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EXAMPLE 1:

THREE-SPAN CONTINUOUS
STRAIGHT COMPOSITE
I GIRDER
(Third Edition -- Customary U.S. Units)
by and
Michael A. Grubb, P.E. Robert E. Schmidt, E.I.T.
Bridge Software Development International, Ltd. SITE-Blauvelt Engineers
Cranberry Township, PA Pittsburgh, PA

B S D I

DESIGN PARAMETERS

SPECIFICATIONS: LRFD Third Edition (2004)

STRUCTURAL STEEL:
- ASTM A 709 Grade HPS 70W
for flanges in negative-flexure regions
- ASTM A 709 Grade 50W
for all other girder and cross-frame steel
CONCRETE: f'c = 4.0 ksi
REINFORCING STEEL: Fy = 60 ksi

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Design Example 3-1

BRIDGE CROSS-SECTION

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CROSS-FRAMES
(Article 6.7.4.1)

The need for diaphragms or cross-frames shall be

investigated for all stages of assumed construction
procedures and the final condition. The investigation
should include, but not be limited to the following:
w Transfer of lateral wind loads from the bottom of the girder
to the deck & from the deck to the bearings,
w Stability of the bottom flange for all loads when it is in
compression,
w Stability of the top flange in compression prior to
curing of the deck,
w Consideration of any flange lateral bending effects, and
structure.

B S D I

Design Example 3-2

BRIDGE FRAMING PLAN

B S D I

CROSS-SECTION PROPORTIONS

Web Depth
Span-to-Depth Ratios (Table 2.5.2.6.3-1)
0.032L = 0.032(175.0) = 5.6 ft = 67.2 in.
Use 69.0 in.

Web Thickness (Article 6.10.2.1.1)

(t w )min. = D = 69 = 0.46 in .
150 150

B S D I

Design Example 3-3

CROSS-SECTION PROPORTIONS
(continued)

Flange Width (Article 6.10.2.2)

(b f )min. = D / 6 = 69. 0 / 6 = 11 .5 in .
(b fc )min. = L = 100(12) = 14. 1 in.
85 85
Flange Thickness (Article 6.10.2.2)

B S D I

B S D I

Design Example 3-4

CROSS-SECTION PROPORTIONS
(continued)

Flange Width-to-Thickness (Article 6.10.2.2)

bf 18
= = 10.3 < 12 .0 ok
2t f 2(0.875 )

Flange Moments of Inertia (Article 6.10.2.2)

1(16 )
3

I yc 12
= = 0 .51 0.1 < 0.51 < 10 ok
1.375 (18 )
3
Iyt
12

B S D I

(Article 3.5.1)

noncomposite section
- Concrete deck = 5.106 k/ft (incl. integral w.s.)
- Overhang tapers = 0.142 k/ft
- Deck haunches = 0.183 k/ft
- SIP forms = 0.480 k/ft
- Cross-frames = 0.120 k/ft
& details
TOTAL = 6.031 k/ft 4 girders = 1.508 k/ft +
girder weight

B S D I

Design Example 3-5

(continued)

composite section
- Barriers = 0.520/2 = 0.260 k/ft
Note: Distributed equally to exterior girder & adjacent
interior girder

- Wearing surface = [0.025 x 40.0]/4 girders = 0.250 k/ft
Note: Distributed equally to each girder

B S D I

HL-93 - (Article 3.6.1.2.1)

Design Truck:
or
Design Tandem:
Pair of 25.0 KIP axles
spaced 4.0 FT apart
superimposed on
0.64 KLF uniformly

B S D I

Design Example 3-6

(Article 3.6.1.3.1)

For negative moment between points of

n Add a second design truck to the design lane
front and rear axles of the two trucks equal to
50 feet.
n Fix the rear-axle spacing of both design trucks
at 14 feet, and
n Reduce all loads by 10 percent.

B S D I

(Article 3.6.1.4.1)

Design Truck only =>

n w/ fixed 30-ft rear-
axle spacing
n placed in a single
lane

B S D I

Design Example 3-7

DEFLECTION EVALUATION

Deflection is taken as the larger of:

- That resulting from the design truck by
itself.
- That resulting from 25% of the design
truck together with the design lane

B S D I

(Article 3.8)

2
V 2
VDZ
PD = PB DZ = PB Eq. (3.8.1.2.1-1)
VB 10,000
PB = base wind pressure = 0.050 ksf for beams
V DZ = design wind velocity at elevation Z
V B = base wind velocity at 30 ft height = 100 mph

For this example, assume the bridge is 35 ft above low ground

& located in open country.

B S D I

Design Example 3-8

(continued)

V Z
VDZ = 2.5 Vo 30 ln Eq. (3.8.1.1-1)
VB Z o
V o = friction velocity = 8.2 mph for open country
V30 = wind velocity at 30 ft above low ground = V B = 100
mph in absence of better information
Z = height of structure above low ground (> 30 ft)
Zo = friction length of upstream fetch = 0.23 ft for open
country

B S D I

(continued)

VDZ = 2.5 (8 .20 )

100 35
ln = 103 .0 mph
100 0.23
(103 .0 )2
PD = 0.050 = 0.053 ksf
10,000

ok

B S D I

Design Example 3-9

Basic LRFD Design Equation
S ? i?iQi Rn = Rr Eq. (1.3.2.1-1)
where:
?i = ?D ?R ?I
? i 0.95 for maximum s
1
?i = D R I 0.95 for minimum s
= Resistance factor
Qi = Nominal force effect
Rn = Nominal resistance
Rr = Factored resistance = Rn
B S D I

Load Combination DC LL WA WS WL FR TU TG SE Use One of These at a

DD IM CR Time
DW CE SH
EH BR EQ IC CT CV
EV PL
Limit State ES LS
STRENGTH-I ?p 1.75 1.00 - - 1.00 0.50/1.20 ?TG ?SE - - - -
STRENGTH-II ?p 1.35 1.00 - - 1.00 0.50/1.20 ?TG ?SE - - - -
STRENGTH-III ?p - 1.00 1.40 - 1.00 0.50/1.20 ?TG ?SE - - - -
STRENGTH-IV - -
EH, EV, ES, DW ?p - 1.00 - - 1.00 0.50/1.20 - - - -
DC ONLY 1.5
STRENGTH-V ?p 1.35 1.00 0.40 0.40 1.00 0.50/1.20 ?TG ?SE - - - -
EXTREME-I ?p ?EQ 1.00 - - 1.00 - - - 1.00 - - -
EXTREME-II ?p 0.50 1.00 - - 1.00 - - - - 1.00 1.00 1.00
SERVICE-I 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.30 0.30 1.00 1.00/1.20 ?TG ?SE - - - -
SERVICE-II 1.00 1.30 1.00 - - 1.00 1.00/1.20 - - - - - -
SERVICE-III 1.00 0.80 1.00 - - 1.00 1.00/1.20 ?TG ?SE - - - -
FATIGUE-LL, IM & CE
ONLY - 0.75 - - - - - - - - - - -

Design Example 3-10

DC: Component and 1.25 0.90
Attachments
DD: Downdrag 1.80 0.45
DW: Wearing Surfaces 1.50 0.65
and Utilities
EH: Horizontal Earth
Pressure
Active 1.50 0.90
At-Rest 1.35 0.90
EV: Vertical Earth
Pressure
Overall Stability 1.35 N/A
Retaining 1.35 1.00
Structure 1.30 0.90
Rigid Buried
Structure 1.35 0.90
Rigid Frames 1.95 0.90
B S D I

(continued)

STRENGTH I
- DW -> Load factor = 1.25
STRENGTH III
- DW -> Load factor = 1.25
STRENGTH V
- DW -> Load factor = 1.25

B S D I

Design Example 3-11

STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

Strength Limit State
Interior Girder Exterior Girder
Bending Moment 0.807 lanes 0.950 lanes
Shear 1.082 lanes 0.950 lanes

Fatigue Limit State

Interior Girder Exterior Girder
Bending Moment 0.440 lanes 0.750 lanes
Shear 0.700 lanes 0.750 lanes

B S D I

STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
(continued)

N
DF = m 3 L
Nb
3
= 0.85 = 0.638 lanes
4

B S D I

Design Example 3-12

STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
(continued)

COMPONENT IM
Deck Joints All Limit States 75%
All Other Components
- Fatigue & Fracture Limit State 15%
33%
- All Other Limit States
(applied to design truck onlynot to design lane load)

B S D I

B S D I

B S D I

B S D I

B S D I

Design Truck + IM (SERVICE I):

(LL+IM) end span = 0.91 in. (governs)
(LL+IM) center span = 1.23 in. (governs)

100% Design Lane + 25% Design Truck + IM

(SERVICE I):
(LL+IM) end span = 0.60 + 0.25(0.91) = 0.83 in.
(LL+IM) center span = 0.85 + 0.25(1.23) = 1.16 in.

B S D I

Design Example 3-15

LRFD LIMIT STATES

The LRFD Specifications require examination of

the following limit states:

n SERVICE LIMIT STATE

n FATIGUE & FRACTURE LIMIT STATE
n STRENGTH LIMIT STATE
- (CONSTRUCTIBILITY)
n EXTREME EVENT LIMIT STATE

B S D I

SECTION PROPERTIES
Section 1-1 (@ 0.4L1)

Effective Flange Width (Article 4.6.2.6):

Interior Girder
L 100 .0 x 12
= = 300 .0 in.
4 4
or
b tf 16 .0
1 2.0 t s + = 12 .0 (9.0 ) + = 116 .0 in. (governs)
2 2
or
average spacing of girders = 144 .0 in.

B S D I

Design Example 3-16

SECTION PROPERTIES (continued)
Section 1-1 (@ 0.4L1)

Effective Flange Width (Article 4.6.2.6):

Exterior Girder

116.0 L 100 .0 x 12
+ = 58.0 + = 208.0 in.
2 8 8
or
116.0 b 16.0
+ 6.0 t s + tf = 58.0 + 6.0(9.0 ) + = 116.0 in.
2 4 4
or
116.0
+ width of the overhang = 58.0 + 42.0 in. = 100.0 in. (governs)
2

B S D I

SECTION PROPERTIES (continued)

Section 1-1 (@ 0.4L1)

Plastic Moment (Article D6.1 -- Appendix D):

Pt + Pw + Pc = A steelFy = 75 .25(50) = 3,763 kips

Ps = 0.85 fc' beff t s = 0.85 (4.0 )(100.0 )(9 .0) = 3,060 kips
3,060 kips < 3,763 kips PNA is in the top flange,use Case II
t c Pw + Pt Ps
y= + 1
2 Pc
= 0.44 in. from the top of the top flange
P
[ ]
Mp = c y 2 + ( t c y )2 + [Psd s + Pw d w + Pt dt ]
2tc
Mp = 170,382 kip - in. = 14,199 kip - ft

B S D I

Design Example 3-17

SECTION PROPERTIES (continued)
Section 1-1 (@ 0.4L1)

M D 1 MD 2 M AD
Fy = + +
S NC SLT S ST

1.25 (2,202 )(12 ) 1 .25(335 )(12 ) + 1.50 (322 )(12 ) MAD

50 = 1.0 + +
1,973 2,483 2,706
MAD = 78,206 kip- in. = 6,517 kip-ft
My = MD1 + MD2 + MAD
My = 1.0[1.25 (2,202 ) + 1.25(335 ) + 1.50 (322 ) + 6,517 ]
My = 10,171 kip-ft (Mp / My = 1.4)

B S D I

SECTION PROPERTIES (continued)

Section 2-2 (@ Interior Pier)

Effective Flange Width (Art. 4.6.2.6):

Exterior Girder = 100.5 in.
Min. Concrete Deck Reinforcement (Article 6.10.1.7):

A deck =
9.0
(43 .0) + 2 1 3.0 + 0 .5 3. 5 18 2 = 33.17 ft 2 = 4,776 in.2
12 12 2 12
0.01( 4,776 ) = 47 .76 in.2
47 .76
= 1.11 in.2 ft = 0.0926 in.2 in.
43.0

the deck

B S D I

Design Example 3-18

Constructibility

B S D I

DECK-PLACEMENT SEQUENCE

B S D I

Design Example 3-19

Table 1: Moments from Deck-Placement Analysis

Length (ft) 12.00 24.00 42.00 48.00 56.00 72.00 84.00 96.00 100.00
Steel Weight 143 250 341 353 352 296 206 74 21
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
SIP Forms (SIP) 63 110 147 151 150 124 84 27 4
Cast
1 870 1544 2189 2306 2387 2286 1983 1484 1275
2 -168 -336 -589 -673 -786 -1010 -1179 -1347 -1403
3 14 28 50 57 67 86 101 115 120
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sum of Casts + SIP 779 1346 1797 1841 1818 1486 989 279 -4
Max. +M 933 1654 2336 2457 2537 2410 2067 1511 1279
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
DC2 + DW 275 477 643 661 657 551 386 148 52

Deck, haunches + SIP 786 1360 1822 1870 1850 1528 1038 335 53

Table 2: Vertical Deflections from Deck-Placement Analysis

Length (ft) 12.00 24.00 42.00 48.00 56.00 72.00 84.00 96.00 100.00
Steel Weight -.17 -.32 -.47 -.50 -.51 -.47 -.39 -.29 -.25
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
SIP Forms (SIP) -.07 -.14 -.20 -.21 -.21 -.20 -.16 -.12 -.10
Cast
1 -1.32 -2.50 -3.78 -4.04 -4.27 -4.30 -3.95 -3.33 -3.08
2 .27 .52 .86 .96 1.08 1.25 1.32 1.32 1.31
3 -.01 -.03 -.04 -.04 -.05 -.05 -.05 -.04 -.03
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sum of Casts + SIP -1.14 -2.14 -3.16 -3.34 -3.46 -3.30 -2.84 -2.17 -1.91
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
DC2 + DW -.17 -.32 -.46 -.48 -.49 -.45 -.38 -.28 -.24
=====================================================================
Total -1.48 -2.78 -4.09 -4.32 -4.46 -4.22 -3.61 -2.74 -2.40

Deck, haunches + SIP-.92 -1.71 -2.47 -2.59 -2.64 -2.43 -2.02 -1.47 -1.27

Steel Weight -13. -53. -53. -13.

sum -13. -53. -53. -13.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
SIP Forms (SIP) -6. -21. -21. -6.
sum -19. -74. -74. -19.
Cast 1 -80. -55. -55. -80.
sum -99. -129. -129. -99.
Cast 2 13. -75. -75. 14.
sum -85. -204. -204. -85.
Cast 3 -1. -110. -110. -1.
sum -86. -314. -314. -86.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sum of Casts + SIP -73. -261. -261. -73.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
DC 2 + DW -26. -90. -90. -26.
=====================================================
Total -112. -404. -404. -112.

Deck, haunches -74. -261. -261. -74.

+ SIP

DECK-PLACEMENT ANALYSIS
(continued)

Calculate fbu: (at Section 1-1 -> 56-0 from abut.)

For STRENGTH I:

1.0(1.25)(2,889)(12)
Top flange: fbu = = 27.41 ksi
1,581
1.0(1.25)(2,889)(12)
Bot. flange: fbu = = 21.96 ksi
1,973

For STRENGTH IV:

1.0(1.5)(2,889)(12)
Top flange: fbu = = 32.89 ksi
1,581

1.0(1.5)(2,889)(12)
Bot. flange: fbu = = 26.36 ksi
1,973

B S D I

F = P tan

3. 5 ft
= tan 1 = 31 .3o
5.75 ft

B S D I

(continued)

Overhang deck forms: P = 40 lbs/ft

Screed rail: P = 85 lbs/ft
Walkway: P = 125 lbs/ft
Railing: P = 25 lbs/ft
Finishing machine: P = 3000 lbs

B S D I

(continued)

Determine if amplification of first-order

compression-flange fl is required: Lb = 24-0

CbR b
If: L b 1.2L p then, no amplification
fbm Fyc

0. 85
Otherwise: fl = f f Eq. (6.10.1.6-4)
fbm l1 l1
1 F
cr

Or: fl = ( AF)fl1 fl1

B S D I

(continued)

CbR b
L b 1.2L p Eq. (6.10.1.6-2)
fbm Fyc
Rb = 1.0
Cb = 1.0
fbm = fbu = -32.89 ksi (STRENGTH IV)
E
L p = 1.0rt where: rt = b fc
Fyc
1 Dc t w
12 1 +
Eq. (6.10.8.2.3-4) 3 b fc t fc
Eq. (6.10.8.2.3-9)
B S D I

(continued)

For the steel section at Section 1-1, Dc = 38.63 in.

16
rt = = 3.90 in .
1 38 .63(0.5 )
12 1 +
3 16(1)
1.0(3. 90) 29,000
Lp = = 7.83 ft
12 50

1.0(1.0 )
1.2(7. 83 ) = 11.59 ft < Lb = 24 .0 ft
32 .89 50

B S D I

(continued)

Therefore, amplification of the first-order

compression-flange fl is required:
CbR b 2E
Fcr =
Calculate Fcr: Lb
2 Eq. (6.10.8.2.3-8)

rt Note:
1.0(1.0) 2 (29,000)
Fcr = 2
= 52.49 ksi Fcr may exceed
24(12 ) RbRhFyc in this

3 .90 calculation.

B S D I

(continued)

The amplification factor is determined as:

For STRENGTH I:

0.85
AF = = 1.78 > 1. 0 ok
27.41
1
52.49

For STRENGTH IV:

0.85
AF = = 2.28 > 1. 0 ok
32.89
1
52. 49

B S D I

(continued)
For STRENGTH I:

P = 1 .0[1 .25 (255 ) + 1 .5(40 + 85 + 25 + 125 )] = 731 .3 lbs / ft

F = Fl = P tan = 731 .3 tan( 31 .3o ) = 444 .6 lbs / ft
FlL2 0.4446 (24 )2
Ml = b= = 21.34 kip ft
12 12
M 21 .34 (12 )
Top flange: fl = l = = 6 .00 ksi
Sl 1(16 )2 6

Ml 21 .34 (12 )
Bot. flange: fl = = = 3 .45 ksi
S l 1 .375 (18 )2 6

B S D I

Design Example 3-25

(continued)
For STRENGTH I:

Finishing machine:

P = 1. 0[1. 5( 3000 ) ] = 4,500 lbs

F = Pl = P tan = 4,500 tan( 31 .3 o ) = 2,736 lbs
PL 2.736 (24 )
Ml = l b = = 8.21 kip ft
8 8
M 8 .21(12 )
Top flange: fl = l = = 2 .31 ksi
Sl 1(16)2 6
M 8.21(12 )
Bot. flange: fl = l = = 1.33 ksi
Sl 1.375 (18)2 6

B S D I

(continued)

For STRENGTH I:

Top flange: fl total = 6.00 + 2.31 = 8 .31 ksi * AF

= (8.31)(1.78) = 14.79 ksi < 0.6Fyf = 30 ksi ok

Bot. flange: fl total = 3.45 + 1.33 = 4 .78 ksi * AF

= (4.78)(1.0) = 4.78 ksi < 0.6F yf = 30 ksi ok

B S D I

(continued)
For STRENGTH IV:

Dead loads: P = 1 . 0[1. 5 ( 255 + 40 + 85 + 25 + 125 )] = 795 lbs / ft

F = Fl = P tan = 795 tan( 31 . 3 o ) = 483 .4 lbs / ft

FlL2b 0 . 4834 (24 )2

Ml = = = 23 . 20 kip ft
12 12
M l 23 . 20 (12 )
Top flange: fl = =
2
= 6. 52 ksi
Sl 1(16 ) 6
Ml 23 . 20 (12 )
Bot. flange: fl = = = 3 .75 ksi
S l 1 .375 (18 )2 6

B S D I

(continued)

Top flange: fl total = 6.52 ksi * AF = 6.52(2.28) = 14.87 ksi

14.87 ksi < 0.6Fyf = 30 ksi ok

Bot. flange: fl total = 3.75 ksi * AF = 3.75(1.0) = 3.75 ksi

3.75 ksi < 0.6Fyf = 30 ksi ok

B S D I

Design Example 3-27

CONSTRUCTIBILITY - FLEXURE
(Article 6.10.3.2)

Determine if the section is a slender-web section:

2Dc E
5 .7 Eq. (6.10.6.2.3-1)
tw Fyc
2Dc 2(38 .63)
= = 154 .5
tw 0. 5
E 29,000
5 .7 = 5 .7 = 137 .3 < 154.5
Fyc 50
Therefore, the section is a slender-web section.
Go to Article 6.10.8 to compute Fnc.
B S D I

CONSTRUCTIBILITY - FLEXURE
(Article 6.10.3.2)

For discretely braced compression flanges:

fbu + fl f R hFyc Eq. (6.10.3.2.1-1)

1
fbu + fl f Fnc Eq. (6.10.3.2.1-2)
3
fbu f Fcrw Eq. (6.10.3.2.1-3)

For discretely braced tension flanges:

fbu + fl f R hFyt Eq. (6.10.3.2.2-1)

B S D I

Design Example 3-28

LOCAL BUCKLING RESISTANCE
Top Flange (Article 6.10.8.2.2)

Determine the slenderness ratio of the top flange:

b 16
f = fc = = 8. 0
2 t fc 2(1)

E 29,000
pf = 0.38 = 0.38 = 9 .2
Fyc 50

FLB

B S D I

6.10.8 Flexural Resistance - Composite Sections in

Negative Flexure & Noncomposite Sections

Basic Form of All FLB & LTB E q s

Fyr f pf
Fnc = 1 1 RbRhFyc
Fnc=RbRhFyc RhFyc rf pf
F n or M n Anchor point 1
Fnc=RbRhFyc Fyr Lb Lp
F m a x or Fnc = Cb 11 R R F RbRhFyc
M RhFyc Lr Lp b h yc
M maxmax

Anchor point 2

Mr r
Fr or M Fnc = Fcr RbRhFyc
compact noncompact CbRb2 E
2
(inelastic buckling) Lb

rt
nonslender slender
(elastic buckling)

Lr
B S D IL p o r p pf o rr r f L b o r b f c/ 2 t fc

Design Example 3-29

LAT. TORSIONAL BUCKLING
RESISTANCE (Article 6.10.8.2.3)

Determine the limiting unbraced length, Lr:

E
L r = rt Eq. (6.10.8.2.3-5)
Fyr

(3. 90) 29,000

Therefore: L r = = 29. 39 ft
12 35 .0
B S D I

LAT. TORSIONAL BUCKLING

RESISTANCE (Article 6.10.8.2.3)

Since Lp = 7.83 ft < Lb = 24.0 ft < Lr = 29.39 ft:

Fyr L b Lp
Fnc = Cb 1 1
L L RbR hFyc RbR hFyc
R hFyc r p
Eq. (6.10.8.2.3-2)
35.0 24.0 7.83
Fnc = 1.0 1 1 (1.0 )(1 .0)(50) = 38.75 ksi
1 . 0(50) 29.39 7.83
< 1.0(1 .0)(50) = 50 ksi
Therefore: FncLTB = 38.75 ksi (< FncFLB = 50.0 ksi)

Design Example 3-30

6.10.8 Flexural Resistance - Composite Sections in
Negative Flexure & Noncomposite Sections

Basic Form of All FLB & LTB E q s

Fyr f pf
Fnc = 1 1 R R F
Fnc=RbRhFyc R Fyc rf pf b h yc
F n or M n Anchor point 1 h
Fnc=RbRhFyc Fyr Lb Lp
F m a x or Fnc = Cb 11 RbRhFyc RbRhFyc
RhFyc Lr Lp
M
M maxmax

Anchor point 2

Mr r
Fr or M Fnc = Fcr RbRhFyc
compact noncompact CbRb2 E
2
(inelastic buckling) Lb

rt
nonslender slender
(elastic buckling)

Lr
B S D IL p o r p pf o rr r f L b o r b f c/ 2 t fc

CONSTRUCTIBILITY - FLEXURE
Top Flange
For STRENGTH I:
fbu + fl fR hFyc Eq. (6.10.3.2.1-1)

fbu + fl = 27 .41 ksi + 14 .79 ksi = 42 .20 ksi

fR hFyc = 1.0(1.0)(50 ) = 50 .0 ksi
42 .20 ksi < 50 .0 ksi ok (Ratio = 0.844 )
1
fbu + fl f Fnc Eq. (6.10.3.2.1-2)
3
1 14 .79
fbu + fl = 27 .41 ksi + ksi = 32.34 ksi
3 3
f Fnc = 1.0(38 .75) = 38 .75 ksi
32.34 ksi < 38.75 ksi ok (Ratio = 0.835 )

B S D I

Design Example 3-31

WEB BEND-BUCKLING
RESISTANCE (Article 6.10.1.9)
0.9Ek
Fcrw = 2
min(R hFyc , Fyw 0.7 )
D
Eq. (6.10.1.9.1-1)
tw
9
k=
(D c D)2
9
k= = 28 .7
(38.63 69.0 )2

0.9(29,000)(28.7)
Fcrw = 2
= 39 .33 ksi < R hFyc = 1.0(50) = 50 ksi ok
69 .0

0.5

B S D I

CONSTRUCTIBILITY - FLEXURE
Web & Top Flange (continued)
fbu f Fcrw Eq. (6.10.3.2.1-3)

fFcrw = 1.0(39.33) = 39.33 ksi

27.41 ksi < 39.33 ksi ok (Ratio = 0.697)

For STRENGTH IV:

fbu + fl f R hFyc Eq. (6.10.3.2.1-1)

fbu + fl = 32.89 ksi + 14.87 ksi = 47.76 ksi

fRhFyc = 1.0(1.0)(50) = 50.0 ksi
47.76 ksi < 50.0 ksi ok (Ratio = 0.955)

B S D I

Design Example 3-32

CONSTRUCTIBILITY - FLEXURE
Top Flange (continued) & Web
1
fbu + fl fFnc Eq. (6.10.3.2.1-2)
3

1 14.87
fbu + fl = 32.89 ksi + ksi = 37.85 ksi
3 3
fFnc = 1.0(38.75) = 38.75 ksi
37.85 ksi < 38.75 ksi ok (Ratio = 0.977)

f Fcrw = 1.0(39.33) = 39.33 ksi

32.89 ksi < 39.33 ksi ok (Ratio = 0.836)

B S D I

CONSTRUCTIBILITY

Calculate fbu due to the steel weight within the

unbraced length containing Section 1-1:
For STRENGTH III:
1.0(1.25)(352 )(12)
Top Flange: fbu = = 3.34 ksi
1,581
1.0(1.25)(352 )(12)
Bottom Flange: fbu = = 2.68 ksi
1,973
Calculate the factored wind force on the steel
section:
1 .0(1.25 )(0.053 )(2.0 + 69.0 + 2.0)
W= = 0.403 kips / ft
12

B S D I

Design Example 3-33

BRIDGE FRAMING PLAN

B S D I

CONSTRUCTIBILITY
Wind Load - Section 1-1 (continued)

Assume Span 1 of the structure resists the lateral

wind force as a propped cantilever with an
effective span length of 120-0 (i.e. assume top
lateral bracing provides an effective line of fixity
20-0 from the pier):

9 9
M11 = WL2e = (0.403)(120.0)2 = 408.0 kip ft
128 128

B S D I

Design Example 3-34

CONSTRUCTIBILITY
Wind Load - Section 1-1 (continued)

Proportion total lateral moment to top & bottom flanges

according to relative lateral stiffness of each flange. Then,
divide total lateral moment equally to each girder:

1(16) 3 1.375(18)3
Top Flg: Il = = 341.3 in.4 Bot Flg: Il = = 668 .3 in.4
12 12

408.0(341 .3)
Top Flange: Ml = = 34.48 kip ft
(341 .3 + 668 .3)4

408.0(668 .3)
Bottom Flange: Ml = = 67.52 kip ft
(341 .3 + 668 .3)4

B S D I

CONSTRUCTIBILITY
Wind Load - Section 1-1 (continued)

Separate calculations indicate that lateral bending stresses

in the top (compression) flange may be determined from a
first-order analysis (i.e. no amplification is required).

34.48(12)
Top Flange: fl = = 9.70 ksi < 0.6Fyf = 30.0 ksi ok
1(16) 2 6

Bottom Flange: fl = 67.52(12)

= 10.91 ksi < 0.6Fyf = 30.0 ksi ok
1. 375(18 )2 6

B S D I

Design Example 3-35

BRIDGE FRAMING PLAN

B S D I

CONSTRUCTIBILITY
Wind Load - Section 1-1 (continued)

Calculate the shear in the propped cantilever at the assume

effective line of fixity:

5 5
Vf f = WL e = (0.403 )(120.0 ) = 30.23 kips
8 8

Resolve the shear into a compressive force in the diagonal

of the top bracing:

(20.0 ) + (12.0 )
2 2

P = 30.23 = 58.76 kips
12.0

B S D I

Design Example 3-36

CONSTRUCTIBILITY
Wind Load - Section 1-1 (continued)

Separate calculations (see example) indicate a

compressive force of -19.04 kips in the diagonal
to the self-weight of the steel. Therefore, the total
compressive force in the bracing diagonal is:

(Note: refined 3D analysis => -67.0 kips)

B S D I

CONSTRUCTIBILITY
Wind Load - Section 1-1 (continued)

Estimate the maximum lateral deflection of Span 1 of the

structure (i.e. the propped cantilever) due to the factored
wind load using the total lateral moments of inertia of the
top & bottom flanges of all four girders at Section 1-1:

WL4e 0.403(120.0 )4 (1,728 )

l max. = = = 6.7 in.
185EI 185 (29,000 )(341 .3 + 668.3) 4

B S D I

Design Example 3-37

CONSTRUCTIBILITY
Performance Ratios
POSITIVE-MOMENT REGION, SPAN 1 (Section 1-1)

Constructibility (Slender-web section)

Flexure (STRENGTH I)
Eq. (6.10.3.2.1-1) Top flange 0.844
Eq. (6.10.3.2.1-2) Top flange 0.835
Eq. (6.10.3.2.1-3) Web bend buckling 0.697
Eq. (6.10.3.2.2-1) Bottom flange 0.535
Flexure (STRENGTH III Wind load on noncomposite structure)
Eq. (6.10.3.2.1-1) Top flange 0.261
Eq. (6.10.3.2.1-2) Top flange 0.170
Eq. (6.10.3.2.1-3) Web bend buckling 0.085
Eq. (6.10.3.2.2-1) Bottom flange 0.272
Flexure (STRENGTH IV)
Eq. (6.10.3.2.1-1) Top flange 0.955
Eq. (6.10.3.2.1-2) Top flange 0.977
Eq. (6.10.3.2.1-3) Web bend buckling 0.836
Eq. (6.10.3.2.2-1) Bottom flange 0.602
Shear (96-0 from the abutment) (STRENGTH IV) 0.447

B S D I

CONSTRUCTIBILITY
Shear (Article 6.10.3.3)

Interior panels of stiffened webs must satisfy:

Vu v Vcr Eq. (6.10.3.3-1)

(Vu )DC1 = 1.0(1.5 )( 79) = 119 kips

at 96-0 from the abutment
Vn = Vcr = CVp Eq. (6.10.9.3.3-1)

C = 0.266 (for 207-inch stiffener spacing)

Vcr = 0.266(1,001) = 266 kips > Vu = 119 kips (Ratio = 0.447)

B S D I

Design Example 3-38

CONSTRUCTIBILITY
Section 2-2 (Interior Pier)

In regions of negative flexure, the constructibility checks

for flexure generally do not control because the sizes of the
flanges in these regions are normally governed by the sum
limit state. Also, the maximum accumulated negative
moments during the deck placement in these regions
typically do not differ significantly from the calculated DC1
negative moments. Deck overhang brackets and wind
loads do induce lateral bending into the flanges, which can
be considered using the flexural design equations.
Web bend-buckling and shear should always be checked in
these regions for critical stages of construction (refer to the
design example).

B S D I

CONSTRUCTIBILITY
Concrete Deck (Article 6.10.3.2.4)

Unless longitudinal reinforcement is provided

according to the provisions of Article 6.10.1.7,

fdeck fr = 0.9fr

B S D I

Design Example 3-39

Table 1: Moments from Deck-Placement Analysis

Length (ft) 12.00 24.00 42.00 48.00 56.00 72.00 84.00 96.00 100.00
Steel Weight 143 250 341 353 352 296 206 74 21
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
SIP Forms (SIP) 63 110 147 151 150 124 84 27 4
Cast
1 870 1544 2189 2306 2387 2286 1983 1484 1275
2 -168 -336 -589 -673 -786 -1010 -1179 -1347 -1403
3 14 28 50 57 67 86 101 115 120
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sum of Casts + SIP 779 1346 1797 1841 1818 1486 989 279 -4
Max. +M 933 1654 2336 2457 2537 2410 2067 1511 1279
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
DC2 + DW 275 477 643 661 657 551 386 148 52

Deck, haunches + SIP 786 1360 1822 1870 1850 1528 1038 335 53

M = 352 + 2,537 = 2,889 kip-ft

CONSTRUCTIBILITY
Concrete Deck (continued)

Calculate the longitudinal concrete deck tensile

stress at the end of Cast 1 (use n = 8):

1.0(1 .5)( 1,403 )(23 .20)(12)

fdeck = = 0.453 ksi > 0.432 ksi
161,518(8 )

Therefore, provide one-percent longitudinal

reinforcement (No. 6 bars or smaller @ 12).
Extend to 95.0 feet from the abutment.
Tensile force = (0.453)(100.0)(9.0) = 408 kips

B S D I

Service
Limit State
B S D I

SERVICE LIMIT STATE

Elastic Deformations (Article 6.10.4.1)

Use suggested minimum span-to-depth ratios

(optional - Article 2.5.2.6.3)
(optional - Article 2.5.2.6.2):

140 .0(12 )
End Spans: ALLOW = = 2.10 in. > 0 .91 in. ok
800
175 .0(12 )
Center Span: ALLOW = = 2.63 in. > 1.23 in. ok
800

B S D I

Design Example 3-41

SERVICE LIMIT STATE
Permanent Deformations (Article 6.10.4.2)

Under the SERVICE II load combination:

1.0DC + 1.0DW + 1.3(LL+IM)
Top steel flange of composite sections: ff 0 .95RhFyf
Eq. (6.10.4.2.2-1)

f
Bottom steel flange of composite sections: ff + l 0.95 RhFyf
2
Eq. (6.10.4.2.2-2)

Web bend-buckling: fc Fcrw

Eq. (6.10.4.2.2-4)

B S D I

SERVICE LIMIT STATE

Permanent Deformations (continued)

Check top flange (Section 1-1):

0.95RhFyf = 0.95(1.0)(50) = 47.50 ksi

ff 0.95RhFyf

1.0(2,202) 1.0(335 + 322) 1.3(3,510)

ff = 1.0 + + 12 = 22.30 ksi
1,581 4,863 13,805

(Ratio = 0.469)

B S D I

Design Example 3-42

SERVICE LIMIT STATE
Permanent Deformations (continued)

Check bottom flange (Section 1-1):

f
ff + l 0. 95RhFyf
2

1.0(2,202) 1.0(335 + 322) 1.3(3,510)

ff = 1.0 + + 12 = 36.80 ksi
1,973 2,483 2,706

36.80 ksi + 0 < 47.50 ksi ok

(Ratio = 0.77 5 )
For composite sections in positive flexure with D/tw 150,
web bend-buckling need not be checked at the service limit
state.

B S D I

SERVICE LIMIT STATE

Permanent Deformations (continued)

Check Section 2-2 (interior pier):

n Article 6.10.4.2.1 -- for members with shear connectors
provided throughout their entire length that also satisfy
the provisions of Article 6.10.1.7 (i.e. one percent
longitudinal reinforcement is provided in the deck
wherever the tensile stress in the deck due to the
combination exceeds the modulus of rupture), flexural
stresses caused by SERVICE II loads applied to the
composite section may be computed using the short-
term or long-term composite section, as appropriate,
assuming the concrete deck is effective for both
positive and negative flexure.

B S D I

Design Example 3-43

SERVICE LIMIT STATE
Permanent Deformations (continued)

Check Section 2-2 (interior pier):

n Flange major-axis bending stresses at Section 2-2 and
at the first flange transition located 15-0 from the
interior pier are checked under the SERVICE II load
combination and do not control. Stresses acting on the
composite section are computed assuming the concrete
is effective for negative flexure, as permitted in Article
6.10.4.2.1.
n Web bend-buckling must be checked for composite
sections in negative flexure under the SERVICE II load
combination:
fc Fcrw Eq. (6.10.4.2.2-4)

B S D I

WEB BEND-BUCKLING
RESISTANCE (Article 6.10.1.9)
0.9Ek
Fcrw = 2
min(R hFyc , Fyw 0.7 ) Eq. (6.10.1.9.1-1)
D

tw
9
where: k= Eq. (6.10.1.9.1-2)
(D c D )2
According to Article D6.3.1 (Appendix D), for composite
sections in negative flexure at the service limit state where
the concrete is considered effective in tension for
computing flexural stresses on the composite section, as
permitted in Article 6.10.4.2.1, Dc is to be computed as:
fc Eq. (D6.3.1-1)
D c = d t fc 0
fc + f t
B S D I

Design Example 3-44

WEB BEND-BUCKLING
RESISTANCE (Article 6.10.1.9)

Check the bottom-flange transition (controls):

1 .0 ( 2,656 ) 1 .0( 373 + 358 ) 1 .3 ( 2,709 )
f f = 1 .0 + + 12 = 38 .88 ksi
1,789 2,246 2 ,463

( 38 .88 )
D c = 71 .0 1 . 0 = 43 . 25 in . > 0 ok
38 . 88 + 23 . 51
9
k= = 22 .9
(43 .25 69 .0 )2
0.9(29,000)(22.9) 38 . 88 < 39 . 72 ksi
Fcrw = 2
= 39.72 ksi
69. 0
ok Ratio = (0.979)
0.5625

B S D I

SERVICE LIMIT STATE

Performance Ratios
POSITIVE-MOMENT REGION, SPAN 1 (Section 1-1)
Service Limit State
Permanent deformations (SERVICE II)
Eq. (6.10.4.2.2-1) Top flange 0.469
Eq. (6.10.4.2.2-2) Bottom flange 0.775
INTERIOR-PIER SECTION (Section 2-2)
Permanent deformations (SERVICE II)
Eq. (6.10.4.2.2-1) Top flange @ Section 2-2 0.415
Eq. (6.10.4.2.2-1) Top flange @ Flange transition 0.368
Eq. (6.10.4.2.2-2) Bottom flange @ Section 2-2 0.604
Eq. (6.10.4.2.2-2) Bottom flange @ Flange transition 0.609
Eq. (6.10.4.2.2-4) Web bend buckling @ Section 2-2 0.898
Eq. (6.10.4.2.2-4) Web bend buckling @ Flange transition 0.979

B S D I

Design Example 3-45

SERVICE LIMIT STATE
Concrete Deck (Article 6.10.1.7)

Calculate the longitudinal concrete deck tensile

stress in Span 1 at 95.0 ft from the abutment (use
n = 8):
1. 0 [1 . 0( 87 ) + 1 . 0( 83 ) + 1. 3 ( 1,701) ]( 23 . 20 )( 12 )
fdeck = = 0 . 440 ksi
161,518 ( 8 )
> 0.90f r = 0.432 ksi
Therefore, extend the one-percent longitudinal
reinforcement (No. 6 bars or smaller @ 12) to
94.0 feet from the abutment.
fdeck = 0.430 ksi < 0.432 ksi ok

B S D I

Fatigue &
Fracture Limit
State
B S D I

Design Example 3-46

B S D I

FATIGUE RESISTANCE
FIRST PRINCIPAL

For lower traffic volumes, fatigue resistance is

inversely proportional to the cube of the effective
stress range.

B S D I

Design Example 3-47

FATIGUE RESISTANCE
SECOND PRINCIPAL

For higher traffic volumes, fatigue resistance is

infinite if the maximum stress range is less than
the constant-amplitude fatigue threshold.

B S D I

(Article 3.6.1.4)

The specified load condition for fatigue is a single

truck; the current HS20 truck with a fixed rear-
axle spacing of 30-0.

The truck occupies a single lane on the bridge --

not multiple lanes.

The fatigue load produces a lower calculated

stress range than the Standard Specifications.

B S D I

Load Combination DC LL WA WS WL FR TU TG SE Use One of These at a

DD IM CR Time
DW CE SH
EH BR EQ IC CT CV
EV PL
Limit State ES LS
STRENGTH-I ?p 1.75 1.00 - - 1.00 0.50/1.20 ?TG ?SE - - - -
STRENGTH-II ?p 1.35 1.00 - - 1.00 0.50/1.20 ?TG ?SE - - - -
STRENGTH-III ?p - 1.00 1.40 - 1.00 0.50/1.20 ?TG ?SE - - - -
STRENGTH-IV - -
EH, EV, ES, DW ?p - 1.00 - - 1.00 0.50/1.20 - - - -
DC ONLY 1.5
STRENGTH-V ?p 1.35 1.00 0.40 0.40 1.00 0.50/1.20 ?TG ?SE - - - -
EXTREME-I ?p ?EQ 1.00 - - 1.00 - - - 1.00 - - -
EXTREME-II ?p 0.50 1.00 - - 1.00 - - - - 1.00 1.00 1.00
SERVICE-I 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.30 0.30 1.00 1.00/1.20 ?TG ?SE - - - -
SERVICE-II 1.00 1.30 1.00 - - 1.00 1.00/1.20 - - - - - -
SERVICE-III 1.00 0.80 1.00 - - 1.00 1.00/1.20 ?TG ?SE - - - -
FATIGUE-LL, IM & CE
ONLY - 0.75 - - - - - - - - - - -

B S D I

In the LRFD Specification, 75% of the stress

range due to the fatigue load is considered to be
representative of the effective stress range; that
is, the stress range due to an HS-15 truck
weighing 54.0 kips with a fixed rear-axle spacing
= 0.75)
The maximum stress range is assumed to be
twice the effective stress range (i.e. stress range
due to a 108-kip truck)

B S D I

Design Example 3-49

NOMINAL FATIGUE RESISTANCE
(Article 6.6.1.2.5)

In the LRFD Specifications, the nominal fatigue

resistance is specified as follows:
1

(F)n = A 1 (F)TH
3
Eq. (6.6.1.2.5-1)
N 2
N = ( 365 )( 75 )n( ADTT ) SL Eq. (6.6.1.2.5-2)

A = detail category constant (Table 6.6.1.2.5-1)

n = cycles per truck passage (Table 6.6.1.2.5-2)
(F)TH = constant-amplitude fatigue threshold
(Table 6.6.1.2.5-3)

B S D I

B S D I

B S D I

In the LRFD Specifications, the nominal fatigue

resistance is specified as follows:
1

(F)n = A 1 (F)TH Eq. (6.6.1.2.5-1)

3

N 2
N = ( 365 )( 75 )n( ADTT ) SL Eq. (6.6.1.2.5-2)

A = detail category constant (Table 6.6.1.2.5-1)

n = cycles per truck passage (Table 6.6.1.2.5-2)
(F)TH = constant-amplitude fatigue threshold
(Table 6.6.1.2.5-3)
B S D I

Design Example 3-51

NOMINAL FATIGUE RESISTANCE
(continued)

First and Second Principles of Fatigue Resistance

1
A 3
( f )e
N
( )
f max F TH ( )
----------------------------------------------------------------------
(f )max = 2.0(f )e
1
(f )e (F)TH
2
B S D I

(continued)

These LRFD Specification principals can be used

for design or evaluation :

B S D I

B S D I

where ADTT = number of trucks per day in one

direction averaged over the design
life (assumed to be 2,000 for this
example)

B S D I

Design Example 3-53

FATIGUE & FRACTURE LIMIT STATE

n Article 6.6.1.2.1 -- for flexural members with shear

connectors provided throughout their entire length, and
with concrete deck reinforcement satisfying the
provisions of Article 6.10.1.7 (i.e. one percent
longitudinal reinforcement is provided in the deck
wherever the tensile stress in the deck due to the
combination exceeds the modulus of rupture), the live-
load stress range may be computed using the short-
term composite section assuming the concrete deck is
effective for both positive and negative flexure.

B S D I

Check the top-flange connection-plate weld at 72-0 from

the abutment in Span 1:

1,824 (12 )(38 .63 )

fDC 1 = = 13.49 ksi
62 ,658
281 (12 )(23 .13 )
fDC 2 = = 0.665 ksi
117 ,341
14.16 ksi
2 (0 . 75 ) 496 (12 )(10 . 70 )
fLL + IM = = 0 . 591 ksi
161 ,518

14 . 16 ksi > 0 .591 ksi

Fatigue need not be checked at this detail.

B S D I

Design Example 3-54

FATIGUE & FRACTURE LIMIT STATE

Check the bottom -flange connection-plate weld at 72-0

from the abutment in Span 1 -- use the n-composite
stiffness to compute the stress range as permitted in Art.
6.6.1.2.1:

0 .75 (1,337 )(12 )(58 .31 ) 0 .75 496 (12 )(58 . 31 )

? (?f ) = +
161 ,518 161 ,518
= 5 . 96 ksi
1
(F)n = 3 (F)TH
A 1
Eq. (6.6.1.2.5-1)
N 2

B S D I

B S D I

Design Example 3-55

FATIGUE & FRACTURE LIMIT STATE

(ADTT)SL = 1,600 > 745 trucks per day (Category C)

1
( F )n = 2 ( F )TH
For a Category C detail, (F)TH = 12.0 ksi (Table 6.6.1.2.5-3). Therefore:

(F )n = 1 (12 .0 ) = 6.00 ksi

2
( f ) (F )n Eq. (6.6.1.2.2-1)

B S D I

FATIGUE & FRACTURE LIMIT STATE

Performance Ratios
POSITIVE-MOMENT REGION, SPAN 1 (Section 1-1)
Fatigue and Fracture Limit State
Base metal at connection plate weld to bottom flange 0.993
(72-0 from the abutment)
Stud shear connector weld to top flange 0.208
(100-0 from the abutment)
Special fatigue requirement for webs 0.618
(7-3 from the abutment)
INTERIOR-PIER SECTION (Section 2-2)
Fatigue and Fracture Limit State
Base metal at connection plate weld to top flange 0.113
(20-0 to the left of the interior pier)
Special fatigue requirement for webs (shear at interior pier) 0.636

B S D I

Design Example 3-56

FATIGUE & FRACTURE LIMIT STATE
Special Fatigue Req. for Webs (Article 6.10.5.3)

Interior panels of stiffened webs must satisfy:

Vu Vcr Eq. (6.10.5.3-1)

Vu = 73 .0 + 11 + 10 + 2(0 .75 )( 47 ) = 165 kips

at 7-3 from the abutment

C = 0.267 (for 201-inch stiffener spacing)

Vcr = 0. 267 (1,001) = 267 kips > Vu = 165 . 0 kips ok (Ratio = 0.618)

B S D I

Strength
Limit State
B S D I

Design Example 3-57

STRENGTH LIMIT STATE
Section 1-1 (@0.4L1)

Section 1-1 qualifies as a compact section

if (Art. 6.10.6.2.2):
w Fy 70 ksi ok
w D/tw 150 ok
w 2Dcp E ok
3.76
tw Fyc
N.A. of composite section at the plastic
moment is in the top flange Dcp = 0
=> Go to Art. 6.10.7.1.1 (Compact sections)

B S D I

STRENGTH LIMIT STATE

Section 1-1 (continued)

Compact composite sections in positive

flexure must satisfy the following ductility
requirement:
D p 0 . 42 D t Eq. (6.10.7.3-1)

Dp = distance from top of deck to N.A. at plastic moment

Dt = total depth of the composite section

B S D I

Design Example 3-58

STRENGTH LIMIT STATE
Section 1-1 (continued)

Compact sections in positive flexure must

satisfy the following relationship at the
strength limit state (Article 6.10.7.1.1):

1
Mu + flSxt fMn Eq. (6.10.7.1.1-1)
3

B S D I

STRENGTH LIMIT STATE

Section 1-1 (continued)

Determine lateral bending stress,fl , in the bottom

flange due to the factored wind load:

PDd
W = Eq. (C4.6.2.7.1-1)
2
WL2b
Mw = Eq. (C4.6.2.7.1-2)
10

= 1.0 Lb = 24-0 WL = 0
AF = 1.0 for tension flanges

B S D I

Design Example 3-59

STRENGTH LIMIT STATE
Section 1-1 (continued)

For STRENGTH I: Wind not considered

For STRENGTH III:
1 .0(1.4 )(0.053)(1.375 + 69. 0 + 1.0) / 12
W= = 0.221 kips / ft
2
0.221(24.0) 2
Mw = = 12.73 kip ft
10
Mw 12. 73(12 )
fl = = = 2. 06 ksi * AF = 2.06 (1 .0) = 2.06 ksi
Sl 1.375 (18 )2 6
< 0. 6Fyf = 30 .0 ksi ok

B S D I

STRENGTH LIMIT STATE

Section 1-1 (continued)

For STRENGTH V:

1. 0(0 .4)(0.053 )(1.375 + 69 .0 + 1.0) / 12

W= = 0.063 kips / ft
2

0.063(24 .0)2
Mw = = 3.63 kip ft
10
Mw 3 .63(12)
fl = = = 0 .587 ksi * AF = 0.587 (1.0) = 0 .587 ksi
Sl 1.375(18 )2 6
< 0.6Fyf = 30 .0 ksi ok

B S D I

Design Example 3-60

STRENGTH LIMIT STATE
Section 1-1 (continued)

Calculate Mu:
For STRENGTH I:
Mu = 1.0[1.25(2,202 + 335 ) + 1.5(322) + 1.75 (3,510)] = 9,797 kip ft

For STRENGTH III:

Mu = 1.0[1.25(2,202 + 335 ) + 1.5(322 )] = 3,654 kip ft
For STRENGTH IV:
Mu = 1. 0[1.5(2,202 + 335 + 322 )] = 4,289 kip ft
For STRENGTH V:
Mu = 1.0[1.25(2,202 + 335 ) + 1.5(322) + 1.35 (3,510)] = 8,393 kip ft

B S D I

STRENGTH LIMIT STATE

Section 1-1 (continued)

Determine the nominal flexural resistance

(Article 6.10.7.1.2)
If Dp 0.1D t, then: Mn = Mp Eq. (6.10.7.1.2-1)

Dp
Mn = Mp 1.07 0.7
Dt
Otherwise: Eq. (6.10.7.1.2-2)

In a continuous span, M n is limited to:
Mn = 1.3RhMy Eq. (6.10.7.1.2-3)

B S D I

Design Example 3-61

STRENGTH LIMIT STATE
Section 1-1 (continued)
0.1D t = 0.1(82.88) = 8. 29 in. < Dp = 11.94 in.

Dp
Mn = Mp 1. 07 0.7 Eq.(6.10. 7.1.2 2 )
Dt
11.94
Mn = 14 ,199 1.07 0 .7 = 13,761 kip ft
82 .88
In a continuous span : Mn 1.3R hM y Eq. (6.10.7. 1.2 3 )

Mn = 1.3(1.0)(1 0,171) = 13,222 kip ft (governs)

Mn = 13,222 kip ft
Myt 10,171(12)
S xt = = = 2,441 in3
Fyt 50
B S D I

STRENGTH LIMIT STATE

Section 1-1 (continued)
1
Mu + flSxt f Mn Eq. (6 .10.7.1 .1 1)
3
For STRENGTH I:
1
Mu + flS xt = 9,797 kip ft + 0 = 9,797 kip ft
3
f Mn = 1.0(13,222 ) = 13,222 kip ft
9,797 kip ft < 13,222 kip ft ok (Ratio = 0.741)
For STRENGTH III:
1 1 (2.06 )(2,441)
Mu + flS xt = 3,654 kip ft + = 3,794 kip ft
3 3 12
f Mn = 1.0(13,222 ) = 13,222 kip ft
3,794 kip ft < 13,222 kip ft ok (Ratio = 0.287)
B S D I

Design Example 3-62

STRENGTH LIMIT STATE
Section 1-1 (continued)
1
Mu + flSxt f Mn Eq. (6 .10.7.1 .1 1)
3
For STRENGTH IV:
1
Mu + flS xt = 4,289 kip ft + 0 = 4,289 kip ft
3
f Mn = 1.0(13,222 ) = 13,222 kip ft
4,289 kip ft < 13,222 kip ft ok (Ratio = 0.324)
For STRENGTH V:
1 1 (0.587 )(2,441)
Mu + flS xt = 8,393 kip ft + = 8,433 kip ft
3 3 12
f Mn = 1.0(13,222 ) = 13,222 kip ft
8,433 kip ft < 13,222 kip ft ok (Ratio = 0.638)
B S D I

STRENGTH LIMIT STATE

Performance Ratios
POSITIVE-MOMENT REGION, SPAN 1 (Section 1-1)

Strength Limit State (Compact Section)

Ductility requirement 0.343
Flexure Eq. (6.10.7.1.1-1) (STRENGTH I) 0.741
Flexure Eq. (6.10.7.1.1-1) (STRENGTH III) 0.287
Flexure Eq. (6.10.7.1.1-1) (STRENGTH IV) 0.324
Flexure Eq. (6.10.7.1.1-1) (STRENGTH V) 0.638
Shear (End panel) (STRENGTH I) 0.995

B S D I

Design Example 3-63

SHEAR
(Article 6.10.9)

Highlights:
n Tension-field action extended to interior
panels of hybrid sections.
n Moment-shear interaction equation is
eliminated.
n No handling requirement since D/tw is limited
to 150 for transversely stiffened girders.
n Shear connector design moved to separate
Article 6.10.10.

B S D I

SHEAR
End Panels (Article 6.10.9.3.3)

End panels must satisfy:

Vu vVn Eq. (6.10.9.1-1)

Vu = 1. 0[1 .25 (87 + 13 ) + 1.5 (13 ) + 1 .75 (139 )] = 388 kips

int . girder at the abutment
Vn = Vcr = CVp Eq. (6.10.9.3.3-1)

V p = 0 . 58 F yw Dt w = 1,001 kips

(Ratio = 0.995)

B S D I

Design Example 3-64

SHEAR
Interior Panels (Article 6.10.9.3.2)

For interior panels of hybrid & nonhybrid

members with the section along the entire panel
proportioned such that:
2Dt w Eq. (6.10.9.3.2-1)
2.5
(b fc t fc + b ft t ft )
the nominal shear resistance is to be taken as:

0.87(1 C) Eq. (6.10.9.3.2-2)
Vn = Vp C +
2
1 + o
d

D

B S D I

SHEAR
Interior Panels (continued)

For interior panels of hybrid and nonhybrid

members with the panel proportioned such that:
2Dt w Eq. (6.10.9.3.2-1)
> 2.5
(b fc t fc + b ft t ft )
the nominal shear resistance is to be taken as:

Eq. (6.10.9.3.2-8)
0.87(1 C)
Vn = Vp C +
2
1 + do + do
D D

B S D I

Design Example 3-65

B S D I

SHEAR
Interior Panels (continued)

do = 16.75 ft = 201.0 in. < 3D = 207.0 in.

Vu = 1. 0[1 .25 (74 + 11) + 1.5 (11) + 1. 75 (127 )] = 345 kips
int . girder at 87 in. from abutment
For an unstiffened web:
Vn = Vcr = CVp Eq. (6.10.9.2-1)
C = 0.239 (calculated w/ k = 5)

Vp = 0. 58(50)(69.0)(0.5 ) = 1,001 kips

Vn = Vcr = 0.239(1,001) = 239 kips
v Vn = 1.0(239) = 239 kips < 345 kips stiffeners are required

B S D I

Design Example 3-66

SHEAR
Interior Panels (continued)

Calculate Vn for the stiffened panel:

2(69.0)(0.5 )
= 2.17 < 2.5
[16(1.0) + 18(0.875 )]
5
k =5+ 2
= 5.59
201 .0

69.0

Ek 29,000(5.59) D 69 .0
1 .40 = 1.40 = 79 .7 < = = 138 .0
Fyw 50 tw 0. 5

B S D I

SHEAR
Interior Panels (continued)

Calculate Vn for the stiffened panel (contd):

1.57 Ek 1.57 29,000(5.59)
C=
D Fyw
2
=> C = (138 .0 )2 50
= 0.267

tw
Vp = 0. 58(50)(69.0)(0.5) = 1,001kips

0.87(1 0.267 )
Vn = 1,0010.267 + = 475 kips
201 .0
2

1+
69 .0
v Vn = 1 .0(475 ) = 475 kips > Vu = 345 kips ok

B S D I

Design Example 3-67

STRENGTH LIMIT STATE
Section 2-2 (Interior Pier)

Determine if the section is a slender-web section

(Article 6.10.6.2.3):
2Dc E Eq. (6.10.6.2.3-1)
5 .7
tw Fyc
29,000
5.7 = 116.0
70
2(36.55)
= 130.0 > 116.0 Note: Use D c of the steel
0.5625 section + long.
reinforcement (D6.3.1)
Therefore, the section is a slender-web section.
=> Go to Article 6.10.8
B S D I

STRENGTH LIMIT STATE

Section 2-2 (continued)

Use the provisions of Article 6.10.8.

For discretely braced compression flanges:

1
fbu + fl fFnc Eq. (6.10.8.1.1-1)
3

B S D I

Design Example 3-68

STRENGTH LIMIT STATE
Section 2-2 (continued)

Calculate the maximum flange major-axis flexural

stresses at Section 2-2 due to the factored loads
under the STRENGTH I load combination:
Top flange:

1.25( 4,840) 1.25( 690) 1.5( 664 ) 1 .75( 4,040 )

f = 1 .0 + + + 12 = 54 .57 ksi
2,942 3,194 3,194 3,703
Bottom flange:

1.25( 4,840) 1.25( 690) 1.5( 664 ) 1 .75( 4,040 )

f = 1 .0 + + + 12 = 55. 64 ksi
3,149 3,208 3,208 3,310

B S D I

STRENGTH LIMIT STATE

Section 2-2 (continued)

Calculate the hybrid factor, Rh (Article 6.10.1.10.1):

Rh =
(
12 + 3 3 ) Eq. (6.10.1.10.1-1)
12+ 2
2Dnt w
= Eq. (6.10.1.10.1-2)
Afn

Fyw
= 1.0
fn

B S D I

Design Example 3-69

STRENGTH LIMIT STATE
Section 2-2 (continued)
2Dnt w 2(36.55 )(0.5625 )
Calculate = => = 40 .0
= 1. 028
Afn

Dn = larger of the distances from the elastic N.A. of the

cross-section to the inside face of either flange

At Section 2-2: Dn = Dc = 36.55 in. (steel + reinf.)

Afn = sum of the flange area & the area of any cover
plates on the side of the neutral axis corresponding
to Dn. For the top flange, can include reinforcement.

B S D I

STRENGTH LIMIT STATE

Section 2-2 (continued)
Fyw 50 .0
Calculate = 1.0 => = = 0.714
fn 70 .0

fn = for sections where yielding occurs first in the flange,

a cover plate or the longitudinal reinforcement on
the side of the N.A. corresponding to Dn, the largest
of the specified minimum yield strengths of each
component included in the calculation of Afn.

Otherwise, fn is equal to the largest elastic stress in the

component on the side of the N.A. corresponding to Dn at
first yield on the opposite side of the N.A.
B S D I

Design Example 3-70

STRENGTH LIMIT STATE
Section 2-2 (continued)

Calculate Rh:

Rh =
(
12 + 3 3 )
12+ 2

Rh =
[
12 + 1.028 3(0. 714) (0. 714)3 ]
= 0 .984
12 + 2(1.028 )

B S D I

STRENGTH LIMIT STATE

Section 2-2 (continued)

(Article 6.10.1.10.2):
2Dc E
= 130 .0 > rw = 5 .7 = 116 .0
tw Fyc
a wc 2D c
R b = 1 rw 1 .0 Eq. (6.10.1.10.2-3)
1200 + 300 a wc w t

2D c t w 2(36.55 )(0.5625 )
a wc = = = 1.028
b fc t fc 20(2)

1 .028
Rb = 1 (130.0 116.0 ) = 0.990
1200 + 300 (1.028 )
B S D I

Design Example 3-71

LOCAL BUCKLING RESISTANCE
Bottom Flange - Section 2-2 (Article 6.10.8.2.2)

Determine the slenderness ratio of the bottom

flange: b 20
f = fc = = 5.0
2t fc 2(2)

E 29,000
pf = 0.38 = 0 .38 = 7.73
Fyc 70

FLB

B S D I

6.10.8 Flexural Resistance - Composite Sections in

Negative Flexure & Noncomposite Sections

Basic Form of All FLB & LTB Eqs

Fyr f pf
Fnc = 1 1 RbRhFyc
F n or M n Fnc=RbRhFyc Anchor point 1 RhFyc rf pf
F m a x or Fnc=RbRhFyc Fyr Lb Lp
M
M maxmax Fnc = Cb 11 R R F RbRhFyc
RhFyc Lr Lp b h yc

Anchor point 2

Mr r
Fr or M
Fnc = Fcr RbRhFyc
compact noncompact CbRb2 E
(inelastic buckling) 2
Lb

rt
nonslender slender

(elastic buckling)

Lr
B S D IL p o r p pf o rr r f L b or b f c/ 2 t fc

B S D I

LATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING

RESISTANCE (Article 6.10.8.2.3)

From Article 6.10.8.2.3:

For unbraced lengths containing a transition to a
smaller section at a distance less than or equal to
20 percent of the unbraced length from the brace
point with the smaller moment, the lateral
torsional buckling resistance may be determined
assuming the transition to the smaller section
does not exist.

Assume Lb = 17-0
17.0

B S D I

Design Example 3-73

LATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING
RESISTANCE (continued)

Determine the limiting unbraced length, Lp:

E b fc
L p = 1.0rt rt =
Fyc where: 1 Dc t w
12 1 +
Eq. (6.10.8.2.3-4) 3 b fc t fc
20
rt = = 5.33 in.
1 36.55(0. 5625 )
12 1 +
3 20 (2 )
Therefore: 1.0(5.33 ) 29,000
Lp = = 9.04 ft
12 70

B S D I

LATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING

RESISTANCE (continued)

Determine the limiting unbraced length, Lr:

E
L r = rt Eq. (6.10.8.2.3-5)
Fyr

Fyr = 0.7(70) = 49.0 ksi < 50 ksi ( 0.5Fyc = 35 ksi ok)

(5.33) 29,000
Therefore: Lr = = 33.95 ft
12 49.0

B S D I

Design Example 3-74

LATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING
RESISTANCE (continued)

For unbraced cantilevers & members where fmid/f2 > 1.0 or

f2 = 0:
Cb = 1.0 Eq. (6.10.8.2.3-6)
Otherwise: 2
f f
Cb = 1.75 1.05 1 + 0.3 1 2 .3 Eq. (6.10.8.2.3-7)
2
f f2

f1 = 2fmid f2 fo Eq. (6.10.8.2.3-10)

B S D I

Examples:

f mid /f 2 = 0.875

f1 = 2fmid f2 fo f mid f2
f1 f0 f 1/f 2 = 0.75

Lb Cb = 1.13

When fmid < (fo+f2 )/2, f1 /f 2 = 0.375

f2
f1 = fo fm i d C b = 1.40
f1 = f0 f0

fmid > f 2
fmid
f2
f0 Cb = 1

f2 = 0
f mid
Cb = 1
f0 < 0

fmid /f2 = 0.75

f mid f2 f1 /f 2 = 0.5
f1
C b = 1.3
f0 = 0
B S D I

Design Example 3-75

LATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING
RESISTANCE (continued)

Since the moment diagram in this region is

concave in shape, f1 = fo (therefore, do not need to
compute f mid). For STRENGTH I:

Bottom flange:

1 .25 ( 2,390 ) 1 . 25 ( 334 ) 1. 5( 321) 1 .75 ( 2,615 )

f1 = fo = 1. 0 + + + 12 = 31 . 34 ksi
3,149 3,208 3,208 3,310
2
31.34 31.34
Cb = 1. 75 1.05 + 0 .3 = 1.25 < 2. 3
55 . 64 55.64

B S D I

LATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING

RESISTANCE (continued)

Since Lp = 9.04 ft < Lb = 17.0 ft < Lr = 33.95 ft:

Fyr L b Lp
Fnc = Cb 1 1

RbR hFyc RbR hFyc

R hFyc L r L p
Eq. (6.10.8.2.3-2)

49.0 17.0 9.04

Fnc = 1.25 1 1 (0.990 )(0.984 )(70) = 77 .38 ksi
0 . 984 (70 ) 33.95 9.04
> 0.990(0.984 )(70) = 68 .19 ksi

Design Example 3-76

6.10.8 Flexural Resistance - Composite Sections in
Negative Flexure & Noncomposite Sections

Basic Form of All FLB & LTB Eqs

Fyr f pf
Fnc = 1 1 R R F
Fnc=RbRhFyc R Fyc rf pf b h yc

F n or M n Anchor point 1 h
F m a x or Fnc=RbRhFyc Fyr Lb Lp
M
M maxmax Fnc = Cb 11 RbRhFyc RbRhFyc
RhFyc Lr Lp
Anchor point 2

Mr r
Fr or M
Fnc = Fcr RbRhFyc
compact noncompact CbRb2 E
(inelastic buckling) 2
Lb

rt
nonslender slender

(elastic buckling)

Lr
B S D IL p o r p pf o rr r f L b or b f c/ 2 t fc

LATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING

RESISTANCE (continued)
(20.0 15.0 ) = 25% > 20 %
Assume Lb = 20-0
20.0
From Article C6.10.8.2.3:
For unbraced lengths containing a transition to a smaller
section at a distance greater than 20 percent of the
unbraced length from the brace point with the smaller
moment, the lateral torsional buckling resistance should be
taken as the smallest resistance, Fnc, within the unbraced
length under consideration. This resistance is to be
compared to the largest value of the compressive stress,
fbu, throughout the unbraced length calculated using the
actual properties of the section. The moment gradient
modifier, Cb, should be taken equal to 1.0 in this case...

B S D I

B S D I

LATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING

RESISTANCE (continued)

For the smaller section at the flange transition in

the first unbraced length adjacent to the interior
pier:
rt = 4.95 in.
Lp = 8.40 ft
Lr = 31.53 ft
Rh = 0.971
Rb = 0.977
Set Cb = 1.0.

B S D I

Design Example 3-78

LATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING
RESISTANCE (continued)

Since Lp = 8.40 ft < Lb = 20.0 ft < Lr = 31.53 ft:

Fyr L b Lp
Fnc = Cb 1 1
L L RbR hFyc RbR hFyc
R F
h yc r p

Eq. (6.10.8.2.3-2)

49 .0 20.0 8. 40
Fnc = 1.0 1 1 (0. 977 )(0 .971)(70) = 57 .11 ksi
0.971(70 ) 31.53 8 .40
< 0.977(0.971)(70 ) = 66.41 ksi

B S D I

LATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING

RESISTANCE (continued)
For Lb = 17-0:
Flange transition < 20% of unbraced length from the brace
point with the smaller moment
FncLTB = 68.19 ksi
For Lb = 20-0:
Flange transition > 20% of unbraced length from the brace
point with the smaller moment
FncLTB = 57.11 ksi
From Appendix C to the Design Example:
FncLTB = 61.14 ksi FncLTB = 60.48 ksi
2-2 tr

B S D I

Design Example 3-79

LOCAL BUCKLING RESISTANCE
Bottom-Flange Transition (Article 6.10.8.2.2)

Determine the slenderness ratio of the bottom

flange:
b fc 20 E
f = = = 10. 0 > pf = 0.38 = 7.73
2t fc 2(1) Fyc
E
rf = 0.56 Eq. (6.10.8.2.2-5)
Fyr

Fyr = 0.7(70) = 49.0 ksi < 50 ksi ( 0.5Fyc = 35 ksi ok)

29 ,000
Therefore: rf = 0.56 = 13.62
49 .0
B S D I

LOCAL BUCKLING RESISTANCE

Bottom-Flange Transition (continued)

Since pf = 7.73 < f = 10.0 < rf = 13.62:

Fyr f pf
Fnc = 1 1 R bRhFyc
R hFyc rf pf

Eq. (6.10.8.2.2-2)

49 .0 10.0 7 .73
Fnc = 1 1 (0.977)(0.971)(70 .0) = 59.26 ksi
0 . 971( 70 . 0 ) 13.62 7 .73

Design Example 3-80

6.10.8 Flexural Resistance - Composite Sections in
Negative Flexure & Noncomposite Sections

Basic Form of All FLB & LTB Eqs

Fyr f pf
Fnc = 1 1 R R F
Fnc=RbRhFyc R Fyc rf pf b h yc

F n or M n Anchor point 1 h
F m a x or Fnc=RbRhFyc Fyr Lb Lp
M
M maxmax Fnc = Cb 11 RbRhFyc RbRhFyc
RhFyc Lr Lp
Anchor point 2

Mr r
Fr or M
Fnc = Fcr RbRhFyc
compact noncompact CbRb2 E
(inelastic buckling) 2
Lb

rt
nonslender slender

(elastic buckling)

Lr
B S D IL p o r p pf o rr r f L b or b f c/ 2 t fc

STRENGTH LIMIT STATE

Section 2-2 - (continued)

For STRENGTH I:
Section 2-2: Top Flange: fbu = 54.57 ksi
Bottom Flange: f = -55.64 ksi

Flange Transition (Span 1):

Top Flange:
1 . 25 ( 2 ,656 ) 1 . 25 ( 373 ) 1 . 5 ( 358 ) 1 . 75 ( 2 ,709 )
fbu = 1 . 0 + + + 12 = 52 . 86 ksi
1,700 1,945 1,945 2 , 448
Bottom Flange:
1 . 25 ( 2 ,656 ) 1 . 25 ( 373 ) 1 . 5 ( 358 ) 1 . 75 ( 2 ,709 )
f = 1 .0 + + + 12 = 57 . 54 ksi
1,789 1,862 1, 862 1,975

B S D I

Design Example 3-81

STRENGTH LIMIT STATE
Section 2-2 - Bottom Flange

For STRENGTH I:

1
fbu + fl fFnc Eq. (6.10.8.1.1-1)
3

1
fbu + fl = - 57.54 ksi + 0 = 57.54ksi
3
fFnc = 1.0(57.11)= 57.11ksi
57.54 ksi > 57.11ksi say ok (Ratio = 1.008)

B S D I

STRENGTH LIMIT STATE

Section 2-2 - Top Flange

For STRENGTH I:
fbu fRhFyf Eq. (6.10.8.1.3-1)

Section 2-2:
fbu = 54.57 ksi
fR hFyf = 1.0(0.984 )(70.00 ) = 68.88 ksi
54.57 ksi < 68.88 ksi ok (Ratio = 0.792)

Flange transition:
fbu = 52.86 ksi
fR hFyf = 1.0(0.971)(70 .00) = 67. 97 ksi
52.86 ksi < 67.97 ksi ok (Ratio = 0.778)
B S D I

Design Example 3-82

STRENGTH LIMIT STATE
Performance Ratios (continued)
INTERIOR-PIER SECTION (Section 2-2)
Strength Limit State (Slender-web section)
Flexure (STRENGTH I)
Eq. (6.10.8.1.1-1) Bottom flange 1.008
Eq. (6.10.8.1.3-1) Top flange @ Section 2-2 0.792
Eq. (6.10.8.1.3-1) Top flange @ Flange transition 0.778
Flexure (STRENGTH III)
Eq. (6.10.8.1.1-1) Bottom flange 0.536
Eq. (6.10.8.1.3-1) Top flange @ Section 2-2 0.460
Eq. (6.10.8.1.3-1) Top flange @ Flange transition 0.445
Flexure (STRENGTH IV)
Eq. (6.10.8.1.1-1) Bottom flange 0.617
Eq. (6.10.8.1.3-1) Top flange @ Section 2-2 0.541
Eq. (6.10.8.1.3-1) Top flange @ Flange transition 0.524
Flexure (STRENGTH V)
Eq. (6.10.8.1.1-1) Bottom flange 0.896
Eq. (6.10.8.1.3-1) Top flange @ Section 2-2 0.716
Eq. (6.10.8.1.3-1) Top flange @ Flange transition 0.700

B S D I

OTHER TOPICS COVERED

Spacing of Transverse Stiffeners
Shear Connector Design
Transverse Intermediate Stiffener Design
Bearing Stiffener Design
Appendix A - Elastic Effective Length Factor for
Lateral Torsional Bucking
Appendix B - Moment Gradient Modifier, Cb
(Example cases)
Appendix C - Lateral Torsional Buckling
Resistance of Stepped Flanges

B S D I

Design Example 3-83

QUESTIONS
Michael A. Grubb, P.E.
BSDI, Ltd.
724-709-8349
m.grubb@comcast.net

B S D I