piston rings


are mounted. Normally a light honing is sufficient. If the honing is done
when the cylinder liner is on its place in the engine block, the crank-
shaft under the cylinder concerned must be covered by plastic film.
Honing rests must be prevented from falling into the oil sump of the
engine. For the honing process the following instructions are pre-
scribed:
Only ceramic hones with a coarseness of 80 and 400 should be
used as follows:
A coarseness of 80 must be used until the inside of the liner has
been entirely honed.
A coarseness of 400 must be used for about 30 strokes to give a
correct surface finish.
The pitch angle of the honing lines in the cross hatch pattern
should be about 30 which is achieved by combining e.g. 40
strokes/min with a rotational speed of 100 rpm.

10 - 36 W46/W50DF
50-200524-05 Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump

For cooling, a honing oil is preferred but a light fuel oil may also
be used.
When honing the liner fitted to the engine the used honing oil
must be directed from the engine with e.g. a tarpaulin or similar.
The honing time depends on the condition of the bore surface.
Usually only a few minutes honing is required.
After honing, the liner bore must be carefully cleaned by using a
suitable brush and solvent or fuel oil. Dry with a cloth and lubricate
with engine oil for corrosion protection.
Check the cylinder liner inner diameter, see section 10.5.3

10.5.5 Cleaning of the cylinder liner water side

The water side of the cylinder liner can be cleaned of deposits with a
wire brush. The cooling bores in the collar can be cleaned by boring
with a suitable drill (diam. 18 and 25 mm).

W46/W50DF 10 - 37
Engine block with bearings, cylinder and oil sump 50-200524-05

10 - 38 W46/W50DF
50-200525-07 Crank mechanism: Crankshaft, connecting rod, piston

11. Crank mechanism:


Crankshaft, connecting rod, piston

11.1 Crankshaft

11.1.1 Description of the crankshaft

The crankshaft is forged in one piece and provided with counter-


weights, fastened with hydraulically tensioned screws. At the driving
end of the engine the crankshaft is equipped with a V-ring for sealing
of the crankcase, a combined flywheel/ thrust bearing and a split gear
wheel for camshaft driving. The crankshaft can be turned by an
electrical turning device operating the flywheel.

11.1.2 Vibration damper

Depending on the installation the engine may be equipped with a


vibration damper to dampen the torsional vibrations which are excited
by the engine.

Vibration damper

2
5

1
3

Fig 11-1 501101

1. Inner part. 2. Spring pack. 3. Spacers. 4. Clamping ring. 5. Side plate.

W50DF 11 - 1
Crank mechanism: Crankshaft, connecting rod, piston 50-200525-07

Inner part (1) of the damper is bolted onto the free end of the crankshaft
and follows its torsional vibrations. The outer part consists of spring
packs (2), spacers (3), a clamping ring (4) and side plates (5). Springs
are clamped at their outer end by the spacers and their inner ends mesh
with grooves of the inner part. The cavities between spring packs and
spacers are filled with oil which comes through the crankshaft drillings.
Due to torsional vibrations, the inner member will twist against the
outer part. The springs deflects and one cavity will reduce and another
will enlarge. Oil flow then through the narrow gap between inner and
outer part, generating the hydrodynamic friction and therefore damp-
ing the vibrations.

Note! For more information, see separate damper manual in Attatchments.

11.1.3 Crankshaft alignment

The crankshaft alignment is always done on a thoroughly warm engine,


immediately after the engine is stopped. The crankshaft alignment
should be carried out rapidly but carefully. Only the crankcase cover
for the cylinder being measured should be opened and it should be
closed immediately after measuring. It is recommended to switch off
any forced ventilation close to the engine and that crankshaft aligment
check is always done under same conditions.
1 Turn the crank of the first cylinder against normal running di-
rection near BDC (bottom dead centre) and fit the crankshaft dial
indicator (848011) or the transducer of the crankshaft deflection
indicator (848111) to the punch marks between two counterweights,
see Fig 11-2. The distance between the transducer (or dial indicator)
and connecting rod should be as small as possible when starting the
measurement.

Deflection indicator between two counterweights

-
700

848011

848111

Fig 11-2 501102

11 - 2 W50DF
50-200525-07 Crank mechanism: Crankshaft, connecting rod, piston

2 If using a dial indicator, set it to zero.


3 If using the deflection indicator (848111), combine extensions
with the trancducer to the required leght.
4 Connect cable on the measuring unit.
5 Fix the cable on the crank wep by using suitable bandage or
magnetic holder.
6 Turn on the measuring unit by pressing Power-button. Push
Light if needed.
7 Reset the measuring unit by pressing Reset-button.
8 Adjust the trasducer to a reading somewhere between +0.500
and -0.500 and push Zero.
9 Turning the crank and read deflections in the marked posi-
tions according to Fig 11-3. Starting point for clockwise rotating
engine is measuring point A and counter-clockwise rotating en-
gine measuring point E. B is rear side, C is TDC (top dead centre),
D is operating side, A and E are BDC (bottom dead centre). Record
readings in form 4611V005 Crankshaft alignment

Note! During the alignment procedure the crankshaft should be turned in


the direction of rotation, only.

Measuring ponts, deflections

DIAL INDICATOR POSITION


as seen from the flywheel end
E A
REAR SIDE
OPERATING
SIDE
D B

Fig 11-3 501103

10 Repeat this procedure with other cylinders.


11 The following limits of misalignment are given for an engine
at its normal running temperature:

W50DF 11 - 3
Crank mechanism: Crankshaft, connecting rod, piston 50-200525-07

a) On the same crank, the difference between two diametrically


opposed readings must not exceed 0.30 mm. Realignment is necessary
if this limit is exceeded by more than 0.02 mm.
b) On two adjacent cranks the difference between two correspond-
ing readings must not exceed 0.15 mm. Realignment is necessary if this
limit is exceeded.
To investigate the cause of excessive deflection values, note following
matters:
The temperature level of cylinder block and crankcase has to be
observed. Big temperature difference causes bending to the block.
The crankshaft has to be either uncoupled from its driven equip-
ment or in any case the coupling alignment has to be controlled.
If the engine is rigidly mounted, the engines mounting bolts have
to be slackened to determine if a permanent deformation of the
engine foundation has occurred.

Note! In an engine having abnormal temperature, the corresponding


values must be based on experiences from the particular installa-
tion.

11.1.4 Measurement of thrust bearing axial clearance

1 Lubricate the bearings by running the prelubricating pump


for a few minutes.
2 Apply the measure gauge for instance against the plane end
surface of the flywheel.
3 Move the crankshaft by a suitable lever in either direction
until contact is established with the thrust bearing.
4 Set the measure gauge to zero.
5 Move the crankshaft in the opposite direction and read the
axial clearance from the measure gauge. Reference values in chap-
ter 06. table 11.

11.1.5 Oil lock at crankshaft sealing

This optional equipment collects the minor oil leakage past the crank-
shaft sealing and returns oil back to the crankcase. By the same the oil
lock prevents the possible pressure in the crankcase from blowing oil
out through the crankshaft boring.
The oil lock is filled with lubricating oil before the first start of the engine.
Crannkshaft without oil lock is equipped with a seal arrangement
where a V-ring (6) is fitted onto the end cover and having sealing surface
in contact with the collar of the crankshaft, see Fig 11-5.

11 - 4 W50DF
50-200525-07 Crank mechanism: Crankshaft, connecting rod, piston

11.1.5.1 Filling the oil lock


If there is any oil leakage from the shaft boring:
1 Check that the oil lock is filled with lubricating oil. The oil
pocket should be filled up to the plug hole (14), see Fig 11-4.
2 If necessary fill the oil pocket.
3 Contact the engine manufacturer, if the oil leakage continues
although the oil pocket is filled.

Oil lock

14

Fig 11-4 501104

11.1.5.2 Cleaning the oil lock


1 Remove the plug (1), see Fig 11-4.
2 Blow through the holes of the oil lock from outside with com-
pressed air.
3 Fill the oil pocket with lubricating oil after cleaning.

Crankshaft seal, V-ring

Fig 11-5 501134

W50DF 11 - 5
Crank mechanism: Crankshaft, connecting rod, piston 50-200525-07

11.2 Connecting rod and piston

11.2.1 Description of connecting rod and piston

The connecting rod is a three-piece design. Extensive research and


development has been carried out to develop a connecting rod in which
the combustion forces are distributed over a maximum bearing area and
where the relative movements between mating surfaces are minimized.
The connecting rod is forged and machined with round sections of
alloy steel. The lower end is split horizontally in three parts to allow
removal of piston and connecting rod parts. All connecting rod bolts are
hydraulically tightened. The big end bearing and gudgeon pin bearing
are of tri-metal design.
Between the upper part of connecting rod and big end there is a compression
shim.
Oil is led to the gudgeon pin bearing and piston through a bore in the
connecting rod, see Fig 11-6.

Connecting rod and piston

2
9 3 2 Piston, upper part
8 3 Piston lower part
4 Connecting rod, upper part
5 Compression shim
6 Big end, upper part
Lube oil flow in 4 7 Big end, lower part
connecting rod 8 Gudgeon pin
9 Securing ring
10 Connecting rod bolt
10 11 Connecting rod nut
11 12 Big end bolt
5 13 Big end nut
6

13 12

Fig 11-6 501105

The piston is of a composite type with a nodular cast iron skirt and a
forged steel crown screwed together. The space between the crown and
the skirt is supplied with lubricating oil for cooling the crown by means
of a cocktail shaker effect.
Lubricating oil is led from the main bearing through the drillings in
the crankshaft to the big end bearing, and further through the drillings

11 - 6 W50DF
50-200525-07 Crank mechanism: Crankshaft, connecting rod, piston

in the connecting rod, gudgeon pin and piston skirt up to the cooling
space and from there back to the oil sump. Part of the lubricating oil is
led out from the piston skirt through special nozzles to lubricate the
liner, see Fig 11-7.

Note! Always handle the pistons with care.

The piston ring set consists of two compression rings and one spring-
loaded oil scraper ring.

Lube oil flow in piston

Nozzle to lubricate the


liner

Lube oil flow


in piston

Fig 11-7 501106

W50DF 11 - 7
Crank mechanism: Crankshaft, connecting rod, piston 50-200525-07

11.2.2 Removing and dismantling of piston and con-


necting rod

Removing the piston:


1 Remove the cylinder head according to chapter 12.
2 Turn the crankshaft to BDC.
3 Loosening of the antipolishing ring:
Cover the piston top with cloth or paper, pressed tightly against the
cylinder wall to collect the dropping carbon deposits.
Place the tool (836043) onto the piston top and expand it to the bore
diameter. Bring the piston in question to TDC by turning the crank-
shaft carefully, see Fig 11-8.
Lift the ring off when it is loose.

Removing of antipolishing ring

836043 8

Fig 11-8 501107

4 Loosen the connecting rod screws as follows:


5 Fit the distance sleeves 861027 crosswise on the two diago-
nally opposite connecting rod screws and screw on the hydraulic
tools 861120, see Fig 11-9.

11 - 8 W50DF
50-200525-07 Crank mechanism: Crankshaft, connecting rod, piston

Mounting of distance sleeves and hydraulic tools

861027

View A

861120

Fig 11-9 501109

6 Connect the hoses of the hydraulic pump according to Fig


11-10 and open the pump valve.

Loosening the connecting rod screws

860100

Fig 11-10 501110

7 Keep on turning the hydraulic tools until the piston and the
cylinder faces are at same level.
8 Turn the hydraulic tool back half a turn (180).
9 Shut the pump valve and pump to stated pressure, see chapter
07.

W50DF 11 - 9
Crank mechanism: Crankshaft, connecting rod, piston 50-200525-07

Caution! The screws will be overloaded if the maximum hydraulic pressure


is exceeded.
It is recommended to change the screws if maximum hydraulic
pressure is exceeded for some reason.

10 Loosen the nuts half a turn by the pin.


11 Open the pump valve slowly and disconnect the hoses and
unscrew the hydraulic tool. Repeat the same procedure on the other
two connecting rod screws.
12 Remove three nuts at BDC.
13 Turn the piston to TDC and remove the last nut.
Lifting the piston:
14 Fit the lifting tool (835008), as shown in Fig 11-11.

Lifting tool for piston and connecting rod

835008
15 860100

Fig 11-11 501108

15 Pump pressure to the hydraulic cylinder with the pump


(860100) until the piston starts to move, see Fig 11-11.
16 When the piston is up enough,lock the piston in this posi-
tion by closing the valve (15).
17 Remove the upper piston ring by using the pliers 800002.
18 Fit the lifting tool (835001) to the upmost piston ring groove. Use
the correct lifting point for In-line engines (L) and for V-engines (V),
see Fig 11-12.

11 - 10 W50DF
50-200525-07 Crank mechanism: Crankshaft, connecting rod, piston

Piston lifting tool

L V

835001

Fig 11-12 501111

19 When lifting the piston take care not to damage the cylinder
wall, see Fig 11-13.
20 Remove the conrod studs and the shim plate.
Lifting piston on V-engines:
21 Mount the protecting sleeve (835005) to the connecting rod
to protect the cylinder liner when lifting the piston, see Fig 11-14.
22 Lift the piston carefully out from the cylinder liner, use lever
(837040) to hold the piston in the correct position when it leaves the
cylinder liner.
23 Mount the guide tool (836008) according to Fig 11-14 before
the connecting rod comes out from the cylinder.

W50DF 11 - 11
Crank mechanism: Crankshaft, connecting rod, piston 50-200525-07

Lifting piston on a L-engine

Lift with care !


Pay attention to the
cylinder wall.

Fig 11-13 501112

Lifting piston on a V-engine

837040
836008
835001
836008

A
View A

835005

Fig 11-14 501113

11 - 12 W50DF
50-200525-07 Crank mechanism: Crankshaft, connecting rod, piston

Dismantling the piston


24 Lower the piston/connecting rod onto a plain surface (a
wooden board) so that the connection rod is showing upwards. Be
careful not to damage the piston surface.
25 Remove the securing ring (9) from the gudgeon pin hole by
using the pliers 800001, see Fig 11-15.

Removing securing ring

9 800001

Fig 11-15 501114

Note! Never compress the securing ring more than necessary to remove
it from the groove.

26 Fasten an eyebolt M10 in the middle of the gudgeon pin, see


Fig 11-16. Before remoning the pin be sure that you have proper
markings on the pin and piston to be able to fit the parts back into
the orginal positions, see Fig 11-18.
27 Draw the pin carefully out. Lift the connection rod slightly so
that the gudgeon pin comes out easily. In low temperatures the
gudgeon pin may stick but will be easily removed after uniformly
heating the piston to about 30C.

W50DF 11 - 13
Crank mechanism: Crankshaft, connecting rod, piston 50-200525-07

Removing gudgeon pin

M10

Fig 11-16 501115

28 Lift the connecting rod out from the piston carefully.


Piston upper part and lower part can be separated by opening the
screws (14), see Fig 11-17

11 - 14 W50DF
50-200525-07 Crank mechanism: Crankshaft, connecting rod, piston

11.2.3 Inspection and maintenance of piston rings and


gudgeon pin bearing

1 Clean all the parts carefully. Remove the rest of the piston
rings by using the pliers 800002. The design of the pliers prevents
overstressing of the rings.
Remove burned carbon deposits from the piston and piston ring
grooves. Special care should be taken not to damage the piston mate-
rial. Never use emery cloth on the piston skirt.
The cleaning is facilitated if coked parts are soaked in kerosene or
fuel oil. An efficient carbon solvent - e.g. ARDROX No. 668 or similar-
should preferably be used to facilitate cleaning of the piston crown.
When using chemical cleaning agents, take care not to clean piston
skirt with such agents because the phosphate/graphite overlay may be
damaged.
2 Check the rings for wear by inserting them in a new cylinder
liner and measure the ring gap at the joint. Measure the height of
the piston ring grooves, and the piston ring side clearances. Use new
rings when measuring the clearances.

Caution! Always replace the piston rings with new ones when removing from
the grooves.

See clearances and wear limits in chapter 06. When measuring use
forms 4611V002, 4611V009 and 5011V001, see Attatchments.

Caution! When mounting a new cylinder liner, or a honing the old liner, all
rings are to be replaced by new ones, according to chapter 04.

Check the gudgeon pin:


3 Check the gudgeon pin clearances by measuring the pin
diameters and bearing bores separately, see clearance and wear
limits in chapter 06.
If the bearing bore diameter exceeds the wear limit replace the
bearing bushing.
Measure the gudgeon pin diameter in four different places and in four
directions. When measuring the gudgeon pin and bore, use form
4611V004, see Attatchments.
4 Check that the plugs in both ends of the gudgeon pin are
properly fitted.
5 Check that the oil bores in the gudgeon pin are in good con-
dition.

W50DF 11 - 15
Crank mechanism: Crankshaft, connecting rod, piston 50-200525-07

Removing the gudgeon pin bearing bushing:


It is very seldom you need to remove the gudgeon pin bearing bushing
and when doing so there is a great risk to damage the connecting rod.
However, if there is a need to remove the bearing bushing, please
contact the nearest Wrtsil service office.

11.2.4 Assembling and mounting of piston and con-


necting rod

Checking the contact surfaces:


Before fitting a used piston upper part to a lower part, or vice versa,
check the condition of the mating surfaces, see Fig 11-17 for contact
marks. Local spot material can be removed by means of an oilstone.

Caution! Grinding away larger areas of fretting (destruction of surface ge-


ometry) and scraping away fretting (creation of notches) are strictly
forbidden.

Mating surfaces

Mating surfaces

14

Mating surfaces

Fig 11-17 501116

Assembling of the piston


1 Apply lubricating oil to the threads and contact faces of the
screws (14), see Fig 11-17.
2 When assembling the piston crown to the piston skirt, follow
tightening procedure mentioned in chapter 07.

Note! It is not allowed to mix partly worn but reusable crowns and skirts
due to possible differences in wear pattern of contact surfaces.

11 - 16 W50DF
50-200525-07 Crank mechanism: Crankshaft, connecting rod, piston

Note! When assembling be sure that the various markings on the different
parts are according to Fig 11-18.

Piston and connecting rod marks

A View A

Markings of the classi-


fication authority

All markings on
the same side
(Towards the
driving end in
A-bank, to-
wards the free
end in B-bank)

Cylinder numbers Factory markings


on the same side
(On plug hole side
of the connecting
rod.)

Fig 11-18 501117

3 Lift the piston to a plain surface, e.g. a wooden board, see Fig
11-19.

W50DF 11 - 17
Crank mechanism: Crankshaft, connecting rod, piston 50-200525-07

Assembling of the piston and connecting rod

Fig 11-19 501118

4 Lubricate the gudgeon pin and push it into the gudgeon pin
bore as far as shown in Fig 11-19. Ensure that all parts are assem-
bled in their original positions (the factory markings on the pistons
upper part appear on the same side as the markings of the pistons
lower part, connecting rod and gudgeon pin, see Fig 11-18.
5 Lower the connecting rod carefully into the piston so that a
slight contact is reached on surface (A), see Fig 11-19. Slide the
gudgeon pin to its place. Mount the securing ring (9), see Fig 11-15
with pliers 800001.

Caution! Never compress the securing ring more than necessary to fit into
the groove. If the ring is loose in its groove after mounting, it must
be renewed.

Note! The number of the cylinder is stamped in the upper part of the piston
and on the connecting rod, see Fig 11-18. When the piston has been
renewed, the same markings must be stamped in the same loca-
tions as those visible on the replaced piston.

11 - 18 W50DF
50-200525-07 Crank mechanism: Crankshaft, connecting rod, piston

6 Turn the piston to an upright position and lift it onto a support


for cleaning.
7 Turn the crankshaft to TDC of the piston in question.

Note! When turning the crankshaft ensure that the big end is in its normal
running position (connecting rod studs have space to turn).

8 Clean the cylinder liner bore carefully and lubricate with en-
gine oil.
9 Check and clean the contact surface of the connecting rod
foot. Ensure that the oil bores are open. Note that the markings on
the foot of the connecting rod are on the same side as on the big end,
see Fig 11-18.
10 Check and clean the big end contact surface. Ensure that
the surface is free from oil. Fit the compression shim (5) into
position, see Fig 11-20 for L-engine and Fig 11-21 for V-engine.
11 Fit the piston assembly ring (845010) to the place of the an-
tipolishing ring.
12 Fit the lifting tools onto the cylinder liner, as shown in Fig 11-
11 and pump to the upmost position. (Up enough so that all piston ring
grooves of the piston will remain in sight when the piston has been
lowered). Close the valve (15).
Step 13 only for V-engines!
13 Mount the protecting sleeve (835005) into position (V-engines).
Use guide tool (836008) and lever (837040) when lowering the piston
and remove the guide tool when the connecting rod lower end has
slid into the cylinder, see Fig 11-21.
14 Lubricate the piston and lower it carefully into the cylinder
liner onto the lifting tools (835008), see Fig 11-11.
15 Use the positioning tool (846012) to hold the big end in the
correct position when lowering the piston.
16 Remove the lifting tool (835001).
17 Mount the piston rings by using the pliers 800002. When new
rings are mounted, check the height clearance by using a feeler
gauge with the rings fitted into their grooves. The rings should be
placed with gaps located 180 in relation to each other. Note that
the mark TOP near the gap is showing up.

Note! Always renew the piston rings if they have been removed from the
piston during maintenance.

W50DF 11 - 19
Crank mechanism: Crankshaft, connecting rod, piston 50-200525-07

18 Place the clamping device for the piston rings (843001)


around the piston, checking that the piston rings slide into their
grooves, see Fig 11-20 or Fig 11-21..
19 Make a final check of the contact surfaces Ensure that the
surfaces are clean and free from oil. Check that the shim (5) is in
place.
20 Lower the piston completely by opening the valve (15) care-
fully, see Fig 11-11. Take care that the foot of the connecting rod
slides over the studs (10) without jamming and damaging the studs
and the threads, see Fig 11-6.
21 Remove the lifting tool (835008) from below the piston, the
clamping device (843001), the piston assembly ring (845010), the
positioning tool (846012) and on a V-engine the protecting sleeve
(835005), see Fig 11-20 and Fig 11-21.
22 Fit one of the connecting rod nuts (11) in place by hand and
turn the piston to BDC, see Fig 11-6. Fit all nuts in place by hand
until they are seated.

Lowering of piston, L-engine

835001

Pay attention to
the cylinder wall
843001

845010

846012

Fig 11-20 501119

11 - 20 W50DF
50-200525-07 Crank mechanism: Crankshaft, connecting rod, piston

Lowering of piston, V-engine

835001

837040

835005
843001
836008 845010

846012

Fig 11-21 501120

23 Lift the distance sleeves (861027) crosswise on the two diago-


nally opposite connecting rod studs and screw on the hydraulic tools
(861120), see Fig 11-22.
24 Connect the hoses of the hydraulic pump (860100)
according to Fig 11-10 and open the pump valve.

W50DF 11 - 21
Crank mechanism: Crankshaft, connecting rod, piston 50-200525-07

Connecting rod studs

861027

View A

861120

Fig 11-22 501121

25 Keep on turning the hydraulic tools until the piston and cyl-
inder end faces are at the same level.
26 Shut the pump valve and pump to the stated pressure of stage
I, see section 07.3.
27 Tighten the nuts with the pin (861028).

28 Open the pump valve slowly, move the tools to the two re-
maining studs and tighten them in the same way.
29 Release the pressure.
30 Tighten the nuts to the final pressure of stage II according to
section 07.3 and tighten with the pin (861028). Observe that the
nuts turn equally.
31 Release the pressure and remove the tools.
32 Mount the hydraulic tools on the two first remaining studs
and tighten them to the final pressure of stage II. Observe that the
nuts turn equally. See tightening order in Fig 11-23.

11 - 22 W50DF
50-200525-07 Crank mechanism: Crankshaft, connecting rod, piston

Tightening order for connecting rod

2,3 1,4

1,4 2,3

Fig 11-23 501122

33 Release the pressure and remove the tools.


34 Clean the antipolishing ring carefully and check its condition.
No cracks are allowed. It is recommended to renew the antipolishing
ring every time the piston rings are renewed.
35 Clean the bore in the cylinder liner and check that no debris
or particles remain between the liner and the antipolishing ring.
36 Fit the antipolishing ring in place.

W50DF 11 - 23
Crank mechanism: Crankshaft, connecting rod, piston 50-200525-07

11.3 Big end bearing

11.3.1 Description of the big end

The connecting rod is horizontally split in three parts to allow easy


removal of piston and big end bearing. Two bearing shells of tri-metal
type are fitted in the big end.
The big end is connected to the connecting rod with hydraulically
tensioned screws. Similarly, the two big end halves are connected
together.
A compression shim is fitted between the connecting rod upper part
and big end.

11.3.2 Removing the big end bearing

1 Remove the cylinder head, see chapter 12 and section 11.2.2.


2 Turn the crankshaft to BDC. Ensure that the big end stays in its
normal running position while turning.
3 Turn the big end upside down and secure it with locking
plates (846005) for L-engine, see Fig 11-24, and (846008) for V-en-
gine, see Fig 11-25.

Locking plates for big end bearing, L-engine

846005

Fig 11-24 501123

11 - 24 W50DF
50-200525-07 Crank mechanism: Crankshaft, connecting rod, piston

Locking plates for big end, V-engine

846008

Fig 11-25 501124

4 Fit the hydraulic tightening tool (861142) for loosening the big
end nuts. The tool can be lifted in three parts: distance sleeve,
cylinder and piston, see Fig 11-26.

Fitting of the hydraulic tightening tools 861142

861142

Fig 11-26 501125

5 Connect the hoses of the hydraulic pump 860170 and open


the pump valve, see Fig 11-27.

W50DF 11 - 25
Crank mechanism: Crankshaft, connecting rod, piston 50-200525-07

Connect the hoses of the hydraulic pump 860170

860170

Fig 11-27 501126

Note! Some hydraulic pumps have a built-on pressure gauge and a return
hose has to be connected back to the pump. Always follow the
instructions delivered with the pump.

6 Turn the hydraulic tightening tool to the bottom (same level).


7 Loosen the tool about 3/4 of a turn (270).
8 Shut the pump valve and pump to stated pressure, see chap-
ter 07.
9 Loosen the nuts about half a turn (6 keyholes).
10 Release the pressure slowly, disconnect the hoses and remove
the hydraulic tools.
11 Remove the locking plates
12 Fit the big end mounting device, (836026) for a L-engine,
see Fig 11-28, to the manoeuvering side of the engine.
On a V-engine fit the big end bearing mounting device (836027)
to the A-bank side of the engine when removing the big end bearing
of a B-bank connection rod, see Fig 11-29.
13 Turn the crankshaft to a suitable position to connect the big
end to the device with connecting rod nuts (11).
14 Remove the big end nuts from the back side of the engine and
fit the rod, (846009) for L-engine and (836007) for V-engine, together
with the outside support (846006)/(836006).

11 - 26 W50DF
50-200525-07 Crank mechanism: Crankshaft, connecting rod, piston

Removing the big end, L-engine

836026
846007
846009

B
A

846006
11

View A View B

Fig 11-28 501127

Removing the big end, V-engine

836027 836004

836007

A B

836006
11
View A View B

Fig 11-29 501128

15 Slide the big end lower half out along the rod, (846009) for
L-engine and (836007) for V-engine, until it is against the support
(846006)/(836006).
16 Fit the inside support, (846007) for L-engine and (836004) for V-
engine, and remove the outside support (846006)/(836006). The lower
half can be lifted away with M12 eye bolt fitted to the bearing side.

W50DF 11 - 27
Crank mechanism: Crankshaft, connecting rod, piston 50-200525-07

17 Remove the rod (846009) for L-engine and (836007) for V-en-
gine.
18 Slide the upper half out with the tool (836026) for L-engine
and (836027) for V-engine. Fit the eyebolt M12 and lift the big end
upper half away, see Fig 11-28 or Fig 11-29.
19 Cover the crank pin oil holes with plugs or tape.

11.3.3 Inspection of the big end bearing

1 Check the big end bearing clearances by measuring the big


end bearing bores and crank pin diameters separately. Use form
(4611V003). Always when measuring the big end bore, the
connecting rod and the big end halves must be tightened. See
tightening instructions for big end bearing in section 11.3.4 and for
connecting rod see section 11.2.4. See also clearances and wear
limits table in chapter 06.
2 Bearing shells are of tri-metal type. If the running layer is
worn off more than 30% the bearing shells must be replaced by new
ones, see Fig 11-30.

Tri-metal type bearing shell

Tin-flash
Running layer: Tin-antimony 0.06
Bonding layer: Nickel
Intermediate layer: Lead bronze 1.0

Fig 11-30 501129

Thickness of the shell can be measured according to form (4611V008)


and compared with the values given in the clearance and wear table in
chapter 06.

11 - 28 W50DF
50-200525-07 Crank mechanism: Crankshaft, connecting rod, piston

11.3.4 Mounting of the big end bearing

1 Remove the plugs from the crank pin oil holes Clean the
crank pin and lubricate it properly with clean engine oil.
2 Fit the bearing shell to the big end upper half.

Note! Observe, that LOWER and UPPER big end bearing shell halves are
different. The shells must never be installed in the incorrect location.

3 Fit the big end upper half to the mounting device and fasten it
with connecting rod nuts, see Fig 11-31 or Fig 11-32.

Note! On a L-engine the big end (upper half) must be turned so that on its
final position the text is facing the manoeuvring side.

Note! On a V-engine the big end (upper half) must be turned so that on
its final position, the locating pins are towards the driving end on
A-side and towards the free end on B-side. The cylinder numbers
are facing the manoeuvering side on the A-bank and the rear side
on the B-bank.

4 Slide the big end (upper half) carefully to its position. Note
that the crankshaft is turned to the right level.
5 Fit the rod, (846009) on a L-engine and (836007) on a V-engine,
to the rear side of the engine together with the inside support,
(846007) on a L-engine and (836004) on a V-engine, see Fig 11-31
or Fig 11-32.

Mounting of the big end, L-engine

846007
846009

846006

Fig 11-31 501130

W50DF 11 - 29
Crank mechanism: Crankshaft, connecting rod, piston 50-200525-07

Mounting of the big end, V-engine

836004
836027
836007

836006

Fig 11-32 501131

6 Fit the bearing shell to the big end lower half.


7 Lift the big end lower half to the mounting device and slide it
towards the inside support (846007) on a L-engine and (836004) on
a V-engine, see Fig 11-31 or Fig 11-32.
8 Fit the outside support (846006) or (836006).
9 Remove the inside support, (846007) or (836004), and slide the
big end lower half carefully to its position.
10 Fasten the big end nuts by hand until the shells are to-
gether.
11 Remove the mounting device
12 Turn the big end upside down and secure it with locking
plates (846005) for L-engine, see ,Fig 11-24, and (846008) for V-en-
gine, see Fig 11-25. Check the clearance between upper and lower
half (same clearance on both sides).
13 Fit the hydraulic tightening tool (861142), see Fig 11-26.
14 Connect the hoses of the hydraulic pump and open the
pump valve.
15 Tighten the hydraulic tool to same level.
16 Shut the pump valve and pump to stated pressure (see sec-
tion 07.3.2.
17 Tighten the nuts with the pin (861028).
18 Open the pump valve slowly and remove the hydraulic tools.

11 - 30 W50DF
50-200525-07 Crank mechanism: Crankshaft, connecting rod, piston

19 Turn the big end to normal position. Fit the piston and cylin-
der head. See section 11.2.4 and chapter 12.

Note! Check that all tools are removed from crankcase.

Note! Check that the connecting rod is movable axially after tightening.

W50DF 11 - 31
Crank mechanism: Crankshaft, connecting rod, piston 50-200525-07

11 - 32 W50DF
50-200535-06 Cylinder head with valves

12. Cylinder head with valves

12.1 General
Every cylinder is equipped with a cylinder head including two inlet and
two exhaust valves with rotators, a main injection valve, a starting valve
(in some cases on B-bank of V-engines a dummy) and a gas admission
valve.
Cylinder heads are cast of special quality grey iron and are water
cooled. Cooling water is lead into the cylinder head from the engine
block through the cylinder liner water bores. Water leaves the cylinder
head through an outlet channel on the top and flows to a common pipe
and is drained away.

12.2 Cylinder head


For operational maintenance tasks typically performed by engine
operator, see schedule in chapter 03. For other maintenance tasks,
typically performed by maintenance crew, see maintenance schedule
in chapter 04..

12.2.1 General maintenance of the cylinder head

General maintenance includes a thorough check of the cylinder heads


including cooling water spaces. Possible scale formation in cooling
spaces can disturb the cooling effect and therefore has to be cleaned off.
Cleaning can be done by using chemical solvents. Contact Wrtsil for
more information about chemical cleaning.
Combustion spaces must be inspected carefully. Valve seats (13) and
the injection valve sleeve (14) have to be inspected for possible water
leakages and replaced if necessary, see Fig 12-10. Valve guides (15)
have to be checked and replaced if badly worn. O-rings (16) must be
replaced with every overhaul.
The sealing surface between cylinder head and cylinder liner has to
be inspected and reconditioned if necessary.

WRTSIL 50DF 12 - 1
Cylinder head with valves 50-200535-06

Cylinder head with valves

16

15

14 13

Fig 12-10 501201

12.2.2 Removing the cylinder head

Caution! Before doing any maintenance work, inspect that the gas supply
valves are closed, venting valves are open and gas is drained out
from the gas system.

1 Drain and remove the gas pipe (22) and in V-engines also the
gas admission valve (35), see Fig 12-12. For maintenance of gas
system, see chapter 17.
2 Drain the cooling water. Remove the cooling water discharge
pipes (1) and the circulating water connection piece (41), see Fig 12-11.
3 Remove the rocker arm casing cover (2), the rocker arm cas-
ing, the Hot box cover (3) and in V-engines also the insulating
shield (4) over the exhaust gas connection to the cylinder head, see
Fig 12-12.
4 Fasten the lifting strap to the rocker arms.
5 Turn the engine with the turning gear so that the piston in the
cylinder concerned is at TDC, valves are closed and rocker arms are
unloaded.
6 Open fastening bolts (12) of the valve rocker arm bracket,
lift off the bracket and push rods, see Fig 12-13..
7 Remove the clamps (5) of the exhaust and suction air pipes,
see Fig 12-12.
8 Loosen the oil pipe (7), fuel valve leaking pipe (8) and pilot
starting air pipe (9).

12 - 2 WRTSIL 50DF
50-200535-06 Cylinder head with valves

Cooling water discharge pipes

A A-A

41
A
V-engines

Fig 12-11 501202

Rocker arm casing cover and Hot box cover

4
In-line engines: V-engines:
22
5
2
2 35
3

3 6

5
A 10

VIEW A

11
9
8
7

Fig 12-12 501203

WRTSIL 50DF 12 - 3
Cylinder head with valves 50-200535-06

9 Remove the main injection pipe (10), see Fig 12-12. Protect
the connections of the injection pipes and oil pipe from damage and
ingress of dirt.
10 Open the quick connections A and B (optional) for exhaust
gas temperature monitoring sensors, see Fig 12-13.

Exhaust gas temperature monitoring sensors

12 12

Fig 12-13 501204

11 Remove the pilot fuel pipes (11), see Fig 12-12, and the rest
of the electrical connections.

Note! Ensure, that all connections of the cylinder head have been loos-
ened.

12 Remove the protecting caps of the cylinder head screws.


13 Lift the hydraulic tools (861143) in position using the lifting
tool (834045). Notice, that there are different lifting points for
inline engines and V-engines, see Fig 12-14. Connect the hoses
according to the drawing.

Note! Some hydraulic pump types are to be used with a separate oil return
hose. Always follow the instructions delivered with the pump.

14 Screw on the cylinders. Keep on turning the hydraulic tool as


long as it rotates to expel any possible oil. Repeat the tightening
procedure to expel all oil.

12 - 4 WRTSIL 50DF
50-200535-06 Cylinder head with valves

Tools for cylinder head screws

A
L V
VIEW A

861143

834045

Fig 12-14 501205

15 Turn the cylinders back about 3/4 of a turn (270).


16 Pump the hydraulic pressure to the stated value, see section
07.3.2.

Caution! Maximum tightening pressure must not be exceeded when loosen-


ing the nuts.

17 Loosen the nuts about 3/4 of a turn by using the pin (861010).
18 Release the pressure, disconnect the hoses and unscrew the
cylinders. Lift off the hydraulic tool set.
19 Remove the cylinder head nuts.
20 Apply the lifting tool (832001), Notice, that there are differ-
ent lifting points for inline engines and V-engines, see Fig 12-15.
21 Lift off the cylinder head.
22 Cover the cylinder opening with a piece of plywood or similar
and install the caps to protect the screw threads.

WRTSIL 50DF 12 - 5
Cylinder head with valves 50-200535-06

Lifting tool for the cylinder head

V-engine In-line-engine

VIEW A

832001

Fig 12-15 501206

12.2.3 Mounting the cylinder head screws

Befor mounting the cylinder head, following actions are recommended:


Change the cylinder head screws, if the maximum pressure is
exceeded when applying the hydraulic tool.
Change the O-rings (48) at every piston overhaul, see Fig 12-16.
When corrosion pits with a depth of less than 0.1mm is found,
grind/polish away the pits with a small hand grinder. If corrosion
is deeper than 0.1mm, then change the screw.

Note! Corrosion depth in threads can be hard to determine, therefor it is


recommended to change the screws, whenever in doubt.

1 Lubricate the threads of the screw with a thin layer of Rust-


ban 326 or corresponding.
2 Mount the screw and tighten to specified torque, see section
07.3.2.

12 - 6 WRTSIL 50DF
50-200535-06 Cylinder head with valves

3 Fill the compartment between screw and engine block with


Rustban 623 or corresponding corrosion protection agent.
4 Mount the O-rings (48).

Mounting of cylinder head screws

48

Rustban 623
Rustban 326

Fig 12-16 501227

12.2.4 Mounting the cylinder head

1 Clean the sealing surfaces and put a new cylinder head gas-
ket and new O-rings for the circulating water jacket. Lubricate the
O-ring sealing surfaces with vaseline or oil. Change the seal rings
of the charge air, starting air and push rod protecting pipe.
2 Renew the sealings of the gas piping as described in chapter 17.
3 Attach the lifting tool (832001) to the cylinder head, see Fig 12-15.
4 Lift the cylinder head to its place on the engine. When low-
ering it, take care that the starting air connecting pipe and push rod
protecting pipes slide into the seal rings without force.

Note! Make sure the cylinder heads are in line with each other in order to
have exhaust manifolds, bellows and fuel pipes correctly aligned.

Note! Do not damage the cylinder head screws!

5 Screw on the cylinder head nuts.


6 Lift the hydraulic tools (861143) into position using the lifting
tool (834045), see Fig 12-14. Connect the hoses according to the
drawing.

WRTSIL 50DF 12 - 7
Cylinder head with valves 50-200535-06

Note! Some hydraulic pump types are to be used with a separate oil return
hose. Always follow the instructions delivered with the pump.

Note! Note the general tightening instructions for hydraulically tightened


conections in section 07.3 . before tightening.

7 Screw on the cylinders. Keep on turning the hydraulic tool as


long as it rotates to expel any possible oil. Repeat the tightening
procedure to expel all oil.
8 Tension the screws by increasing the hydraulic pressure to the
stated value of stage I, see section 07.3.2.
9 Tighten the nuts by means of the pin until firm contact is ac-
chieved. Keep the pressure constant while tightening.
10 Release the pressure.
11 Tension the screws by increasing the hydraulic pressure to the
stated value of stage II, see section 07.3.2.
12 Tighten the nuts by means of the pin until firm contact is ac-
chieved. Keep the pressure constant while tightening.
13 Release the pressure.
14 Check the tightening of the nuts by tension the screws again
to the stated value of stage II. Check that the nuts cant be turned
further.
15 Release the pressure.
16 Disconnect the hoses and remove the cylinders.
17 Apply the protecting caps to the cylinder head screws.
18 Connect the exhaust gas sensors and HT cooling water sen-
sors if installed.
19 Fit the main injection pipe (10), and pilot fuel pipes (11), see
Fig 12-12.

Note! Do not use force to fit the pipes. If it is difficult to fit the pipes, check
that the cylinder head is in line.

20 Fit the oil pipe (7), fuel valve leaking pipe (8) and pilot starting
air pipe (9).
21 Fasten the exhaust and air pipe clamps (5): Support the
lower clamps from below eg. by means of a wedge to position the
pipes correctly, see Fig 12-17. Tighten to torque according to chapter
07.

12 - 8 WRTSIL 50DF
50-200535-06 Cylinder head with valves

Fastening of the exhaust and air pipe clamps

In-line engines V-engines

Fig 12-17 501207

Note! Before mounting the upper clamps ensure, that the pipes seals
evenly all around against the mating surface in the cylinder head.

22 The yokes may be adjusted here according to section 12.2.5


before assembling the rocker arm bracket.
23 Reconnect the cooling water discharge pipes (1). Replace
the sliding ring gaskets (42) with new ones. Use a special guiding
mandrel (846160) when assembling the flange (43), see Fig 12-18.
item I.) It is advisable to use some glue to keep the O-ring (44) in
place when connecting the pipe (1) to the connection piece (41), see
Fig 12-18. item II.

WRTSIL 50DF 12 - 9
Cylinder head with valves 50-200535-06

Reconnecting the cooling water discharge pipes

42 846160 1 44
43 41

I
II

Fig 12-18 501208

24 Lift the rocker arm bracket into position and fasten the fas-
tening bolts (12) to stated torque, see Fig 12-13 and chapter 07.
25 Fit the rocker arm casing to its place.
26 Adjust the valve clearance, see section 12.2.5.
27 Reinstall the rocker arm casing cover, the Hot Box cover
and in V-engines the exhaust pipe insulating shield (4).
28 Re-assemble the gas admission valve (35) (Vengines) and
gas pipe (22), see Fig 12-12 and chapter 17. for instructions of
maintaining the gas system.
29 Before starting, fill the engine cooling water system and
turn the crankshaft two revolutions with the indicator valves open.

12.2.5 Adjusting valve clearance

1 Turn the crank of the cylinder concerned to TDC at ignition.


2 Loosen the locking screw (17) of the adjusting screws on the
rocker arm as well as on the yoke (18) and turn the adjusting screws
in a counter-clockwise direction to provide ample clearance, see Fig
12-19.

12 - 10 WRTSIL 50DF
50-200535-06 Cylinder head with valves

Adjusting valve clearance

17 20
21

19
18

a b c

Fig 12-19 501209

3 Press the fixed end of the yoke against the valve stem by
pressing down on the adjustable end. Screw down the adjusting
screw (19) until it touches the valve end and note the position of the
spanner (pos. a). Keep on screwing down while the yoke tilts, until
the guide clearance is on the other side and the fixed end of the yoke
starts lifting from the valve stem. Now press down on the fixed end.
Note the position of the spanner (pos. b).
4 Turn the adjusting screw counterclockwise to the middle posi-
tion between a and b, i.e. c. Lock the nut (18).
5 Valve clearances for inlet and exhaust valves are given in
chapter 06.
6 Before adjusting the valve clearance hit the push rod end of
the rocker arm with a soft hammer to ensure that the push rod is
correctly seated.
7 Put a feeler gauge corresponding to the valve clearance be-
tween the surface of the yoke and the shoe at the rocker arm. Tighten
the adjusting screw (20) until the feeler gauge can be moved to and
fro with only a slight force. Hold the adjusting screw and tighten
the locking screw (17) to stated torque, see chapter 07. Check that
the clearance has not changed while tightening.

Note! Take care not to over tension the locking screw (17).

WRTSIL 50DF 12 - 11
Cylinder head with valves 50-200535-06

12.2.6 Checking of cylinder tightness

The condition of inlet- and exhaust valves can be estimated by checking


the cylinder tightness according to the following work phases:
1 Turn the crankshaft to such a position that the valves of the
cylinder concerned are all closed.
2 Remove the plug from the test hole (42) in the front part of the
cylinder head, see Fig 12-20.
3 Connect the testing device (848020) to the test hole (42), see
Fig 12-20.

Checking of cylinder tightness

42

848020

Fig 12-20 501210

4 Supply pressurized air (5-7 bar) via the testing device. Open
the valve and record the pressure.
5 Shut the valve of the testing device and record the pressure
drop in a certain time (e.g. 20 s).
If the pressure drops directly to 0 bar, it is possible that one or
more valves are sticking or the valve(s) are burnt.
A sticking valve can be found from the immobility of the valve
when the engine is turned.
A burnt valve can normally be seen from the exhaust tempera-
ture. If the valve clearance is zero that would also cause an direct
pressure drop.
Carbon particles trapped between the valve and the seat when
the engine is stopped could also prevent the valve to close properly
thus causing a direct pressure drop. If that is suspected, the
engine should be run for a few minutes and after that a new check
of the same cylinder.
If a blow-by between the cylinder liner and piston is suspected e.g.
from fast fouling of filters or high crankcase pressure, it is best to
take readings of the complete engine and make a comparison.

12 - 12 WRTSIL 50DF
50-200535-06 Cylinder head with valves

The test can be verified by listening for leaking sounds inside


crankcase during testing.
If the time is limited to overhaul only one piston, it is recom-
mended to dismantle the worst measured blow-by piston for
inspection. The result of inspection gives a hint of general engine
condition.
When re-testing the cylinder after an overhaul a rapid pressure
drop can be observed. The reason for this is because the running
in of piston rings is not yet performed.

Note! Keep pre-lubricating pump running during test.

Note! The turning gear should be engaged during test.

In general, the location of leakage can be found by listening when


the air valve is open.

Attention! A general condition of engine is indicated with the test device, but
more important is the operation data records.
The overhauls must be made according to recommended over-
haul intervals and not only when the pressure test shows a big
blow-by.

6 Remove the tool (848020) and reassemble the plug.

There is no use giving absolute guiding values for the pressure drop,
but you can evaluate the condition of the valves by comparing the
pressure drop in different cylinders.

WRTSIL 50DF 12 - 13
Cylinder head with valves 50-200535-06

12.3 Exhaust and inlet valves


The valve mechanism consists of a system where valve guides and
exhaust and inlet seats are integrated into the cylinder head. There is
also a rotating mechanism called Rotocap (23) for the exhaust and inlet
valves which will ensure smooth and even valve wear. Double valve
springs (26) make the valve mechanism dynamically stable, see Fig
12-21.

Note! Exhaust and inlet valves differ in dimensions and also in material
and must not be mixed.

Exhaust and inlet valves

15 26 24 25 23 27

13. Exhaust valve seat


14. Inlet valve seat
15. Valve guide
23. Rotocap
24. Exhaust valve
25. Inlet valve
26. Valve springs
27. Valve cotters
13
14

EXHAUST INLET

Fig 12-21 501211

12 - 14 WRTSIL 50DF
50-200535-06 Cylinder head with valves

12.3.1 Dismantling the valves

1 Fit the tool assembly in position according to Fig 12-22.


2 Fit the hydraulic jack and the nut (28). Leave about 40 mm
distance between the jack and the nut.
3 Use the hydraulic pump to press the spring assembly down
enough to remove the valve cotters (27), see Fig 12-21.

Note! Some hydraulic pump types are to be used with a separate oil return
hose. Always follow the instructions delivered with the pump.

Fitting of the tool assembly

834001 834050

834002 28 860170

40

Fig 12-22 501212

4 Knock at the centre of the valve discs with a soft piece of


wood, plastic hammer or similar to loosen the valve cotters for
removal.
5 Release the pressure carefully so that the valve springs are
slowly unloaded.

Note! Take care that the springs are fully unloaded before removing the
nut.

6 Remove spring holders (Rotocaps) and springs.


7 Note the marks of the valves or mark them so that they can
be reinstalled into the same guide if they are in good condition.
Valves are marked according to the gas flow: inlet A and B, exhaust
C and D, see Fig 12-23.

WRTSIL 50DF 12 - 15
Cylinder head with valves 50-200535-06

Valves marked according to the gas flow

Air in Exhaust
out

A D

B C

Fig 12-23 501213

12 - 16 WRTSIL 50DF
50-200535-06 Cylinder head with valves

12.3.2 Checking and reconditioning valves and seats

There are three alternatives used as EXHAUST valves depending on


the installation:

Exhaust valves

I II III
Stellit Nimonic Nimonic
valve disc diam. 160 valve disc diam. 170

Stellit

160 160 170

Fig 12-24 501214

1 Check first which kind of an exhaust valve (I, II or III) is in


question.
2 Clean the valves, seats, ducts and guides as well as the un-
derside of the cylinder head.

Note! No scratches or notches are allowed on the valve surfaces, espe-


cially on the area marked with an A in Fig 12-25.

Burn-off area

Burn-off area

Y Z

Fig 12-25 501215

WRTSIL 50DF 12 - 17
Cylinder head with valves 50-200535-06

3 Compare the burn-off on the valve disc to Fig 12-25. Read


the limit values for measures (X), (Y) and (Z) from the followinf table.

Exhaust valve
Inlet I II III
valve Stellit Nimonic 160 Nimonic 170
B0137 B0203 B0314 / B0361 B0375 *)
(Y) minimum 13 mm 12.5 mm 12.5 mm 13 mm 11.3 mm
(Y) nominal 14.5 mm 14 mm 14 mm 14.5 mm 12.5 mm
Seat face inner diameter 133 mm 140 mm 133.5 mm 131.5 mm 131.5 mm
(X) minimum
(Z) maximum 2 mm 2 mm 2 mm 2 mm 2 mm

Burn-off area limits


*) = component code stamped in the end of the valve stem.
If any of these dimensions exceed the given limits, the valve must be
replaced.
4 Reconditioning of valves and valve seats has to be done by
grinding or by machining.
5 Before grinding check the valve stem clearance by measur-
ing the stem and guide and change the worn part if necessary. Use
measuring documents 4612V001 and 4612V002. The valve guide
can be pressed out by using the tools 845004 and 845005, see Fig
12-26. Check the bore in the cylinder head. When refitting, cooling
with liquid nitrogen is recommended, but pressing in with oil
lubrication is also acceptable. After the new guide is fitted, check
the guide bore.

Extraction of valve guide

37

845005 834050
860170

845004

Fig 12-26 501216

12 - 18 WRTSIL 50DF
50-200535-06 Cylinder head with valves

12.3.3 Machine grinding

1 Seat face of the valve: The seat angle of the INLET valve is
20 and the EXHAUST valve 30. See tolerances in Fig 12-27.
Check the minimum allowable edge tickness (Y) and the minimum
seat face inner diameter (X) of the inlet valve and the exhaust valve
from section 12.3.2.

INLET and EXHAUST valve seat angles

INLET

-0,15
20 -0,25

+0,25 +0,25
30 +0,15 30 +0,15

EXHAUST EXHAUST

I, STELLIT II, III, NIMONIC

Fig 12-27 501217

2 Seat ring for the inlet valve: The seat angle of the inlet valve
seat ring is 19.5, see tolerances in Fig 12-28. The seat can be ground
until the outer seat diameter reaches 171.5mm, see Fig 12-28. After
that the seat ring must be replaced with a new one.

WRTSIL 50DF 12 - 19
Cylinder head with valves 50-200535-06

Outer limit diameter for inlet seat grinding

19,5 -0,05
-0,15

+0
140 -0,3
+0,6
166 -0,8

171,5

Fig 12-28 501218

3 Seat ring for the exhaust valve: There are two alternatives
used for exhaust valve seat rings. These can be identified easily by
the form and diameter of the seat face, see table below. The seat can
be ground until the outer seat diameter reaches the maximum value
given in the table. Sharp edge (V) should be removed after grinding,
see Fig 12-29.

Exhaust valve seat ring measures


Outer seat diameter, Outer seat diameter,
Exhaust valve Seat angle
nominal maximum
I and II d12=160 0/- 0.2 mm d12max=164 mm a12=30 +0.1/0

III d3173 0.1 mm d3max=177 mm a3=30 +0.1/0

Exhaust seat diameter limits and angles

Exhaust valve I and II Exhaust valve III

12 3

V V

d12 d3

d12 max. d3 max.

Fig 12-29 501219

12 - 20 WRTSIL 50DF
50-200535-06 Cylinder head with valves

Note! If blow-by has occurred, the O-ring for the corresponding valve seat
ring must be changed. Blow-by increases the temperature and the
O-ring is burned, which will result in water leakage into the cylinder.

4 Check with a blueing test that the contact area is wide enough
and that it is at the inner edge of the seat, see Fig 12-30. Ensure,
that the valve used in the blueing test is the one that will be
assembled to the seat concerned.
Spread a thin layer of blue paint on the whole seat face of the valve.
Fit the valve into its place in the valve guide and press the valve
gently against the valve seat using the tool (841010). Repeat 2-3
times turning the valve about 45 between the strokes.

Note! Ensure, that the sealing faces are absolutely clean and the blue
paint layer is as thin as possible.

Check of contact areas on the valve seat

10 30%

INLET :

EXHAUST : I, II III

30 95% 30 95%

Fig 12-30 501220

5 If the contact area is not wide enough, the seat ring can be
lapped lightly by hand to ensure good contact between the seat and
the valve.

WRTSIL 50DF 12 - 21
Cylinder head with valves 50-200535-06

12.3.4 Assembling of valves

1 Check the valve springs for cracks and wear marks. If there
are any, replace the springs with new ones.
2 Clean the valve guides (15) thoroughly and fit new O-rings
(16), see Fig 12-10
3 Lubricate the valve stems (29), see Fig 12-31, with clean en-
gine oil.
4 Fit the valves and check for free movement. Before closing
the sealing surface between valve and seat be absolutely sure that
it is clean. When fitting the valves, ensure that they go back to their
locations, especially if the seat rings have been ground.
5 Install the springs and be sure that the seating faces are un-
damaged and clean, both on springs (26) and (30) as well as on the
spring discs (rotocaps) (23).
6 Fit the assembling tool (834001) in position.
7 Compress the springs with the hydraulic tool. Put in the
valve cotters (27) after lubricating them properly. Unload the
springs slowly.
While unloading the springs check that the cotters fit properly; the
spaces between the two halves should be equal on both sides.

12 - 22 WRTSIL 50DF
50-200535-06 Cylinder head with valves

12.4 Valve seats

Maintenance of valve seats:


It is strongly advised to contact the engine manufacturer, if the valve
seat rings has to be removed or fitted because of wear and leaks.

Valve and valve seats in cylinder head

27 26
23
30
17

16
29

Fig 12-31 501221

12.4.1 Removing an old seat ring

1 Set the removing tools (845001 and 845003 for the inlet valve
seat ring, or 845001 and 845002 for the exhaust valve seat ring) so
that the clutches fit under the edge of the seat ring. Tighten the nut
(31), see Fig 12-32.
2 Fit the plate (32) and the hydraulic jack (33) and tighten the
nut (34) slightly.
3 Connect the hoses of the hydraulic pump (860170) to the
hydraulic jack and loosen the seat ring by pumping.
4 Release the pressure, disconnect the hoses and dismantle the
tool.

WRTSIL 50DF 12 - 23
Cylinder head with valves 50-200535-06

Removing of old seat rings

860170 33 845001

845001 34

34

31
31

845003 32 845002

Fig 12-32 501222

12.4.2 Fitting a new inlet valve seat ring

1 Check the bore diameter in the cylinder head, see table 12 in


chapter 06.
2 The ring can be assembled by cooling with liquid nitrogen of
-190C and with the cylinder head temperature at a minimum of
20C, or by pressing in with a guided arbor.
3 Check the eccentricity of the sealing face in relation to the
valve guide, and if it exceeds 0.1 mm, the seat surface must be
ground with a seat grinding machine.

12.4.3 Fitting a new exhaust valve seat ring

1 For fitting an exhaust valve seat ring an oven for heating the
cylinder head and a freezer for cooling the seat ring are required.
2 Check the seat bore diameters (A) and (B) in the cylinder
head, see Fig 12-33, according to values in table 12 in chapter 06.
Clean the bores carefully.
3 Heat the cylinder head up to +60...+80C.

Note! It is important that the entire cylinder head is heated up, not only
the seat bore.

12 - 24 WRTSIL 50DF
50-200535-06 Cylinder head with valves

4 Cool the seat ring in the freezer to -18...-25C.


5 Lubricate the bore A, see Fig 12-33, with Molykote 111 lubri-
cant or similar and apply Loctite 620 locking compound to bore B.
6 Fit the O-ring (45) to the ring groove, dry the outer surface of
the seat ring and fit the seat ring to its place.

Note! Mounting of a exhaust valve seat ring should be done carefully so


that the seat ring is correctly seated.

Seat bore diameters

EXHAUST INLET

45

Fig 12-33 501223

When the cylinder head has reached the room temperature:


7 Check the eccentricity of the sealing face in relation to the
valve guide. Ensure that the seat ring is in continuous contact
against the bottom machined surface. The maximum allowed eccen-
tricity is 0.07mm. If the eccentricity is 0.07-0.25mm, the seat surface
must be ground with a seat grinding machine.

12.4.3.1 Hydraulic test


A hydraulic test at 10 bar must be carried out as follows every time a
new exhaust valve seat ring has been fitted:
1 Block the cooling water inlet passages (38) (8 pcs) and the
deaerating hole (39), see Fig 12-34, rather with a special tool
(848021), see Fig 12-35. Note the washers (47) and the correct
tightening torque (640Nm) of the tightening nuts.
If the tool is not available:
- Block the 8 cooling water inlet passages (38) with rubber expansion
plugs.
- Tap the deaerating hole (39) with M8 thread and block it with a plug.

WRTSIL 50DF 12 - 25
Cylinder head with valves 50-200535-06

2 Block the cooling water outlet passage (40), see Fig 12-34,
with a pressure test flange (847012), see Fig 12-35, and fill the
cooling water space with water.
3 Connect the checking device (848020) to the test flange and
replace the hose coupling with the transformation piece (46) taken
from the test flange.
4 Connect the low pressure pump (860050) to the transforma-
tion piece and apply a pressure of 10 bar.

Warning! Beware of the rubber plugs while there is pressure in the cylinder
cover. The plugs may be dangerous if they become loose.

Cooling water inlet passages

38 40

39

Fig 12-34 501224

12 - 26 WRTSIL 50DF
50-200535-06 Cylinder head with valves

Blocking of cooling water inlet passages

848020
860050
847012 47
46

848021

Fig 12-35 501225

WRTSIL 50DF 12 - 27
Cylinder head with valves 50-200535-06

12.5 Rotocap
Exhaust and inlet valves are equipped with Rotocaps. These are
rotating mechanisms, which turn the valves 8 at every opening. The
rotation makes the valves wear smoothly and increases the mainte-
nance intervals.

12.5.1 Rotocap maintenance

Valve rotator (Rotocap)

2
4
3
1
6

Fig 12-36 501226

1 Remove the spring band (6).


2 Remove the cover plate (1).
3 Remove the cap spring (3).
4 Remove the steel balls (4) and turning springs (5).
5 Clean the base plate (2) and all other parts. Check for wear,
replace if neccessary.
6 Lubricate parts with clean engine oil.
7 Reinstall the parts in the opposite order.

12 - 28 WRTSIL 50DF
50-200535-06 Cylinder head with valves

12.6 Starting valve


The starting valves are described in chapter 21..
When refitting the starting valves, the outer cylindrical surfaces
should be lubricated with engine oil or a special lubricant.

12.7 Injection valve


The injection valves are described in chapter 16.
When refitting, the injection valves should be lubricated with engine
oil only.

WRTSIL 50DF 12 - 29
Cylinder head with valves 50-200535-06

12 - 30 WRTSIL 50DF
50-200526-04 Camshaft driving gear

13. Camshaft driving gear

13.1 General
The camshaft is driven by the crankshaft through gearing. For V-en-
gines the gears are alike for both camshafts, see Fig 13-1. The gearing
consists of a split gear (36) on the crankshaft, two hydraulically
fastened intermediate gears (1 and 2) and a camshaft driving gear (7).
Lube oil nozzles provide for lubrication and cooling of the gears. The
camshafts rotates with half of the engine speed in the same direction
as the engine.

Intermediate gear and camshaft gear

7 7

1 1

2 2

36 36

Fig 13-1 501301

1. Bigger intermediate gear wheel for camshaft drive,


2. Smaller intermediate gear wheel for camshaft drive,
7. Drive gear for camshaft,
36. Gear wheel for crankshaft.

W46/W50DF 13 - 1
Camshaft driving gear 50-200526-04

13.2 Intermediate gear and camshaft gear


The intermediate gear wheels (1) and (2) are connected together with
a hydraulically tightened screw (3). The bearings (4) for the interme-
diate wheel assemblies are incorporated into the crankcase. Lubrica-
tion for the bearings is from the pressurised engine system through the
thrust bearing (5), along the screw (3) and through the bores in the
bearing shaft (6). The camshaft driving wheel (7) is fixed to the
camshaft end (8) by a guiding pin (9) and fastened by means of a flange
connection between the camshaft end (8) and the camshaft extension
(10), see Fig 13-2.

13.2.1 Intermediate gear and camshaft gear mainte-


nance

Whenever the opportunity occurs, check the condition of gears. Meas-


ure the tooth backlash and the bearing clearances, see section 06.2. An
early detection of any tooth damage can prevent serious damage.

13 - 2 W46/W50DF
50-200526-04 Camshaft driving gear

Intermediate gear and camshaft gear

18 11
10
16
19

15

17

13
14
12
33
8 9
10

29
20
4
7
6
3
5
32

4
2
1

Fig 13-2 501302

W46/W50DF 13 - 3
Camshaft driving gear 50-200526-04

13.2.2 Removing the camshaft gearing

Note! Special tools are needed for this work. Please contact the engine
manufacturers service network.

13.2.2.1 Removing the camshaft gear


1 Remove the gear covers and the camshaft covers.
2 Turn the crankshaft to TDC at ignation for cylinder No.1 and
look through the first camshaft service cover. Notice the nuts and
connecting studs between the first camshaft piece and the camshaft
extension (10) which are behind the camshaft, see Fig 13-2.
3 Turn the camshaft and remove the above mentioned nuts and
studs.
4 Unscrew the fastening screws (11) for the camshaft thrust
bearing housing (18) and remove the cover (13), see Fig 13-2.
5 Unscrew the fastening screws (14) and remove the outer shaft
plate (15) together with the outer part of the thrust bearing (12).
6 Open the fastening screws (16) and remove the housing plate
(19) together with the inner part of the thrust bearing (33) and inner
shaft plate (17).
7 Slide the camshaft thrust bearing housing (18) out. (Use ex-
traction holes M16 if needed.)
8 Turn the crankshaft to TDC at ignition for cylinder No.1 and se-
cure the camshaft by using the locking tool (834053), see Fig 13-3.
Three nuts from the camshaft piece fastening studs must be re-
moved for that reason. There are two different locking device alter-
natives (A and B) shown in the Fig 13-3.

Camshaft securing tool

834053 834053
A B
View C View D

C D

Fig 13-3 501303

13 - 4 W46/W50DF
50-200526-04 Camshaft driving gear

9 Open the flange connection screws (20) and remove the


camshaft extension (10) by using the lifting tool (836024) together
with the connection pieces (836017) and (836018), see Fig 13-4.

Caution! Support the driving gear wheel (7) when lifting the extension piece out.

Caution! Cranking of engine with the hydraulic tightened nut (27) loosened,
see Fig 13-7, is allowed only for some degrees to adjust the timing.
Otherwise great risk for contact between pistons and valves if the
rocker arm bearing brackets has not been loosened first.

Removing of camshaft extension

836024

836017
20 10

836018

Fig 13-4 501304

W46/W50DF 13 - 5
Camshaft driving gear 50-200526-04

10 Lift the camshaft driving wheel out by using the lifting de-
vice (836024) together with the connection pieces (836020) and
(836023), see Fig 13-5.

Lifting tool for camshaft driving wheel

836020

836024

A
836023
(836034)

836020 A
A - A

Fig 13-5 501305

11 Lift the camshaft extension out by using the lifting device


(836024) together with connection pieces (836019), see Fig 13-6.

Removing the camshaft extension

836024

836019

Fig 13-6 501306

13 - 6 W46/W50DF
50-200526-04 Camshaft driving gear

13.2.2.2 Removing the intermediate gear

Note! The intermediate gear wheels (1 and 2) must not be dismantled


unless it is absolutely necessary. The relative position between the
two wheels has been adjusted when assembled at the factory and
should not be changed. If you must separate the two gear wheels
you must mark them so that they can be assembled back exactly
to the correct positions.

Intermadiate gear

28 26
25
24
23
4 22
6 27

3
5
29
32
21
4
2
1

Fig 13-7 501307

1 Open the screws (21) to remove the cover (22) from the inter-
mediate gear thrust bearing, see Fig 13-7.
2 Open the fastening screws (23) and remove the shaft plate
(24) together with the outer thrust bearing (5).
3 Open the fastening screws (25) and remove the housing plate
(26) together with the inner thrust bearing (32).
4 Lift the hydraulic tool (861143) onto the center stud, see Fig
13-8.
5 Screw on the hydraulic tool (861143).
6 Connect the hoses of the hydraulic pump (860170) accord-
ing to Fig 13-8 and open the pump valve.

Note! Some hydraulic pumps are to be used with a separate oil return
hose. Always follow the instructions delivered with the pump.

W46/W50DF 13 - 7
Camshaft driving gear 50-200526-04

Hydraulic tool for intermediate gear center stud

861143

860170

Fig 13-8 501308

7 Keep on turning the hydraulic tool as long as it rotates. Re-


peat the procedure a few times to get all oil out from the tool.
8 Turn the hydraulic tool back about 3/4 of a turn 270.
9 Close the valve on the hydraulic pump (860170).
10 Pump the hydraulic pressure to the stated value, see section
07.3.2.
11 Loosen the nut (27) about 3/4 of a turn with the pin (861010).
12 Release the pressure slowly, disconnect the hoses and un-
screw the hydraulic tools.
13 Remove the hydraulic tool.
14 Remove the nut.
15 Unscrew the center stud (3) by using a tool (803003) and slide
the stud against the flywheel.
16 Slide the smaller intermediate gear (2) against the engine
block and remove the distance ring (28), see Fig 13-7.
17 Screw the lifting tool (836021) to the shaft (6) of the bigger in-
termediate gear (1) and lift the tool (836021) and shaft (6) out
together by using the lifting device (836024) together with connec-
tion pieces (836023 or 836034), see Fig 13-9.

13 - 8 W46/W50DF
50-200526-04 Camshaft driving gear

Lifting tool for intermediate gears

A-A
6 836021

836024

A 1
836023
(836034)

Fig 13-9 501309

18 Slide the smaller intermediate gear (2) out from the engine
block and support it so that you can put the lifting tool (836022) to
the shaft of the smaller intermediate gear and tighten it with a
wrench, see Fig 13-10.

Lifting tool for smaller intermediate gear

836022

2 3

Fig 13-10 501310

W46/W50DF 13 - 9
Camshaft driving gear 50-200526-04

19 Remove the smaller intermediate gear by using the lifting


device (836024) together with connection pieces (836023 or 836034),
see Fig 13-11.

Removing of smaller intermediate gear

836024

836023
(836034)
836022

Fig 13-11 501311

20 Remove the center stud (3).

Caution! The intermediate wheels (1 and 2), see Fig 13-7, must not be
dismantled unless it is absolutely necessary. The relative position
between the two wheels has been adjusted when assembled at the
factory and should not be changed.

13 - 10 W46/W50DF
50-200526-04 Camshaft driving gear

13.2.3 Mounting the camshaft gearing

13.2.3.1 Mounting the intermediate gears

Caution! On an In-line engine, make sure that the crankshaft is in TDC at


ignation for cylinder No.1 before proceeding with the job.

Caution! On a V-engine, make sure that the crankshaft is in TDC at ignation


for cylinder No. A1 (or B1) before proceeding with the job.

Marking of gears on In-line engine

Mark A 9

B
A

A
B Mark A-A

Fig 13-12 501312

In-line engine: when the crankshaft is in TDC at ignation for


cylinder No.1 notice that:
Assembly marks A on camshaft driving wheel must be aligned
with the side of the engine block, see Fig 13-12.
Assembly marks on the bigger intermediate gear and marks A-A
on the crankshaft gear must be aligned.
Guide pin (9) in the first camshaft piece must be in the top
position.

W46/W50DF 13 - 11
Camshaft driving gear 50-200526-04

Marking of gears on V-engines

Cyl. A1 at TDC Cyl. B1 at TDC


9
Mark A

B A

A B

B A

A A B
B

A B

Mark A-A Mark B-B

Fig 13-13 501313

V-engine: when the crankshaft is in TDC at ignation for cylinder


No. A1 (or B1) notice that:
Assembly marks A (B) on camshaft driving gear wheel must
be aligned with the side of the engine block, see Fig 13-13.
Assembly marks on the bigger intermediate gear and marks A-A
(B-B) on the crankshaft gear must be aligned.
Guide pin (9) in the first camshaft piece must be in the correct
position, see Fig 13-13.
1 Mount the shaft (6) and the big intermediate gear wheel (1)
together with screws (29), see Fig 13-7. Tighten the screws to stated
torque, see chapter 07.
2 Lift the smaller intermediate wheel (2) into position using lift-
ing device (836024) with connection pieces (836022) and (836023 or
836034), see Fig 13-14. At the same time the center stud (3) must
be put into position inside the smaller intermediate gear, see Fig
13-10. When the gear is fitted inside the bearing, slide it against the
engine block.

13 - 12 W46/W50DF
50-200526-04 Camshaft driving gear

Lifting the smaller intermediate gear wheel

836024

836023
(836034)
836022

Fig 13-14 501314

3 Lift the distance ring (28) to the shaft of the smaller intermedi-
ate gear, see Fig 13-15.

Note! The distance ring must be aligned so that the adjusting slot is against
the smaller intermediate gear, see Fig 13-15.

Smaller intermediate gear

28
A
2
A-A

A
1

Fig 13-15 501315

W46/W50DF 13 - 13
Camshaft driving gear 50-200526-04

4 Lift the bigger intermediate gear wheel (1) into position by


using the lifting device (836024) together with connection pieces
(836021) and (836023 or 836034), see Fig 13-16.
5 Slide the smaller gear wheel (2) against the bigger intermedi-
ate gear wheel (1), see Fig 13-15.

Note! Check that the assembly marks are as shown in Fig 13-12 or Fig 13-13.

Lifting the bigger intermediate gear wheel

836024

836023
(836034)
836021

Fig 13-16 501316

6 Clean the center stud (3) and lubricate the threads, see Fig
13-7.
7 Screw the center stud (3) in position and tighten it to stated
torque, see chapter 07.
8 Screw the nut (27) by hand against the end surface; check that
the nut is in the guide, see Fig 13-7.
Pretightening the center nut of the intermediate gear
9 Lift the hydraulic tool (861143) into position on the center stud
(3), see Fig 13-8.
10 Screw on the hydraulic tool (861143).

13 - 14 W46/W50DF
50-200526-04 Camshaft driving gear

11 Connect the hoses of the hydraulic pump (860170)


according to Fig 13-8 and open the pump valve.

Note! Some hydraulic pumps are to be used with a separate oil return
hose. Always follow the instructions delivered with the pump.

12 Keep on turning the hydraulic tool as long as it rotates.


13 Close the pump valve.
14 Pump to the pretightening pressure of 300 bar.
15 Tighten the nut (27) with the pin (861010).
16 Release the pressure slowly.
17 Check that the assembly marks are still as shown in Fig
13-12 (Inline engine) and Fig 13-13 (V-engine).
18 Check that there is no clearance between gear wheels (1 and
2) and distance ring (28), see Fig 13-15.

13.2.3.2 Mounting the camshaft gear


1 Lift the camshaft driving gear wheel (7) into position, see Fig
13-2, so that the marks on the wheel are in according with the side of the
engine block, see Fig 13-12 (In-line engine) and Fig 13-13 (V-engine).
2 Fit the camshaft end piece (10) by using the lifting tools
(836024) with connection piece (836017) and (836018), see Fig 13-4.
Note that the pin (9) is at the top position, see Fig 13-2. Tighten the
screws (20) to stated torque, see chapter 07.
3 Mount the bearing housing (18). If necessary use a hydraulic
jack or crane to lift the shaft while assembling the housing.
4 Fit the inner shaft plate (17) with the inner thrust bearing (33).
Fit the house plate (19) and tighten the screws (16) to stated torque,
see chapter 07.
5 Fit the outer thrust bearing (12) together with the outer shaft
plate (15) and tighten the screws (14) to stated torque, see chapter 07.
6 Remove the locking tool (834053) from the camshaft, see Fig
13-3, and mount the three nuts to the camshaft piece fastening studs.
7 Check the axial bearing clearance and backlash between
the gears (2) and (7). See to section 06.2.
8 Lock the screws (14) with locking wire and mount the cover (13).
9 Tighten the rocker arm bracket fastening screws, if loosened
and mount the covers, see chapter 14.
On Wrtsil 46 and Wrtsil 50DF engines:
10 Check the valve timing and fuel pump timing of one cylin-
der, see chapter 16., and compare to the checked values of the setting
table in engine test protocol. Readjust if necessary.

W46/W50DF 13 - 15
Camshaft driving gear 50-200526-04

On Wrtsil 46CR engines:


11 Check the valve timing of one cylinder and compare to the
tested values of the Setting Table in the Test Run Report docu-
ment. Readjust if necessary.
12 Tighten the nut (27) of the intermediate gears center stud (3) to
stated torque, see section 07.3.2, by using tightening tool (861143).
Tighten order is the same as previously described in this section.
13 Mount the inner thrust bearing (32) and the housing plate
(26), see Fig 13-7. Tighten the screw (25) to stated torque according
to chapter 07.
14 Mount the outer thrust bearing (5) together with the shaft
plate (24). Tighten the screws (23) to stated torque according to
chapter 07.
15 Check the axial clearance by moving the shaft. Record the
movement with a dial indicator. See to section 06.2.
16 Disconnect the hoses and remove the hydraulic tool
(861143).
17 Assemble the intermediate gear thrust bearing cover (22),
see Fig 13-7.
18 Mount the covers for the gearing and camshaft.

13 - 16 W46/W50DF
50-200526-04 Camshaft driving gear

13.3 Split gear wheel


The split gear is divided into two parts which are connected together with
connecting screws (30), and then to the crankshaft with screws (31).
If only the split gear wheel has to be changed, one half of the wheel
can be removed or mounted at a time.

Split gear wheel

31

30

Fig 13-17 501317

13.3.1 Split gear wheel maintenance

Whenever the opportunity occurs check the condition of gear, measure


the tooth backlash and the bearing clearances and refer to section 06.2.
Early detection of any tooth damage can prevent serious damage.

13.3.2 Removing the split gear wheel

Both the camshaft gear and intermediate gear are dismantled accord-
ing to section 13.2.2.

Note! Special tools are needed for this work. Please contact the engine
manufacturers service network.

1 Lower the bearing cap of main bearing No.1, see section


10.2.2.
2 Loosen the fastening screws (30).
3 Unscrew the axial screws (31).

W46/W50DF 13 - 17
Camshaft driving gear 50-200526-04

4 Unscrew the fastening screws (30) and remove the gear wheel
halves.

13.3.3 Mounting of the split gear wheel

1 Clean the parting surfaces of the wheel halves and the con-
tact faces of the gear wheel and the crankshaft.
2 Apply Loctite 242 to the threads of the screws (31) and (30),
and engine lubricating oil under the screw heads. Do not use
Molykote.
3 Mount the gear wheel halves on the crankshaft with the
parting face at right angles with the crank of cylinder No.1 and
fasten the screws (31) and (30) by hand.
4 Tighten the axial screws (31) to a torque of 10 Nm and check
that contact is established between the gear wheel and the crank-
shaft flange.
5 Tighten the fastening screws (30) to stated torque, see chapter
07. The screws closest to the crankshaft flange are to be tightened first.
6 Tighten the axial screws (31) to stated torque, see chapter 07.
7 Check the split gear wheel roundness. Place the cylindrical
pin in the toothcap as shown in Fig 13-18. Turn the engine and use
a dial indicator to get indications. Repeat the procedure and take
comparative indications from at least four different locations. The
difference between the four indications must be less than 0.09 mm.
8 Lift the bearing cap for main bearing No.1, see section 10.2.4.

Measuring split gear wheel

20

Fig 13-18 501318

13 - 18 W46/W50DF
50-200526-04 Camshaft driving gear

13.3.4 Removing only the split gear wheel

If you remove only the split gear wheel:


On Wrtsil 46 and Wrtsil 50DF engines:
1 Check the fuel pump timing of one cylinder, see section
16.3.6.
On Wrtsil 46CR engines:
2 Check the exhaust/inlet valve timing of one cylinder, see
section 14.2.4
3 Lower the bearing cap of the main bearing No.1, see section
10.2.2.
4 Turn the crankshaft so that the bolt heads of the fastening
screws (30) are downwards, see Fig 13-17.
5 Unscrew the fastening screws (30).
6 Unscrew the axial screws (31) of the lower half.
7 Remove the lower half of the split gear wheel.
8 Clean the parting surfaces of the wheel half and the contact
faces of the gear wheel and the crankshaft.
9 Apply Loctite 242 on the threads of the screws (31) and en-
gine lubricating oil under the screw heads. Do not use Molykote.
10 Mount the new gear wheel half on the crankshaft against
the old upper half and tighten the screws (30) to stated torque, see
chapter 07. Check with a feeler gage that the joint surfaces meet
properly.
11 Tighten the new half axial screws (31) to stated torque, see
chapter 07.
12 Remove the fastening screws (30).
13 Turn the crank of cylinder No. 1 carefully to TDC.
14 Unscrew the axial screws (31) of the other half.
15 Remove the other half of the split gear wheel.
16 Clean the parting surfaces of the wheel half and the contact
faces of the gear wheel and the crankshaft.
17 Apply Loctite 242 on the threads of the screws (30) and en-
gine lubricating oil under the screw heads. Do not use Molykote.
18 Mount the new gear wheel half to the crankshaft against
the upper half and tighten the screws (30) to stated torque, see
chapter 07. Check that the joint surfaces meet properly.
19 Apply Loctite 242 on the threads of the screws (31) and en-
gine lubricating oil under the screw heads. Do not use Molykote.

W46/W50DF 13 - 19
Camshaft driving gear 50-200526-04

20 Tighten the axial screws (31) of the new half to stated


torque, see chapter 07. Check that contact is established between
the gear wheel and the crankshaft flange.
21 Turn the crankshaft half a turn.
22 Check the split gear wheel roundness as mentioned in sec-
tion 13.3.3.
23 Lift the bearing cap of main bearing No.1 back to its place,
see section 10.2.4.
On Wrtsil 46 and Wrtsil 50DF engines:
24 Check that the fuel pump timing of the reference cylinder has
not changed. See step No. 1 of this section.
On Wrtsil 46CR engines:
25 Check that the exhaust/inlet valve timing of the reference
cylinder has not changed. See step No. 2 of this section.

13 - 20 W46/W50DF
50-200520-03 Valve mechanism and camshaft 14

14. Valve mechanism and camshaft

14.1 Valve mechanism


The valve mechanism operates the inlet and exhaust valves at the
required timing. The valve mechanism consists of piston type valve
tappets (11) moving within the engine block, tubular push rods (4) with
ball joints, nodular cast iron rocker arms (3) journalled on a rocker arm
bearing bracket (13), and a yoke (14) guided by a yoke pin, see Fig 14-1.
The valve tappets movement follows the cam profile and transfers
the movement through push rods to the rocker arms. The rocker arms
operate the inlet and exhaust valves through a yoke (14).
Lubrication for the rocker arms is supplied from the feed channel on
the engine block through pipe connections and drillings in both the
cylinder head and rocker arm bracket.
For the valve tappets, rollers and their shafts pressurised oil is fed from
the feed channel through drillings in the engine block, see Fig 14-4.
To compensate for heat expansion a clearance must exist between the
rocker arm and yoke. All adjustments are done on a cold engine, and
this work procedure is explained in chapter 12.

Valve mechanism

1 3

13
4
14
5

1. Screws
8
3. Rocker arms
11 4. Push rod
5. Protecting sleeves
12 8. Cover
11. Valve tappet
12. Shaft
13. Bracket
14. Yoke

Fig 14-1 501401

W46/W50DF 14 - 1
14 Valve mechanism and camshaft 50-200520-03

14.1.1 Maintenance of valve mechanism

The valve mechanism is inspected according to the maintenance


schedule in chapter 04. See chapter 06. for adjustments and wear
limits. However, whenever the opportunity exists, make a visual
inspection of the cams, rollers and tappets.
If the valve mechanism is dismantled, the components should be
marked and later assembled in the same position and cylinder as before
to avoid unnecessary wear.

14.1.2 Dismantling of valve mechanism

1 Remove the covers of the valve mechanism and camshaft


from the cylinder concerned.
2 Turn the crankshaft so that the valve tappet rollers in the
cylinder concerned are on the base circle of the cam and a clearance
exists between the rocker arm and yoke.
3 Secure the rocker arm bracket with crane by using a lifting
strap, see Fig 14-2 or by using a special tool (836031), see Fig 14-3.

Lifting rocker arm bracket

1. Screws
2. Locking screw
3. Rocker arm
7. Shaft
13. Rocker arm bracket
1 3 20. Bushing
20 2
13
7

Fig 14-2 501402

4 Open the screws (1) and lift the rocker arm bearing bracket
(13) from the cylinder head.
5 Remove the yokes (14), see Fig 14-1.

14 - 2 W46/W50DF
50-200520-03 Valve mechanism and camshaft 14

Securing rocker arm bracket by using tool (836031)

836031

Fig 14-3 501403

Note! Before dismantling, mark the parts so that they will be reinstalled
into their original positions.

6 Support the bracket by crane and open the locking screws


(2). Slide the brackets (13) out from the shaft (7) on both sides.
Remove the rocker arms (3) and the shaft, see Fig 14-2.
7 Remove the push rods (4) and the protecting sleeves (5) by
lifting up through the guide holes in cylinder head, see Fig 14-4.
8 Open the screws (9) and remove the cover (8).
9 Lift the valve tappet (11) out.
10 Push the spring loaded locking pin (6) down and pull the shaft
(12) out.

W46/W50DF 14 - 3
14 Valve mechanism and camshaft 50-200520-03

Valve tappet, roller and shaft

4. Push rod
5. Protect sleeve
6. Locking pin
4 8. Cover
9. Screw Section A:
18 10. Guiding pin 10
11. Valve tappet
5 12. Shaft
9 17. O-ring
18. O-ring
8
19. Ball head pin
17 26. Compression spring Oil
Oil
19 27. Bearing bush
28. Roller B
11
26
12
27
28
6

Fig 14-4 501404

14.1.3 Inspection of valve mechanism

1 Clean the rocker arm bearing bushing and the journal, then
measure for wear. When cleaning, pay special attention to the oil
holes. See chapter 06. for all clearances and wear limits.
2 Inspect the push rod (4) running surface for possible me-
chanical damage.
3 Clean and inspect all parts of the valve tappet and corre-
sponding bore in the engine block. When cleaning, pay special
attention to the oil holes.
4 Measure the bearing bush (27), shaft (12) and the roller (28)
for wear, see Fig 14-4.
5 Inspect the ball head pin (19) running surface for possible
mechanical damage.
6 Change the O-rings (17) and (18).

14 - 4 W46/W50DF
50-200520-03 Valve mechanism and camshaft 14

14.1.4 Assembling of valve mechanism

1 Lubricate the parts of the valve tappet with clean engine oil,
add Rustban 326 or similar grease to the tappet guiding surface
against the roller (B in Fig 14-4) and assemble.
2 Keep the roller (28) at correct level and slide the journal (12)
into position observing that the locking pin (6) secures to the
corresponding drilling in tappet body.
3 Insert the valve tappet (11) into the guide hole in the engine
block.
4 Mount the cover (8).
5 Grease the O-rings (17) and (18) properly. Insert the protect-
ing sleeves (5) and push rods (4) into position through the cylinder
head guide bores.
6 Mount the yoke. For adjusting the yokes see section 12.2.5.
7 Lubricate the rocker arm parts properly with clean engine oil.
8 Assemble the bushing (20) to the journal (7), see Fig 14-2.
9 Fit the rocker arms to the journal.
10 Slide the brackets and journal together and secure the jour-
nal with the locking screws (2).

Note! The journal has to be exactly at the right position to be able to fit the
screws.

11 Check for free movement of the rocker arms.


12 Mount the complete rocker arm bracket into position on the
cylinder head and tighten the screws (1) crosswise to stated torque,
see chapter 07.
13 Check and adjust the valve clearances according to section
12.2.5.

W46/W50DF 14 - 5
14 Valve mechanism and camshaft 50-200520-03

14.2 Camshaft

14.2.1 Description of camshaft

The camshaft is built up from one-cylinder camshaft pieces (1) and


separate bearing journals (2), see Fig 14-5. The fixing pins (4) on the
bearing journals order the position of the camshaft pieces, and the
bearing journals must be put back to the original places after
overhaul or replaced by a similar journal with same pin position
(identification number on each journal).

Camshaft

Fuel inject.
EX IN
2
1
4
9

3 7

Fig 14-5 501405

The drop forged camshaft pieces have integrated cams, the sliding
surfaces of which are case hardened. The bearing surfaces of the
journals are induction hardened. The camshaft is driven by the crank-
shaft through a gearing at the driving end of the engine.

14 - 6 W46/W50DF
50-200520-03 Valve mechanism and camshaft 14

Vibration damper

A: B:
10

8 8

5 5

10
C:

Fig 14-6 501406

5. Camshaft extension, 8. Cover for starting air distributor,


10. Vibration damper.

The camshaft can be equipped with a vibration damper to dampen the


torsional vibrations. See separate instructions for the vibration damper
in the Attachments file.
Two different types of vibration dampers are used, a spring type (B
in Fig 14-6) or a viscous type (C).
In some cases, depending of the installation, the camshaft is without
vibration damper (A in Fig 14-6)
A cam for operating the starting air distributor is equipped at the free
end of the camshaft extension (5).

W46/W50DF 14 - 7
14 Valve mechanism and camshaft 50-200520-03

At the driving end the camshaft has an axial bearing (6) and in some
installations a damper (10) intergrated to the driving gear of the
camshaft, see Fig 14-7.

Camshaft, axial bearing

10
6

Fig 14-7 501407

14.2.2 Maintenance of camshaft

The cams have to be inspected according to the maintenance schedule, see


chapter 04., but always whenever the opportunity exists, make a visual
inspection of the cams, tappets and rollers. A camshaft piece has to be
replaced if some mechanical damage has occurred. The camshaft bearing
bushing has to be replaced if the wear limit given in chapter 06. is exceeded.

14 - 8 W46/W50DF
50-200520-03 Valve mechanism and camshaft 14

14.2.3 Removing the camshaft piece

1 Remove the camshaft covers from the cylinders concerned.


2 Remove the cover (8), of the starting air distributor, see Fig
14-6.
3 Loosen the valve clearance adjusting screws and the rocker
arm brackets fastening screws of all cylinders in which the camshaft
is to be moved axially, see section 12.2.5.
4 Turn the camshaft so that you can lock the valve tappets
one by one to the uppermost position with locking bars (845013) and
for Wrtsil 46 and Wrtsil 50DF engines locking bar (845014),
see Fig 14-8 for In-line engine or Fig 14-9 for V-engine.
5 For Wrtsil 46CR engines, lift off all injection pumps at the
concerned camshaft

Caution! When the valve tappets is/are locked in the upper position the
rocker arm bracket(s)/push rods must be removed, otherwise when
cranking the engine the pistons will come in contact with the valves.

6 Open the nuts (3) and unscrew the flange connection studs (7)
from both ends of the camshaft piece, see Fig 14-5.
7 Assemble the special mounting devices (845030) for In-line
engine, see Fig 14-8 or (845020) for V-engine, see Fig 14-9. Fasten
the devices to engine frame with camshaft cover fastening nuts (21).
Adjust the flat bar (22) with screws (23) close to the camshaft piece.
8 It is also possible to use lifting tool (836024) with connection
piece (836029) to support the camshaft piece. For In-line engine see
Fig 14-10 and for V-engine see Fig 14-11.
9 Move the part of the camshaft locating towards the free end
of the engine a maximum of 35 mm by using a suitable lever.

Caution! Be careful that the rollers do not fall from the cams.

10 Disengage the camshaft piece from the centering and fixing


pins (4), see Fig 14-5, and remove it sideways on a In-line engine or
on a V-engine lower it sideways using screw (25), see Fig 14-9.

W46/W50DF 14 - 9
14 Valve mechanism and camshaft 50-200520-03

Removing the camshaft piece for In-line engine

845013 845014 845013 A

845030
22

21
23

Section A-A A

Fig 14-8 501408

Removing the camshaft piece for V-engine

845014 845013

Section A-A:
A
845013

845020

22

21
A
25 24 23

Fig 14-9 501409

14 - 10 W46/W50DF
50-200520-03 Valve mechanism and camshaft 14

14.2.4 Mounting the camshaft piece

1 Clean the flange connection surfaces and threaded holes


from oil and grease, see Fig 14-5.
2 Insert the fixing pins (4) with retainer rings (9), with the longer
part of the pin in the bearing journal.
3 Move the camshaft piece in position along the tool (845030)
for In-line engine, see Fig 14-8 or by using the screw (25) on the tool
(845020) for V-engine, see Fig 14-9.
4 It is also possible to use lifting tool (836024) with connection
piece (836029). For In-line engine see Fig 14-10 or for V-engine see
Fig 14-11.
5 Mount the camshaft piece (1) on the fixing pin, see Fig 14-5.
After centering it at either end, press together the camshaft using
three assembly screws at both ends of the camshaft piece.
6 Fasten the studs (7) by hand and tighten the nuts (3) by using
the torque wrench (820009), see Fig 14-5. Tighten to stated torque
according to chapter 07.

W46/W50DF 14 - 11
14 Valve mechanism and camshaft 50-200520-03

Mounting of camshaft piece, In-line engine

836024

836029

View A

Fig 14-10 501410

Mounting of camshaft piece, V-engine

836024

836029

Fig 14-11 501411

14 - 12 W46/W50DF
50-200520-03 Valve mechanism and camshaft 14

7 Check the tappet rollers carefully. Even slightly damaged


rollers have to be changed.
8 Turn the camshaft and remove the locking bars one by one
when there is a contact between the roller and the cam.
9 Mount the cover (8) of the starting air distributor.
10 Tighten all the loosened fastening screws of the rocker arm
brackets, see chapter 07.
11 Check the valve clearances on the cylinder concerned and
on all cylinders towards the free end, see section 12.2.5.
On Wrtsil 46 and Wrtsil 50DF engines:
12 Check the fuel pump timing on the cylinder concerned ac-
cording to chapter 16. and on the next cylinder towards the free end.
If any corrections have to be done on the next cylinder, all the other
pumps on the concerned camshaft have to be checked as well.
On Wrtsil 46CR engines:
13 Check the exhaust/inlet valve timing on the cylinder con-
cerned and on the next cylinder towards the free end. Compare the
values in the Test Protocol to the scale of the flywheel when the
exhaust/inlet valves begins to open.

W46/W50DF 14 - 13
14 Valve mechanism and camshaft 50-200520-03

14.2.5 Vibration damper

The camshaft can be equipped with a vibration damper to dampen the


torsional vibrations which are excited by the engine.
Two different types of vibration dampers are used, a viscous damper, see
section 14.2.5.1, or a spring type vibration damper, see section 14.2.6.1.

Note! See separate instructions for the vibration damper in the Attachments
file.

14.2.5.1 Viscous vibration damper

Vibration damper, viscous type

3
2 1

6
Detail A

Fig 14-12 501412

See detail A on Fig 14-13.


The damper is bolted on the free end of the camshaft and follows its
torsional vibrations. It consists of a totally enclosed housing (1) with cover
(2), see Fig 14-12, and inertia ring (3). The inertia ring is located radially
and axially in the housing by plain bearings (4). Gaps (5) between the
housing and the ring are filled with a high viscosity silicone fluid.
As soon as vibration amplitudes occur, relative movement takes place
between the housing (primary mass) and the inertia ring (secondary
mass) and shares stresses in the silicone film. Due to the different
stresses in operating conditions it is impossible to give a general guide
as to when the dampers should be replaced. The proper function of the
damper can be checked at regular intervals, see chapter 04., by meas-
uring the viscosity of the silicon fluid inside the damper. Two draining
plugs (6) provide the means of testing the silicone fluid without having
to dismantle the damper.

14 - 14 W46/W50DF
50-200520-03 Valve mechanism and camshaft 14

14.2.6 Taking a silicon oil sample

Fluid samples may be taken from dampers equipped with draining


plugs (6). Usually two of these are positioned diametrically oppisite to
each other in the damper cover.
It is recommended that the damper is rotated until the two plugs are
approximately horizontal and that the damper remains in this position
for a minimum period of one or two hour before the sampling procedure
begins.
A silicon oil sample should be extracted as follows:
1 After engine stops let the damper cool down to nearly 40C.
2 Rotate the damper to bring one of the draining plugs (6) to
optimum position, see Fig 14-12.
3 Remove the cap nut (8) from the end of the sample container
(7) to be inserted in the damper, see Fig 14-13. There is a various types
of sample containers.

Taking a silicon oil sample

Detail A

8
6 10

11
9

Fig 14-13 501413

4 Unscrew and remove the draining plug (6) and replace it by


the sample container (7). If meeting at the inertia ring (9) unscrew
the container one revolution.
5 Remove the second cap nut (8) from the sample container
and wait until silicon fluid (10) reach the open end of the container.
This may occur within minutes or over an hour dependent upon fluid
condition and other factors. If possible it can be speeded up by means
of:
1. Turning the damper until the sample container is underneath
the shaft.
2. Temporarily removing the second drain plug.

W46/W50DF 14 - 15
14 Valve mechanism and camshaft 50-200520-03

6 As soon as the silicon fluid begins to flow from the open end,
shut the sample container by the cap nut (8). Do not use spanners.
7 Mount the second draining plug hand tight with new sealing
washer (11).
8 Remove the container from the damper casing, wipe off the
sealing face round the draining hole and screw in the plug (6) hand
tight together with new sealing washer (11). Close the second side
of the container.
9 Tighten both draining plugs (6) by turning them further for
45, about 20Nm torque.
10 Seal both plugs by using a punch to disturb cover material
into the slot of the plugs.
11 Send the sample container with information of the damper
type, number, engine and operation data to the damper manufac-
turer for analysis.
The quantity of silicone oil removed is so small that up to 10 such
samples of 1 cm3 can be taken without risk.

14 - 16 W46/W50DF
50-200520-03 Valve mechanism and camshaft 14

14.2.6.1 Spring type vibration damper

Vibration damper, spring type

A
3
2 4
5 2

A
A-A

Fig 14-14 501414

The inner part (1) of the damper is bolted on the free end of the camshaft
and follows its torsional vibrations, see Fig 14-14. The outer part
consists of spring packs (2), spacers (3), a clamping ring (4) and side
plates (5). The springs are clamped at their outer end by the spacers
and their inner ends mesh with grooves of the inner part. The cavities
between spring packs and spacers are filled with oil which comes
through the camshaft drillings.
Due to torsional vibrations the inner member will twist against the
outer part, the springs will deflected, one cavity will reduce and one
will enlarge and the oil will flow through the narrow gap between inner
and outer part, generating the hydro dynamic friction and therefore
damping the vibrations.

Note! See separate instructions for the vibration damper in the Attachments
file.

W46/W50DF 14 - 17
14 Valve mechanism and camshaft 50-200520-03

14.2.7 Elastical coupling

The camshaft of the engine can be equipped with an elastical coupling


to dampen the torsional vibrations which are excited by the engine and
fuel pumps.

Elastical coupling

C A
6 6
5
3
1
B

B
3
4
C 2
A
A-A
C-C

Fig 14-15 501415

The elastical coupling is bolted on the camshaft gear (6) and the inner
part (1) is a part of camshaft so it follows camshaft torsional vibrations,
see Fig 14-15. The outer part consists of spring packs (2), spacers (3),
a clamping ring (4) and side plate (5). The springs are clamped at their
outer end by the spacers and their inner ends mesh with the grooves
of the inner part. The cavities between spring packs and spacers are
filled with oil which comes through the camshaft drillings.
Due to torsional vibrations the inner member will twist against the
outer part, the springs will deflected, one cavity will reduce and one
will enlarge and the oil will flow through the narrow gab between inner
and outer part, generating the hydrodynamic friction and therefore
damping the vibrations.

Note! See separate instructions for the elastical coupling in the Attachments
file.

14 - 18 W46/W50DF
50-200506-12 Turbocharging and air cooling 15

15. Turbocharging and air cooling

15.1 General description, Turbocharging and


Air cooling
The engine is equipped with a turbocharger and an air coolers situated
either in the free end or in the driving end of the engine.
The turbocharger turbine (2) is driven by exhaust gases. Ambient air
is compressed by the compressor (1) and forwarded to the charge air
inter cooler (3), LT2-cooler (5), the condense collector (also referred to
as water mist catcher) (6) and the charge air receiver (4), see (Fig 15-1).

Turbocharger and charge air cooler

3 2 1

5 6

Fig 15-1 5015010505

1. Compressor, 2. Turbine, 3. Charge air cooler, 4. Air receiver,


5. LT2-cooler, 6. Condense collector ( = water mist catcher )

TPL 15 - 1
15 Turbocharging and air cooling 50-200506-12

15.2 Turbocharger

15.2.1 General description, TPL-turbocharger

The turbocharger is of axial turbine type.


It is mechanically independent of the engine to which it is applied, but
the lubricating system forms part of the engine lubricating oil system.
The turbocharger is equipped with cleaning devices to clean the turbine
and compressor by water injection.
Speed is measured by a pick up installed on the compressor side.

15.2.2 Turbocharger maintenance

Normal overhauls can be carried out without removing the turbo-


charger from its place.
When dismantling, drain first the lubricating oil system of the turbo-
charger, remove the protecting covers and disconnect the oil, air and
exhaust connections.
When reassembling, take care that all seals are intact as well as that
the orifices at the compressor cleaning water inlet and lube oil inlet are
in place. High temperature resistant lubricants are used for exhaust
pipe screws.
Maintenance of the turbocharger is carried out according to following
instructions and the instructions of the turbocharger manufacturer. It
is recommended to use the service network of the engine manufacturer
or the turbocharger manufacturer.
See also chapter 00A.Risk Reduction and chapter 02A.Environ-
mental Hazards.

Note! Wear protective clothing (protective suit, gloves, protective shoes,


ear protection, protective glasses).

15 - 2 TPL
50-200506-12 Turbocharging and air cooling 15

15.3 Water cleaning of turbine during operation

15.3.1 General description, Water cleaning of turbine


during operation

Practical experience shows that the formation of dirt deposits on the


turbine side can be reduced by periodical cleaning during operation.
By the same the overhaul periods can be lenghtened. Dirty turbines
cause higher exhaust gas temperatures and higher stresses of the
bearings due to imbalances. Usually, though, washing of the turbine
side is necessary only when running on heavy fuel.

Note! No need to carry out the water cleaning of turbine on gas mode.

During an extended period of operation, periodical cleaning prevents


the build-up of significant deposits on the turbine blades and nozzle
ring vanes. This cleaning method does not work on very dirty turbines
which have not been washed regularly when put into operation or after
revisions.
Water must be injected into the exhaust system with the engine
running at suitable output. (See section 15.3.3) The disadvantages of
adjusting the output occasionally are not significant compared with the
advantages of cleaning.
The necessary water flow is basically dependent on the volume of gas
and its temperature. The flow should be adjusted so that all of the water
is evaporated and escapes through the exhaust. Additives or solvents
must not be used in the cleaning water.

Caution! The use of salt water is prohibited.

The turbine washing intervals are stated in the Maintenance Schedule


in chapter 04, section 04.2.

TPL 15 - 3
15 Turbocharging and air cooling 50-200506-12

15.3.2 Cleaning device for turbine and compressor

The engine is equipped with permanent pipings for turbine (42) and
compressor (52) cleaning (Fig 15-2).
An electrical control unit (48) controls the cleaning procedure (Fig
15-3). The cleaning parameters (number of water injections, injection
time, interval between the injections etc.) can be set with a terminal.
All cleaning (turbine washing, turbine thermal shock cleaning, com-
pressor cleaning) can be inactivated by jumpers in the terminal box.

TC cleaning device

42

VU

52

PIU

Fig 15-2 5015020505

42. Pipe for turbine cleaning, 52. Pipe for compressor cleaning,
PIU. Pressure increase unit, VU. Valve unit

15 - 4 TPL
50-200506-12 Turbocharging and air cooling 15

Electrical control unit of the pressure increase unit

48

F15Z 0004_02EN

Fig 15-3 461504020139

48. Control unit

15.3.3 Cleaning procedure, turbine side washing (TSW)

1 Record the engine and turbocharger parameters (engine


load, charge air pressure, TC speed, exhaust gas temperature before
and after turbine) about one hour before water cleaning for later use
to assess efficiency of the cleaning.
2 Reduce the engine load to approx. 15% corresponding to a
maximum exhaust gas temperature at turbine inlet <430C.

Note! If cleaning is tried outside this temperature range, the signal lamps
flash for 15 seconds.

3 Wait for 15 minutes until the turbine material temperatures


have stabilised on the lower level.

Caution! If the washing is started earlier than after 15 minutes on stable load
as above, this may have negative consequences for the turbo-
charger.

TPL 15 - 5
15 Turbocharging and air cooling 50-200506-12

4 Open air supply valve (17) and water supply valve (2) to
the pressure increase unit (PIU), see Fig 15-4.
5 Open the shut off valve (6) between the pressure increase unit
(PIU) and valve unit (VU) on the concerned engine (E1...E4).
6 Set the Engine/TC-selector switch on the control unit (48), see
Fig 15-3, to the desired engine.
7 Start washing by pressing the Turbine Washing-button on the
control unit (48), see Fig 15-3. The entire washing cycle takes
approx. 10 minutes. The signal lamp is lit throughout and flashing
during the water injection.
8 Check wheter the pressure gauge (8) of the pressure in-
crease unit indicates a pressure of 2.0 (0.2) bar during the water
injection. If the pressure is outside the range, it must be corrected
by turning the regulating valve (3).
9 On completion, close the air valve (17) and the water supply
valves (2) and (6) both to the pressure increasing unit and to the
valve unit.
10 The engine load is to be increased slowly to normal opera-
tion and must be run for least another 15 minutes.
11 Repeat the readings made before the water cleaning procedure.

Cleaning device system

17.

PIU 11.

12. E4
E3
E2

E1
VU
6.
2. 3. 8.

Fig 15-4 461518010451

2. Water supply valve, 3. Regulating valve, 6. Shut off valve, 8. Pressure


gauge, 11. Control unit, 12. Pressure tank, 17. Air valve

15 - 6 TPL
50-200506-12 Turbocharging and air cooling 15

15.3.4 Turbine side thermal shock cleaning (TSTH)

1 Record the engine and turbocharger parameters (engine


load, charge air pressure, TC speed, exhaust gas temperature before
and after turbine) about one hour before water cleaning for later use
to assess efficiency of the cleaning.
2 Reduce the engine load to approx. 30% corresponding to a
maximum exhaust gas temperature at turbine inlet <500C
(430-500C).

Note! If cleaning is tried outside this temperature range, the signal lamps
flash for 15 seconds.

3 Wait for 15 minutes until the turbine material temperatures


have stabilised on the lower level.

Caution! If the washing is started earlier than after 15 minutes on stable load
as above, this may have negative consequences for the turbo-
charger.

4 Open air supply valve (17) and water supply valve (2) to
the pressure increase unit (PIU), see Fig 15-4.
5 Open the shut off valve (6) between the pressure increase unit
(PIU) and valve unit (VU) on the concerned engine (E1...E4).
6 Set the Engine/TC-selector switch on the control unit (48), see
Fig 15-3, to the desired engine.
7 Start cleaning by pressing the Turbine Thermal Shock Clean-
ing-button on the control unit (48), see Fig 15-3. The entire cleaning
cycle takes approx. 10 minutes. The signal lamp is lit throughout
and flashing during the water injection.
8 After cleaning, close the air supply valve (17) and the water
supply valves (2) and (6) both to the pressure increasing unit and
to the valve unit.
9 Slowly return to engine normal operation. After cleaning the
engine must run for at least another 15 minutes.
10 Repeat the readings made before the water cleaning proce-
dure.

Note! Main key switch of the pressure increase unit (PIU) is always to be
kept ON position for the air blow out function at every five hours.

TPL 15 - 7
15 Turbocharging and air cooling 50-200506-12

Caution! In the event of engine stoppage during any of the cleaning proc-
esses, the cleaning should be interrupted by pressing the Emer-
gency Stop switch.

15.4 Water cleaning of compressor during op-


eration
By spraying water into the compressor, this can be cleaned while in
operation. The cleaning effect is good as long as the deposit formation
has not gone too far. If, however, a very thick hardened crust of dirt
has formed, the compressor will have to be dismantled for cleaning.
By this method water is not acting as a solvent but instead removes
the deposits mechanically by the impact of the water droplets. It is
therefore recommended to use clean water without any additives. The
cleaning water should not contain any cooling water agents which
might remain on the compressor.

Caution! The use of salt water is prohibited.

Regular cleaning of the compressor prevents or delays excessive contami-


nation, but in no way replaces the usual overhauls where the turbocharger
is completely dismantled. (See the Turbocharger Instruction Manual.)
Cleaning is performed using the equipment described in section 15.3.
Water cleaning of compressor should be done daily, when the turbo-
charger is in use. The comressor washing intervals are stated in the
Maintenance Schedule in chapter 04, section 04.2.

15.4.1 Cleaning procedure, compressor cleaning

1 Record the engine and turbocharger parameters (engine


load, charge air pressure, TC speed, exhaust gas temperature before
and after turbine) about one hour before water cleaning for later use
to assess efficiency of the cleaning.
2 Check the engine load. It should be as high as possible, how-
ever at least >50%.
3 Set the Engine/TC-selector switch on the control unit (48), see
Fig 15-3, to the desired engine.
4 Open air supply valve (17) and water supply valve (2) to
the pressure increase unit (PIU), see Fig 15-4.
5 Open the shut off valve (6) between the pressure increase unit
(PIU) and valve unit (VU) on the concerned engine (E1...E4).

15 - 8 TPL
50-200506-12 Turbocharging and air cooling 15

6 Press the Compressor Cleaning-button on the control unit (48),


see Fig 15-3. The entire cleaning cycle takes approx. 1 minute. The
signal lamp is lit throughout and flashing during the water injection.
7 After cleaning, close the air supply valve (17) and the water
supply valves (2) and (6) both to the pressure increasing unit and
to the valve unit.
8 Repeat the readings made before the water cleaning procedure.

15.5 Allowable operation with damaged turbo-


charger
In case of a serious breakdown of the turbocharger, a blanking device
(the preferred option) or a rotor locking device can be fitted according
to the instructions in the Turbocharger Manual. The WRTSIL
engines can in an emergency situation like this operate temporarily at
20% output. The thermal overload is a limiting factor on the diesel
engine, therefore the exhaust gas temperatures must be carefully
watched during operation.
The exhaust gas temperature after the cylinder must not exceed 500C.
(See also Chapter 08).

TPL 15 - 9
15 Turbocharging and air cooling 50-200506-12

15.6 Charge air cooler


The engine is equipped with a charge air intercooler to cool down the
compressed and heated air after the turbocharger. The insert type
charge air coolers are mounted in a welded housing (40), see Fig 15-5.
The housing is mounted to the engine block with screws.
As a standard a 2-stage charge air cooler is used where the charge air
temperature is kept on the right level by regulating the HT- and LT-
or merely the LT-cooling water flow through the central cooler.
The charge air cooler can also be build as 3-stage cooler, where the third
stage (LT2) needs always max. 35C cooling.

Charge air cooler

7.

1.
5.
8.

6.

9. 2.

4. 40 3.

Fig 15-5 5015050505

1. Charge air cooler, 2. HT in, 3. HT out, 4. LT out, 5. LT in, 6. Air to


receiver,7. Air in, 8. LT2 in, 9. LT2 out, 40. Welded housing.

15 - 10 TPL
50-200506-12 Turbocharging and air cooling 15

15.6.1 Maintenance of charge air cooler

1 The air cooler is provided with condense collector (=water


mist catcher) (45) located after the cooler inserts. See the principle
in (Fig 15-6).
2 Condensate from the air is drained through a drainer (46),
(Fig 15-6) under the cooler housing after the inserts. Examine
regularly that the pipe is open.

Note! If water keeps on dripping or flowing from the draining hole for a
longer period (unless running all the time in conditions with very high
humidity) the cooler insert may be leaking and must be dismantled
and pressure tested.

3 At longer stops, the cooler should be either completely filled or


completely empty, as a half-filled cooler increases the risk of corro-
sion. If there is a risk of the water level in the system decreasing when
the engine is stopped, drain the cooler completely.
4 Clean and pressure test the cooler at intervals according to
Chapter 04., or if the air temperature in the charge air receiver
cannot be held within stipulated values at full load. For pressure
drop values see section 06.3 in chapter 06.
5 Always check for corrosion when cleaning. The charge air
inter cooler is to be cleaned, if the pressure drop over the cooler on
the air side exceeds 1.5 times that of a new condition or if the water
temperature on the LT- side or HT- side increases from normal.

Water Separators

1 48
45

48
2

46

Fig 15-6 5015060505

1. Air coolers, 2. Air Flow, 45. Condense collector ( = water mist catcher),
46. Drainer, 48. Screw.

TPL 15 - 11
15 Turbocharging and air cooling 50-200506-12

15.6.2 Cleaning the charge air cooler

Before starting the cleaning of the charge air cooler, the water must be
drained from the charge air cooler and pipes. If there is a drain tank,
the engines and coolers can be drained for maintenance so that the
water and cooling water treatment can be collected and reused.
Most of the cooling water in the engine can be recovered from the HT-circuit,
wheras the amount of water in the LT-circuit on the engine is small.

Note! Wear protective clothing (protective suit, gloves, protective shoes,


ear protection, protective glasses).

Cleaning the charge air cooler

13

16

14 15

16

12

Fig 15-7 5015070505

12. Drain, 13. Venting, 14. HT-pipes, 15. LT-pipes, 16. LT2-pipes.

1 Drain water from the air cooler LT / HT side and LT2 cooler
by opening the drain connections (12) and the venting connections
(13). See Fig 15-7.
2 Remove the LT2 cooling water pipes (16) from the cooler as
well as the temperature sensor and the pipe to the pressure sensor.
3 Remove the HT and LT cooling water pipes (14 and 15)
from the cooler as well as the temperature sensors and the pressure
sensors. (Fig 15-7).
4 Open the supporting screws (28) and (29), see Fig 15-8.

15 - 12 TPL
50-200506-12 Turbocharging and air cooling 15

5 Open all the air cooler fastening screws (27), see Fig 15-8.
6 Fit the tool (846053) and fasten it with connections screws (43).
Note that the support tool arrangement of the tool depends upon the
installation and may be different from the one shown in Fig 15-8).
7 Pull out the air cooler horizontally (by using a block and a
tackle). When the cooler is outside of the cooler housing it can be
removed by truck or by crane using the lifting yokes (47) of the
cooler.
8 Remove the LT2 water cooler

Charge air cooler

28

44
43

27

47 29 846053

Fig 15-8 5015080505

27. Screw, 28. Screw, 29. Screw, 43. Screw, 44. Sealing bar, 47. Lifting
yoke, 846053. Tool.

9 Remove the condense collector (=water mist catcher) insert


by opening the screws (48), see Fig 15-6.
10 Clean the air side according to cooler manufacturers instruc-
tions.

Caution! Use of a high pressure water cleaning device may cause damage
to the fins, which will result in an increased pressure drop over the
cooler.

TPL 15 - 13
15 Turbocharging and air cooling 50-200506-12

Cleaning the water side:


11 Remove the cover (30) for the nozzle header and the end
cover (31) for the return header to make the water side accessible
(Fig 15-9).

Covers, Charge Air Cooler

A B
30 30

32 32

33 33

31 31

Fig 15-9 5015090505

30. Nozzle header cover, 31. Return header cover, 32. Gasket, 33. Gasket.

12 Clean the water side Regular cleaning is necessary. The clean-


ing intervals depend on the cooling water used. Cleaning of the water
side is not only required to maintain the thermal performance of the
cooler, but also to prevent scaling and corrosion. Scaling increases the
risk of pitting corrosion and obstacles partly blocking the tubes lead to
erosion.

Note! Wear protective clothing (protective suit, gloves, protective shoes,


ear protection, protective glasses).

Mechanical cleaning:
Mechanical cleaning is done by use of nylon brushes fitted to a rod. The
length of the rod corresponds to the tube length of the cooler in question
and the type of brush is chosen in accordance to the finned tube type.
Mechanical cleaning can be done on site or with the cooler removed. Check
the gaskets (32) and (33) and replace if necessary (Fig 15-9).

15 - 14 TPL
50-200506-12 Turbocharging and air cooling 15

Hydraulic cleaning:
Hydraulic cleaning is carried out with the cooler removed using a high
pressure spray gun to remove dirt deposits inside the tubes. It is recom-
mended that the size of the spray gun nozzle is 3 mm.
Chemical cleaning:
Chemical cleaning is recommended, when the cooler is removed. The tube
bundle is immersed into a chemical cleaning bath. Time of immersion is
a function of the degree of fouling. When the cleaning is complete, the cooler
is to be flushed by applying a powerful water jet. If the result is still not
satisfying, cleaning should be repeated.
13 Reassemble the 2-stage cooler, LT2-cooler and condense
collector (=water mist catcher) insert . Clean the sealing surfaces
of the coolers and the housing.
14 Spread Wacker Elastosil RTV-1 E 14 sealing compound or
similar on the sealing surfaces.
15 Mount the condense collector (=water mist catcher) insert.
16 Lift the 2-stage cooler and LT2-cooler back to their places.
17 Pull the coolers into the welded housing (40) (by using a
block and a tackle), be careful not to move the steel sealing bars (44),
see Fig 15-8.
18 Fit and tighten the air cooler fastening screws (27), see Fig
15-8.
19 Tighten the supporting screws (28) lightly against the air
cooler and lock with nuts, see Fig 15-8.
20 Tighten the supporting screws (29) to a torque of 20 Nm and
lock with nuts.
21 Remove the tool (846053)
22 Reassemble the HT and LT cooling water pipes (14) and (15),
see Fig 15-7.
23 Reassemble the LT2 cooling water pipes (16), see Fig 15-7.
24 Connect the temperatue sensors and pressure sensors.
25 Reassemble the air vent pipes (13) and drain connections (12).
26 Fill the system with water, check for possible leaks.

TPL 15 - 15
15 Turbocharging and air cooling 50-200506-12

15 - 16 TPL
50-200509 Turbocharging and Air Cooling Appendix M

15.M. Exhaust Gas Wastegate

15.M.1 Description
A reliable and safe perfomance of the engine requires a correct air-fuel
ratio during all kind of site conditions. If the air-gas mixture becomes
too lean, misfire will occur and if the air-gas mixture becomes too rich,
knocking will occur.
To mantain a correct air-fuel ratio, the engine is equipped with an
exhaust gas wastegate valve that keeps the air pressure in the reciever
at an optimal level all over the power output range. The exhaust gas
wastegate valve is by-passing the exhaust gases past the turbocharger.
The wastegate valve is working as a regulator and adjusts the air-fuel
ratio to the correct value regardless of varying site conditions (ambient
temperature, humidity, etc).
The exhaust gas wastegate system is built on the engine and consists
of an actuator (1) connected to the butterfly valve (2) which controls the
exhaust by-pass flow via pipes (4) and (5) to the distance piece (3) as
much as required to get the correct air-fuel ratio according to the
preprogrammed values.

Exhaust Gas Wastegate System

4 2

1 5

Fig 15M-1 5015m01

1. Actuator, 2. Butterfly valve, 3. Distance piece, 4. Exhaust pipe,


5. Exhaust pipe.

46/50DF 15M - 1
Appendix M Turbocharging and Air Cooling 50-200509

15.M.2 Function
The wastegate control system gets compressed air from the instrument
air system. The pressure is approx. 6 - 7 bar. The instrument air needs to
be clean, dry and oil free to secure troublefree function of the components.
See also chapter 21.
The wastegate system works as follows:
When the engine is running, instrument air is supplied to the I/P converter
(8) and to the positioner (9) in the actuator unit (1), see Fig 15M-2.
The I/P converter maintains a 0.2 - 1.0 bar control air pressure to the
positioner according to the incoming 4 - 20mA control signal from the
controll system. The 4 - 20mA current is based on the load dependent
charge air pressure, measured with the analogue pressure sensor
PT601.
The positioner pilot valve (11), see Fig 15M-3, maintains the actuator (1)
with air pressure according to the control air pressure from the I/P converter.
The engine control system (WECS) is monitoring the air pressure in
the receiver. If the pressure is lower than the set-point, the engine
control system will close the wastegate gradually, until the correct
value is reached.
The control logic is carried out in the engine control system and no
external regulators are required

Wastegate control system

24. 1.

2 BA
SIGNAL 9.
SUPPLY

8.

8
9
6.

311

Fig 15M-2 5015m02

1. Actuator, 2. Butterfly valve, 6. Valve, 8. I/P converter, 9. Positioner,


24. Power cylinder.

15M - 2 46/50DF
50-200509 Turbocharging and Air Cooling Appendix M

15.M.3 Maintenance

15.M.3.1 Check of wear of the wastegate system

The systems requires a regular check of the wear and the function.
1 Check for wear of the key connection between the actuator
and the positioner.
2 Check for possible wear inside actuator by moving the
shaft.

15.M.3.2 Change of positioner pilot valve

The pilot valve (11) in the positioner should be replaced with a new one
according to chapter 04 or in case of malfunction.
1 Remove the cover of the positioner and the pilot valve screws
(12), see Fig 15M-3.
2 Pay attention to the pilot valve stem and the lever (13), re-
move the pilot valve carefully.
3 Replace the pilot valve (11) with a new one and re-assemble
the positioner in the opposite order.
4 Adjust the wastegate positioner, see section 15.M.4.
5 Calibrate the wastegate I/P converter, see section 15.M.5.
6 Check the function of the valve by following the positioners
movement when the engine is re-started and runs on load.

Wastegate positioner

Control air from I/P converter Control air


0,2 - 1,0 bar 6 - 8 bar 13

11. Positioner pilot valve


12. Screw 11
13. Lever
14. Cam
15. Screw
16
16. Screw
17. Adjusting screw Connections
15
18. Adjusting screw to and from
19. Ball bearing the actuator
18

14

12
17
19

Fig 15M-3 3215100

46/50DF 15M - 3
Appendix M Turbocharging and Air Cooling 50-200509

15.M.4 Adjustment of wastegate positioner


Remove the cover and the yellow indicator. Make sure the cam (14),
see Fig 15M-5, is in zero position when the actuator is closed (S-position),
see Fig 15M-4.
1 To adjust the zero position of the cam disc, loosen the screws
(15) and (16) about 1 turn, see Fig 15M-3. The cam disc will now go
to zero position.
2 Tighten the screws (15) and (16).
3 Calibrate the wastegate I/P converter, see section 15.M.5.
4 Mount the yellow indicator and the cover. Indicator reading
on the cover should be the same as on the cam scale (14).

Actuator position

OPEN

SHUT

Fig 15M-4 3215106

Cam position

Zero position
0
30 15
45

60
75
90

Fig 15M-5 5015M04

15M - 4 46/50DF
50-200509 Turbocharging and Air Cooling Appendix M

15.M.5 Calibrating the wastegate I/P converter


Before starting calibration of the wastegate I/P converter (two different
types are used Fig 15M-6 or Fig 15M-7), the wastegate positioner must
first be adjusted. See section 15.M.4.
The calibration can be done in the following ways:
Using the software service tool WECSplorer (only for WECS
8000). Contact nearest network office for more information and
instructions.
Using a mA calibrator.

15.M.5.1 Manually with mA calibrator (WECS 8000)

For the calibration a 4-20 mA current calibrator is needed. Wrtsil


spare part no. 800 119 and 800 120.
1 The engine must be stopped.
2 Ensure that the instrument air is open during the whole cali-
bration procedure.
3 Connect the mA calibrator to the I/P converter. See Fig
15M-6 or Fig 15M-7.
4 Set the mA to equal 30 degrees on the cam (14). See table 1
below.
5 Adjust the zero adjustment screw (23) on the I/P converter
(marked with Z on the coverter) so that wastegate has 30 degrees
on the cam (14).
6 Set the mA to equal 60 degrees on the cam (14). See table 1
below.
7 Adjust the range adjustment screw (22) (marked with R or S
on the converter) until the wastegate has 60 degrees on the cam (14).
8 Repeat steps 4-7 above until it shows correct values.
9 Check the whole range according to the table 1. If 4mA
does not equal 0 degrees, adjust with the zero adjustment screw (23).

Table 1.

Degrees [] Current (mA)


0 4,0
15 6,4
30 8,8
45 11,2
60 13,6
75 16,0
90 18,4

46/50DF 15M - 5
Appendix M Turbocharging and Air Cooling 50-200509

Wastegate I/P converter

22
R
23
Z

IN OUT

Fig 15M-6 5015m05

22. Range adjustment screw, 23. Zero adjustment screw.

Wastegate I/P converter

mA - 3 mA +
- 2 1 +

Z S

23 22

OUT IN

Fig 15M-7 5015m06

22. Range adjustment screw, 23. Zero adjustment screw.

15M - 6 46/50DF
50-200538-13 Injection System 16

16. Injection system

16.1 General
The Wrtsil 50DF is a pilot fuel ignited lean-burn gas engine with
instant switch-over capability to back-up fuel. There are two operating
modes, gas mode and diesel mode. In gas mode low pressure gas is
mixed with the combustion air in the air inlet channel in the cylinder
head, the mixture is compressed in the cylinder during compression
stroke and ignition is initiated with a small amount of pilot fuel injected
into the combustion chamber. In diesel mode the diesel fuel is injected
into the cylinder at the end of the compression stroke by means of the
injection pump. In diesel mode there is no gas mixed with the air, but
pilot fuel is injected as well as main diesel fuel to prevent pilot nozzle
orifices to clog.
Only LFO is allowed as pilot fuel as well as back-up fuel. If HFO is
to be used, the injection valves must be replaced with one-needle type
injection valves made for this purpose, and the pilot fuel pump must
be taken off and disconnected from the fuel lines.

16.2 Description
This chapter deals with the high pressure side of the fuel system
including injection pump, high pressure pipe, injection valve as well as
the pilot fuel system.
The injection pumps are one-cylinder pumps with built-in roller
tappets. The element is of mono type. The drain fuel is led to a pipe
system with atmospheric pressure outside the pump, or back to the low
pressure circuit of the injection pump. Each injection pump is equipped
with an emergency stop cylinder, which is coupled to an electro-pneu-
matic overspeed protecting system.
The injection line from the injection pump consists of an injection pipe
and a connection piece attached sideways into the nozzle holder at a
conical inlet port.
The pilot fuel system is a common rail system fed by a pump directly
driven by the pump gear at the driving end of the crankshaft. A
connection piece is mounted to each cylinder head connecting the one
per cylinder rail pipes. From the connection piece the fuel is fed through
a connection pipe to the injection valve.
The injection valve is a two-needle type combined pilot and main
diesel fuel injection valve, where the pilot injection is electronically
controlled. The nozzle holder consists of a top body and a lower body,
which contain the rods, springs, control valve and solenoid.

W50DF 16 - 1
16 Injection System 50-200538-13

16.3 Fuel injection pump


Fuel injection pump connections

1.Main injection pipe 3, 9 4 1


3. Screw
4. Leak fuel connection
5. Lubricating oil pipe 56
6. Air connection
8. Nut 57
9. O-ring
10. O-ring 6
5
4 8
56. Fuel in
57. Fuel out
58. Leak from injection pipe
59. Leak from injection pump 10

58
10

59

Fig 16-1 5016010403

16.3.1 Maintenance of fuel injection pump

Fuel injection pumps are inspected according to the maintenance


schedule in chapter 04., but always when working with the camshaft
or gears it is important to check the fuel injection pump adjustments
of the affected cylinders.

Note! The fuel injection pump erosion plugs must be secured with a
locking wire and no copper seal rings are allowed!

16.3.1.1 Lubrication of fuel injection pump control rack


Use normal grease gun filled with engine lubricating oil.
1 Open the plug (54) from the left side of the pump. (See Fig
16-5).
2 Press oil in through the nipple (55) on the right until first
drops appear on the left side.

16 - 2 W50DF
50-200538-13 Injection System 16

3 Remove the grease gun and close the left side plug.

16.3.2 Removing of fuel injection pump

It is recommended that the engine runs 5 min with light fuel before it
is stopped for overhaul of the fuel injection pump.
1 Shut off fuel supply to the engine and stop the prelubricating
pump.
2 If possible use air to blow the fuel out from low pressure sys-
tem. See chapter 17.
3 Remove the main injection pipe (1) and leak fuel connec-
tions. (See Fig 16-1).
4 Open the fuel feed connection by removing the screws (3).
5 Open the leak fuel connections (4) from the pump chamber;
loosen the lubrication pipe (5) and the air connection (6) to the
emergency stop cylinder.

Note! Immediately cover all openings with tape or plugs to prevent dirt
from entering the system.

6 Open the fuel rack connection by removing the screw (7), see
Fig 16-2.
7 Turn the crankshaft so that the injection pump tappet is in the
bottom position, the roller resting on the base circle of the cam.
8 Open the nuts (8) and lift off the injection pump by using the
lifting tools (831007 and 831001).

Note! Be careful not to damage the O-rings (9) on the fuel feed connec-
tion while lifting the pump.

9 Cover the bore in the tappet.

W50DF 16 - 3
16 Injection System 50-200538-13

Lifting tools

831001 831004

831007
16
9 .3.
3
831007
3. Screw
3
7. Screw
8. Nut
9. O-ring
11. Nut
L-engine
831001. Lifting tool
831004. Lifting tool
831007. Lifting tool

11
8

7
V-engine

M
Fig 16-2 5016183vp03

Mounting of fuel injection pump

1 Clean the pump of protection oil; check free movement of the


control rack (28), see Fig 16-6.
2 Clean the surfaces of the pump. Also clean the plane and the
bore of the tappet.
3 Check the O-ring (10) of the insert part and lubricate with
vaseline or engine oil. Check that the fuel cam is not in the lifting
position.
4 Fit the pump to its position by using the lifting tools (831001
and 831007). Be careful not to damage the Orings on the fuel
supply connection while lowering the pump. Tighten the nuts (8) to
stated torque. (See chapter 7.)

16 - 4 W50DF
50-200538-13 Injection System 16

5 Remove the protecting tapes and plugs. Fasten the fuel sup-
ply connection with screws (3) and fit the injection, leak fuel,
control air and lubricating oil pipes. Fasten the injection pipe to
stated torque.
6 Fit the fuel rack connection and fasten the screw (7).

Note! Always replace the self locking nut (11).

7 Rotate the control shaft and check that all pumps follow the
shaft movement. Check the fuel rack positions of all pumps, see
chapter 22.
8 Open the fuel supply to the engine and circulate the fuel for
some time to vent the system; see chapter 17. Turn simultaneously
the crankshaft with turning gear.

Note! Never use copper seal rings on the injection pumps. A deformed
seal ring may cause hazardous fuel spray and/or fire.

16.3.4 Dismantling of fuel injection pump

Before dismantling, the outside of the pump must be cleaned carefully.


1 The use of a special rotating device (862023) is recom-
mended where the pump can be put in different positions depend-
ing on the work, see Fig 16-3

Rotating device

2 Open the bottom cover screws (12) and remove the flange
(13). (See Fig 16-5).
3 Secure the push spindle assembly by using a tool (836040) as
shown in Fig 16-4. and push the assembly slightly to be able to
remove the retainer ring (14) with pliers (800001). (This can be done
hydraulically if using assembling trestle 862023.)

Removing device for fuel pump

Note! The tappet is spring loaded; Be careful when loosening the tool.

4 The push spindle assembly (15, 16) and the element plunger
(17) can be taken out now.

W50DF 16 - 5
16 Injection System 50-200538-13

836040 Removing device


862023. Rotating device
836040

862023
Fig 16-4 5016222p03

Fig 16-3 50163103

Note! Be careful when handling the plunger and taking it out from the push
spindle assembly. Plungers, elements and pump valves are
matched and they must be kept together during overhaul.

5 Remove the springs (18) and (56), spring disc (42) and the
control sleeve (19). Spring (56) not used in all injection pumps.
6 Turn the pump to the vertical position.
7 Open the screws (20) crosswise in steps of 30 and also screws
(21). Remove the cover (22) carefully with its valves.
8 Remove the main delivery valve (23) and the constant pres-
sure valve (25) with springs.

Injection pump

9 Take out the element cylinder (26) by tapping the bottom of


the element with a soft tool. If O-rings are seated tightly you can
use air for assistance by opening the plug (27) at the pump chamber
and blowing air in. Air will create a lifting force on the element. The
element cylinder can be removed now by using the screws (21) for
lifting.

16 - 6 W50DF
50-200538-13 Injection System 16

D VIEW D
21
23 B
12. Screw 20
13. Flange
14. Retainer ring 25 22
15. Push spindle
16. Spring holder
17. Plunger SECTION B - B
18. Spring SECTION A - A
19. Control sleeve
20. Screw 35
21. Screw A A
22. Pump cover 26
23. Main delivery valve
25. Constant pressure valve
26. Element cylinder
27. Plug 46 46
28. Control rack 27 36
34. Grub screw
35. Seal ring 54 38
36. Seal ring 28 B
38. Seal ring C C
42. Spring disc SECTION C -C
43. Seal
44. Screw 34
45. Cover 19
42
46. Erosion plug
47. Seal 19
54. Plug 17
47 34
55. Nipple
56. Spring 56
16 55
14 26
18
17

12 44 43 15 45 13 28

Fig 16-5 5016020803

10 To remove the control rack (28) open the pneumatic cylinder


fastening screws (29) and remove the cylinder (30) with piston (32)
and sliding O-ring (50). (See Fig 16-6). Loosen the grub screw (34)
and pull out the control rack.

W50DF 16 - 7
16 Injection System 50-200538-13

Control rack

28 34 29 30
28. Control rack
29. Screw
30. Cylinder
32. Piston
34. Screw
50. O-ring
Pull
out
32 50

Fig 16-6 501640203

11 It is recommended to keep the components of different pumps


apart from each other or to mark the parts so that they can be fitted
back into the same pump. The parts must be protected against rust
and especially the running surface of the element plunger should
not be unnecessarily handled with bare fingers.
12 Wash the element plunger and the cylinder in clean fuel for
inspection and normally keep the plunger and cylinder always
together, the plunger being inserted in the cylinder.

16.3.5 Assembling of fuel injection pump

1 Wash the components in absolutely clean diesel oil and lubri-


cate internal parts with clean engine oil. When handling parts of
the injection equipment, keep hands absolutely clean and grease
them with grease or oil.
2 Renew the seal rings (35) of the pump cover, (36) and (38) on
the element cylinder and seal (47) on upper spring disc. (See Fig
16-5). Lubricate the rings with lubricating oil.
3 Reinstall the main delivery valve (23) and constant pressure
valve (25) with springs into the cover (22).
4 Mount the element cylinder (26) and the cover (22) together
using screws (21). Note that the pins (39) are fitted properly. (Fig
16-7). Lift the assembly (22, 26) into position in the pump housing.

16 - 8 W50DF
50-200538-13 Injection System 16

Pump cover

25

23. Delivery valve


25. Constant pressure valve
39. Pin

23

39

Pump cover seen from below

Fig 16-7 50160703

Note! Be careful with the valves in the pump cover. Some oil may be used
in the valves to keep them in position during assembly.

5 Tighten first screws (21) crosswise in three steps to stated


torque and then screws (20) in the same way, see chapter 07.
6 Mount the control rack (28) and fasten the grub screw (34).
(Fig 16-6). Fit the counter sleeve (48) and pressure plate (33)
together with screw (31) to position. Fit the piston (32) and put on
the cover (30) with screws (29).
7 Turn the pump upside down and fit the control sleeve (19). (Fig
16-5). Move the control rack to a position where two marks (A) can
be seen, see Fig 16-8. One of the control sleeve teeth is chamfered
(B) and this tooth must slide into the tooth space between the marks
on the rack, see Fig 16-9).

Note! Incorrectly mounting of control sleeve assembly may cause the


engine to overspeed.

W50DF 16 - 9
16 Injection System 50-200538-13

Control sleeve assembly

B A

D C

Fig 16-8 50166p03

8 Reinstall the spring disc (42) and spring (18), see Fig 16-5.
9 Assemble the element plunger and push spindle assembly
(15,16) and lift carefully into position.
10 Note the mark on one of the plunger vanes (C), see Fig 16-
8. The marked plunger vane must slide into the marked groove on
the control rack side of the control sleeve (D). It corresponds to the
marks on the control rack (A) and the chamfered tooth (B) of the
control sleeve.

Control sleeve teeth

C
B
A

D
D

Fig 16-9 501607p03

16 - 10 W50DF
50-200538-13 Injection System 16

11 Press the push spindle down carefully by using a tool (836040),


see Fig 16-4. To make the plunger vanes slide into the grooves on
control sleeve you can gently move the control rack.
12 When the plunger is deep enough, install the retaining ring
(14) with pliers (800001). After removing the tool check that the
control rack can be easily moved.
13 Before installing the flange (13) make sure that the shaft seal-
ing (43) is in good condition. If necessary replace the sealing by
opening the screws (44) and removing the cover (45), see Fig 16-10.

Mounting of pump flange

14
12. Screw
13. Flange
14. Retainer ring
15. Push spindle
43. Shaft sealing
44. Screw
45. Cover

12 44 43 15 45 13

Fig 16-10 5016190303

Note! If the sealing starts to leak, fuel can enter the lubricating oil system
and possibly spoil it.

14 Install the flange (13) and tighten screws to stated torque, see
chapter 07.
15 Check that the control rack can be easily moved.
16 Unless the pump is immediately mounted on the engine it
must be well oiled and protected by plastic cover or similar. The fuel
ports and injection line connections must always be protected by
plugs or tape.

16.3.6 Control of fuel injection pump adjustment

The beginning of the effective pump stroke is determined by using a


pneumatic timing tool connected to one of the erosion plug holes and
sealing against the spill port cone.
Control of fuel pump timing is necessary if major components have been
changed, e.g. injection pump, pump element, pump tappet, camshaft

W50DF 16 - 11
16 Injection System 50-200538-13

piece or some work has been done with gears; especially to the inter-
mediate gear.
1 Shut off fuel supply to the engine.
2 If possible use air to blow the fuel out from low pressure sys-
tem, see chapter 17.6.
3 Remove one of the erosion plugs (46) from the pump, see Fig
16-5.
4 Mount the timing tool (862020) and connect the air supply as
shown in Fig 16-11.

Mounting of timing tool

B A

862020. Timing tool

AIR
5 - 7 bar

862020 C

Fig 16-11 501681p03

5 Turn the crankshaft to a position 22 before TDC at ignition.


6 Set the fuel rack to 35 mm position.
7 Turn the crankshaft to the normal running direction of the en-
gine and read and record the full pressure from the pressure gauge
(A), (Fig 16-11) when the plunger is closing the spill port (B)
completely.
If the gauge doesnt work properly make sure that the throttle points
(C) of the timing tool (862020) are clear end open.
8 Turn the engine against the normal running direction until
the pressure in pressure gauge (A) falls down to zero.
9 Turn the crankshaft slowly to the normal running direction of
the engine. Preferably by hand from the turning gear. Keep on
turning until the pressure in the pressure gauge starts to rise. Stop
turning when the pressure has increased to half of the measured
full presure. Record the pressure and the position of the flywheel.
E.g. if full measured pressure was 4 bar, the timing should be
checked at 2 bar.

16 - 12 W50DF
50-200538-13 Injection System 16

10 Compare the measured values to the correct values given in


the settings-table of the test records. The deviation to those read-
ings should be max 0,5 crank angle. The deviation between the
different cylinders in one engine should not exceed 1,0 crank angle.
If larger deviations are noted the injection pump lifter must be
adjusted, see section 16.3.7.
11 Mount the erosion plugs (46) (see tightening torque in chap-
ter 07) securing with a locking wire and switch on the fuel. Check
for possible leaks before starting the engine again.

Warning! Never use copper seal rings on injection pumps. A deformed seal
ring may cause hazardous fuel spray and fire.

16.3.7 Fuel injection pump adjustment

Pump timing can alter due to manufacturing tolerances in pumps,


cams and gears or when doing some modifications to the engine. To get
the best possible operation from the engine it is important that fuel
pump adjustment are done properly and in accordance with the setting
table, (see test records).
1 Remove the pump. (See section 16.3.2).
2 Fasten the pump base using suitable sleeves under the nuts
(8), see Fig 16-12.

Pump adjustment

8 8

8. Nut
49. Screw

X
0.1

49
29

Fig 16-12 5016120203

W50DF 16 - 13
16 Injection System 50-200538-13

3 Measure the distance (X) between the adjusting screw and


the pump base upper surface when cylinder is turned to a position
where delivery stroke should start. (See setting table in test re-
cords).

4 Use Fig 16-13 to determine the correction needed for the ad-
justing screw to achieve the right timing.

Adjusting of tappet position

ADJUSTING OF TAPPET
POSITION (mm)
(DIMENSION X)
+2
SPRING HOLDER
CONTACT AGAINST
RETAINER RING +1
+1.3

+6 +4 +2 CHANGE OF
INJ. TIMING
-2 -4 (DEG. BTDC)

-1 -1.04mm

-2

PLUNGER CONTACT AGAINST


-3
ELEMENT CYLINDER

-4

Fig 16-13 5016090203

0.8 mm in tappet position corresponds to about 1 on flywheel scale.


Example: According to measurements the delivery stroke starts 15.5
before TDC instead of 16.8 given on the setting table. The change of
injection timing has to be +1.3 and from Fig 16-13 you can read that
dimension X has to be 1,04 mm smaller, see Fig 16-12.
5 Open the locking screws(49) and adjust the distance X to the
correct position; lock the screws again to stated torque (see chapter
7.) before the final checking of distance X. Note the correct position-
ing of the securing plate (distance from the top of the tappet given
in Fig 16-12).
6 Open the nuts (8) and remove the sleeves.
7 Fit the fuel pump according to section 16.3.3.

16 - 14 W50DF
50-200538-13 Injection System 16

8 Check again the timing, see section 16.3.6

Note! Never use copper seal rings on the injection pumps. A deformed
seal ring may cause hazardous fuel spray and/or fire.

16.4 Injection line


The main fuel injection line consists of two parts, the connection piece
and the injection pipe from the injection pump. The spherical end of
the connection piece is pressed against the conical inlet port of the
nozzle holder by means of a flange. Always check the sealing surface
before mounting, and tighten the flange screws to correct torque. The
injection pipe is shielded with an annular pipe and equipped with a
drain hose. It seals against the pump and the connection piece with
conical metallic surfaces.
The pilot fuel line consists of cylinder specific shielded pipes, connec-
tion pieces on the cylinder heads and connection pipes between the
connection piece and the injection valve. The rail pipes, delivered
complete with connection nuts assembled, seals with conical metallic
surfaces. The connection pipe have spherical metallic sealing surfaces
pressed against cones in the connection piece and the injection valve.
Always check the sealing surfaces before mounting and always tighten
to correct torque.

Note! Cleanliness is of utmost importance to obtain functionality and


reliability of the injection system.

16.5 Pilot fuel pump unit


The pilot fuel pump is an 8- or 4-cylinder radial piston pump directly
driven by the pump gear at the free end of the crankshaft. The built-in
pressure regulating unit is electrically controlled by the engine control
system. On the feed line a valve group with a filter regulates the inlet
pressure to the pump. A safety valve is mounted on the high pressure
line.
The pump shaft is equipped with two roller bearings. The pump
elements slide on ceramic slide rings, one ring per two elements. The
fuel oil functions as lubricating media. The pump is equipped with an
indication hole for shaft sealing leakage.

Note! Do not run the pump without sufficient feed pressure nor with zero
consumption!

W50DF 16 - 15
16 Injection System 50-200538-13

Pilot fuel pump

1. Connector 1
2. Valve stem 3
3. Flange screw
41 39
4. Flange screw
22
5. Pump element
6. Roller bearing 2 7
7. Roller bearing
11. Distance plate 32

A
13. Sliding ring 35
22. Distance piece
24
24. Fixing screw
26. Feed check valve
5 13
27. Feed check valve
32. Throttle valve
11
35. Spring 6
39. Shaft lubricating bush
47
41. Solenoid
4
47. Shaft sealing
27
26

VIEW A

Fig 16-14 3216029801

16.5.1 Maintenance of pilot fuel pump

The pilot pump should be changed according to chapter 04.


Before removing the pilot fuel pump, close the fuel feed shut-off valve.

16.5.1.1 Removing of pilot fuel pump


1 Disconnect the electrical cable connector (1) to the pres-
sure regulating unit, unscrew the pipe connections for feed pipe (2),
high pressure pipe (3) and drain pipe (4), see Fig 16-15.
2 Make a wooden support under the pump.
3 Mount the lifting tool 836061 and 832008.
4 Fasten the lifting bracket 832008 to the pump.
5 Remove the screws (9) on the mounting plate (8) and care-
fully pull out the pump from the engine block.
6 Remove the gear wheel (7) .

16 - 16 W50DF
50-200538-13 Injection System 16

7 Remove the nuts (5) on the pump flange and remove the
mounting plate (8).
8 Protect all connections with suitable plugs, clean plastic or
similar.

Removing and mounting of the fuel feed pump

8 4 13 2 14 1
1. Plug socket
2. Supply connection
3. High pressure connection 7
4. Drain connection
5. Nut
6. O-ring
7. Gear wheel
8. Mounting plate
13. Pipe union
14. Connecting piece
3
6 5

Fig 16-15 5016150333

16.5.1.2 Change of filter element


If the maintenance only consists of changing the filter element, remove
the pipe connections for feed pipe (2).
1 Remove connection piece (14), see Fig 16-15.
2 Remove filter (12) and O-ring (11), see Fig 16-16.

Caution! Ensure that no dirts gets into the pump during reconditioning.

3 Put the connection piece (14) into a bench vice and remove
the pipe union (13).
4 Put a new O-ring (11) on the connection piece (14).
5 Mount the new filter (12) into the connection piece (14).
6 Apply thread with engine oil.

Caution! Be careful when mounting the connection piece (14) not to dam-
age the filter (12).

W50DF 16 - 17
16 Injection System 50-200538-13

7 Mount the connection piece (14) and filter (12) to the pilot
pump.
8 Tighten the connection piece (14) to stated torque, see chap-
ter 07.
9 Mount the new pipe union (13) with a new O-ring (15), to
the connection piece (14).
10 Tighten the pipe union (13) to stated torque, see chapter 07.
11 Remove the protecting cap from the pipe union (13). Pay
attention to correct positioning of the O-ring (16) when mounting the
supply connection (2).

Filter element of the pilot fuel pump

12 11 14 15 13 16

Fig 16-16 501620

11. O-ring, 12. Filter, 13. Pipe union, 14. Connection piece, 15. O-ring,
16. O-ring.

16.5.1.3 Mounting of pilot fuel pump


1 Clean all sealing surfaces carefully and replace the O-ring
(6) on the pump flange. Make also a visual check on the gear wheel
(7)
2 Mount the pilot pump to the mounting plate (8).
3 Tighten the nuts (5) crosswise to torque, see chapter 07.
4 Mount the gear wheel (7).
5 Mount the pilot pump assembly to the engine block.
6 Tighten the nuts (9) crosswise to torque, see chapter 07.
7 Connect all pipes.
8 Connect the cable to the regulating unit.

Note! Before setting pump in operation, ensure that all fittings and con-
nections are tight, secured and sealed. Fill pump with filtered fuel
before engine start.

16 - 18 W50DF
50-200538-13 Injection System 16

16.6 Injection valve

16.6.1 Description

The injection valve is a combined pilot and main fuel oil injection valve
centrally located in the cylinder head. The valve consists of a two-part
nozzle holder and the nozzle. A solenoid valve for pilot injection control
is located in the upper part of the nozzle holder. The fuel enters the
nozzle holder sideways through two connection pipes with spherical
ends pressed against the conical ports in the holder.
The pilot fuel pressure acts on both the pilot needle pressure step (opening
force) and through an orifice on the pilot piston (closing force). The solenoid
valve opens a drain port from the pilot cylinder and thus eliminates the
pressure acting on the piston, and the fuel pressure acting on the needle
forces the needle upwards. The drained fuel is led through borings to the
clean fuel leakage system of the engine. A spring acting on the push rod
keeps the pilot needle closed in event of loss of pilot fuel pressure.
There are very small clearances in the nozzle and in the solenoid
valve, and therefore cleanliness and prevention of particles and dirt
from entering the valve nor pipes are of utmost importance.

Injection valve

1
1. Locking nut
2
2. O-ring
3. Screw 3
4. Injection valve
5. O-ring
6. O-ring
7. Adjusting screw

5
6

Fig 16-17 50161703

W50DF 16 - 19
16 Injection System 50-200538-13

16.6.2 Maintenance of fuel injection valve

Maintenance of the injection valve consists of removing and mounting


the injection valve. A test of the main diesel side can be performed.

16.6.3 Removing of injection valve

1 Remove the cylinder head cover and the hot box cover.
2 Remove the pilot fuel pipes to neighbour cylinders and pro-
tect the ends.
3 Remove the main fuel injection pipe (31), see Fig 16-18
4 Open the connection to the leak fuel pipe (39).
5 Remove the flanges (40) and (36) for main fuel connection
piece and pull out the connection piece (35).
6 Remove the pilot fuel connection piece (37) and pull out the
connection piece (30) from cylinder head.
7 Disconnect the cables from the injection valve connectors.
8 Remove the lubricating oil pipe (43).
9 Remove the fastening screws (28) of the injection valve.
10 Lift out the injection valve by using the lifting tool (832009).
If too much force has to be used, there is a risk of the stainless sleeve
of the cylinder head coming loose which, in such a case, must be
checked.
11 Protect the bore in the cylinder head.

16 - 20 W50DF
50-200538-13 Injection System 16

Fuel injection valve

43
28
28. Fastening screw
29. Fastening screw
30. Connection piece
31. Injection pipe
32. Screw 31 40 36 35 38
33. Fastening screw
32
34. Cooling pipe
39
35. Connection piece
36. Flange
37. Connection piece 41 42
38. Screw 29
39. Leak fuel pipe
40. Flange
41. O-ring
42. Flange 37 30
43. Lubricating oil pipe

Fig 16-18 50161803

16.6.4 Mounting of injection valve

1 Check the bottom of the stainless sleeve in the cylinder


head. Clean if necessary. The injection valve seals directly to the
bottom of the sleeve.
2 Put new O-rings on the injection valve. Lubricate the O-rings
with engine oil or grease. Fit the injection valve into the cylinder
head bore and tighten the valve fastening screw (28) only by hand.
3 Put a new O-ring on the liquid fuel connection piece. Mount
the connection piece (35) and flanges (36) and (40). Tighten screws
(32) and (38) to torque stated in chapter 07.
4 Put a new O-ring on the pilot fuel connection piece (30). Mount
the pipe and the connection piece (37). Tighten screws (29) to torque
stated in chapter 07.
5 Tighten the fastening nuts (28) of the injection valve to torque
stated in chapter 07.
6 Mount the lubricating oil pipe (43) and pilot fuel rail pipes.
Tighten connection screws and nuts to torque stated in chapter 07.
7 Connect the cables to the injection valve connectors.
8 Mount the covers.

W50DF 16 - 21
16 Injection System 50-200538-13

16.6.5 Testing of injection valve

The injection valve is a precision made valve with small borings and
moving parts with small clearances. Therefore cleanliness is of utmost
importance.
Adjust the main fuel needle opening pressure and check the valve
function in the test bench.
1 Insert the valve in the test bench and connect the high pres-
sure supply to the main diesel inlet port. Apply fuel pressure and
adjust the opening pressure to stated value, see chapter 06 . Note
the fuel spray uniformity.
2 Check the needle seat tightness:
Decrease the supply pressure to a value 20 bar below the opening
pressure
Keep the pressure constant for 10 s and check that no fuel drops
appear at the nozzle tip. A slight dampness may be acceptable.
3 If the tests according to step 1...2 give satisfactory results
the injection valve can be re-installed in the engine. Otherwise,
replace the injection valve by a new one.
4 If leakage occurs on the high pressure sealing surfaces the
damaged detail should be replaced by a new one.
5 If the injection valve is to be stored it should be treated with
corrosion protecting oil.

16 - 22 W50DF
50-200520-08 Fuel System 17

17. Fuel System

17.1 General description for gas system


Before the gas is supplied to the engine it passes a gas regulating unit.
The unit includes filter, pressure regulators, shut-off valves and ven-
tilating valves. The outlet gas pressure is controlled by the control
system (WECS) according to engine load and site ambient conditions.
As the gas regulating unit can vary from one installation to another,
this unit is not described in detail in this manual. See separate
instructions.

Gas fuel system

Ventilation

Gas regulating unit Gas engine


Gas supply

Fig 17-1 3217689801

On the engine the gas is supplied via a common pipe running along the
engine, continuing with individual feed pipes to each cylinder.
The gas admission is controlled with Main Gas Admission Valves
for the main charge. Valve is direct actuated solenoid valve and
controlled by the control system (WECS).
Main gas pressure at the engine can be checked from the local display
unit. Alarms are set for low pressure difference between charge air
pressure and the gas pressures.

W50DF 17 - 1
17 Fuel System 50-200520-08

17.2 Maintenance for gas system


When working with the fuel system, always observe utmost cleanli-
ness. Pipes, gas valves, check valves, components in the gas regulating
unit, etc. should be carefully cleaned before taken into use.

Warning! Before doing any maintenance work, check that gas supply valves
are closed, vent valves are in open position and gas pressure is
drained out from the gas lines.

17.3 Gas pipes


An in-line engine has an own distributing pipe which feeds the gas
along the engine for the main gas admission valves.
On a V-engine both A- and B-bank has own distributing pipes.
The cylinder gas pipe connections are sealed by O-rings and spiral
gaskets. Always renew the O-rings and the spiral gaskets if a pipe has
been removed.

17.3.1 Gas system leak test

Note! Only individuals trained in the use of leak detection methods should
perform this leak test procedure.

Following the calibration and operation procedures for your gas


detector, place the probe of the detector near possible leakpoints such
as connections,pipe flanges, valves, manifolds, pressure gauges of the
gas fuel system for at least two times the response time of the gas
detector.
If a leak is detected, immediately shut off the supply of gas at its
source and perform maintenance to stop the leak. Do not use a
flammable gas until the system has been pressure leak tested with an
inert gas.
1 Connect compressed air pressure of 3 bar, to the inlet flange
of the gas system.
2 Check all connections with soap water or leakage spray, be-
ginning from the inlet flange and continue through the gas line. The
last connection on the main gas line is connections between flexible
hoses and the main gas admission valves.
3 Growing bubbles on the connection indicates leakage.

Warning! Release the air pressure in the system before disassembling.

17 - 2 W50DF
50-200520-08 Fuel System 17

4 Disassemble the leaking connection, clean the sealing sur-


faces and renew the O-rings. Replace worn parts.
5 Repeat the leak test for the repaired connection(s).

17.4 Main gas admission valve

17.4.1 Description

The main gas admission valve is controlling the amount of gas fed to
each cylinder of the engine. On a V-engine the valve is located on the
cylinder head and on a line engine the valve is between the gas manifold
and cylinder air inlet pipe. The gas is fed into the inlet channel of the
cylinder head. The main gas valve is a direct actuated solenoid valve.
The design of the gas feed pipes varies between the V- and in-line
engines.
With the control system (WECS) it is possible to adjust the amount
of gas fed to individual cylinders, even when the engine is running. For
further information about engine control, see chapter 23.

Main gas admission valve, V-engine

14
1. Gas admission valve 9
2. O-ring 8
3. Filter
5. Connection piece
15 12
8. Gas feed pipe
9. Screw 10 3
10. Screw 12
11. Cable
12. O-ring
13. O-ring
14. Screw 11
15. Washer
1 13

Fig 17-2 50170203

W50DF 17 - 3
17 Fuel System 50-200520-08

17.4.2 Removing of the gas admission valve

1 Check that the gas supply valves are closed, gas ventila-
tion valves are in open position and gas pressure is drained out from
the gas lines.
2 Disconnect the cable (11).
3 Unscrew the fastening screws (14) and (9) of the flexible gas
feed pipe (8).
4 Remove the flexible gas feed pipe (8).
5 Remove the filter (3) with O-rings (12).
6 Unscrew the fastening screws (10) of the gas admission valve (1).
7 Remove the gas admission valve (1).
8 Remove the connection piece (5).
9 Protect the bore in the cylinder head and the gas pipe end.

17.4.3 Changing of main gas valve filter insert

On every main gas valve, at the connection to the flexible pipe, an


interchangeable gas filter (3) is located, see Fig 17-2.
Replace these filters with new ones according to the maintenance
schedule, see chapter 04.
1 Check that the gas supply valves are closed, gas ventila-
tion valves are in open position and gas pressure is drained out from
the gas lines.
2 Unscrew the flexible gas feed pipe fastening screws, see
Fig 17-2. and remove the pipe (8).
3 Replace the gas filter (3), and the O-rings (2 and 12) with new
ones.
4 Reassemble the parts and tighten the screws to torque, see
chapter 07.

17.4.4 Overhaul of the gas admission valve

The main gas admission valve requires no maintenance and should


preferably be overhauled by authorized personnel. Contact engine
manufacturers (local service network).
Remove the gas admission valve according to section 17.4.2.
1 Unscrew the screws (31) and remove the coil (24).
2 Press the lower spring seat (34) using an arbor press to com-
press the lower springs (35).
3 Remove the retaining ring (23), see Fig 17-3.
4 Remove the lower spring seat (34) and the lower springs
(35).

17 - 4 W50DF
50-200520-08 Fuel System 17

5 Carefully remove the valve assembly with a suitable tool.

Note! Do not mix the valve parts with other valves parts.

Caution! To ensure a trouble free function the valve parts must be kept totally
clean and well protected from oil and dust!

6 Remove the lower plate (30), ring (36) and the moving plate
assembly (28).
7 Loosen the screw (22) keeping the plate (32) in a shielded
vice. Be careful not to drop the springs (27).

Main gas admission valve

31
21. Upper plate 24
22. Screw
23. Retaining ring 32
24. Coil 25
25. O-ring
26. Valve housing 33 26
27. Spring
28. Moving plate 27
29. O-ring
30. Lower plate 21 28
31. Screw
32. Plate 22 36
32. Plate
33. Pin 29
34. Lower spring seat 23
35. Spring 30
36. Ring

35
34

Fig 17-3 5017030333

8 Check the valve parts for wear and pay special attention to
the sealing surfaces on the moving plate (28) and the lower plate
(30). Renew the complete valve if the sealing surfaces are
worn or damaged. Parts 21, 26, 32, 33 are a matched assembly.
Must be replaced together.
9 Renew the screw (22). Apply one drop of Loctite 271. Mount
and and tighten to 20 Nm.
10 Reassemble the gas valve in the opposite order, with new
O-rings (25) and (29).

W50DF 17 - 5
17 Fuel System 50-200520-08

17.4.5 Test of main gas valve coil integrity

1 Measure coil integrity from one connector pin to the other. At


room temperature the coil integrity should be within the following
ranges, see table below.

Coil resistance (Low Voltage)


Type Resistance
SOGA V250/Flying Lead 1.1 - 1.3 W

Because of the low resistance, make sure to compensate for the meter
lead resistance. If outside this tolerance, the coil assembly should be
replaced.
Additional indication of a coil problem can be observed by comparing
the coil resistance of a suspect coil to one that is known to be good. This
is particularly helpful if the meters accuracy at low resistance is
questionable.
2 Check for a ground fault. Measure the resistance from either
pin to the solenoid assembly housing. If a low resistance is meas-
ured, a ground fault exists and the solenoid valve should be re-
placed. If a high resistance is measured at first and the reading
gradually increases until the meter reading is infinite, the meter
has been charging the coils natural capacitance.

17.4.6 Mounting of the gas admission valve

1 Remove the protecting covers and check that the surface of


the cylinder head is clean.
2 Renew O-rings (13) on the gas admission valve (1) and connec-
tion piece (5).
3 Mount the connection piece (5) and the gas valve (1).
Tighten the fastening screws (10) to correct torque acc. to chapter
07.
4 Renew O-rings (12) on the flange (4) and filter (3).
5 Mount the flange (4) and filter (3).
6 Renew O-ring (2) on the gas feed pipe (8).
7 Mount the gas feed pipe (8) and tighten all fastenings screws
(9) and (14) to stated torque, see chapter 07.

Note! Be careful with the O-rings when mounting the gas feed pipe.

8 Connect the cable (11).


9 Perform a gas system leak test, see section 17.3.1

17 - 6 W50DF
50-200520-08 Fuel System 17

17.5 Gas filter

17.5.1 Description

The gas filter is mounted on the engine and consists of a filter cartrige
(14). The filter is drained at the bottom (15) and vented on the top (16)
of the filter (concerns only vertical filter type).
A horizontal filter type is mounted in some installations.
When the filter cartridge is removed for inspection or changed, the
O-ring (13) has to be renewed, see chapter 04 for intervals.

Gas filter

16 16

10. Nut
11. Screw 13
14
12. Gasket
13. O-ring
13
14. Filter cartridge
15. Drain
16. Venting

12

11
15
10 15

Fig 17-4 50170403

W50DF 17 - 7
17 Fuel System 50-200520-08

17.6 General description for liquid fuel system


As the fuel treatment system before the engine can vary widely from
one installation to another, this system is not described in detail in this
manual. See separate instructions.
In multi-engine installations the engine is equipped with an electri-
cally driven fuel feed pump and a duplex filter to provide correct flow,
pressure and filtration irrespective of the number of engines connected
to a common external treatment system.
The internal fuel system consists of fuel injection pump, dual fuel
injection valve and pilot fuel pump, see Fig 17-5. The engine is provided
with a pressure control valve for constant pressure control in the
system.
Leak fuel from the nozzles, pilot pump and injection pumps is drained
to atmospheric pressure (clean leak fuel system). Clean leak fuel can
be pumped back to the day tanks without treatment. In some installa-
tions the leak fuel from the nozzles is drained to the fuel oil outlet , see
Fig 17-5.
Possible leak fuel from a broken injection pipe is drained to the clean
leak fuel oil system. An alarm switch for eccesive amounts of leakage
is mounted on this line, see Fig 17-5. Fuel spilled out in the hotbox, at
e.g. cylinder head overhaul, is drained to the sludge tank. This system
is also optionally equipped with a similar alarm device.
The pilot pump and high pressure system, with injection pump and
injection valve, are described in chapter 16.

17 - 8 W50DF
50-200520-08 Fuel System 17

Fuel system

1. Pressure sensor PT 6
2. Temperature sensor
3. Level switch
4. Pressure control valve
5. Pressure difference 18
indicator
6. Safety valve
7. Fuel feed pump
8. Pressure regulating valve 17
9. Safety valve 3
10. Deaeration tank LS
11. Circulating pump
12. Safety valve
13. Pressure regulating valve
14. Valve
15. Valve 2 p
5
16. Valve
17. Pilot fuel filter TE 1
18. Pilot fuel pump
PT

101. Fuel oil inlet


102. Fuel oil outlet 4
103. Clean fuel oil leakage

103 102 101

13

12
9 16 10 11 14

7
9 12

7 16 15 11 14

Fig 17-5 5017050334

W50DF 17 - 9
17 Fuel System 50-200520-08

17.7 Maintenance for liquid fuel system


When working with the fuel system, always observe utmost cleanli-
ness. Pipes, tanks and the fuel treatment equipment, such as pumps,
filters, heaters and viscosimeters, included in the engine delivery or
not, should be carefully cleaned before taken into use.
Change the filter cartridges regularly. The fuel filter is provided
with a combined visual indicator/electrical switch, connected to the
automatic alarm system, which indicates too high pressure drop over
the filter.

Note! The paper cartridges should be changed as soon as possible when


too high a pressure drop is indicated.

The intervals between changes of cartridges depend largely on the


quality and dirt content of the fuel as well as on fuel treatment before
the engine. Guidance values are stated in chapter 04.
The fuel should always be separate and it is recommendable to fit an
automatic filter in the fuel treatment system.
Always when the system has been opened, it should be vented after
reassembly, see section 17.7.2
For maintenance of the fuel treatment equipment not mounted on
the engine, see separate instructions.

17.7.1 Draining of fuel system

Because the fuel volyme in the supply line is relatively high, it is


recommended to use control air pressure to blow out the fuel from the
supply pipes to a suitable tank when overhauling the fuel pumps or
supply lines.
The pressure control valve (4) has to be adjusted so that the air pressure
will open it. Blow the system about 10 - 15 minutes to be sure that all
fuel has come out.

17.7.2 Venting

Start the fuel feed pump if the static pressure from the day tank is not
sufficient.
Always vent the filter after changing cartridges in the filter.
If the engine has been stopped and the feed pump is not running, the
three-way valve can be changed directly over to the position where both
sides are in operation. The air can be vented through the respective air
vent screw. If the engine is running, the change-over of the three-way valve
should be carried out very carefully to give only a small flow of fuel to the
filter side to be vented. Activate the segment cock valve (18) slowly. If the
nose (30) of the valve points to the nearest screw of the plate (25), the
segment cock valve opens a small gap wich is enough to fill the filter
chamber (see Fig 17-6). The filter side will be slowly filled. Vent the filter

17 - 10 W50DF
50-200520-08 Fuel System 17

side. Set the three-way valve and slow-filling valve in normal position
(both filter sides in use).
A sudden change-over of the three-way valve to an empty filter side
will cause a temporary pressure drop in the engine system, and the
alarm switch will give a signal for too low a fuel pressure. This may
also involve the risk of air escaping from the filter to the injection
pumps, which may also cause the engine to stop.

Caution! To avoid air escaping to the injection pump, fill up the filter with
clean fuel before changing over.

Three-way valve positions

18

18. Cock valve


25. Plate
30. Nose 30

25

Fig 17-6 5017060334

17.7.3 Adjustment of fuel system

Check the adjustment at intervals recommended in chapter 04. Adjust


the valves at normal temperatures with an idling engine, i.e. the
booster pump (7, Fig 17-5) running.

1 Adjust the fuel system before engine according to installation


specific instructions or by following steps 2 to 5.

2 The fuel feed pumps (7) maintain a system pressure of 3 4


bar. The pressure is adjusted on the pressure regulating valve (8)
when the valve (15) is closed.

3 The safety valves (9) on the fuel feed pumps should be ad-
justed to 12 bar and locked when the valves (16) are closed. The
purpose of the safety valve is only to protect the pump.

W50DF 17 - 11
17 Fuel System 50-200520-08

Caution! These adjustments should be carried out rapidly as the pumps may
run hot if the system is closed for a lengthy time.

4 The fuel circulating pumps (11) keep the fuel in constant cir-
culation and maintain a system pressure between the circulating
pumps and the pressure regulating valve (13). Adjust the opening
pressure of the pressure regulating valve to 10 bar.
5 The safety valves (12) on the fuel circulating pumps should be
adjusted to 12 bar and locked when the valves (14) are closed. The
purpose of the safety valve is only to protect the pump.

Caution! These adjustments should be carried out rapidly as the pumps may
run hot if the system is closed for a lengthy time.

6 The engine mounted pressure regulating valve/adjustable


orifice (4) should be adjusted according as follows. Raise the pres-
sure in the system slowly by closing the valve/ orifice (4), until the
pressure meter in LDU is according to chapter 01.
7 Adjust the other engines according to workstep described
above.
8 Check that pressures in all engines are according to chapter
01.

17.8 Pilot fuel pump


The pilot pump is described in chapter 16. Injection System.

17.9 Pilot fuel filter


Depending on engine type, the position and type of the filter may vary.
See chapter 17 Appendix.

17 - 12 W50DF
50-200439 Pilot fuel filter Appendix E

17.E Pilot fuel filter

17.E1 Fuel filter

17.E1.1 Description
The filter is a duplex filter. By means of the three-way valve (5)
the fuel flow can be guided to one side or the other, or to both sides
in parallel. The direction of the flow appears from the mark on
the filter housing, see Fig 17E-2. At normal operation, one or both
sides of the filter can be used. When changing cartridges during
operation one side can be closed. Fig 17E-2B shows the position
of the valve when the right side of the filter is closed.
The fuel flows through a strainer core (11) and a cartridge (3)
made of special paper material for filtering off small particles, see
Fig 17E-3.

Pump unit for pilot fuel, V-engine

22

20. Pilot fuel filter


21 Pilot fuel pump
22. Cover
23. Drip sump

20

21

23

Fig 17E-1 5017080436

W50DF 17E - 1
Appendix E Pilot fuel filter 50-200439

17.E1.2 Changing of filter cartridges


Change cartridges regularly (see chapter 04.) and, if the differ-
ential pressure indicator gives alarm, as soon as possible. As the
useful life of the cartridges is largely dependent on fuel quality,
centrifuging and filtering before the engine, experience from the
installation concerned will give the most suitable intervals
between changes of cartridges.
Change of cartridges and cleaning is most conveniently done
during stoppage. See also instructions about fuel oil handling in
chapter 02A. (Environmental Hazards).
By closing one side of the filter the cartridges can, however, be
changed during operation as follows:

Warning! Take care not to open the side of the filter which is in operation.

Three-way valve positions

A B C

A. Both sides in use


B. Left side in use
C. Right side in use

Fig 17E-2 5017100436

1 Remove the cover (22).


2 Shut off the filter side to be maintained by lifing up the
lock knob (6) and turning the three-way valve (5) to the correct
position, see Fig 17E-2 and Fig 17E-3.

Warning! Take care not to open the side of the filter which is in operation.

3 Open the air venting screw (1) carefully to depressurise


the bowl.
4 Open the drain plug (4) on the bottom of the filter bowl.
Let the fuel oil flow out to the drip sump (23), see Fig 17E-1.

Warning! Fuel oil may splash during opening the plug.

17E - 2 W50DF
50-200439 Pilot fuel filter Appendix E

5 Drain the drip sump (23).


6 Open the filter bowl (2) by turning the fastening ring (13)
and supporting the bowl by hand. Let down the bowl with
cartridge and turn to the side when lifting away.
7 Remove the cartridge (3) and put it in a container for oil
contaminated waste, see chapter 02A. +Environmental Haz-
ards. Paper cartridges cannot be cleaned. Always keep a suffi-
cient quantity of cartridges in stock.

Note! Dispose the used filter cartridges properly!

8 Clean and rinse the bowl (2) and strainer core (11)
carefully with gas oil. Check the condition of the seals, renew
the O-rings.

Fuel filter

1. Venting screw 6
5
2. Bowl
3. Filter cartridge 7
4. Drain plug
5. Three-way valve
6. Locking knob 1
11
7. Indicator
8. O-ring 12
14
9. Adapter
2
10. O-ring 8
11. Strainer core 13
12. Lock ring 3 9
13. Fastening ring
10
14. Bleeding pipe

Fig 17E-3 5017090436

9 Fit the new cartridge (3) and the cleaned strainer core
into place in the bowl. Check that all seals are intact and in
position.

W50DF 17E - 3
Appendix E Pilot fuel filter 50-200439

10 Fasten the bowl (2) back into place by turning the fas-
tening ring (13). Tighten the fastening ring firmly. Mount the
drain plug (4).
11 Change slowly over to working position to avoid quick
pressure drop, see section 17.E1.3.
12 Close the air vent screw (1) after the air has exited. See
section 17.E1.3. Check the tightness of the filter housing when
pressurized.
13 Repeat the same procedure with the other side of the
filter.
14 Fasten the cover (22) back into place.

17.E1.3 Venting
The air can be vented through the respective air vent screw (1). If
the engine is running, the change-over of the three-way valve
should be carried out very carefully to give only a small flow of fuel
to the filter side to be vented. Vent the filter side. Set the three-way
valve in normal operation position, see Fig 17E-2.
A sudden change-over of the three-way valve to an empty filter
side will cause a temporary pressure drop in the engine system,
and the alarm switch will give a signal for too low fuel pressure.
This may also cause the risk of air escaping from the filter to the
pilot fuel pump, which may also cause the engine to stop.

Caution! To avoid air escaping to the pilot fuel pump, fill up the filter with
clean fuel before changing over.

Note! When the injection valve has been changed, the engine might
need several start attempts due to air in the pilot fuel system.

17E - 4 W50DF
50-200439 Pilot fuel filter Appendix F

17.F Pilot fuel filter

17.F1 Fuel filter

17.F1.1 Description
The filter is a duplex filter. By means of the three-way valve
(8) the fuel flow can be guided to one side or the other, or to
both sides in parallel. The direction of the flow appears from
the mark (7) on the cock. Fig 17F-2A shows the position of the
valve when both sides are in use. When changing cartridges
during operation one side can be closed. Fig 17F-2B shows the
position of the valve when the right side of the filter is closed.

Pump unit for pilot fuel

8. Three-way valve
20. Pilot fuel filter
21. Pilot fuel pump

20

21

Fig 17F-1 5017120437

W50DF 17F - 1
Appendix F Pilot fuel filter 50-200439

17.F1.2 Changing of filter cartridges and cleaning of


filter
Change cartridges regularly (see chapter 04) and, if the pressure
drop indicator gives alarm, as soon as possible. As the useful life
of the cartridges is largely dependent on fuel quality, centrifuging
and filtering before the engine, experience from the installation
concerned will give the most suitable intervals between changes
of cartridges.
Change of cartridges and cleaning is most conveniently done
during stoppage. See also instructions about fuel oil handling in
chapter 02A. (Environmental Hazards). By closing one side of the
filter the cartridges can, however, be changed during operation
as follows:

Warning! Take care not to open the side of the filter in operation.

Pilot fuel filter

1 2

1. Vent screw
Both sides in use
2. Cover
3. Cartridge 3
6. Drain plug
7. Mark
8. Three-way valve B

Left side in use

6
7

Fig 17F-2 5017070334

1 Shut off the filter side to be maintained by turning the


three-way valve (8) to correct position, see Fig 17F-2.

17F - 2 W50DF
50-200439 Pilot fuel filter Appendix F

Warning! Take care not to open the side of the filter in operation.

2 Open the air vent screw (1) carefully to depressurise the


filter to be maintained.
3 Open the drain plug (6) on the bottom of the filter and
drain the fuel.

Warning! Fuel oil may splash during opening the drain plug.

4 Open the filter cover (2).


5 Remove the paper cartridge(s) (3), and put it in a con-
tainer for oil contaminated waste, see chapter 02A. Environ-
mental Hazards. Paper cartridges cannot be cleaned. Always
keep a sufficient quantity of cartridges in stock.

Note! Dispose the used filter cartridges properly!

6 Clean and rinse filter housing carefully with gas oil.


Check the condition of the seals, renew the O-rings.
7 Fit new paper cartridges. Check that all seals are intact
and in position.
8 Mount the drain plug (6) and cover (2).
9 Change slowly over to working position to avoid quick
pressure drop, see section 17.F1.3
10 Close the air vent screw (1) after the air has exited. See
section 17.F1.3

W50DF 17F - 3
Appendix F Pilot fuel filter 50-200439

17.F1.3 Venting
Always vent the filter after changing cartridges in the filter.
The air can be vented through the respective air vent screw (1). If
the engine is running, the change-over of the three-way valve
should be carried out very carefully to give only a small flow of fuel
to the filter side to be vented. Vent the filter side. Set the three-way
valve in normal operation position, see Fig 17F-2.
A sudden change-over of the three-way valve to an empty filter
side will cause a temporary pressure drop in the engine system,
and the alarm switch will give a signal for too low fuel pressure.
This may also cause the risk of air escaping from the filter to the
pilot fuel pump, which may also cause the engine to stop.

Caution! To avoid air escaping to the pilot fuel pump, fill up the filter with
clean fuel before changing over.

Note! When the injection valve has been changed, the engine might
need several start attempts due to air in the pilot fuel system.

17F - 4 W50DF
46-200521-06 Lubricating oil system

18. Lubricating oil system

18.1 Description
The marine engines lubrication systems are of dry oil sump type and
power plant engines are of wet oil sump type. The oil is filtrated/sepa-
rated outside the engine.
Besides lubrication of pistons, bearings, etc. the lube oil also conducts
heat transfer and is cleaning the engine inside. Various auxiliary
devices i.e. filters and coolers, keeps the oil conditioned.
The system components outside the engine are not handled in this
manual. For a more detailed information, see installation specific
documentation.
A general overview of the engine lube oil system is shown in Fig 18-1.

Lube oil system

Fig 18-1 461801

System components:
01 Oil sump
02 Centrifugal filter (optional)
03 Sampling cock
04 Running-in filter
05 Turbine (turbo charger connected to engine lube oil system)
06 Compressor (turbo charger connected to engine lube oil system)
07 Crankcase breather
08 Lubricating oil main pump (optional)
09 Pressure control valve (optional)

W46/W50DF 18 - 1
Lubricating oil system 46-200521-06

Pipe connections:
201 Lubricating oil inlet
202 Lubricating oil outlet
203 Lubricating oil inlet to engine driven pump
204 Lubricating oil outlet from engine driven pump
701 Crankcase air vent
X Condense water drain
Y Intermediate gear wheels
Z Lube oil to valve gear, camshaft, injection pumps etc.
PI Manometer
TI Thermometer

Electrical instruments:
PSZ201 Lubricating oil inlet pressure
PT201 Lubricating oil inlet pressure
TE201 Lubricating oil inlet temperature
TE700.. Main bearing temperature

The oil pressure in the engine is controlled by the pressure regulating


valve (09), see Fig 18-1.

Note! See installation specific documentation for a more detailed lube oil
system drawing.

18.1.1 The engine lubricating oil circuit

From the distributing pipe (1) in the bottom of the oil sump, the oil is
forwarded as shown in Fig 18-2.
Lubricating oil is led through the gudgeon pin and piston up to the
piston crown cooling space and thereafter returned to the oil sump.
Part of the lube oil is furthermore merged to the skirt lubrication before
returned to oil sump, see Fig 18-3.
When returned to oil sump the oil flows freely back to the oil tank.

18 - 2 W46/W50DF
46-200521-06 Lubricating oil system

Lubricating oil supply to bearings and piston

8. To the Piston

7. Gudgeon Pin Bearings

6. Up through the Connecting Rod

5. Connecting Rod Bearings

4. Through the Crankshaft

3. Main Bearings

2. Up through the hydraulic jacks

1. Distributing pipe at the bottom of the oil sump

Fig 18-2 461802

Lubricating oil flow in the piston and cylinder liner

A. Lube oil to piston skirt lubrication

B. Lube Oil to piston

Fig 18-3 461803

W46/W50DF 18 - 3
Lubricating oil system 46-200521-06

18.1.1.1 Lubrication of special points


The lubrication oil system in the engine incorporates pipes which
supply lubricant to the most important operation points. Pipes are
situated in both ends of the engine, where the oil is led or sprayed to
various points.

Lubricating oil supply piping in flywheel end, In-line engine

1 3 4 7

2
5
4

6 6

Fig 18-4 461804

1. Governor drive bearings


2. Governor drive gears
3. Camshaft end bearings
4. Intermediate gears
5. Driving gears
6. Driving gears
7. Turbocharger (if lubricated by engine oil system)

18 - 4 W46/W50DF
46-200521-06 Lubricating oil system

Lubricating oil supply piping in flywheel end, V-engine

4
1 5

3 3

4 4

Fig 18-5 461812

1. Governor drive bearings


2. Governor drive gears
3. Camshaft thrust bearings
4. Intermediate gears
5. Bearings of intermediate gears
6. Turbocharger (if lubricated by own oil system)

W46/W50DF 18 - 5
Lubricating oil system 46-200521-06

Lubricating oil from the free end, In-line engine

B
B
C
C, D C

Fig 18-6 461805

A Lubricating oil to camshaft bearings, tappets, valve mechanisms and fuel


pumps.
Also to turbocharger, when lubricated by engine oil and located in
engine free end.
B Lubricating oil to water pumps (if pumps built on engine)
C Lubricating oil to water pump drive (engine driven pumps)
D Lubricating oil to oil pump drive (engine driven pumps)

Note! The turbocharger (VTR-turbochargers) and the speed governor


have own lubricating oil systems, see installation specific docu-
mentation.

18 - 6 W46/W50DF
46-200521-06 Lubricating oil system

Lubricating oil from the free end, V-engine

Fig 18-7 461813

A Lubricating oil to camshaft bearings, tappets, valve mechanisms and fuel


pumps.
Also to turbochargers, if connected to engine lubricating oil system and
situated in the free end.

W46/W50DF 18 - 7
Lubricating oil system 46-200521-06

18.1.2 General maintenance

Only use high quality oils approved by engine manufacturer according


to section 02.2.

Caution! Utmost cleanliness should be observed when treating the lubricat-


ing oil system. Dirt, metal particles and similar may cause serious
bearing damage. When dismantling pipes or components from the
system, cover all openings with blank gaskets, tape or clean rags.

Note! When storing and transporting oil, take care to prevent dirt and
foreign matters from entering the oil. When refilling oil, use a screen.

18.2 Lubricating oil pressure regulating valve

18.2.1 Description

The lubricating oil system is equipped with a pressure regulating valve


(2) to keep the oil pressure constant in the lubricating oil feed pipe
under variable conditions such as pressure changes after feed pump,
pressure drop, changes in coolers and filters etc. The valve can be of
different type and its place depends on the installation design, see Fig
18-8 and Fig 18-11.

Location of the pressure regulating valve, In-line engines

Alternative 1 Alternative 2

Fig 18-8 461806

18 - 8 W46/W50DF
46-200521-06 Lubricating oil system

Location of the pressure regulating valve, V- engines

Alternative 1 Alternative 2

Safety valve
2

Fig 18-9 461814

Note! The pressure regulating valve should not be mixed up with the safety
valve, which looks identical.

Various types of lubricating oil pressure valve are used. Two different
types are described in this chapter, see Fig 18-10 and Fig 18-11.

Pressure regulating valve, type A

Oil in To the crankcase

3 4

Control oil
pressure

13 11 5 19 10

Fig 18-10 461815

W46/W50DF 18 - 9
Lubricating oil system 46-200521-06

Oil pressure itself is working as a controlling media by operating the


servo piston (5) and further the actual regulating piston (4), see Fig
18-10.
If, for some reason, the pressure should increase too high in the
pressure pipe, e.g. due to clogged system, the ball (11) will open and
admit oil to pass to the servo piston (5) which will open the regulating
piston (4) by means of the pin (3). Thereby serving as a safety valve.

Pressure regulating valve, type B

B. To the crankcase
10 4

A. Oil in

C. Control oil 5
pressure

Fig 18-11 461807

A. Oil in
B. Oil to the crankcase
C. Control oil pressure
2. Pilot control piston
3. Choke
4. Main regulating piston
5. Spring chamber

The oil pressure affects through the choke (3) also in the spring
chamber (5) to the back side of the main regulating piston (4) thus
demanding less spring power to keep the valve closed, see Fig 18-11.
The feed pressure is also merged to the pilot control piston (2). When
the control pressure reaches the preadjusted value, the pilot control
piston opens and releases the pressure in spring chamber (5).
The pressure drop in chamber (5) makes the f