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A Practical Method for Evaluating Effects of Fracture Charging and/or Ballooning When

Drilling High Pressure, High Temperature (HPHT) Wells

Ole A. Helstrup, SPE, M.K. Rahman, SPE, M.M. Hossain, SPE and Sheik S. Rahman, SPE, School of Petroleum

Engineering, University of New South Wales.

the driller to suspect breakout/fracturing in the absence of any

This paper was prepared for presentation at the SPE/IADC Drilling Conference held in analytical guidance. Thus, the paper has presented a novel

Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 27 February1 March 2001.

approach to analyse such a suspected situation during well

This paper was selected for presentation by an SPE/IADC Program Committee following drilling at HPHT conditions, and the information presented

review of information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). Contents of the

paper, as presented, have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers or the will assist engineers to avoid confusion and manage the well

International Association of Drilling Contractors and are subject to correction by the author(s).

The material, as presented, does not necessarily reflect any position of the SPE or IADC, their efficiently in such a situation.

officers, or members. Papers presented at the SPE/IADC meetings are subject to publication

review by Editorial Committees of the SPE and IADC. Electronic reproduction, distribution, or

storage of any part of this paper for commercial purposes without the written consent of the Introduction

Society of Petroleum Engineers is prohibited. Permission to reproduce in print is restricted to

an abstract of not more than 300 words; illustrations may not be copied. The abstract must Volumetric changes, both positive and negative, in the mud

contain conspicuous acknowledgment of where and by whom the paper was presented. Write system during drilling operation is commonly termed

Librarian, SPE, P.O. Box 833836, Richardson, TX 75083-3836, U.S.A., fax 01-972-952-9435.

ballooning. The change in volume, or ballooning volume, can

be quite large depending on the well in question, and might as

Abstract such give a false impression on the surface that the well is

Fluctuations in the returned mud volume have often been either taking a kick or that there is a lost circulation scenario.

observed when drilling HPHT wells. There are several To address this problem, especially in High Pressure High

contributing factors for this, out of which increased wellbore Temperature (HPHT) wells where the safety margins are often

volume due to elastic deformation and mud taken by natural quite small, various studies have been conducted in the past to

fractures are considered in this paper. These effects are be able to quantify the ballooning volume. It is commonly

significant in HPHT wells as a result of the high mud pressure accepted that the potential causes for ballooning is mud

required to control the well. This, however, can give the driller expansion or contraction due to both temperature and pressure

the misimpression that the extra mud volume is lost to the variations, deformation of borehole and casing and loss of

formation due to wellbore breakout and/or fractures. When the mud to natural fractures.

mud weight is reduced to prevent such a suspected mud loss, Bjrkevoll et al1 and Aadny2, based on the same two

the formation quickly regains its original volume and the example wells, conducted a study into the effects of both mud

lost mud is returned. This might again be misunderstood as expansion and contraction and the deformation of both

a kick and the mud weight is increased immediately to prevent borehole and casing by both numerical and analytical means.

the suspected kick. The repetition of this process a few times From these studies it was concluded that the mud ballooning

might eventually lead to an actual wellbore failure. was by far the most significant effect, with only minor

This paper presents a method to estimate the volumetric contribution coming from the deformation of borehole and

expansion of wellbores as a function of wellbore pressure. The casing. Further works on the subject of mud ballooning were

wellbore near-breakout/fracture pressure, which is of interest carried out by Krstad and Aadny3-9. However, the method

for this analysis, is established by considering different failure used in these works to calculate the effects of elastic

modes including helical shear, elongated shear and tensile deformation is based on the change in well pressure, without

fracture. The increases in wellbore volume are estimated at any consideration of in-situ stresses. In addition they were

this pressure as a limit below which the driller should not be considering fairly hard formation types, with E moduli of 30

fooled by the suspected breakout/kick situation and thus avoid GPa and 10 GPa. Combining this with open hole radii of

it leading to wellbore failure. 12.25 and 8.5 respectively, the total deformed volume is

The method to estimate the volumetric expansion is based small, whereas, using the same input data, the method

on analytical and numerical approaches. Analyses show that proposed in this paper estimates a higher deformed volume.

the diametric expansion of the wellbore may be in the range of Another cause of ballooning is the existence of natural

centimetres at a critical pressure, and thus a deep well may fractures or faults in the formation itself. When a mud fluid is

consume a significant number of extra mud barrels before injected in a borehole during drilling, some of the fluid can

actual breakout occurs. This might be alarming enough to lead

2 OLE A. HELSTRUP, M.K. RAHMAN, M.M. HOSSAIN AND SHEIK S. RAHMAN SPE/IADC 67780

enter into the natural fractures. The extra volume of mud to be Analytical Method of Borehole Deformation

taken by natural fracture depends on well pressure, local in- A closed-form analytical formula for radial displacement of

situ stresses, mechanical properties of the formation and the wellbore wall has been developed by superimposing two

fracture parameters such as geometry, size and orientation. cases:

This phenomenon is termed as fracture charging, and can have

a noticeable contribution on the overall borehole ballooning

Fluid filled wellbore without in-situ stresses.

effect. Temperature effects are believed to further influence In-situ stressed wellbore without any internal fluid

rock mechanical properties and near wellbore stress pressure.

distribution. Analytical and experimental works are in

progress to incorporate the temperature effect in the overall The solution of the first case is obtained according to E.

ballooning model. This effect is not however, included in this Fjr et al.11 starting with a vertical borehole in a linear elastic

paper because it is currently at an inconclusive stage. formation with isotropic horizontal stresses (i.e. H = h) it is

This paper presents an alternate approach to investigate the assumed that there are no shear forces acting on the surfaces.

effect of borehole ballooning due to elastic deformation using The body forces are also neglected and all quantities are

a Finite Element Method (FEM) and closed-form analytical independent of circumferential position of the wellbore () and

method. The effect of natural fracture charging is also taken its depth (z).

into account in this study based on fracture mechanics. Result The radial deformation of the wellbore for such a case is

of a sensitivity analysis are presented and discussed. A finally derived as:

systematic approach for predicting fracture charging volume

P h R 2 h

and sample case studies using the proposed method are u1 = w r .(1)

presented. 2G r 2( + G )

where and G are elastic moduli known as Lams parameters

Elastic Deformation of Borehole by FE Analysis

E 2 G

Finite element modelling and analysis of borehole deformation and can be expressed as G = and = in

are performed using a package, ANSYS (ANSYS users 2(1 + ) (1 2 )

manuals10). The well is considered to be vertical in a linear which h is the minimum horizontal stress; Pw is wellbore

elastic formation. The analysis is performed based on the pressure; R is wellbore radius; r is an arbitrary radius; E is

plane strain condition as the deformation in the vertical Youngs modulus and is Poissons ratio.

direction is ignored. The in-situ horizontal stresses can be Using a criterion of no in-situ stress (h = 0), Eq. 1 can be

both isotropic and anisotropic. The 3D geometry of a quarter reduced to

model with the dimensions used in this study is shown in Fig.

1. Only a quarter of the wellbore is modelled by taking the P R2

u1 = w .(2)

advantage of double symmetry. A block with dimensions 4.5 x 2G r

4.5m is used for the quarter model. The model thickness is At the wellbore wall, r = R where Eq. 2 can be rewritten as:

considered to be very small compared to other dimensions, so

an equivalent pseudo 2D FEM analysis could be performed P (1 + )

u1 = w R .(3)

instead. Boundary conditions and number of elements of the E

FEM model are shown in Fig. 2. The model is meshed using

SHELL 93 elements, which are suitable for a curved wellbore Note that Eq. 3 gives outward deformation, which is assumed

wall (ANSYS users manual, volume III, Elements). Each as positive.

node in these elements has six degrees of freedom where The radial diametrical displacement for the second case is

translations are considered in the nodal x, y and z directions given by Vutukuri et al.12 for a biaxial stress field and the

and rotations are about the nodal x, y and z axes. plane strain condition as:

To reflect symmetry, nodal deformations on line AB are

allowed only in the x-direction, while nodal deformations on u2 =

R

E

( )

1 2 [( H + h ) + 2( H h )cos 2] (4)

line ED are only allowed in the y-direction, as depicted in

Fig. 2. where H is the maximum horizontal in-situ stress and is the

Note that with the pseudo 2D model, one cannot apply angle measured anticlockwise from the positive H direction to

pressures directly on any of the sides of the model (Fig.2). the h direction. Note that Eq. 4 gives inward deformation

Instead, in-situ stresses and pressures can be applied as surface with compressive in-situ stresses as positive. However, this

loads or line pressures in the pseudo 2D model. Therefore, deformation is made negative to be consistent with the

the wellbore pressure Pw and the horizontal stresses, H and assumption of positive outward deformation in Eq. 3.

h, are converted to line pressures (Pwl , PHl , PHl) by Superimposing these two cases ( u = u1+u2) we get

multiplying by the model thickness (t = 0.01m) and applied as

shown in Fig. 2. Further, the model is defined so that the u=

R

E

[ ( ) ]

Pw (1 + ) 1 2 {( H + h ) + 2( H h )cos 2} (5)

major horizontal stress, H , is parallel with the x-axis ( = 0).

A PRACTICAL METHOD FOR EVALUATING EFFECTS OF FRACTURE CHARGING AND/OR BALLOONING

SPE/IADC 67780 WHEN DRILLING HIGH PRESSURE, HIGH TEMPERATURE (HPHT) WELLS 3

Finally, considering the effective stress concept, ' = Ppf , be implemented. If the mud pressure is decreased enough, the

where is the Biot constant; and Ppf is the pore fluid pressure. lost mud will be returned to the wellbore due to the fracture

Eq. 5 can then be written as: closing. However, the mud might have picked up

hydrocarbons from the formation as well as being stripped of

u=

R

E

[ ( ) ]

Pw (1 + ) 1 2 {(H + h ) + 2(H h ) cos 2} (6) weighting materials. This means that the returned mud is

lighter than it was originally. This, being coupled with the

fact that the mud weight was decreased on the surface to

Volume of Elastically Deformed Wellbore counter-act suspected lost circulation, might result in an actual

Under the influence of anisotropic horizontal stresses, the well kick. Even if this is not the case, it might be interpreted

transverse cross-section of a borehole becomes elliptic with this way on the surface, and the mud weight will again be

increasing axes as a function of depth. The volume of such a increased to prevent or contain the kick. This again will lead

deformed depth interval from the wellbore can be estimated by to the fractures being filled with mud, and again there will be

assuming a cone with elliptical cross-sections as shown in Fig. an observed loss of mud at the surface. As we can see from

3. The area of an elliptically deformed wellbore cross-section this type of scenario, one will end up with a chain of events

can be estimated as: which might in the end lead to either a kick or a real lost

circulation case, due to the formation being weakened as a

A = a b....(7)

result of the repeated opening and closing of the fractures.

where a and b are the major and minor radii of the deformed This type of problem is especially dangerous in HPHT

wellbore which are calculated using result from Eq. 6, such wells where the margin between upper and lower bounds of

that a = R + u at =90o and b = R + u at =0o. The volume of a safe mud weight is small, leaving little room for error. In

circular cone (i.e. a = b) with its top removed (Fig. 4), can be addition, the elevated pressures can lead to more severe

expressed as: blowouts, as well as altering the rheology of the drilling mud.

[ ]

In order to be able to continue drilling without being

h 2

V= a + a i a i +1 + a i2+1 .(8) misled by this process, it is necessary to estimate a critical

3 i pressure for fracture propagation and the extra volume of mud

For the elliptical cone in Fig. 3, we have to be absorbed at a wellbore pressure by all the fractures

intersecting the wellbore. Only then can one maintain the

a i2 = a i b i wellbore pressure below the critical pressure such that the well

is not damaged by natural fracture propagation, or continue

a i2+1 = a i +1 b i +1 ..(9) drilling at a slightly higher well pressure, if necessary, without

panic until the apparent loss of mud value exceeds the

a i a i +1 = a i b i a i +1 b i +1

estimated extra mud volume.

Based on works by Hossain et al.13 and Rahman et al.14, an

and the volume of the elliptical cone becomes analytical approach to approximate the fracture charging

volume has been formulated. Input parameters are the in-situ

V=

h

3

[ ]

a i b i + a i b i a i +1 b i +1 + a i +1 b i +1 (10) stresses, well trajectory (considered vertical), rock mechanical

properties and the number and orientation of the fractures for a

given section of well. In addition, one will have to know a

Further, if h , H , Pw and Ppf are linear in the depth interval

priori the shape and length of the fractures. A step-by-step

in question, displacement will also be a linear function of

approach for finding the fracture volume for a penny shaped

depth (Fig 4), and as such, one will only have to calculate the

crack is given below:

top and bottom values for displacement. However, it implies

that in intervals with rapidly changing gradients, one will have

(i). From the in-situ stresses and the pore pressure, calculate

to choose h with care to stay within a reasonable accuracy.

the principal stresses 1, 2 and 3 as well as determine

Summation of volumes of such depth interval will result in the

the mud weight range (Pw,min to Pw,max) for an intact

total volume of the open hole interval.

formation by any of the well-documented procedures.

(iii). Based on the type of formation and rock properties one

Fracture Charging

can calculate the fracture propagation pressure, Pfprop, as:

Fracture charging, also known as super charging, is the

process where natural fractures in the formation are opened by K Ic

the well pressure and filled with drilling mud. Depending on Pfprop = + n ...(11)

C L

size, number and direction of fractures, as well as in-situ stress

conditions and the well pressure, there will be a perceived loss where KIc is the formation toughness; n is the stress

of mud on the surface. Depending on the observed lost normal to the fracture surface called closer stress, which

volume, this might be interpreted as a lost circulation scenario can be calculated as a function of in-situ stresses and

and the standard response of decreasing the mud weight might location of the fracture. Note that Pfprop is the minimum

4 OLE A. HELSTRUP, M.K. RAHMAN, M.M. HOSSAIN AND SHEIK S. RAHMAN SPE/IADC 67780

pressure at which a fracture will start propagation. This 4.1610-5m while for case 2 the change is from 1.1410-3m to

means that one has to choose a mud weight in the range 1.6410-3m. Well pressure and Poissons ratio follow a similar

Pw,min < Pw < Pw,max and Pw < Pfprop to avoid fracture trend. It should also be noted that these values are only

propagation. representative for the conditions specified. From Figs. 8 and

(iii). The volume of a fracture, Vfrac of a given fracture size 9, it can also be observed that a change in E modulus will

can be calculated as: greatly alter the total displacement. For instance, for R =

0.10795m, = 0.30 and =45, displacements for E = 0.1 GPa,

Vfrac = COD L2 ..(12) E = 1.0 GPa, E = 10 GPa and E =100 GPa are 3.210-3m,

3 3.210-4m, 3.210-5m and 3.210-6m, respectively. These

results also clearly show that the total displacement is

2 +1 L approaching zero with increasing values of E. For the sake of

COD = KI .(13)

G 2 this sensitivity study, Youngs modulus and Poissons ratio

have been varied independently, which may not be true in a

K I = C L (Pf n ) ...(14)

real situation. However, the objective of the current study is to

find the independent effects of different parameters on elastic

where L is the fracture length; C is a constant depending deformation.

on the fracture geometry and is equal to 2/ for a penny As illustrated in the above paragraphs, and also referring to

shaped crack15 and Pf is the fracture fluid pressure, which the data in Tables 3 and 4 and the volumes derived from these

is a function of well pressure Pw. For the purpose of this displacements (Table 5), one can see that the deformation and

analysis Pf is assumed to be equal to Pw. and = 3 - 4 resulting volumetric change is insignificant for hard

for a plane strain condition. materials, like steel pipe, while for softer formations

(iv). Sum up all the volumes calculated using Eq. 12 for all deformations becomes more and more significant with

fractures intersecting the wellbore. increasing values of wellbore radius, well pressure and

Poissons ration and a decrease in Youngs modulus. Of the

Results and discussion factors considered in Eq. (6) for deformation, there are only

Results of finite element (numerical) analysis have been used two of which can be controlled, namely well pressure and

to verify the analytical method proposed for elastic borehole radius.

deformation of bore holes. Rock properties, borehole data and The most important task in the estimation of the fracture

in-situ stresses are presented in Tables 1 and 2. Calculated charging volume is the characterization of natural fractures for

radial displacements are summarised in Tables 3 and 4 at given in-situ stresses, and mechanical properties of the

depths 1100m and 1200m TVD. DN, max and DA, max are the formation. Characterization of natural fractures includes

maximum numerical (finite element) and analytical identifying fractures geometry (shape and size), as well as

displacements which occur at = 90 while DN,min and DA,min position and orientation at any depth for a given formation.

are the minimum displacements at = 0. Calculations have The orientation and density of natural fractures at a given

been performed for two different radii, R1 and R2. Obviously, depth can usually be predicted from a combined analysis of

the depth interval considered is a short length compared to the Formation Micro-Scanner (FMS) and Dipole Sonic Imager

possible total open hole section of a well, which can be more (DSI) logs analysis16. Natural fracture characterisation is

than 100 m. It can, however, clearly be seen from the data in beyond the scope of this study. However, a set of hypothetical

Tables 3 and 4 that analytical results are good approximation natural fractures is considered to demonstrate the calculation

of borehole radial displacements and for soft formation (low of fracture charging volume.

values of E) there will be a considerable deformation leading The fracture propagation pressures, Pfprop are calculated

to a significant loss of mud. Using radial displacements, the using Eq. (11) with fracture toughness, KIc = 1.0 MPam,

volumetric changes due to elastic deformation are presented in Youngs modulus, E = 0.40 GPa and Poissons ratio, = 0.30.

Table 5 for various rock properties. It can be seen that the Results are plotted in Fig. 10. It can be seen from this figure

change in volume ranges from 1.964 10-4 m3 to 0.234 m3 for that fractures at = 0o propagate at relatively low pressures

the 100m interval of well considered. unless they are very short. With increasing , fractures require

From Figs. 59 it is observed that the wellbore higher pressures for propagation. Irrespective of positions,

displacement is a linear function of wellbore radius, well extremely short fractures require very high pressures for

pressure and Poissons ratio and is inversely proportional to propagation. For given in-situ stress gradients, wellbore

Youngs modulus. Further, displacements for wellbore radius pressure and formation properties, the variation of fracture

and Poissons ratio change along the circumference () of the volume as a function of fracture length and orientation is

wellbore. For instance, for the two sets of rock properties shown in Fig. 11. Fracture volume generally increases with

(Case 1: E = 10 GPa; = 0.15 and Case 2: E = 0.4 GPa; = fracture length up to its orientation = 30o beyond which the

0.30), and with =45, it is found that for a change in wellbore volume approaches to zero indicating that these fractures is

radius from 0.10795m (8.5 hole) to 0.15558m (12.25 hole), not opened by the wellbore pressure. To demonstrate the

displacement for case 1 changes from 2.8910-5m to calculation of fracture charging volume, a set of hypothetical

A PRACTICAL METHOD FOR EVALUATING EFFECTS OF FRACTURE CHARGING AND/OR BALLOONING

SPE/IADC 67780 WHEN DRILLING HIGH PRESSURE, HIGH TEMPERATURE (HPHT) WELLS 5

arbitrary fractures are considered, as presented in Table 6. paper. For more direct inclusion of temperature effects on

Propagation pressures, Pfprop for each fracture is calculated and elastic borehole deformation and fracture charging volume, the

presented in column 4 in Tables 6. Then the well pressure current authors are carrying out further analytical and

gradient, 16.82 kPa/m is applied, which has been used for experimental studies, the results of which will be reported

calculation of elastic wellbore deformation. Column 5 in elsewhere in the future.

Table 6 contains wellbore pressures at fracture depths for

Nomenclature

which fracture volumes are calculated and presented in

E = Youngs modulus

column 6. It is found that some of the fractures propagate,

= Poissons ratio

some have been taken mud without propagating and the rest

G = shear modulus

have remained unaltered. Fracture propagation is not

conducted as part of this study and therefore volumes = Lame's parameter

calculated for fractures, which would propagate, are due to H = maximum horizontal stress

their initial lengths as presented in Table 6. It is, however, H = minimum horizontal stress

clear that these fractures would take an extra mud volume of v = vertical stress

10.44 m3 (summation of all fractures volume) on top of the n = closure stress normal to the fracture surface

extra volume due to elastic deformation. The extra volume due 1,2,3 = maximum, intermediate and minimum principal

to elastic deformation of the well with R = 0.16193m, E = 0.4 stress on the borehole wall

GPa and = 0.30 is calculated before as 0.234m3. The total Pw = well pressure

extra mud volume, which would seem to be lost, is thus PH = maximum horizontal line pressure

10.674m3. Therefore, one should expect such a significant PH = minimum horizontal line pressure

volume of apparent mud loss, at the least if extra volume due Pwl = well line pressure

to slight fracture propagation is ignored, particularly where a Pw,min = lower bound of safe wellbore pressure

long fracture intersects the well close to = 0o. The mud loss Pw,max = upper bound of safe wellbore pressure

due to fracture charging, however, can be avoided altogether Ppf = formation pore pressure

by adjusting the well pressure such that the it does not exceed Pfprop = fracture propagation pressure

the critical pressure required to open the fracture that Pf = fracture fluid pressure

propagates with a minimum pressure, Pfprop among all the t = formation thickness for ANSYS modelling

fractures. Theoretically, this critical pressure can be calculated z = true vertical depth

from COD = 0, i.e., KI = 0. For the above-mentioned critical u = radial displacement for the borehole

fracture, if the pressure gradient in the well is adjusted for this R = wellbore radius

condition, the fracture charging volume becomes zero in r = arbitrary radius

Table 7. In this case, the extra mud volume would be due to a, b = deformed maximum and minimum wellbore radii

the elastic deformation only, which is definitely less than DN,max = maximum displacement (numerical)

0.234m3 due to the lower wellbore pressure. DN,min = minimum displacement (numerical)

DA,max = maximum displacement (analytical)

Conclusion DA,min = minimum displacement (analytical)

The study can be concluded as: T = thermal expansion coefficient

1. The analytical formulation proposed in this paper for Tf = original formation temperature

elastic deformation gives reasonably accurate results. KI = stress intensity factor

2. The elastic deformation of boreholes becomes KIc = formation toughness

significant in soft formations with larger borehole diameters. L = fracture length

3. Natural fractures parallel to the H direction ( = 0) are C = constant depending on fracture geometry

more likely to open at a representative wellbore pressure and COD = crack opening displacement

consequently take a considerably extra volume of mud. Vfrac = fracture volume

4. The procedure for calculating fracture charging volume = angle around the borehole measured anticlockwise

has been demonstrated considering a set of hypothetical from the x axis

natural fractures and it has been found that any longer fracture FEM = Finite Element Method

located close to = 0 takes an alarming volume of mud. TVD = True Vertical Depth

5. Fracture charging can be avoided altogether by adjusting HPHT = High Pressure High Temperature

the wellbore pressure below a critical pressure, the estimation FMS = Fomration Micro-Scanner

of which is explained in this paper. DSI = Dipole Sonic Imager

6. Results of temperature effects are not included in this References:

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Conference, Kristiansand, Norway, 1994.

6 OLE A. HELSTRUP, M.K. RAHMAN, M.M. HOSSAIN AND SHEIK S. RAHMAN SPE/IADC 67780

2. Aadny, B.S.: Evaluation of Ballooning in Deep Wells, 20. Somerton, W.H.: Thermal properties and temperature-related

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paper 56939, presented at the SPE Offshore Europe Conference, PROPERTIES

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Aalborg University, 1999.

Low Porosity Chalk 5 30 0.05 0.30

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Mizuta, Y., Sugawara, K and Tanaka, S.: Introduction to Rock R1 [m] 0.10795

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R2 [m] 0.16193

p.151-154, 1994.

13. Hossain, M.M., Rahman, M.K. and Rahman, S.S.: Hydraulic Biots Constant 0.75

fracture initiation and propagation: roles of wellbore trajectory, h [kPa/m] 15.182

perforation and stress regimes, Journal of Petroleum Science

and Engineering, 27, p. 129-149, 2000. H [kPa/m] 20.445

14. Rahman, M.K., Hossain, M.M. and Rahman, S.S: An Pw [kPa/m] 16.818

analytical method for mixed-mode propagation of pressurized Ppf [kPa/m] 12.727

fractures in remotely compresses rocks, International Journal

of Fracture, 103, p. 243-258, 2000.

15. Rice, J.R.: Mathematical Analysis in the mechanics of TABLE 3 - RADIAL BOREHOLE DISPLACEMENTS

fracture, Fracture, An Advanced Treatise 2, H. Liebowitz, H.

(editor) , Academic Press, New York and London, p191-311, AT THE DEPTH OF 1100m

1968.

16. Schlumberger, Website, http:\\www.connect.slb.com E DN,max DN,min DA,max DA,min

17. Baidyuk, B. V.: Mechanical Properties of Rocks at High [GPa] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm]

Temperatures and Pressures, translated from Russian by J.P. R1 200 0.28 0.00896 -0.00342 0.00893 -0.00455

Fitzimmons, Consultants Bureau, New York, 1967

18. Choi, S.K. and Tan, C.P. : Modelling of Effects of Drilling R2 200 0.28 0.01343 -0.00502 0.01340 -0.006821

Fluid Temperature on Wellbore Stability, SPE/ISRM paper R1 10 0.15 0.15303 -0.09338 0.15670 -0.098934

47304, presented at Eurock' 98, Trondheim, Norway, 8-10 July

R2 10 0.15 0.22603 -0.13771 0.23506 -0.148406

1998.

19. Guenot, A. and Santarelli, F.J.: Influence of mud temperature R1 0.4 0.30 4.57781 -1.61167 4.54607 -2.266760

on deep borehole behaviour, Rock at great Depth, V. Maury & R2 0.4 0.30 6.87596 -2.36371 6.81932 -3.400250

D. Fourmaintraux (eds.), Balkema, Rotterdam, p 809-817, 1989.

A PRACTICAL METHOD FOR EVALUATING EFFECTS OF FRACTURE CHARGING AND/OR BALLOONING

SPE/IADC 67780 WHEN DRILLING HIGH PRESSURE, HIGH TEMPERATURE (HPHT) WELLS 7

AT THE DEPTH OF 1200m

E DN,max DN,min DA,max DA,min

[GPa] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm]

R1 200 0.28 0.00977 -0.00373 0.00975 -0.00496

R2 200 0.28 0.01465 -0.00547 0.01462 -0.00744

R1 10 0.15 0.16693 -0.10187 0.17097 -0.10794

R2 10 0.15 0.24661 -0.15023 0.25646 -0.16191

R1 0.4 0.30 4.99375 -1.75803 4.95983 -2.47310

R2 0.4 0.30 7.50191 -2.57875 7.43997 -3.70977

Numerical Analytical

m3 bbls m3 bbls

-4 -3 -4

V1 (R1, E =200, = 0.28) 1.964 x 10 1.235 x 10 1.555 x 10 9.781 x 10-4

V2 (R2, E =200, = 0.28) 4.474 x 10-4 2.814 x 10-3 3.499 x 10-4 2.201 x 10-3

V3 (R1, E =10, = 0.15) 2.110 x 10-3 1.327 x 10-2 2.043 x 10-3 1.384 x 10-2

-3 -2 -3

V4 (R2, E =10, = 0.15) 4.687 x 10 2.948 x 10 4.597 x 10 2.891 x 10-2

V5 (R1, E =0.4, = 0.30) 0.103 0.648 0.077 0.484

V6 (R1, E =0.4, = 0.30) 0.234 1.472 0.174 1.094

FOR HYPOTHETICAL NATURAL FRACTURES AT FOR HYPOTHETICAL NATURAL FRACTURES AT

WELL PRESSURE GRADIENT 16.82 kPa/m WELL PRESSURE GRADIENT 15.182 kPa/m

TVD L Pfprop Pw Vfrac Comment TVD L Pfprop Pw Vfrac Comments

[m] [] [m] [MPa] [MPa] [m3] [m] [] [m] [MPa] [MPa] [m3]

1100 0 0.5 17.954 18.500 0.0012 Propagates 1100 0 0.5 17.954 16.700 0

1100 30 4 18.591 18.500 0.1232 1100 30 4 18.591 16.700 0

1120 45 1 20.837 18.836 0.0000 1120 45 1 20.837 17.004 0

1120 225 2 20.578 18.836 0.0000 1120 225 2 20.578 17.004 0

1130 0 10 17.436 19.005 10.099 Propagates 1130 0 10 17.436 17.155 0

1150 15 3 18.376 19.341 0.2177 Propagates 1150 15 3 18.376 17.459 0

1160 60 5 22.586 19.509 0.0000 1160 60 5 22.586 17.611 0

1180 15 0.25 18.644 19.845 0.0001 1180 15 0.25 18.644 17.815 0

8 OLE A. HELSTRUP, M.K. RAHMAN, M.M. HOSSAIN AND SHEIK S. RAHMAN SPE/IADC 67780

Wellbore Displacement = 0

m

0.01 m 4.5

m = 45

4.5

= 90

C

3.00E-04

2.00E-04

1.00E-04

0.00E+00

YZ XZ

D B -1.00E-04

-2.00E-04

y

z

x

1000 1250 1500 1750 2000

R

E A Depth [m]

Fig. 1- A 3D view of the model and model dimensions stresses and well pressure.

=0, Case 1

14 E lem ents Borehole Radius =45, Case 1

P hl =90, Case 1

=0, Case 2

D C 5.00E-02 =45, Case 2

4.00E-02 =90, Case 2

3.00E-02

2.00E-02

18 Elements

14 Elements

1.00E-02

y P Hl 0.00E+00

x

-1.00E-02

8

-2.00E-02

El

em

en

ts

P wl B

A

18 E lem ents

Fig. 2- Pressures and constraints applied to the model, as well as (Case 1 has E = 10 GPa , = 0.15; Case 2 has E = 0.4 GPa , =

the number of elements on each line. 0.30).

= 0, Case 1

= 45, Case 1

bi

Well Pressure = 90, Case 1

ai

= 0, Case 2

= 45, Case 2

1.00E-02

= 90, Case 2

5.00E-03

h

0.00E+00

-5.00E-03

b i+ 1

-1.00E-02

a i+ 1

0 5 10 15 20

Well Pressure [MPa]

Fig. 6- Displacement as a function of well pressure (Case 1 has E

= 10 GPa , = 0.15 and r = R1; Case 2 has E = 0.4 GPa , = 0.30

Fig. 3 Volume of an elliptical cone section. and r = R1)

A PRACTICAL METHOD FOR EVALUATING EFFECTS OF FRACTURE CHARGING AND/OR BALLOONING

SPE/IADC 67780 WHEN DRILLING HIGH PRESSURE, HIGH TEMPERATURE (HPHT) WELLS 9

= 0, E=10 GPa = 0

= 45, E=10 GPa Fracture Propagation Pressure = 15

Poisson's ratio = 90, E=10 GPa = 30

= 0, E=0.4 GPa = 45

= 45, E=0.4 GPa 50 = 60

= 90, E=0.4 GPa = 75

0 .0 0 6 40 = 90

Pw = 20.2 MPa

0 .0 0 4 30 Pw = 18.2 MPa

0 .0 0 2 20

0 10

-0 .0 0 2 0

-0 .0 0 4 0 2 4 6 8 10

0 0 .1 0 .2 0 .3 0 .4 0 .5 Fracture Lenght [m]

P o is s o n ' s R a tio

Fig. 10- Fracture propagation pressure for fractures of lengths

Fig. 7- Displacement as a function of Poissons ratio. 0.0 m < L < 10.0 m at TVD = 1200m.

= 0, =0.15

Low Range E modulus

= 45, =0.15

= 90, =0.15 Fracture Volume

0.200

0.150 = 0, =0.30

12

0.100 = 45, =0.30 = 0

10

0.050 = 90, =0.30 = 15

0.000 8

= 30

-0.050 6

-0.100

= 45

4

-0.150

2

0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 0

E Modulus [GPa] 0 5 10

Fracture Lenght [m]

Fig. 8- Displacement as a function of low range Youngs modulus.

High Range E Modulus

= 0, =0.15

0.0008 = 45, =0.15

= 90, =0.15

0.0006 = 0, =0.30

0.0004 = 45, =0.30

0.0002 = 90, =0.30

0

-0.0002

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200

E Modulus [GPa]

modulus.

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