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3d-Frequency Receiver

Since it is designed to receive RF signals at 10.7 MHz, the tuned receiver must be
selective enough to reject other signals which are not at 10.7 MHz. The ability of a
receiver to reject other signals is called selectivity, and depends on the filters and
amplifiers at the receiver inputs, and the kind of detector used. Selectivity may be
measured by varying the carrier frequency while evaluating the attenuation of the
signal at the AUDIO OUTPUT of the receiver. Decibels are generally used for
selectivity measurements. For example, if the audio signal is attenuated by 40 dB
when the carrier frequency is 20 kHz away from the frequency at which the
receiver is tuned, the selectivity is said to be 40 dB at 20 kHz from the received
frequency.

When the RF signal is weak, the receiver must be sensitive enough to produce an
audio output from the signal. The sensitivity is a measure of the ability of a
receiver to amplify weak input signals received at the antenna. Its value depends
on the gain of the RF amplifier; for a typical commercial receiver, the sensitivity is
about 1 V. The sensitivity may be estimated by evaluating the RF signal level at
the antenna below which signals can not be properly demodulated.
A limiter eliminates amplitude variations caused by noise or signal parasites on the
modulated signal. At the same time, the limiter prevents the signal from exceeding
certain limits. Figure 6-3 shows the effect of the limiter on a signal.

r
r 1
a) Limiter Input Signal J

b) Limiter Output Signal

U
J

Figure 6-3. Effect of the limiter.


J
J
You will vary the level of the input signal, and the action of
the limiter will be observed by measuring the output signal level.
At the output of the limiter, the signal has not yet been demodulated. Demodulation
is done by a crystal discriminator followed by an envelope detector after the lim-
iter; this circuit changes an FM signal into an amplitude-modulated FM signal
which is demodulated to give the audio signal. The crystal discriminator works on